LIFE MEMBERS OF SOCIETY OF KRISHI VIGYAN

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. A.P.S. Dhaliwal, KVK, Bathinda (Punjab) Ajay Kumar, KVK, Mukatsar (Punjab) Ajay Kumar, KVK, Pithoragarh (Uttarakhand) Akhil kr.Deka, KVK, Karbi, Anglong 782460 (Assam) Amrish Vaid, KVK, Kathua, (Jammu & Kashmir) Anand Aneja, KVK, Mansa (Punjab) Aseem Verma, KVK, Ludhiana ( Punjab) Ashok Kumar, KVK, Patiala (Punjab) B. N. Sinha, KVK, Una (Himachal Pradesh) Baljit Singh, KVK, Kapurthala (Punjab) Berjesh Ajrawat, KVK, Kathua (Jammu and Kashmir) B.S. Dhillon, KVK, Amritsar (Punjab) Bharat Singh, KVK, Mansa (Punjab) D. S. Dhillon, Deptt. of Extension Education, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana (Punjab) Daljeet Kaur, KVK, Kapurthala (Punjab) Devinder Tiwari, KVK, Ludhiana ( Punjab) G. S. Aulakh, KVK, Faridkot (Punjab) Gagandeep Kaur, KVK, Kapurthala (Punjab) Gurdarshan Singh, KVK, Faridkot (Punjab) Gurdeep Singh, KVK, Mansa ( Punjab) Gurinder Pal Singh Sodhi, KVK, Patiala ( Punjab) Gurmeet Singh, KVK, Kapurthala (Punjab) Gurpreet Kaur, KVK, Kapurthala (Punjab) Gurupdesh Kaur, KVK, Patiala (Punjab) Hardeep Singh Sabhikhi, KVK, Patiala ( Punjab) Inderpreet Kaur Kular, Guru Angad Dev University of Vety. and Animal Husbandry, Ludhiana Jagdish Kumar Grover, Bathinda ( Punjab) Jagmohan Singh, KVK, Amritsar (Punjab) Kanwar Barjinder Singh, KVK, Moga ( Punjab) Karamjeet Sharma, KVK, Mukatsar (Punjab) Kuldeep Singh, KVK, Jalandhar ( Punjab) Kuldeep Singh Bhullar, KVK, Hoshiarpur (Punjab) M. I .S. Gill, Deptt. of Horticulture Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana (Punjab) Mahendra Kumar Muwal, KVK, Nagaur (Rajasthan) Manoj Gupta, KVK, Sirmour (Himachal Pradesh) Manoj Sharma, KVK, Kapurthala ( Punjab) Mrs. Lakhwinder Kaur, Deptt. of Extension Education, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana (Punjab)

38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. 61. 62. 63.

Mrs. Lopa Mudra Mohapatra, Deptt. of Extension Education, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana (Punjab) Mukesh K. Gupta, Department of Biotechnology and Medical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela (Odisha) Mukhtar Singh Gill, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana (Punjab) Narender Deo Singh, KVK, West Kameng, Dirang, (Arunachal Pradesh) Netrapal Malik, KVK, Aligarh (Uttar Pradesh) Nirmajit Singh Dhaliwal, KVK, Mukatsar ( Punjab) Nityanand Singh, KVK, Siris, Aurangabad 824 112 ( Bihar) P. K. Sharma, KVK, Kheda ( Gujarat) Pankaj Mittal, KVK, Sirmour (Himachal Pradesh) Pardeep Goyal, KVK, Mukatsar (Punjab) Parminder Singh, KVK, Patiala (Punjab) Pushpinder Kaur, KVK, Bathinda (Punjab) R. D. Kaushik, KVK, Jind ( Haryana) Rachna Singla, KVK, Patiala (Punjab) Rajni Goya, KVK, Patiala(Punjab) Rakesh Kumar Singh, KVK, Faridkot (Punjab) Ratnesh Kumar Jha, KVK, Manjhi, Saran (Bihar) Renuka Aggarwal, KVK, Faridkot (Punjab) Rishi Pal Rathore KRIBHCO, Jalandhar ( Punjab) Shelly Nayyar, KVK, Faridkot (Punjab) Simerjeet Kau, Deptt. of Agronomy and Agro meteorology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana (Punjab) Sukhdev Singh Paliyal, KVK, Sirmour (Himachal Pradesh) Sukhwinder Singh, KVK, Faridkot (Punjab) T.S.Riar, Deptt. of Extension Education, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana (Punjab) Tasneem Mubarak, KVK, Anantnag (Jammu and Kashmir) Vipin Kumar Rampal, Deptt. of Extension Education, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana (Punjab)

