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W.N.L. Weerakkody 100573H EE 3202 Department of Electrical Engineering
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Page No 1. Abstract 2. Introduction 3. Literature Review 4. Objective 5. Work 6. Common Parts & Terminology 7. What is Synergy Drive? 8. Faults & Problems in HEVs 9. Manufacturer faults in Prius HEVs 10. Optimizing fuel 11. Acknowledgement 12. Reference 13. Appendices 3 4 6 9 10 10 12 13 14 16 18 19 20
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we have about 6 million hybrid electric vehicles worldwide and the truth is almost 4 million out of that 6 million has been sold during the last couple of years and by that. Inverter water pump fault Horn wiring fault Front wheel bearing fault Countermeasure part fault Electric power steering (EPS) pinion shaft nut fault Power window switch fault Braking system fault HID light system fault The problem is that almost for all these faults you have to replace the part. today. First.Abstract Hybrid Electric Vehicles or HEVs are becoming visible to us on roads increasing the number day-byday due to its growing popularity in an exponential manner. For that one. Most common faults that I came across were. smooth braking and keeping the battery at a charge around 60%. Page | 3 . According to sources. I chose this subject “Common faults and optimizing of HEVs” since we see a huge trend in HEVs in Sri Lanka as well. we can measure the trend to buy HEVs. the conclusion that I received was sooth acceleration. I personally contacted quite a few hybrid users and asked them about the problems they faced and about the pros and cons of the HEVs they use and a selected set of observations are attached at the appendix. Then I tried to find out that how can we optimize a drive cycle of a Prius. Then I visited Toyota Lanka and Arabian Motors Ltd where Hybrid repairing and services has been done throughout the time even when HEVs were not that famous in Sri Lanka.
HEV stands for “Hybrid Electric Vehicle”. “fuel cell” vehicles and hydrogen vehicles. but yet it is way better in performance than a usual rechargeable battery that people know most of the times. the most successful solution is the hybrid electric vehicle. But it is not true. As I mentioned before. Hybrid electric vehicles produce less emission from its ICE than a conventional gasoline car of same caliber. As the Wikipedia claims “HEV” or a “hybrid electric vehicle” is a type of hybrid vehicle which combines a conventional internal combustion engine (ICE) propulsion system with an electric propulsion system. People hesitate sometimes to buy a hybrid over conventional cars as they are not satisfied enough with the fuel economy of the car and some say that. The presence of the electric powertrain (which will be described later in a chapter) is intended to achieve either better fuel economy than a conventional vehicle or better performance. The battery pack is somewhat highpriced. The most significant of them is that people believe that the batteries of HEVs are not good and not durable enough. since an HEV's gasoline engine is usually smaller than a comparably-sized pure gasoline vehicle because it optimizes gasoline with the use of electric power as well as optimizing the fuel supplied. We categorize them by degree to which they function as an electric vehicle and so on. There are technologies like the “air car” concept. Some varieties of HEVs use their internal combustion engine or ICE to generate electricity by spinning an electrical generator (this combination is known as a motor-generator). It is high time to solve these mysteries because day-by-day. Many types of hybrid electric vehicles are available today. But yet. Modern HEVs make use of efficiency-improving technologies such as regenerative braking. Things like this have been addressed in this survey. Many myths and stories related with it grew among the general public as well. which converts the vehicle's kinetic energy into electric energy to charge the battery. This phenomenon is known as a start-stop system. Yes. rather than wasting it as heat energy as conventional brakes do which will be described in a chapter below. the extra money that you have to pay for an Page | 4 . Many HEVs reduce idle emissions by shutting down the internal combustion engine at idle and restarting it when needed in the hybrid electric vehicles. the gasoline oil prices are climbing sky high and we are running short of petrol as predicted by the analysis of oil repositories and it is said that the remaining oil would be enough only for 30 more years. it is better to switch into HEVs instead of conventional vehicles since it has become the most reliable technology that is adopted into vehicles up to now. it can be geared to run at maximum efficiency. to either recharge their batteries or to directly power the electric drive motors which happens differently in different kinds of hybrids like series hybrids and parallel hybrids. to save fuel. here in Sri Lanka people have many myths about HEVs. If not we use the energy taken from burnt fuel to directly drive the car. One such thing is manufacturer faults. The popularity of these hybrid electric vehicles started to rise up exponentially in the recent past and hence many people were interested in buying HEVs. further improving fuel economy. So.Introduction What is a HEV? First and foremost.
