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this revolution, a new era of architecture was born in México, the one that would be recognized across the world. Walter Gropious, director of the Bahaus School, had a lot of influence in Mexico, more in the educational area as in “Ciudad Universitaria” (University City) where using mainly Gropious’ projects ideas; they did a detail research of, in conjunct, the student life, both, scholar and after school. The German-American Architect Mies Van Der Rohe, was a big exponent of modern architecture and director of the Bahaus School. His influences, as Vargas express are, among many others, the interrelationship between exterior and interior in the “Casa Habitacion” as well as the use of large windows (64). One of the pioneers of modern architecture was Charles-Edouard Jeanneret, best known as “Le Courbusier,” and his influence in México was clearly represented by some of his principles, such as: free façade, continuous windows, and the use of piles. The architect Juan O’Gorman was the biggest representation of Le Corbusier’s principles in Mexico. Also, O’Gorman was one of the first architects that adopted modernism as his style. Before modern architecture came to Mexico, there was a movement that was making noise across the country and was well known outside of Mexico too, called “Muralism or Muralismo.” After the Mexican revolution in 1910, an old way of painting was settled, and it gained an important place in Mexican culture, just as it was in the past with their pre-Columbian ancestors. These types of frescos were called “Murals,” which became the movement known as “Muralism.” Artists of this movement were part of the local communist party, so murals were the simplest way to tell a story; also they use murals as propaganda, for this reason those were on
so with this project and the whole University City that marked a decisive phase in the history of twentieth-century Mexican architecture.” and . these were the words that accompanied him along his career. but including the Hispanic plasticity: the mosaics (Vargas 65). The clash of European modernism and Mexican traditions gave way to a new identity in Mexican architecture. ideas. inspiration. the one that would be internationally recognized thanks to Barragán’s work. In his speech when he received the Prizker Prize. Parallel to O’Gorman. by the name of Luis Barragán. designer. At that moment. witchcraft. The “Biblioteca Central” of the University of Mexico (UNAM) is proof of use of the “Conceptual Analogy of Education” by Walter Gropius. silence. “…the words beauty. and enchantment. Juan O’Gorman was not only a muralist. as well as serenity. intimacy. and awe. and artist who inspired young Barragán with his book “Jardins enchantés. Barragán would have never imagined how he would revolutionize Mexican architecture. he said. emotion. one of the most faithful followers of modernism European. was a young civil engineer who had just arrived from a journey to Europe. Barragán met Ferdinand Bac.public buildings. and works of outstanding universal significance of the culture of México also for being an outstanding example of the consolidation of Modern Architecture in Latin America with architecture reminiscent of pre-Hispanic. The most important and recognized muralist was Diego Rivera. Proof of its importance in the world is that “University City” is considered Cultural Heritage of humanity because it’s directly and materially related to events. magic. and another important exponent of muralism was Juan O’Gorman who also was Diego Rivera’s close friend. a German-French writer.” (Vargas 9) words that were lost with the arrive of Modernism and Luis Barragán made it alive with his architecture. During his first journey to Europe. he was also an architect.
with the garden that Ferdinand created for the exhibition during “the Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industrials Modernes” (Zanco 45). but also a giant outside room. He started to create a magic atmosphere and as he said to Alejandro Ramirez in an interview in 1962. Ferdinand’s work inspired them a special interest for gardens. After the dictatorship of Porfirio Díaz all what Mexico had. For Barragán “tradition” was an important word . thereby one fertilizing the other and vice versa. but they also added an important element: bewitch the place. and every corner of the garden until garden and house were attached. 546). Barragán. Barragán considered garden as an oasis of peace. “…giving the construction an emotional side. literal. here we are talking about emotional architecture. architecture that is welcome among clients. during his interview with Alejandro Ramirez. patios.” composes Mexican traditional house. which via Spain gives features of “religious mystery and magic sensuality. in theme of architecture. was a copy of what France architects did. so going back to their roots where a patio. but merging tradition and innovation. describes México as an “Avant-garde” because in that time in the U. which. “We are doing architecture of our epoch” (El Museo 93). “I consider Mexico as the most contemporary spirit of the World. yet also wants some kind of tenuous connection to the street and entrance” (Alexander et al. looks like an inferiority complex.”(El Museo 93) A pattern called “half-hidden garden” has clearly represented in Barragán’s architecture.” he also included. Knowing the devaluation of traditional symbols in twentieth-century culture because of that Barragán turned towards minimalist forms. so when they understood this architecture they applied color.S. in another words. Barragán saw a need for new simplicity and to go. and Europe architects where more conservatives. “The garden needs a certain degree of privacy. landscape in relation to the architecture. to ground as a way of sustaining the habitability of the earth.