MESSAGE
Krishi Vigyan Kendra (KVK) plays a vital role in the transfer of technology to the farmers. KVKs established at district level act as a knowledge and resource centre for farming community. The major role being rendered by KVKs is to impart vocational, refresher and short duration trainings enabling the rural youth/ farmer /farmwomen to start their own agri-based enterprises, to upgrade the knowledge of extension functionaries and to enhance for unit productivity, respectively. Another important role played by KVKs is the assessment and refinedment of the technologies evolved by the research system at cultivators’ field. Therefore, initiatives need to be taken up for capacity building of farmers in minimal agro processing and other related areas of value addition for enhancing the farm income. The KVKs are giving more attention on intensifying and diversifying farming systems of small farmers in order to increase the productivity and income of farm families without any degradation of the natural resources. Each KVK has multi disciplinary subject matter specialists (6 in number) involved in trainings, promotion of pulses, oilseeds and commercial crops through frontline demonstration. Likewise, on-farm trails are conducted disciplinewise to solve the location specific problems. The KVKs have to strengthen linkages with research institutions, farmers’ organisations, non-governmental organisations, public extension services and input providers in the district so that technology assessment and transfer can be undertaken in a coordinated and more effective manner. Further, the specialised training programme on production, protection, quality certification and grading, packaging, storage, transportation etc. need to be given in large number for both domestic and export markets. I opine that the scientists working under KVK system need to be constantly motivated for situation handling, behavioural phenomenon and effective way of communication in order to make their task simple and effective. At present, 630 KVKs working in the country are doing commendable work in disseminating knowledge and best practices across the country. It was felt that KVKs should improve the documentation and presentation of their innovative experiences using suitable statistical tools and adequate theoretical background emphasising on the output, outcome and impact. Hence, a society namely “SOCIETY OF KRISHI VIGYAN” has been formulated involving the scientists working in the KVKs as well as research and teaching schemes across the country with the sole objective to share their experiences while working with the farmers. All these experiences will be compiled in the form of a half yearly journal namely “JOURNAL OF KRISHI VIGYAN”. On this occasion, I express my sincere gratitude to all the scientists who have contributed in one or other way to bring out the first issue of the journal which is in your hands. Similarly, I hope that this type of endeavour will bring out more impact on the scientific community about the working of the KVKs. At the same time, I appeal to all the young scientists working in the various research institutes as well as in the KVKs system for the benefit of the farmers, farm women and rural unemployed youth, by enrolling themselves as members for this journal. With Best Wishes.

(M S GILL)

Dear Colleagues, The Society of Krishi Vigyan (www.iskv.in) is introducing the Journal of Krishi Vigyan which is a multidisciplinary peer-reviewed journal in subject of agriculture that will be published six- monthly by the society. Society of Krishi Vigyan is dedicated to increasing the depth of the subject across disciplines with the ultimate aim of expanding knowledge of the subject.

Editors and reviewers Society of Krishi Vigyan is seeking energetic, qualified and high profile extension workers and researchers to join its editorial team as editors, subeditors or reviewers. Kindly send your resume to: editoriskv@gmail.com, secretarykvk2011@gmail.com

Call for Research Articles Journal of Krishi Vigyan will cover all areas of the agriculture with special thrust on extension related studies. The journal welcomes the submission of manuscripts that meets the general criteria of significance and scientific excellence, and will publish:
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Original articles in basic and applied research Case studies/Success stories Critical reviews, surveys

We invite you to submit your manuscript(s) to: editoriskv@gmail.com, or secretarykvk2011@gmail.com for publication. Our objective is to inform authors of the decision on their manuscript(s) within four weeks of submission. Following acceptance, a paper will normally be published in the next issue. Guide to authors and other details are available on our website: www.iskv.in JOURNAL OF KRISHI VIGYAN WILL BE OPEN ACCESS JOURNAL Open access gives a worldwide audience larger than that of any subscription-based journal and thus increases the visibility and impact of published works. It also enhances indexing, retrieval power and eliminates the need for permissions to reproduce and distribute content. Journal of Krishi Vigyan is fully committed to the Open Access Initiative and will provide free access to all articles as soon as it’s published. Best regards Editor Journal of Krishi Vigyan E-mail: editoriskv@gmail.com

CONTENTS
Sr. No. Title 1. Analysis of Kisan Mobile Advisory Service in South Western Punjab. Hardevinder Singh Sandhu , Gurdeep Singh and Jagdish Grover Botanical Description, Diversity Resources, Distribution and Present Ecological Status of Luisia Gaudichaud - A Botanically and Horticulturally less known Epiphytic Orchid Species of Darjeeling. Rajendra Yonzone and Samuel Rai Page No. 1

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Effect of Age of Seedlings and Irrigation on Mortality, Bolting, Bulb Weight and Yield of Onion (Allium cepa L.) var. Punjab Naroya. Gurteg Singh, Sat Pal Saini and Amandeep Singh Sidhu 10 Effect of Intercropping of Vegetables and Width of Polythene Sheet on Yield and Economic Returns Under Low Tunnel Technology. Monika Gupta Effect of Polypropylene Covers on Frost Protection and Yield of Potato Crop. Kuldeep Singh Bhullar Ethnobotanical inventory on medicinal plants of North Western Himalayas. Vishal Mahajan, Amrish Vaid, A. P. Singh and Sanjeev Kumar IDM- In Combating Blast Disease in Rice Crop in Temperate Environment. T.Mubarak, M.A.Zarger and Z.A.Bhat Impact of KVK Training Programme on Socio-Economic Status and Knowledge of Trainees in Kathua District. Berjesh Ajrawat and Ajay Kumar Implication of Participatory Communication in Indian Agricultural Development Contest : Few Selected Strategies. Ajay Kumar and Netrapal Malik Job Performance of Agricultural Scientists of Selected State Agricultural Universities and its Relationship with Socio-Personal Charateristics Kiran Yadav, D S Dhillon and R K Dhaliwal Knowledge Level of Farmers Regarding Package of Practices for Gram crop. Nikulsinh. M. Chauhan Knowledge of Dairy Farmers about Improved Animal Husbandry Practices in Kheda District of Gujarat. P. K. Sharma, B. S. Shekhawat and M. K. Chaudhary On Farm Testing and Popularization of Integrated Management Module of Apple Root Rot Under High Altitude Temperate Conditions. Z.A.Bhat, F.A. Sheikh, T. Mubarak, J. A. Bhat, M.A. Zargar, Akhlaq A. Wani, G.H. Rather and H.U. Itoo