I selected Toyota Prius specifically since it has become the number one selling Hybrid vehicle brand all over the world owning to more than half the number of vehicles sold all over the world and this will be there under literature review. There are so many myths related with HEVs. But. For this project.HEV is not worth at a repair after a period of time. But yes. Page | 5 . I hope to explain the real common faults about the HEVs. there are some very few common faults. With this. we can achieve higher mileage per unit fuel and that matter will also be addressed. by optimizing the driving style.
it another competitor came into the market produced by Honda and that was Honda Insight which started its production in 1999. the fuel prices were so high and we climbing up continuously.50 and the price of petrol was just around Rs. That is 2/3 of their all-time hybrid electric vehicle sales Page | 6 . Just note that the world population is around 6 billion and there are 6 million hybrid electric vehicles in the world.00 according to my memory.lk The above diagram shows the increment in fuel prices in Sri Lanka just for 2007. Around this period of time. So. The first major issue to the market was done by Toyota as a very much upgraded version of its predecessor. It is said that. the price of a hybrid electric vehicle became reasonable for people. Source: sundaytimes. At that time. due to that. Ltd. As far as I can remember. when my family bought our first van was just Rs. the gasoline prices in the world was very low comparing with the extra cost that you have to pay for a hybrid electric vehicle. Ferdinand Porsche became the first person to develop the first gasoline-electric hybrid vehicle of the world. 13.5 – 5 million Toyota hybrid and Lexus hybrids (Lexus belongs to Toyota as well) up to now. around 6 million hybrid electric vehicles have been sold worldwide up to now. hybrid electric vehicles came to the arena since it seemed that HEVs were pretty much feasible solution for end users since the oil price climbed and now..Literature Review In the year 1901. The most number of HEVs have been produced by Toyota Motor Company selling around 4. 50.2 million hybrids mostly in USA up to now. Soon. the hybrid electric vehicle did not become available. the diesel price in 1999. But as early as that. But the things were different in other countries of the world and they became interested in HEVs after the late 2000s and now in countries like United States of America. by selling around 1 million hybrids up to now and Ford Motor Corporation selling around 0. the above mentioned Porche vehicle and it was the new Toyota Prius built in Japan in 1997. Toyota and most of the other HEV selling companies have an incredible growth in selling hybrids with Toyota selling 4 million hybrids within just below 3 years. They are distantly followed by Honda Motor Co. the Lohner-Porsche Mixte Hybrid. they have tenthousands of hybrid electric vehicles available for sale and they have become pretty much affordable as well as reliable for people.
or stopped. Chevrolet was able to get a 10% improvement on the Silverado's fuel efficiency by shutting down and restarting the engine on demand and using regenerative braking. Honda's early hybrids including the first generation Insight used this design. Starting with the 2006 Civic Hybrid. and as in other hybrid designs. way less than the saving of a full hybrid. The motor is often mounted between the engine and transmission. or it can run on just the batteries. A mild hybrid is essentially a conventional vehicle with oversize starter motor. They can run on just the engine. they can save fuel. Accessories can continue to run on electrical power while the gasoline engine is off. As compared to full hybrids. Full Hybrid Mild Hybrid Full Hybrids This type of hybrids is also called “strong hybrids” as well. but also in the world arena selling around 3 million units around the globe. the motor is used for regenerative braking to recapture energy and Regenerative breaking will be described a little later. and is used to supply additional propulsion energy when accelerating. which allows manufacturers to reduce cost and weight. the IMA system or Integrated Motor Assist (a technology by Honda)now can propel the vehicle solely on electric power during medium speed cruising. Mild hybrids use the Internal Combustion Engine and the Electric Motor together. yet restart quickly and cleanly.Toyota Prius being the leader not only in Sri Lanka. A huge and high capacity battery pack is needed this operation. But it is yet. 15% in urban driving and 8 – 10% in overall cycle comparing with an ordinary vehicle of same caliber. or it might be a combination of both systems. allowing the engine to be turned off whenever the car is coasting. These cars can be driven on battery power alone. These types can be run under 3 cases. Hybrid electric vehicles can be according to many factors. braking. Usually. hybrid electric vehicles can be categorized by the degree of hybridization. First. a full-sized pickup truck. taking the place of the torque converter. Page | 7 . Those are. weaker motor/generator. Mild hybrids have lesser fuel economy than full hybrids generally and they lack some technological aspects of full hybrid technology. mild hybrids have smaller batteries and a smaller. Another example is the 2005-2007 Chevrolet Silverado Hybrid. Examples for full hybrid systems: Toyota's Hybrid Synergy Drive which is used in Toyota Prius and Toyota Aqua Ford's hybrid system which is used in Ford Fusion Hybrid and Ford Escape Hybrid Chrysler's Two-Mode Hybrid technology Mild Hybrids Hence the electric motor doesn’t have enough power to move the vehicle on its own.
