2011

Power Generating
Using renewable sources for generating Electricity
This is a overlook at the ability to use renewable energy sources to generate power to use in Sri Lanka. Especially as we are living in an island, using the energy of the waves might work handy for us…

Nipuna Lakmal Weerakkody – 100573 H
Faculty of Engineering – University of Moratuwa 3/15/2011

Nipuna Lakmal Weerakkody 100573H Faculty of Engineering University of Moratuwa 2 . the trend in the world scenario is very much different to that here in our country. Though it is not very feasible to a country like us.Introduction As I am interested in the field of electricity. People and investors try their best to promote these kinds of energy generating methods.     W. I thought that I might do this project on generating power using renewable sources of power (Question no 1 of the given assignment). specially using wave energy from our sea.

Table of Contents Title Introduction Table of Contents Wave and Tidal Energy Oscillating Water Column (OWC) The Pivoting Flap Device Tapered Channel Devices The Pelamis Buoyant Moored Device Tidal Turbines Wave Height Samples from Around the World An article taken from the internet Page Number 2 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 8 11 3 .

cost per Watt. Wind is created both when the wave proceeds and recedes from the chamber. This significantly increases the efficiency of the power generation process. A map of wave heights is shown towards the end of the document. How much power can be harvested is determined mainly on the wave activity. But it has only been in recent years that it has started to become more realistic due to advance in research and technology. Each type has its own benefits and drawbacks covering issues such as efficiency.Using Waves for Energy Generating Wave and Tidal Energy Wave and tidal energy harvesting has been around for a few decades. off shore. 4 . Examples of Wave Energy Devices The following are examples of devices that have been invented to harvest energy from waves and sea currents. and near shore. A special turbine is designed to spin in one direction regardless of the wind direction. It is said that wave and tidal energy can supply at least 10 percent of the world's energy consumption. environmental and social impact. Oscillating Water Column (OWC) This method uses waves to compress air in a closed chamber to generate wind which flows through a turbine. They do not represent a complete list but they are divided into three main categories: on shore.

It was capable of generating 500 kWatts. 5 . This motion drives a hydraulic pump which drives the generator. which is about 1/12 of the island's total power consumption. It has a flap at the entrance which pivots back and forth as the wave enters and exits the chamber.LIMPET is a prototype constructed in 2000 on the west coast of the Scottish island of Islay. The Pivoting Flap Device This device also creates a chamber for waves to push water in and out.

3m in diameter. The joints between each segment can move as the structure is hit by the waves.Tapered Channel Devices This method uses the wave to pump sea water to an elevated reservoir. 6 . A company in Scotland named Ocean Power Delivery Ltd has created a pelamis that is 130m long and 2. It is expected to generate 750 kWatts. The system in the image below is being tested in Trinidad California. This motion is converted into energy through hydraulic cylinders which drives a hydraulic motor. The trapped water can then be released back through a turbine generating electricity. The Pelamis This method works by creating a multi-segment floating tube anchored to the sea floor.

The ideal water current is between 2-2. 7 .Buoyant Moored Device This method creates motion by resisting the waves.5 m/s. the tidal turbine can be much smaller to generate the same amount of energy. since water is four times denser than air. Tidal Turbines This method works much the same way as wind turbines. One part of the system needs to be moored (anchored) to the sea floor while a second part moves as it resists the wave motion. The base of the duck is moored to the sea floor while the duck itself (red) rotates with the wave motion. This rotation is used to generate energy. which is usually at depths of 20-30m within 1 km from the shore. A commercial scale turbine can produce 300 kWatts but this can scale up depending on the farm's size. However. Blow is an image of a system called the Duck created by Professor Salter at Edinburgh University.

the maps show a rough idea of wave activities expected in each region. Wave Height Samples from Around the World The following shows a snapshot of wave height from around the world. It can produce 300 kWatts.The image below shows "Seaflow. Although the weather and other factors can influence the measurements. 8 . It is deployed in 2003 off the shore of Devon UK." the world's first experimental tidal turbine.

The world Source: OCEANOGRAPHIE SPATIALE 9 .

sg/marine/options.South East Asia Source: National Environment http://intranet.gov.mssinet.html South Atlantic Agency of Singapore Source: Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center 10 .