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Sr. No. Title 14. Performance of Fruit set, Yield and different Attributes of Kiwi Fruit Varieties under West Kameng District of Arunachal Pradesh. N. D. Singh, T.S. Mishra and A.K. Singh Reaction of Farm Women about the Self Help group in Navasari District of Gujarat R. M. Naik, G.G. Chauhan, M.R. Prajapati and C.S. Desai Recycling of Hair (Saloon Waste) by Vermicomposting Technology. Kamla Kanwar and S.S. Paliyal Review of Factors Affecting the Adoption of Drip irrigation Technology. Mahendra Kumar and R. C. Jitarwal Social Metabolism: The Kinetics of Entropy and Osmosis in Transforming Farming System. Acharya, S K, Sharma, N K and S Bera Studies on Seeding Depths and Establishment Methods of Direct Seeded Rice in North-Western Indo-Gangetic Plains. Simerjeet Kaur and Surjit Singh Use of Information and Communication Technology in Agriculture by Farmers of District Kapurthala. Manoj Sharma, Gagandeep Kaur and M S Gill

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Analysis of Kisan Mobile Advisory Service in South Western Punjab
Hardevinder Singh Sandhu , Gurdeep Singh* and Jagdish Grover Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Bathinda 151 005 (Punjab)
ABSTRACT Kisan mobile advisory service (KMAS) was launched for sending agricultural information through Short Message Service (SMS). The content of message was typed in Punjabi language by using English language alphabets and information related to agronomy of crops, insect pest control, horticulture, dairy farming and weather forecasting etc was sent to the end users. 150 farmers were randomly surveyed to know their reaction about the KMAS. Results of the survey showed that majority of the farmers found agricultural information in the form of SMS through mobile phone as useful (69.3 %), comprehensible (74.7 %) and timely (64.7%). About 15 per cent farmers who registered for KMAS did not utilize the availed service. About nine per cent of the users could not decode SMS due to language barrier. Lack of the interest of the beneficiary due to excessive length of the content was reported by 12.7 percent of the farmers. Key words: KMAS, SMS INTRODUCTION Agriculture in India comprising of crops, dairy, fishery, horticulture, agro-forestry along with small enterprises like beekeeping, mushroom growing etc needs the use of modern technologies to achieve the target growth. Need is to harness productivity along with sustainability, minimise post harvest losses and getting appropriate prices for the produce. For this extension has to play expanded role including improved access to markets, research, advice, credit, infrastructure, farmer organization development and business development services (Sulaiman, 2003). The information and communication technologies like radio, TV, newspaper, telephones and magazines are playing a major role in sustainable agricultural development since early decades and now the modern ICTs as mobiles and computers and have created a revolution. In the 21 st century in the era, cost effective and efficient communication technologies are required to take lead in changing agricultural scenario. The use of Kisan Mobile Advisory Service scheme in main line extension system of Krishi Vigyan Kendras, is new ICT initiatives to meet the needs and expectations of the farmers. The growing information needs of farmers due to diversification and commercialization need to be addressed immediately but at the same time extension system need to continuously evaluate ICT initiatives to improve and improvise the delivery of information. MATERIALS AND METHODS For collecting information a semi structure interview schedule was designed and their responses on Kisan Mobile Advisory Service along with socio-personal profile were recorded. A three point continuum scale was also designed to know the level of comprehension of the message i.e. Comprehensible, difficult to comprehend and not comprehensible. Similarly, usefulness of the SMS was studies on three point continuum i.e. Very useful, Not so Useful and not useful. It was hypothesized that education level have bearing on comprehension while education level, age and land holding may have bearing on usefulness of the SMS. So, these hypotheses were also tested during the study. The objectives of the present study were to know the level of comprehension and the extent of usefulness of the agricultural information sent in the form of SMS.

* Asstt Prof (Extension Education), Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Mansa, (Punjab) Corresponding author e-mail: sidhu_gurdeep79@yahoomail.com,

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RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Kisan Mobile Advisory Service was started with the aim of passing the agricultural information to maximum number of farmers in shortest, cheapest way and also timely advice without any distortion of message. Initially, SMS were sent in local language font (Punjabi) but message did not display in end users receiving mobile phone due to compatibility issue. Later on it was decided to use the english alphabets for passing information in local language. A total of 104 SMS were sent pertaining to different disciplines related with agriculture. Maximum 31 (29.8 %) SMS were sent in the field of Agronomy, followed by Plant Protection 18 (17.3 %). Similarly information related to soil science, animal science, horticulture, weather related information and information pertaining to training programmes was sent to farmers.
Table 1. Number of SMS sent pertaining to different disciplines

Socio-economic Profile Majority of the respondents i.e. 56.7 per cent were young i.e. less than 30 years of age. Eighteen per cent of the farmers belonged to Middle age category while one fourth (25.3%) were of more than 45 years of age. More than 1/3 rd of the respondents (70.6%) were Medium category farmers having land between 2 to 10 hectares while 18.0 per cent were small and marginal farmers and 11.3 per cent were large category farmers. As far as education level was concerned, majority of the respondents (65.3%) were of medium category having education between 10th to secondary or having any diploma. About one fourth of the respondents (22.6%) had high educational level while 12.0 per cent were of low educational level. Agriculture was the major enterprise of 2/3 rd of the respondents, 22.0 per cent were engaged in horticulture ( including vegetable growers, orchards, bee keeping mushroom growing etc.) while 11.33 per cent were dairy farmers. Level of Comprehension The data presented in Table 3 revealed that more than 80 per cent of the respondents having medium level of education were able to comprehend the information sent via mobile set as SMS. While in low education category group only 16.6 per cent could comprehend the information easily. The 85.2 per cent respondents
Number of respondents 85 27 38 27 106 17 18 98 34 100 17 33 Percentage 56.6 18.0 25.3 18.0 70.6 11.3 12.0 65.3 22.6 66.6 11.3 22.0