commercialized parallel hybrids use a single. Page | 8 . only the electric motor drives the drivetrain. As a result. Examples of power-split (referred to by some as "seriesparallel") hybrid powertrains include current models of Lexus and Toyota. Honda's Integrated Motor Assist (IMA) system as found in the Insight. Series Hybrids In series hybrids. small (<20 kW) electric motor and small battery pack as the electric motor is not designed to be the sole source of motive power from launch. Power-Split Hybrids Power-split hybrids have the benefits of a combination of series and parallel characteristics. usually through a conventional transmission. Accord. Parallel Hybrids In parallel hybrids. This configuration makes series hybrids more efficient in city driving. Current. Toyota Prius is special and let’s see what are the common faults occur in these Prius Hybrid cars. Series hybrids usually have a smaller combustion engine but a larger battery pack as compared to parallel hybrids. Parallel hybrids are more efficient than comparable non-hybrid vehicles especially during urban stop-and-go conditions and at times during highway operation where the electric motor is permitted to contribute by the embedded computer. Civic.Hybrid electric vehicles can be classified by the way in which power is supplied to the drivetrain of the vehicle. Parallel hybrids are also capable of regenerative braking and the internal combustion engine can also act as a generator for supplemental recharging. however. The battery pack can be recharged through regenerative braking or by the ICE (internal Combustion Engine). the Internal Combustion Engine and the electric motor are both connected to the mechanical transmission and can simultaneously transmit power to drive the wheels. and the ICE works as a generator to power the electric motor or to recharge the batteries. the cost of power-split the hybrid is higher than a pure parallel. as well as the GM Belted Alternator/Starter (BAS Hybrid) system found in the Chevrolet Malibu hybrids are examples of production parallel hybrids. because series hybrids tend to be more efficient at lower speeds and parallel tend to be more efficient at high speeds. which makes them more expensive than parallels. Parallel Hybrids Series Hybrids Power-Split Hybrids Of these all. Of all these a power-split hybrid. a full hybrid. they are more efficient overall. Toyota Prius Hybrid is special since it has the best fuel efficiency of its class and because it is the best-selling HEV in the world.
there is a huge trend in Hybrid Electric Vehicles.Objective In Sri Lanka at present. drawbacks. Page | 9 . this project is done. In order to support everybody to understand and find the common faults. cons and pros of HEVs.
Parallel Transmission Parallel transmission allows both the gas and electric engine to turn the transmission. The following list describes these most common parts of them. it is only in recent years that gas-electric hybrid passenger vehicles have become popular. Battery It stores the electrical energy that the vehicle produces and is needed to power the electric engine. it transfers power to the wheels. However. Hybrids use advanced technology to wring every mile out of each gallon of gas or watt of electric power. Transmission A transmission on a hybrid vehicle does the same thing the transmission does on a normal car. Generator The generator's sole job is to produce electrical power. parallel or series. The electric motor will do a lot of the work at low speeds and let the gas engine take over as speed climbs. Electric Motor The electric motors are very sophisticated and expend energy to get the vehicle moving but also generate and store electricity through technologies such as regenerative braking and in idling. Computer controls help these components work together in the most efficient way possible. it is important to understand how they work. There are two main types of transmissions in gas-electric hybrid vehicles. Just as the name implies.Discussion As hybrid cars become more and more popular exponentially. Hybrid cars have a fuel tank like any normal vehicle. The two motors work together with a number of some other factors. These added advantages the vehicle’s fuel efficiency and lower its emissions. Most hybrids have 3-cylinder engines that produce 65 to 80 horsepower. Page | 10 . Common Parts and Terminology All gas-electric hybrids have certain parts in common. Hybrid vehicles have been around for a long time. and overcome the shortcomings that each type of engine has on its own. many locomotives are diesel-electric hybrids and some cities have diesel-electric buses. Gas Engine This is a gas engine like most cars have except that it is smaller. These engines are usually outfitted with advanced technologies that help them run more efficiently. a hybrid electric vehicle is a combination or hybrid of a gas and an electric motor.