and also in this house you can see a beauty relationship between tradition and modernism with the wood ceiling. “now I can die in peace. doors and other elements that form the environment of the towns and particularly in popular architecture!” (El Museo 10) He was in love with popular . he continued saying.” (Zanco 46) it was exactly what Barragán did with his buildings. and agreeing to the culture of the epoch (El Museo 94). in music. emotion. lost by men’s need to add elements constantly to those that were enough in themselves. fairs. Herbert Bayer. but Morocco is a millionaire with respect to art. 12). Barragán was modern. An example of it is Barragán’s house where garden are connected to the living room bye a large window. Society may consider Morocco a poor country. Garden must be poetic. in the colors of the walls. mysterious. according the life of the epoch. and the aesthetic sense. Morocco was the key of Barragán’s success with colors. “The revolutionary act is not but the return of an ancient ideal. which give to life. traditional in Hispanic construction and the use of concrete. but adding the traditional colors used in preHispanic crafts also combined with Ferdinand’s ideas. Joy was indispensable in life said Barragán when he received Pritzker Prize. the kids’ laugh. for I have discovered color” (Buendia et al. but no modernist. a master of the Bauhaus. bewitched. The villages of North Africa and Morocco combined with Mexican popular architecture and its brightly colored streets. serene. “how can you enjoy life en dance.but not everyone knew really the meaning in architecture. and happy. it means: doing the architecture of your epoch. Barragán and his co-workers from Jalisco decided go back to their essential elements lay in their indigenous architecture. Tired of living in a Mexico where architects were busy trying to follow European and New York movements. were all inspiration for Barragán. forgetting everything of their Mexican identities. wrote after his visit to Morocco.
Entering to one of rooms is like beginning a mystical procession. his walls were always transporting you to another World full of his mysticism and emotions that only Barragán was able to create. He knew very well how to use color in his architecture. where you discover as you go. The proper provision of light was an obsession to Barragán. He said. Appears that design a house is more than combined functions. “It is an architectonic strip tease” (Walls of Mexico). but Ricardo Legorreta. but from normal people. If all architects will replace fifty percent of crystal out of their façade and use it for walls that will mean a light that allows an intimate life and more concentration. this will further facilitate the use of human thought. which plays a most important role. in other words. here Barragán incorporated new elements as when the sun’s rays touch the water and turn it gold.” he concluded. The space for the dining room and pool is the synthesis of years of reflection on the use of light color and space. In México his influence has been limited. “The house should not reveal all his secrets immediately. An example of Matisse proposes is seen at Gilardi’s House indoor pool. one has to discover it step by step. All this mystery that Barragán did with the color would be nothing without light. the architect that represents Barragán.architecture made not by architects. gave birth to a sensual and passionate light containing an abundance … . Tadao Ando is in these days one of most influential architects of the world and he referred to Barragán as: “Luis Barragán who. Not only his creations make Barragán alive also architects that were influenced by him. from his firm roots in the natural elements of México. all this work reminds Matisse thesis proposed where light has to be equal to space and equal to color. Which is what the people need to recover their peace of mind and spirituality that has been lost. outstanding Tadao Ando among the others. Also many non-Mexican architects have been influenced by Barragán. did with a vitally modern reinterpretation and he is also recognize in many parts of the world.
not only for architects.Barragán transcended their confines and created a new light.films.” (Zanco 12) Without doubts. Zanco. Film. “death is a source of life. but also for any kind of people. Obviously he wasn’t the only one who revolutionized Mexican architecture. Barragán left a great legacy in the entire planet. In conclusion. Luis Barragán opened a door that will never close. but not by showing his history. His architecture represents his love to his country but also what a great human being he was. Sadly Barragán is more known and recognized outside his own country and where his work is.” talking about satellite towers in Mexico city. When human creations survived after his creator’s death. some of them make comments as “ everyone who add color to a big wall can be considered a modern Mexican architect.Y. Federica. and Vitra Design Museum . Many Mexicans do not really understand his point. He will never die. but by showing Mexican traditions trough modern architecture. as he said once. also. New York. : Films Media Group. Truth is that Barragán was a dignified example to follow. but without doubt he was and is the greatest example of Mexican modern architecture. <http://digital. not whereas his creations still stand. N. the death turns in life” (Museo Rufino Tamayo 10). Luis Barragán : the . 2008. they look at his work just as big blocks or walls with many colors. That was exactly what happened to Luis Barragán. Work cited The Walls of Mexico: art and architecture. He showed the world how Mexico really is.com/PortalViewVideo.aspx?xtid=6273>.
319.A. Vargas. 131. Print.. Print.buildings. 248. Adalberto. Buendia. Mexico City: Universidad Nacional Autónoma del Estado de México. Print. 1997. edition.construction. . 1985.quiet revolution. Luis Barragan: ensayos y apuntes para un bosquejo critico. Print. Facultad de Arquitectura y Arte. Christopher. New York: Oxford University Press. New York: Rizzoli international publication. 1977. Print. et al. 169. 1st.p. Sara Ishikawa. A pattern language: towns. Mexico City: El Museo. Alexander. 1995. Milan: Skira Editore S. edition. 1171. Jose Ma. Murray Silverteir. 2. 1st. and Guillermo Eguiarte. The life and work of Luis Barragan. 2001. Modernidad arquitectónica mexicana : tres influencias europeas 1930-1960. Juan Palomar.
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