Sr No. Area 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Agronomy Plant Protection Horticulture Animal Science Soil Science Weather Forecasting Miscellaneous Total

No. of SMS 31 (29.8 ) 18 (17.3 ) 15 (14.4 ) 11 (10.5 ) 16 (15.3 ) 04 (3.8 ) 09 (8.6 ) 104

Figures in parenthesis are percentages
Table 2 . Socio-economic profile of the respondents (N = 150)

Sr No. Socio-economic Profile 1 Age Young (< 30 years) Middle (Between 30 to 45 years) Old (> 45 years) Land holding Marginal and Small (< 2 ha) Medium (2-10 ha) Large (> 10 ha) Education Low (< 10th Class) Medium ( 10th – 12th Class) High (Graduation or above) Enterprise Agriculture Dairy Horticulture

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Table 3. Relation between education and level of Comprehension (N = 150)

Sr No. Education Level Comprehensible 1 2 3 Low (< 10th Class) Medium ( 10th – 12th Class) High (Graduation or above) 03 (16.6) 80 (81.6) 29 (85.3)

Level of Comprehension Not so Not comprehensible comprehensible 01 (5.5) 16 (16.3) 05 (14.7) 14 (77.7) 02 (2.0) 00 (0.0)

Figures in parenthesis are percentages

with high education level were able to comprehend the information. Nearly 80 per cent respondents reported information was not so comprehensible. About 2/3 rd (77.7%) of the respondents in low education category could not comprehend the information and 2.0 per cent in medium education category could not comprehend the information properly. From total sample 9.3 per cent respondents in low education category could not comprehend the information due to language barrier. Thus, it can be said that farmers with high education level were at ease in comprehending the information sent via SMS. Usefulness of Information Eighteen per cent of the farmers who got registered for kisan mobile advisory service were from small and marginal category. Majority of medium category farmers (73.5%) reported the information as useful followed by large farmers (64.7%). More than 50 per cent (55.5%) small and marginal farmers also found the information as useful. About 15 per cent (14.8%) small and
Table 4. Relationship (N = 150) between education and

marginal farmers found the information as not useful as it was oriented towards main crops while information was missing on vocational occupations like beekeeping, mushroom, poultry adopted by them. As expected respondents with medium level of education (75.5%) and high level of education (64.7%), reported the information via text message through mobile as useful. Nearly 1/5 th of respondents with medium level of education, 17.6 per cent respondents with high level of education and 38.2 per cent respondents with low level of education reported information as not so useful (Table 4). Lack of interest due to lengthy SMS was reported by 12.6 per cent of the farmers. Higher percentage of respondents (74.1 %) in the middle age category found kisan mobile advisory useful as compared to other young (69.4%) and old age category (65.8%) respondents. This may be due to the lack of interest of young farmers in agriculture and less education level and less participation of old age farmers in practicing agriculture.
land holding with usefulness of Information

Sr No. Parameter Useful 1. a b c 2. a b c 3. a. b. c. Land holding Marginal and Small (< 2 ha) Medium (2-10 ha) Large (> 10 ha) Education High (Graduation or above) Medium ( 10th – 12th Class) Low (< 10th Class) Age Young (<30 years) Middle (Between 30-45 years ) Old (> 45 years) 15 (55.5) 78 (73.5) 11 (64.7) 11 (64.7) 74 (75.5) 19 (55.8) 59 (69.4) 20 (74.1) 25 (65.8)

Usefulness Not so useful 08 (29.6) 24 (22.6) 04 (23.5) 04 (17.6) 19 (19.4) 13 (38.2) 23 (27.1) 5 (18.5) 8 (21.0)

Not useful 4 (14.8) 04 (3.7) 02 (11.7) 03 (17.6) 05 (5.1) 02 (5.8) 03 (3.5) 02 (7.0) 05 (13.2)

Figures in parenthesis are percentages

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Table 5. Overall analysis of the Kisan Mobile Advisory Service (N = 150)

Sr No. Indicator 1 2 3 Comprehension Usefulness Timeliness

Comprehensible 112 (74.6) Useful 104 (69.3) Timely 97 (64.6)

Difficult to Comprehend 22 (14.6) Not so useful 36 (24.0) Sometime late 46 (30.6)

Not comprehensible 16 (10.6) Not useful 10 (6.6) Often late 07 (4.6)

Figures in parenthesis are percentage

In totality agricultural information via text message through mobile was reported as comprehensible, useful and timely by 74.6%, 69.3% and 64.6% respondents respectively (Table 5). Low education was the major reason for low comprehension or lack of comprehension. Majority of the respondents found the information useful but few reported that lack of interest due to lengthy text and lack of specific information was reason for finding the information as not so useful. Few respondents (6.67 %) reported the information as not useful as they did not get information pertaining to their enterprise. CONCLUSION The information disseminated via text message through mobile ICT can play a great role in enhancing efficiency of extension system by reaching large number of people. Farmers are finding this source of information as timely and

of great use but the extension system has to regularly evaluate the responses of target groups to eradicate the problems in delivery of message. The information has to be tailored according to the enterprises, crops adopted by the farmers and based on the assessment of felt needs of the stakeholders. The information sent should be specific, brief and clear so that interest of the target group could be maintained. REFERENCES
Sulaiman, R. 2003. Agricultural Extension-Involvement of Private Sector, National Bank for Agricultural and Rural Development, Mumbai, India.