A hybrid car captures some of this energy and stores it in the battery pack. the electric motor that drives the car's wheels plays a major part during braking. it can only be transformed from one form to another. When the brake pedal is pressed. and the fully electric Tesla Roadster feature regenerative braking systems. Ford Fusion Hybrid and Honda Insight.Series Transmission In series transmission. An onboard computer determines what percentage of power comes from the battery pack and how much comes from the generator. In addition to these parts. Regenerative braking and regenerative brakes are features that can be found in fully electric and gas-electric hybrid vehicles. The electricity developed is routed towards the car's storage batteries to recharge them. especially in high performance cars. This recapturing and storing of electrical energy Page | 11 . An electric motor's interior is made up of copper windings. Regenerative Braking Brakes remove energy from a moving car. applying a force to turn its rotor allows it to produce electric power. brake cooling systems such as air dams are employed to dissipate heat from the brakes so that they can quickly regain their efficiency. Regenerative Braking Systems In a regenerative braking system. the regenerative braking circuit switches the motor so that it now operates in reverse to counter the direction of the wheels. the electric motor is the only motor that is connected to the transmission. the objective is to recapture the energy byproduct that results when the brakes are applied. This contact produces friction. In electric or hybrid automobiles. It uses an electromagnetic energy field to produce torque through its main shaft when power is applied to it.Regenerative braking systems capitalize on the similarities in construction of electric motors and electric power generators. Cars like the hybrid Toyota Prius. Regenerative braking is based on the principle of physics that states that energy cannot be destroyed. The efficiency of regenerative braking systems in use today has improved significantly. pressing on the brake pedal causes a pair of brake pads in each wheel to come into contact with the surface of a brake rotor. Some existing systems are able to capture and store as much as 70 percent of the energy that would otherwise have been lost. Traditional Braking Systems In a traditional braking system. regenerative brakes still require the assistance of traditional brake systems to be applied as a backup. slowing down and eventually stopping the vehicle. This reversal actually makes it perform like a power generator or dynamo that produces electrical energy. Automotive engineers and designers generally perceive heat as a loss. At higher speeds. The electric motor slows the car and by acting as a generator it charges the batteries. The friction itself produces heat as an energy byproduct. hybrids use other tricks and technologies to improve fuel efficiency and lower emissions. This is the reason why. The gas engine is connected to a generator and is used to generate electrical energy. A generator or dynamo is also comprised of copper windings and makes use of an electromagnetic field.
As these technologies improve we will see greater increases in fuel efficiency.global-greenhouse-warming. Advanced Materials and Design Hybrids use lightweight materials like aluminum and carbon fiber to reduce the weight of vehicle. The electric engine then powers the car as you start up again and switches to the gas engine or generator as higher speeds are reached. use a combination of gasoline and electric engines with a continuously variable transmission to give maximum fuel economy and power delivery over a wide range of speeds and conditions. and as such uses solely electrical signals to determine drive train output. the electric motor runs in torque producing mode to drive the vehicle. Source: http://www. All of these technologies combined help produce some very impressive gas mileage statistics.com/images/ToyotaHybrid1. How does a HEV work What is Synergy Drive? Toyota Prius has a very fuel efficient complex hybrid synergy drive system. The recommended battery charging method still has to be performed to charge the batteries fully. pioneered by the Toyota Prius.jpg Page | 12 . although regenerative braking does translate to an increase in vehicle range. Idle Off A hybrid will turn the gas engine off when the car is stopped at a light or stop sign. Hybrid Synergy Drive is a drive-by-wire system with no mechanical connection between the engine controls and the engine itself.may be likened to "trickle" charging of the batteries. Aerodynamic designs help cut back on drag helping to increase fuel efficiency. This is because most of the time. and advances like plug in hybrids may eventually eliminate the need for gasoline altogether for short commutes. These systems.