They confirm that wave energy is a lucrative alternative source for energy. Seabased AB and Fortum are going to construct the world’s largest wave power plant. The total sum that Swedish Energy Agency is providing is SEK 139. The Seabased industry technology will be made fully commercialized. and pumping of water. The potential are endless knowing that the earth surface is mostly covered by oceans 11 . 2009. Sweden was made public. desalination. Scientists and inventors have been trying to figure out ways to capture the energy in ocean waves for decades. 000. thus saving a huge amount of money which would be needed to upgrade the grid to a smart grid capable of handling the fluctuations of renewable energy sources. 000 of a total of SEK 250. without much success. Moreover. The current frenzy in development is similar to what happened at the beginning of human flight. not only because you save on grid infrastructure. thereby encouraging Swedish Energy Agency to finance new technologies and making them commercially suitable. both demonstrating and showing the capacity of the technology. The Swedish Environmental Authority and the European Unions will have to give their accreditations for construction to take-off. society as well as other stakeholders with reliable energy. There have been endless research and analysis performed by all the three institutions (Fortum/Sea-based and Swedish Energy Agency) before the project was fully approved. It was only today. DISTRIBUTED RENEWABLE ENERGY GENERATION In principle. that the full financial support to construct wave power plants at the coast of Smögen in Sotenäs. when many solutions were tried before the correct one was found. There has been another four projects that have been offered grants and this is the fifth and last one for the actual program according to a report submitted May. together with photovoltaic (PV) energy. The capacity will be of around 10 MW. which will provide customer. The plant will be constituted of around 400 to 500 units linked together. 000. The Sweden Energy Agency is supporting this mega project with a grant. 000. This is a particular technology that Sea-based AB is commercializing. The Swedish Government supports the growth of renewable energy. this makes cheap and renewable energy immediately available also to more isolated communities which otherwise would have to wait for the smart grid to reach them. Distributed generation by renewable sources has many advantages over centralized generation. but also because each community can be responsible for Operations and Maintenance of their renewable energy sources. This project is going to be the hugest of its sort in the world. Wave Energy is the ideal choice for distributed generation of energy: a large majority of the world population lives near reasonably energetic seas. there is still another permission that needs to be achieved. In many cases production of water via desalination allows for de facto storage of excess energy in the form of purified water. Yet. There have been hundreds of patents taken out over the years.Wave Energy Wave Energy Conversion refers to the capture of ocean wave energy to do useful work including electricity generation. This is a renewable source of energy. Sea and Ocean waves are considered by most experts to be one of the best options for the future production of renewable energy.

And in 1946. President of the engineering consultancy Free Flow Energy . You see a lot of the newer designs that are based on older designs. 12 . a horizontal-axis turbine was invented to harness the currents of the ocean.Not a lot of these devices are actually generating electricity today. “Many people think this industry is new. President. Free Flow Energy. today. when the first tide wheel was built. currents were used to compress air and run a turbine. today. Verdant Power is testing a similar device in the East River near New York City. today. inventors have been trying to harness the immense power of the ocean with little success. salinity gradient. tidal. The marine energy industry is generally broken up into a number of different technologies: wave. current.- The following article was taken from internet - Ocean Renewable Energy Has Huge Potential But Not Without Giant Hurdles Since 1844. "Show me the energy.” says Rob Cinq Mars...Pelamis Wave Power has deployed (and since removed) an almost-identical machine off the coast of Portugal. ocean thermal and offshore wind. but these devices have been around for a long time." Rob Cinq Mars. waves are being used to compress air in an oscillating water column. Offshore wind — while still very nascent — is one of the only technologies being deployed on a commercial scale. In 1923. Now the next generation of engineers is trying to break the course of history and turn this niche industry into a major energy player. In 1894. a patent was issued for a snake-like machine that used waves to run a hydraulic pump.