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Botanical Description, Diversity Resources, Distribution and Present Ecological Status of Luisia Gaudichaud -A Horticulturally less known Epiphytic Orchid Species of Darjeeling
Rajendra Yonzone and Samuel Rai* Department of Botany, St. Joseph’s College, P.O. North Point, District Darjeeling 734 104 (West Bengal)
ABSTRACT The present paper deals with four horticulturally less known Luisia Orchid species diversity resources, distribution and present ecological status in Darjeeling Himalaya of India. Of them, two are sparse, one is rare and another one is threatened status at present in study regions. This attempt is the first step to correct taxonomic identification to workout currently accepted botanical names with ecological status, voucher specimen numbers, habitat, altitudinal ranges, phenology and local and geographical distribution of Luisia species in the regions. Key words: Luisia Orchid Species, Diversity Resources, Distribution, Present Status, Darjeeling Himalaya. INTRODUCTION Orchids are considered to be the most highly evolved in the floral specialization and diversified form among the monocotyledons. In India, Orchids form 9% of our flora and are the largest family of higher plants. It is estimated that about 25,000 –35,000 species with 800 – 1,000 genera are distributed throughout the world. About 1300 species with 140 genera of Orchid species are found in India with temperate Himalayas as their natural home (Yonzone and Kamran, 2008). The region is rich in Orchid diversity and harvour a number of species (Yonzone et al. 2012). Darjeeling Himalaya is the northernmost part of the state of West Bengal, India. It is triangular in shape extending over an area of 3254.7 sq.kms. It is bordered by Sikkim in the North, Terai and Dooars in the South, Bhutan in the East and Nepal in the West. The Sub–Divisions of Darjeeling are Darjeeling, Kalimpong, Kurseong and Siliguri (Fig. 1). The Darjeeling district has two topographical features. Darjeeling, Kalimpong and Kurseong form the hill areas whereas Siliguri is stationed at the foot hill giving way to vast stretches of the plains. The hilly region covers 2320 sq.km. and the remaining 934.75 sq.km. of the area falls under Terai and plains. The altitudinal

Fig. 1. Location of Darjeeling district (study area) of West Bengal, India

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Programme Coordinator, Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Darjeeling, West Bengal. Corresponding author e-mail: ryonzone99@gmail.com

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variations of the district ranges from 150m at Siliguri to 3636m at Sandakphu – Phalut with a sharp physiographic contrast between the plains and the mountainous regions. A trijunction of boundaries of Nepal, Sikkim and India is formed at the peak of Phalut (3600 m). In the present investigation, the current status of Luisia genus of Orchid available in Darjeeling Himalaya has been carried out through the survey of national parks, forest area and far–flung villages of the region to find out the present status of the species. Botanical Description Plants epiphytic, climbing. Stem often branched at base giving a tufted habit, some with a single short. Leaves distant, terete, linear. Inflorescence axillary, racemose, densely, subsessile, fewer than 10-flowered; peduncle and rachis attenuate. Flowers small, fleshy. Sepals and petals free, spreading; petals usually longer and narrower than the sepals. Lip fleshy, pendent, immobile; hypochile concave; epichile wrinkled. Column shorter than the lip, stout; lacking a foot; rostellum short; stipes short; viscidium short, broad. Anther broad, 2-celled; pollinia 2, porate. The genus Luisia was established in 1826 by Charles Gaudichaud-Beaupre in Louis de Freycinet’s Voyage sur I’Uranie et La Physicienne. The genus comprises about 40 species distributed in Sri Lanka, India, Bhutan, China, Thailand, IndoChina, Japan, Malaysia, Indonesia, New Guinea and the Pacific Islands. MATERIALS AND METHODS The intensive field survey was conducted during the year 2007 – 2011 covering all the seasons of the year in the entire Darjeeling district including the forest areas, floral nurseries and farms of as low as Siliguri which is located at 150 m to as high as Sandakphu-Phalut located at 3636 m of entire Darjeeling Himalay of West Bengal. While working on Orchid flora of Darjeeling Himalaya, the Luisia Orchid species found were also studied intensively. All the relevant data were recorded in the field note book with their necessary information. The collected specimens were dissected and examined in laboratory during flowering period. Herbarium specimens were prepared by standard methods (Jain and Rao, 1977), specimens so collected were processed,
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preserved and mounted on herbarium sheets and described, properly identified and authenticated with the help of the Orchid flora of Arunachal Pradesh. The Flora of Bhutan (Pearce and Cribb, 2002); Orchids of Sikkim and North East Himalaya (Lucksom, 2007) and confirmed at Botanical Survey of India, CAL. Finally all the Voucher specimens were deposited in the Herbarium of Department of Botany, St. Joseph’s College, North Point, Darjeeling and Taxonomy and Ethnobiology Research Laboratory, Cluny Women’s College, Kalimpong. All the plant specimens were arranged alphabetically as per their altitude wise distribution in the area with botanical names, date of collection, voucher specimen numbers, habitat and phenology. Quadrate plots of 10m x 10m for epiphytic Orchid species were laid down diagonally in habitat rich field to find out the current status of Luisia species from study areas. Key to the species 1a. Lip simple, without dividing line between hypochile and epichile; epichile not suddenly widened……………….….… Luisia brachystachys 1b. Lip 3-lobed, with a distinct dividing line between hypochile and epichile and epichile; epichile suddenly widened ………..2a 2a. Leaves second (on one side of stem only)………….………….. L. filiformis 2b. Leaves not second ……………..……..…. 3a 3a. Apical lobe or epichile more than 5mm wide………………… L. trichorrhiza 3b. Apical lobe or epichile less than 5mm wide……………………. L. zeylanica Systematic Enumeration 1. Luisia brachystachys (Lindl.) Bl., Rumphia 4: 50 (1849). Plant 18-30cm tall. Stem stout, covered by leaf sheaths. Leaves 5-11 x 0.070.12 cm, terete, jointed. Inflorescence leafopposed, 3 or 5-flowered; peduncle thick, attenuate; rachis thick, 4-5 mm long. Flowers 3-4 mm long; sepals pale green, purple within, petals yellow-green, lip yellow-green to purple; pedicel and winged ovary glabrous, 4-6 mm long. Dorsal sepal 2.2-4.5 x 0.8-1 mm,