by combining their strengths into one versatile package. Usual Maintenance Page | 13 . and the engine itself is the focus of the vehicle's motivation. or to aid in increased battery charging. Internal Combustion or Electric Power on Demand While the internal combustion engine itself may not even be active during start up. alternator and starter motor are replaced with a pair of powerful electric motors which generate approximately 60hp. Power distribution is controlled through a combination of mechanical power splitter. What are the main problems in Toyota Prius? Faults and Problems in Hybrid Electric Vehicles Electric and hybrid cars have been under some hard scrutiny since their introduction to the market several years ago. Also. Some of the claims critics have made against hybrids and electrics deal with parts and maintenance. and computer controlled shunts while the motors themselves are powered by a battery pack and used for start-up. the transmission. a battery is used to power accessories while the engine is turned off as well as in combination with a starter motor. which is used for starting purposes only. When the aid of the internal combustion engine is required. This allows a hybrid engine configuration to achieve superior fuel economy without any holes of lags in power delivery. and can work either by themselves or in unison with a conventional internal combustion engine as needed. An alternator powers accessories and recharges the battery while the engine is in use. it may be used on demand for higher road speeds. When the aid of the gasoline engine is no longer required. It is true that these cars require some special care. Hybrid Synergy Drive equipped vehicles have managed to directly address many of the downsides found in both gasoline powered and electrically power drive trains alike. it's one of the main reasons why this technology may become a staple in the future of automotive technology. the engine itself may be turned off as needed. one of the electric motors may be used as a starter. let’s see the common faults in Priuses. with load shifted in full to the electric motors. It is through this unique versatility in operation that hybrid technologies have become so successful compared to their fully electrically powered counterparts. low speed driving and acceleration. but for the most part. increased acceleration. Regenerative Braking It has been described above.Overview of Operation In a conventional internal combustion engine. In a Hybrid Synergy Drive or HSD power train. Now that we have knowledge in what happens in a hybrid electric vehicle. naysayers have met their match with reliable vehicles that can go many years without needing any serious maintenance.
the gasoline engine shuts off. let’s look into the main manufacturer faults in common Toyota Prius HEVs in Sri Lanka.000 kilometers. The hybrid electric cars usually can run approximately 65. Toyota Prius NHW20 (2nd Generation Prius) Toyota Prius ZVW30 (3nd Generation Prius) Apart from these two. But as I was informed by the Toyota Lanka. hybrid electric vehicles have the components of a regular internal combustion engine and hence they require the same routine maintenance as any other gasoline vehicle. This can be maintained strictly through regenerative braking. the agents. Here. the first battery replacement they received happened recently and it was delivered to a first generation Prius. It is said that the battery life is very short. in United States of America. the car can go between 8. Page | 14 . the battery is never completely drained or charged. There’s another problem in Priuses and even though here in Sri Lanka we didn’t have much vehicles at that time. there are very few 1st generation vehicles as well. 30. These vehicles have been programmed to shut down either its gasoline engine or the battery power supply as needed.000 kilometers without changing the air filter. Brake pads of a hybrid car are also need to be changed less frequently than in a conventional vehicle because of the regenerative braking properties. But since the number of vehicles is so very low.00 at present. This includes the usual “service” as called by Sri Lankan people and that is changing of air filters and oil. it is very expensive to replace. This way. But since this 1st generation scenario is out of the scope of the objectives of this project. The program had the fault and Toyota repaired it calling the vehicles and it was not a major issue. I have considered many cases found in the Internet and they have replaced their batteries after running about 200.000. That was in Highway driving. at speedy driving.000. Battery Life One of the biggest attacks made on hybrids has to do with battery life. in Toyota Synergy Drive method.Except for the electrical counterparts. Here in Sri Lanka.000 kilometers between oil changes. Now. There are some complaints from hybrid car owners concerning the engine light coming on or staying on without necessarily indicating a particular problem with the vehicle. increasing its life. gasoline engine works at high speeds. Each and every cell can be replaces in case of such replacement and one cell would cost around Rs. As I have described before. There’s no need of changing oil in a hybrid electric vehicle at the same intervals comparing with the gasoline engine-only cars because the electric motor or the battery of the car takes some of the load off of the engine. 1st generation Priuses have batteries that are old about 10-12 years and no wonder they will have to be replaced with new batteries. This is issue seems to be common of most cars and newer ones in particular and could be a simple sensor glitch. and if something were to happen to it. But I was informed by them that the battery price outside is around Rs. All other engine maintenance is much like that for any other conventional gasoline powered car.000 and 16. Manufacturer faults of Toyota Prius HEVs There are two types of Toyota Prius HEVs in Sri Lanka which are very commonly used. One of the keys to keeping a battery in good repair is to keep the battery charged between 40 to 60 percent. 500. Toyota Lanka does not import batteries for HEVs. it recalled Prius vehicles in 2005. sometimes it failed in 1st generation hybrids. Therefore. let’s not discuss about those in detail.00 nowadays and it is a 28 cell battery.