Ocean energy is about 15 years behind wind energy. wave. The International Energy Agency estimates that tidal. especially recently because of the lack of capital available due to the financial crisis. In theory. But Cinq Mars is cautious about some of the claims being made by companies. “We won't break thousands [of turbines] but it may be a lot before we get somewhere. Eventually.40 per kilowatt-hour (kWh) range.” he says. But with the emergence of new materials. As later stage companies 13 . certain designs won out. there were many competing technologies being developed and thousands of turbines were broken during the testing process. but it won't tak. The high cost of demonstrating projects remains a significant problem. President of the Ocean Energy Council .” The small bits of electricity actually being generated usually come in at the US $0. At that time. and a supply chain was created to service them. These days they've got things in the water.” says Meyer. parts for those machines were standardized.. With only 10 megawatts of installed marine energy capacity around the world. Technological successes in marine energy over the last 165 years have been incremental.” he says. There remain a number of difficulties that companies must face in order to bring the industry to this scale. Today’s marine renewable energy industry is commonly compared to the wind industry of the 1980's and early 1990's. Things have really come a long way in a short time. “Two or three years ago.. it has changed more in the last few years than it has over the last century.15 years to catch up. “Not a lot of these devices are actually generating electricity today. the industry has a long way to go before it catches up with the more than 120 gigawatts of global wind capacity. In fact. “Show me the energy. the oceans could supply us with a lot of energy.000 terawatt-hours of energy each year. Many tout the benefits of their technologies. says Meyer. they've got sites selected and they're worrying about regulations.There's a lot of excitement about wave and tidal technologies today — a result of the broader interest in clean energy. The marine energy industry will have to go through the same culling process. salinity gradient and ocean thermal technologies could represent more than 100. the industry is looking far different than it did in the past. says Richard Meyer. current. sophisticated electronics and unprecedented amounts of money being invested in new ocean energy technologies. but few are actually close to achieving those claims.it was really only small laboratory testing of devices.

That announcement came more than a year after its device sank off the coast of Oregon . strategic partner that has some financial strength. a long and complex permitting process must be completed. As if these short term testing problems weren't difficult enough. Now there is. “I think in the past.” says Sauer. 14 . Another leading developer. Bad weather. However.. understanding the long-term viability of these devices is even more uncertain. ORPC has been developing its cross-flow turbine for ocean and river currents since 2004. Firms like Ocean Renewable Power Company (ORPC) know a lot about the financial difficulties of later-stage testing. says ORPC President Chris Sauer. Babcock and Brown. Last fall.. it tested a 30-kilowatt (kW) pilot version in the Bay of Fundy off the coast of Maine. the Pelamis devices are sitting idle while the company tries to find the money to fix them. is now trying to find a new investor. announced in February that it would temporarily abandon the wave energy business in order to focus on wind.S. Pelamis Wave Power. where the layers of local. unproven technologies. ORPC was unable to raise any private equity after the financial markets broke down last fall.” Once technologies are ready to be deployed on a commercial or pre-commercial scale. But many investors are hesitant to touch risky. “Everyone agrees that survivability is the key technology challenge. Finavera says it will try to bring in new partners for future development of the AquaBuOY technology.get further along in the testing process. None of them have been in the treacherous sea environment for very long. broken measurement instruments and incorrectly sized turbine foils were some of the setbacks the team experienced. there wasn't a full appreciation for the challenges involved. Finavera Renewables . In the meantime. Some companies haven't been as lucky. which developed the first commercial-scale wave project off the coast of Portugal. It's primary partner. This process can also be a problem for inexperienced. “We are in this for the long haul. ORPC has not yet released any details of the partnership. cash-strapped companies — especially in the U. state and federal regulations can be difficult to navigate. cash-burn rates accelerate and the need for capital increases. When the company starts testing its 60-kW pre-commercial unit this fall. Like many other companies. Sauer says that the company has teamed up with a strategic partner that will get it through the next testing phase and allow it to demonstrate the commercial viability of its turbine by the end of the year.” says John Miller. those setbacks will be much more expensive.we knew that we needed to find a really strong. went bankrupt in March. Director of the New England Marine Renewable Energy Center .

“This is not just about a technology. technological and regulatory requirements will eventually weed out the weak companies and bring the companies with the best technology and project management skills to the top. 15 .” says Sauer. you need to understand the whole package of project development. “I do think in marine renewables.” says ORPC's Sauer.” A number of players have entered the market without recognizing the scope of the challenges. “You have to be able to do it all. he says. If you want to be successful in this industry.These demanding financial. It takes hard work and it takes hard work over a long period of time. the euphoria has subsided a bit. People realize now what we realized a long time ago — that this is not an overnight thing.