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oblong, obtuse; Lateral sepals 2.6-3 x 0.7-1 mm, spreading, oblong-elliptic, obtuse. Petals 3-4.4 x 0.7-1 mm, narrowly oblongspathulate, falcate, 3-veined. Lip 3.4-4 x 1.52 mm, simple, broadly oblong and winged at apex; disc ecallose or indented at base. Column 1.4 mm long. (Fig. 5). Voucher specimen number: Rajendra et al. 1131; Habitat: Epiphytic on tree trunk and branches; Altitudinal ranges: 1000 – 2000m; Date of collection: 14 April 2010; Flowering: April – May; Status: Threatened in natural habitat; Local distribution within Darjeeling: Mungpoo and Mamring – Kurseong subdivision; Geographical distribution: N. India, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos and Vietnam. 2. Luisia filiformis Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 6(1): 23 (1890). Plant pendent. Stem branched, covered by leaf sheaths, 2-3 mm thick; sheaths 1.7-3.2 cm long, tubular, striate. Leaves 1519 x 0.4-0.7 cm, from one side of stem only, linear, terete, rugose, jointed. Inflorescence piercing through leaf-sheath 2-4 mm above its base, thick, 4 to 8-flowered; peduncle attenuate, sheathed; rachis 5-9 mm long; floral bracts 1.4-1.8 x 1.4-2 mm, broadly ovate, boat-shaped, subacute. Flowers 3-5 cm across; sepals white, petals white with yellow tips, lip deep purple with white edges; pedicellate-ovary 2-4mm long. Dorsal sepal 5-7 x 1.2-1.4 mm, ovate-elliptic, weakly hooded, subacute, keeled; Lateral sepals 67 x 2-3 mm, spreading, obtuse, ovate-elliptic, keeled. Petals 8-15 x 0.2-0.3 mm, widely spreading, filiform, obtuse. Lip 3-lobed, 4-6 x 1.3-2 mm, ecallose; hypochile broadly triangular to wedge-shaped, margins recurved, lateral lobes short, rounded; epichile arising from narrowed hypochile, broadly obovate, surface ridged, apex truncate to notched, margins weakly undulate, 3 x 2 mm. Column 1.2-1.4 x 1.2-1.5 mm; anther cap subquadrate; pollinia 0.7-0.9 mm long, elliptic-oblong. (Fig. 2). Voucher specimen number: Rajendra et al. 0369; Habitat: Epiphytic on tree trunk and branches; Altitudinal ranges: 300 – 1100m; Date of collection: 12 May 2008; Flowering: March – May; Status: Rare in natural habitat; Local distribution within Darjeeling: Relli