The Electric Power Steering (EPS) system provides power assistance to reduce steering effort. One such is Electric power steering (EPS) pinion shaft nut fault. There is a problem with the front wheel bearing. The NHW20 has a huge problem with its Inverter Motor Pump. When air is introduced into the hybrid cooling system. which will result in illumination of the Malfunction Indicator Light (check engine light "ON") for diagnostic code P0A93 with information code 346 (Inverter cooling system malfunction). This condition is caused by air being introduced into the hybrid cooling system. There has been a number of complains about that and what they do is replacing the front wheel bearing. There is a very common manufacturer fault in these vehicles and that is the only major issue with Toyota Prius. causing pump actuation to be slow. it may become trapped. Approximately 670. Page | 15 . no complaints from Sri Lanka have been received. Then another small issue is there commonly in the Prius NHW20. there is a possibility the nuts securing the pinion shaft in the steering gear box assembly may become loose. If the vehicle is continuously operated in this condition.” Says Toyota website. This situation can be seen in Sri Lanka. But apart from that there are some common. “On 2004 through certain 2007 model year Prius vehicles. The countermeasure part should be replaced to solve that. there is a possibility that air may remain at the bearing of the Hybrid Electric Water Pump (HV Water Pump). That is with its horn wiring. According to Toyota Lanka. If the amount of coolant for the inverter is insufficient or the air bleeding is inadequate during replacement of the coolant. but not as common as above faults available in Prius. what they do at Toyota Lanka is that they replace these units. In this condition. But yet according to Toyota Lanka. It is said that this fault is there in earlier hybrids between 2001 and 2003. Many people come to Toyota Lanka because they see this indicator. the production of the second generation Prius Hybrid or the Toyota Prius NHW20 was started in 2004 by Toyota and was produced till 2009. the temperature of the coolant could rise and become high. That is called “Countermeasure part” problem. which will result in illumination of the Malfunction Indicator Light. Then the other very common type used in Sri Lanka is the generation 3 Prius or Toyota Prius ZVW30. But in UK models of Prius. the most common problems are those ones.000 Prius vehicles are being recalled in the United States to inspect and in some cases replace the steering intermediate extension shaft recently in November 2012 on vehicles between 2004 and 2009. If the steering wheel is repeatedly and strongly turned to the fulllock position. In Sri Lanka. causing the pump actuation to be slow. the customer will gradually notice significant increased steering effort when making a left turn. Since it is a complex electrical system in these cars. But in USA and Japan. there was a major recall of Toyota Priuses to solve this issue. It generates torque using a power steering motor and a reduction mechanism which are assembled in the steering gear box assembly. That can be diagnosed when a sudden AC cutoff occurs in a Prius or by checking coolant tube. In this condition. Japanese vehicles do not have any fault in this type. It is again a common manufacturing fault. air can be introduced into the system. The Hybrid Electric Water Pump (HV Water Pump) is an electrically driven coolant pump that circulates coolant through the hybrid components to provide cooling. the temperature of the coolant could rise and become high. over time.First. which can be diagnosed. The HV Water Pump serves a different purpose than the engine water pump. Then again there’s an issue with this ZVW30 model as I was told by Toyota and sometimes with NHW20 as well according to the reviews of the Prius users.
