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Module 4.4 ATP is the immediate energy source.

In respiration takes place in the cytoplasm, all the other steps in the mitochondria. ATP synthesis is associated with electron transfer. Know ATP is made from ADP + Pi (inorganic phosphate) when there is energy available. List the uses of ATP in a cell. Appreciate its role as a small, immediate energy source. Know glycolysis takes place in the cytoplasm, starts with glucose and ends with pyruvate. A net gain of ATP (substrate level phosphorylation) and reduced NAD coenzyme result. Know the link reaction i.e. pyruvate to acetyl coenzyme A and that this 2 carbon molecule joins with a 4 carbon molecule to make the first carbon molecule of the Krebs cycle. Know the krebs cycle is a series of oxidation/reduction reactions, generates reduced NAD/FAD coenzymes and ATP is made at substrate level phosphorylation. Carbon dioxide is lost. Understanding how a cycle is energy efficient as it regenerates a substrate. Know the synthesis of ATP is associated with the transfer of electrons and protons across mitochondrial membranes at the oxidative phosphorylation level (ETC) Know anaerobic respiration is glycolysis followed by the production of lactate or ethanol to regenerate NAD. This allows further glycolysis and thus release of ATP Appreciate the poor efficiency of aerobic and anaerobic respiration.

Key words: ATP: adenosine triphosphate an activated nucleotide found in all living cells that acts as an energy carrier. The hydrolysis of ATP leads to the formation of adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and inorganic phosphate, with the release of energy. NAD: nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide a molecule that carries electrons and hydrogen ions during aerobic respiration. Glycolysis: first part of cellular respiration in which glucose is broken down anaerobically in the cytoplasm to two molecules of pyruvate. Link reaction: the process linking glycolysis and the Krebs cycle in which hydrogen and carbon dioxide are removed from pyruvate to form acetyl coenzyme A in the matrix of the mitochondria. Krebs cycle: series of aerobic biochemical reactions in the matrix of the mitochondria of most eukaryotic cells by which energy is obtained through the oxidation of acetyl coenzyme A produced from the breakdown of glucose. Oxidative phosphorylation: the formation of ATP in the electron transport system of aerobic respiration. Substrate level phosphorylation: the formation of ATP by the direct transfer of a phosphate group from a reactive intermediate to ADP.

Aerobic respiration: Glycolysis

Cytoplasm of all living cells. 2 ATP molecules are added to glucose to form glucose 1.6. bisphosphate or phosphrylated glucose. This is unstable and therefore splits into 2 x 3-carbon compound triose phosphate (TP) Hydrogen is removed from each TP molecule and added to NAD to form reduced NAD. Enzyme controlled reactions convert TP into pyruvate. In the process 2 molecules of ATP are regenerated from ADP.

Energy yields in glycolysis: Two molecules of net ATP. Two molecules of reduced NAD. Two molecules of pyruvate.

Link reaction: pyruvate formed in glycolysis is actively transported into the matrix of the mitochondria. Pyruvate is oxidised by removing hydrogen. This hydrogen is accepted by NAD to form reduced NAD. the 2-carbon molecule, called the acetyl group, that is thereby formed combines with a molecule called coenzyme A to produce a compound called acetyl coenzyme A. A carbon dioxide molecule is removed from each pyruvate molecule. Pyruvate + NAD + CoA acetyl CoA + reduced NAD + CO2



The krebs cycle:

Oxidation/reduction reactions Matrix of mitochondria The 2 carbon acetyl A from the link reaction combines with a 4-carbon compound to produce a 6-carbon compound. This 6-carbon molecule loses carbon dioxide and hydrogens to give a 4-carbon molecule and a single molecule of ATP produced as a result of substrate level phosphorylation. The 4C molecule can now combine with a new acetyl CoA.

For each molecule of pyruvate, the link reaction and the Krebs cycle therefore produce: Reduced coenzymes such as NAD and FAD. These have the potential to produce ATP molecules and are therefore the important products of Krebs cycle. One molecule of ATP Three molecules of carbon dioxide

As two pyruvate molecules are produced for each original glucose molecule, the yield from a single glucose molecule is double the quantities above. Coenzymes NAD important throughout respiration FAD important in the Krebs cycle NADP important in photosynthesis.

NAD works with dehydrogenase enzymes that catalyse the removal of hydrogen ions from substrates and transfer them to other molecules such as the hydrogen carriers involved in oxidative phosphorylation. Glycolysis Krebs cycle Light dependent reactions of photosynthesis 3 6 9 12 15 18


ATP is produced ATP is needed NAD is reduced NADP is reduced CO2 is produced CO2 is needed

1 4 7 10 13 16

2 5 8 11 14 17

Electron transport chain: hydrogen atoms are carried into the ETC by the coenzymes NAD and FAD. Energy of the electrons within the hydrogen atoms is converted into a form that cells can use. ATP. Mitochondria membrane.

Electron transport chain and the synthesis of ATP The hydrogen atoms produced during glycolysis and the Krebs cycle combine with the coenzymes NAD and FAD that are attached to the cristae of the mitochondria. The reduced NAD and FAD donate the electrons of the hydrogen atoms they are carrying to the first molecule in the ETC. This releases protons from the hydrogen atoms and these protons are actively transported across the inner mitochondrial membrane. The electrons meanwhile, pass along a chain of electron transport carrier molecules in a series of oxidation and reduction reactions. The electrons lose energy as they pass down the chain and some of this is used to combine ADP + Pi to make ATP. The remaining energy is released in the form of heat. The protons accumulate in the space between the two mitochondrial membranes before they diffuse back into the mitochondrial matrix through special protein channels. At the end of the chain the electrons combine with these protons and oxygen to form water. Oxygen is therefore the terminal electron acceptor in the electron transport chain.

Anaerobic respiration: Plants: Pyruvate + reduced NAD ethanol + NAD Animals: Pyruvate + reduced NAD lactate + NAD Lactate can be oxidised back into pyruvate or converted to glycogen and stored. Energy yields from anaerobic and aerobic respiration. Energy from cellular respiration is derived in two ways: Substrate level phosphorylation in glycolysis and the Krebs cycle. This is the direct linking of Pi to ADP to produce ATP. Oxidative phosphorylation in the electron transport chain. This is the indirect linking of Pi to ADP to produce ATP using the hydrogen atoms from glycolysis and the Krebs cycle that are carried on NAD and FAD. Cells produce most of their ATP this way. In plants the pyruvate produced in glycolysis is converted to ethanol in anaerobic respiration. In animals pyruvate is converted into lactate.

In anaerobic respiration pyruvate is converted to lactate or ethanol which is not available in the Krebs cycle. Which means the ATP made in anaerobic respiration is only formed in glycolysis. This is a very small amount in comparison to aerobic respiration.