river sides – Kalimpong sub-division; Kalijhora – Kurseong sub-division; Geographical distribution: India, (N.E. India, Sikkim and West Bengal), Bhutan, Laos, Thailand and Vietnam. 3. Luisia trichorrhiza (Hook.) Bl. Rumphia 4: 50 (1849). Plant 17-27 cm tall. Stem 4-7mm wide, stout, unbranched (occasionally branched), covered by leaf sheaths; sheaths 1.2-1.6 cm long, tubular. Leaves 7-16 x 0.40.5 cm, distichous, fleshy, terete, rugose, jointed. Inflorescence leaf-opposed, stout, short, 4 or 6-flowered; peduncle attenuate; rachis 6-8 x 3-4 mm; floral bracts 1.5-1.8 x 11.5 mm, persistent, broadly ovate-triangular, boat-shaped, acuminate. Flowers 0.8-1.1 cm across; sepals pale green with faint purple lines, lip dark purple, the base outlined with green lines, the apical ridges green, column purple; pedicellate-ovary 5-7 mm long. Dorsal sepal 3.5-5 x 1.5-1.8 mm, oblong, obtuse, 3-veined; Lateral sepals 5-7 x 2-2.6 mm, spreading, obliquely ovate to spathulate, acute, keeled, 3-veined. Petals 6-7 x 1.3-1.5 mm, oblong, obtuse, spreading, 3-veined. Lip 3-lobed, 6-8 x 4-5.7 mm; hypochile deeply concave with erect, rounded to triangular, subacute lateral lobes; epichile cordate, ridged, tapering to subtruncate, minutely emarginated apex. Column 1.8-2.3 mm long, stout. Pollinia 2, 0.8 x 0.4 mm, ovoid, yellow. (Fig. 4). Voucher specimen number: Rajendra et al. 0791; Habitat: Epiphytic on tree trunk and branches; Altitudinal ranges: 800 – 1300m; Date of collection: 22 March 2009; Flowering: March – May; Status: Sparse in natural habitat; Local distribution within Darjeeling: Kumsi, Samalbong, Nimbong – Kalimpong sub-division; Mungpoo – Kurseong sub-division; Geographical distribution: India (N.E. India, Sikkim, West Bengal), Bhutan, Myanmar and Thailand. 4. Luisia zeylanica Lindl. Fol. Orchid. Luisia 4: 3, no.7 (1853). Plant 20-34 cm tall. Stem stout, covered by leaf sheaths; internodes 11.5 x 0.4-0.6 cm; sheaths overlapping, surface rugose. Leaves 6-15 x 0.2-0.5 cm, sessile, distichous, terete, subacute. Inflorescence extra-axillary, arising in centre of internode, on same side as the leaf, 2 to 4-flowered;
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peduncle 2-3 mm long, attenuate; floral bracts 0.5-1 x 1-1.8 mm, broadly ovate-lunate. Flowers 3-6 mm across, pendent; sepals and petals green, mottled with purple, lip deep purple; pedicellate-ovary 4-5 mm long, slender. Dorsal sepal 3.8-5 x 1.7-2.8 mm, ovate, concave; Lateral sepals 3.7-5 x 2-2.7 mm, lanceolate-ovate, keeled, margins introlled. Petals 4-4.5x1.2-1.6 mm, obtuse, oblong-lanceolate. Lip 4-5 x 2.7-3.6 mm, fleshy, obscurely 3-lobed; hypochile subquadrate, concave; epichile deflexed, cordate-triangular, apex obscurely 3-lobed to subtruncate. Column 1mm long, stout. Pollinia 2, yellow. (Fig. 3).

Fig. 4. Luisia trichorrhiza (Hook.) Bl.

Voucher specimen number: Rajendra et al. 0398; Habitat: Epiphytic on tree trunk and branches; Altitudinal ranges: 300 – 1000m; Date of collection: 20 May 2008; Flowering: February – May; Status: Sparse in natural habitat; Local distribution within Darjeeling: Kalijhora, Tindharey – Kurseong sub-division; Kumsi forest – Kalimpong sub-

Fig. 5. Luisia brachystachys (Lindl.) Bl.,

division Geographical distribution: India (N.E. India, Sikkim, West Bengal), Sri Lanka.
Fig. 4. Luisia trichorhiza (Hook.) Bl. 1. Habit (whole plant with flowers and flower buds); 2. Floral perigone, a. dorsal sepal, b. lateral sepals, c. petals and d. lip; 3. Front view of flower; 4. Lip; 5. Side view of pedicellate-ovary, column and lip; 6. Front view of tip of ovary, column with anther in situ and stigma; 7. Anther; 8. Pollinia. Fig. 5. Luisia brachystachys (Lindl.) Bl. 1. Habit (whole plant with flowers); 2. Angled view of flower; 3. Floral perigone, a. dorsal sepal, b. lateral sepals, c. petals, d. Lip; 4. Front view of tip of ovary, column with anther in situ and stigma; 5. Side view of pedicellate-ovary, column and lip. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION During recent field studies in the Darjeeling Himalaya of India, four horticulturally less known Luisia Orchid species were recorded. Of them, two are sparse, one is rare and another one is threatened status at present in study regions. Flowering and fruiting varies from species to species. L. brachystachys flower during April to May and

Fig. 2. Luisia filiformis Hook. f.

Fig. 3. Luisia zeylanica Lindl.

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available in an altitudinal ranges of 1000 to 2000m, L. filiforme and L. trichorrhiza flower during March to May and available at 300 to 1100m to 800 to 1300m altitudinal ranges and L. zeylanica flower during February to May and available in an altitudinal range of 300 to 1200 m from the mean sea level. CONCLUSION Orchid species are rare, threatened and in the verge of extinction from natural habitat in the regions. It is because of many reasons like random falling of old epiphytic host trees for fuel wood and timber collection and multifarious anthropogenic activities cause greater harm to the natural population of whole Orchid species in the study regions. It was observed that the luxuriant growth and diversity of the Orchid species in the undisturbed sites of the study area and the meager development in distressed sites clearly indicates the change or disturbance in the microclimatic conditions in habitat. The best way of protecting the remaining Orchid species resources is to convince people of the importance of their wealth. In India, there is a good law for the protection of such valuable plant species but law enforcement cannot protect these plants available in remote areas and in remote forests. Regular degradation of natural habitat, makes all the Orchid species

threatened status, and its distribution is very meager in the regions. Thus, their best route to their protection is if people living in far-flung areas are convinced about the importance of such plants. Therefore, it is necessary to conserve our precious wild Orchid species germplasm resources from extinction in natural habitat. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS First author is thankful to the University Grants Commission, New Delhi for awarding the Rajiv Gandhi National Fellowship for higher study leading to Ph.D in Botany. REFERENCES
Jain, S. K. and Rao, R. R. 1977. Field and Herbarium Methods. Today and Tomorrow´s Printers and Publishers. New Delhi, India. Lucksom, S. Z. 2007. The Orchids of Sikkim and North East Himalaya: Development Area, Jiwan Thing Marg, Gangtok, East Sikkim, India. Pearce, N. R. and Cribb, P. J. 2002. Flora of Bhutan. The Orchids of Bhutan. Vol. 3, part 3. Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh. Yonzone, Rajendra and Kamran, A. 2008. Ethnobotanical Uses of Orchids. Abstract in an International Seminar of XVIIIth Annual Conference of IAAT “Multidisciplinary approaches in Angiosperm Systematics” Kalyani University, West Bengal, India, October 11-13. Yonzone, Rajendra, Lama, D., Bhujel, R. B. and Rai, Samuel. 2012. Orchid species Diversity of Darjeeling Himalaya of India. International J. Pharm. & Life Sci. 3(3): 1533-50.