To avoid that. With the delay. The company says the switch may have a “notchy” or “sticky” feel. For Electric power steering (EPS) pinion shaft nut fault. There we need to replace the bulbs. the software related to that should be upgraded. It is said to happen due to a software fault in the embedded computer system of Prius. All these 3 can be done at Toyota Lanka and at other places where are the repairs of HEVs are undertaken. Countermeasure part can also be replaced if there is a fault. Page | 16 . If owners try to use a commercial lubricant to eliminate the condition. There is a rare problem with HID headlamps of Prius as well. we should replace the lamp. let’s see what we can do to optimize fuel efficiency. smoke or in the worst case. For horn wiring and front wheel bearing issues also can be corrected by replacing the respective units. Technical experts explain the problem as a "disconnect" in the vehicle's complex anti-lock brake system (ABS) that causes less than a one-second lag. Brakes in hybrids such as the Prius operate differently from brakes in most cars. Regenerative breaking and usual hydraulic braking with anti-locking braking system seems not to work properly in some cars. Optimizing Fuel Efficiency If mentioned in brief. which is regenerative braking that I had described above. These HEVs have very sophisticated embedded computers. no repair has been asked to do on that as I was informed. it could cause the assembly to melt. There is another problem in Prius which is related with the braking system. the electric motors in hybrids help slow them. a vehicle going 72 kmph will have traveled nearly another 90 feet before the brakes begin to take hold. So. Now. So updating the software is a key to keep the car in good shape. Model years 2007 to 2009 are affected but Toyota says is has received no injury claims due to the problem. The braking system failure is somewhat a common problem found in Sri Lanka as well. which use friction from pads pressed against drums or rotors. we have to replace the equipment. For the HID lamp fault which is rare here. Now. the part has to be changed as well. In addition to standard brakes. fuel efficiency depends vastly on driving style of the driver. They said that there are no sufficient experts in Sri Lanka to repair these equipment rather than replacing.In the Internet another issue that I found was a small problem with power window switch. to recharge the batteries. let’s briefly see what we can do to eliminate them. The process also generates electricity. catch on fire. Those are the common faults in Toyota Prius. For the Inverter water pump problem. a new inverter water pump which came after 2009 should be replaced. for those main three problems that Prius has in Sri Lanka. That sticky power window button fault is not something that usually we worry in Sri Lanka. As I was informed. Problem can be found in Camry hybrid as well.
So regenerative braking works only when we brake slowly and smoothly. without regenerative breaking. As I mentioned earlier. I have added a graph to describe how it switches. to optimize the vehicle. At hard breaking. it is recommended by Toyota Lanka to use Octane 95 petrol for Toyota Prius ZVW30. By that way. Regular engine tuneups would make the car efficient as well. Page | 17 . The switching between slow and smooth regenerative braking and hydraulic braking is done by the processor inside. Prius usually uses the electric system at lower speeds and if we accelerate quickly. We can perform an EGR cleaning (Exhaust gas recirculation) to optimize hybrids as well. to use the vehicle fuel efficiently. we can optimize fuel.e. hydraulic braking comes out. we should avoid quick acceleration. Smooth braking is also a method to optimize fuel. when you want to stop the vehicle quickly. There is s hydraulic breaking system as well. We should accelerate smoothly to optimize fuel. the car needs more power and to give that the internal combustion engine kicks in. Apart from that.First. i. Hence the fuel efficiency goes down. Prius uses a regenerative breaking system as I described before. Below.
my special thanks goes to Mr. a graduate of University of Moratuwa and now working at Toyota Lanka (Private) Limited as the Technical Engineer handling all the hybrid electric vehicles for giving me fullest support by providing necessary information. University of Moratuwa for issuing me relevant letters so that I could go and meet the relevant companies to get necessary details. Again. Udayanga Hemapala. Senior Lecturer in the Department of Electrical Engineering. Technical Engineer. I would like to thank everybody who gave me information about their hybrid electric vehicles and I would like to convey my heartiest gratitude to all the other people who were always supportive. University of Moratuwa for guiding me to study about this very interesting and inspiring topic. Ranjith Salpitikorala. I would like to thank Mr.Acknowledgement My sincere gratitude should go towards Dr. Mahesh Abeysinghe. Senior Lecturer. Asanka Rodrigo. a vehicle importer for helping me to contact with the people repairing hybrid electric vehicles (Arabian Motors. Page | 18 . My special thank goes to Dr. an engineer and Toyota Lanka). As a special person. Department of Electrical Engineering.
Reference Sunday Times http://en.fueleconomy.gov/feg/hybridtech.howstuffworks.com/first-gen-hybrid-batteries/ Page | 19 .mtu.wikipedia.shtml http://www.edu/hybrid/ http://www.htm http://www.org http://www.hybridcars.com/hybrid-car.
14.000. 450.Appendix Name: Mr. Engine switches off at idling. Muthubanda Ekanayake Occupation: Retired Police Officer Vehicle: Honda Insight Hybrid Manufacture Year: 2010 Mileage after buying the vehicle: 7000 km Average fuel consumption: 22 kilometers per liter Pros: Heating of the engine is very low. the parts are a bit expensive. No need to worry about overheating. It is an added advantage over many common cars of its type. 125. 15.000. it won’t consume much energy as usual cars do. Around Rs. (Sedan) He says that earlier it did cost a lot to replace a battery.00 and one cell is around Rs.00 – Rs. He says that it is usually should be serviced around 14. So when the car is stopped at traffic.000.000. 13.00 and that is a small disadvantage over usual vehicles. Now as the hybrid electric vehicles have become more common in Sri Lanka. He says that the cost for a service is around Rs.000. the price of the battery unit has also reduced and according to him the value now is around Rs. Cons: He claims that since these cars are little rare to find than conventional corolla and so on.00.000 km run and he says that it is an added advantage. Page | 20 .00. The display that has been provided indicates the available mileage that can be run without refilling gasoline.
Name: Mr. but satisfactory enough on “power mode”.e. so it can be considered as a pro for his vehicle. Cons: Acceleration is somewhat lesser than his other vehicles. But works well in “power mode”. since it has a huge portion of its surface covered with glass parts. In the 1800cc model. He owns a 1800cc model. When you park that vehicle in day time. Ground clearance is very low and it is not enough for Sri Lankan roads. Page | 21 . Gunasekara Occupation: Customs Officer Vehicle: Toyota Prius Hybrid Manufacture Year: 2009 Mileage after buying the vehicle: 40. Handling is good. acceleration is not satisfactory in “economy mode”. i. No problem with sounds coming out of the vehicle. the interior gets heated up lot more than a usual vehicle does.000 km Average fuel consumption: 20 kilometers per liter Pros: He has 3 vehicles for his family and he says that the vehicle is pretty much stable. interior space is very good and in 1500cc model. it is a negative point.
Page | 22 . Cons: When you are at a small slope uphill. he claims that and he says that there are no considerable negative points of a hybrid electric vehicle. Name: Dr. electric motor works on its own so that the internal combustion engine switches off and hence saves a lot of fuel. He owns 4 vehicles and from his experience. acceleration is not enough comparing with other cars. Rathnayake Occupation: Specialist Doctor Vehicle: Honda Insight Hybrid Manufacture Year: 2010 Mileage after buying the vehicle: 5000 km Average fuel consumption: 21 kilometers per liter Pros: Heating of the engine is very low. At idling.
Emits very low level of heat from the engine. Least sound comes out of the car.25 kilometers per liter Pros: Fuel efficiency is the best comparing with the vehicles he has used before. Nimal Senadheera Occupation: Factory Manager. It indicates almost everything you need to know at the display panel.000 km Average fuel consumption: 20 . But says that his first choice among the two cars is Prius since he travels about 3000 – 3500 kms in a month and it saves a lot for his pocket comparing with the Axio. Coool beverages Vehicle: Toyota Prius Hybrid Manufacture Year: 2008 Mileage after buying the vehicle: 30. Maintenance is easy since no need to worry about usual checking with water/coolent levels and so on. Name: Mr. Cons: Not steady enough comparing with the Toyota Corolla Axio that he drives. none of them are hybrid electric vehicles though. Page | 23 . Has a good air conditioning system with it. Comfortable driving experience. Very less smoke emission.
even though not technically. Fisheries & Nutrition. Green test is the smoke emission level test that is now a law that is a must-to-get for any vehicle to run on the road for a particular period of time. we have to dispose the used battery and by that we might dump heavy metals like lead or arsenic to environment and it can harm and unbalance environment a lot. But in developed countries. But hybrid electric vehicles need not to go for that test and that is an added advantage. There is an environmental concern attached with the batteries as well according to him. Ground clearance is not enough mainly because of the angle that it has been built in order to optimize fuel by its shape. Here. Faculty of Livestock.30 kilometers per liter and now. Name: Dr. Cons: He claims that the price of a battery is so high that many people won’t be able to afford it when it comes to a replacing of battery. In Sri Lanka. the figure is around 20 kilometers per liter according to him. Wayamba University of Sri Lanka. it was 28 . Saman Occupation: Lecturer. No need to do the green test. Vehicle: Toyota Prius Hybrid Manufacture Year: 2008 Mileage after buying the vehicle: 25. The lower part of the car comes at a small angle and hence. we do not have a method to recycle these batteries. the ground clearance is not equal everywhere.000 km Average fuel consumption: When he bought the car. they have. Pros: High fuel efficiency makes the life easier for him since he travels daily from his home to the University. Page | 24 .
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