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Effect of Age of Seedlings and Irrigation on Mortality, Bolting, Bulb Weight and Yield of Onion (Allium cepa L.)
Gurteg Singh, Sat Pal Saini and Amandeep Singh Sidhu Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Ropar 140 001 (Punjab)
ABSTRACT An on-farm study was carried out at six farmers’ field in Roopnagar (Punjab) district during rabi 2010-11 to determine the effect of age of seedlings and lag period to first irrigation on yield, seedling mortality rate, bolting and bulb weight of onion (Allium cepa L.) var. PunjabNaroya. The trial was conducted in randomized block design. The treatments consisted of transplanting 45 and 60 days old seedlings and application of first irrigation; immediately after transplanting, 2 days after transplanting and 4 days after transplanting. The results showed that seedling mortality rate increased significantly with delay in first irrigation after transplanting and the highest seedling mortality rate was recorded in plots irrigated at 4 days after transplanting irrespective of age of seedlings. Bolting was more in the treatments having 60 days old seedlings as compared to the 45 days old seedlings. However, the effect of different time lags of first irrigation on onion bolting was non-significant. No significant effect of age of seedlings and different lags of first irrigation on bulb weight was observed among all the treatments. The highest yield (326 .0 q/ ha.) was recorded in fields with 45 days old seedlings irrigated immediately after transplanting while it was the lowest (227.3 q/ ha ) in the plots having 60 days old seedling irrigated after four days of transplanting. Thus, it was concluded that transplanting of 45 days old seedling of onion crop and applying irrigation immediately after transplanting helps in reducing bolting, seedling mortality and results in significantly higher economic yield. Key Words: Bolting, Bulb-weight, Bulb yield, Irrigation, Mortality. INTRODUCTION Onion (Allium cepa L.) is an important vegetable crop in Punjab (India) grown during both kharif and rabi seasons. Punjab produced about 174 thousand tons of onion bulbs from nearly 8.12 thousand hectares area during 200809 (Anonymous, 2010). Onion production is governed by several factors viz. variety specified for a season, quality of seed, time of planting, nutrients, growing methods, irrigation scheduling and adoption of appropriate plant protection measures and time of first irrigation to crop after sowing etc. Effect of moisture on quality and yield of onion has been documented by many authors (Shock et al., 1998, Abu-Awad, 1996, Abu-Gerab, 1987). However the studies on effect of age of seedlings on yield in onion have generated varied
Corresponding author e-mail: gurteg_hort@rediffmail.com

results. Singh and Singh (1974) reported that the bulb yield in onion did not differ significantly due to different ages of seedlings at transplanting. However, bulb weight was significantly higher in seven weeks old seedlings than four weeks old seedlings. Kanton et al. (2002) found that maximum yield was produced from transplants that were 20 to 40 days old and 40 days old transplant produced heaviest bulbs. The query on effect of transplant age and application of first irrigation on yield and quality of onion is an often raised by farmers in an effort to maximize production. It is a common belief among farming community that delaying the first irrigation can check bolting in onions. Plant age and several environmental factors have been reported to influence the flowering process in onion plants

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(Roberts et al, 1997).Therefore, experiment was laid out at the six farmers’ fields to assess the effect of age of seedlings and different lags of first irrigation on yield, seedling mortality, bolting, bulb weight etc. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study was conducted through on-farm trials at fields of six farmers during rabi 2010-11 in Roopnagar district of Punjab. The climate of the area is sub-tropical with mean maximum temperature of 42±2o C during summer and cold winter with mean minimum temperature of 5±2oC during winter. The average annual rainfall in the study area varied from 800-1100 mm, of which nearly 80 per cent is received in monsoon months from July to September and rest during the winter season. The description of surface (0-15 cm) soil physico-chemical characteristics of selected six locations has been given in Table 1. The physical properties of the soil were however, favorable for crop production. The onion var. Punjab-Naroya was transplanted during January on a plot size of 5.0 X 5.0 m (25 sq.m ). The healthy onion seedlings of 45 and 60 days old were transplanted at 15.0 X 7.5 cm. The general recommended dose of fertilizer viz. 100 kg N ha 1, 50 kg P2O5 ha-1 and 50 kg K2O ha-1 was applied to all treatment plots. The recommended P and K and one-half of N were applied during seedling transplanting and remaining half N, one month after transplanting.

The total plants population at the time of seedling transplanting was counted at all locations. After 30 days interval number of plants per sq. m from each treatment plot were also counted for working out the seedling mortality rate. Numbers of bolted plants were counted for calculating percentage of bolting in each plot. Bulb weight was measured on randomly selected 100 bulbs per treatment at the time of harvesting. The crop yield was taken on whole plots basis. Statistical analysis of crop yield was carried out by analysis of variance in randomized block design. Mean separation for different treatments was performed using least significant difference (LSD) test at 0.05 level of probability. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Seedlings Mortality The effect of age of seedlings at transplanting and different time lags of first irrigation on seedling mortality has been shown in Table 2. The data revealed that average seedling mortality rate in plots irrigated immediately after transplanting was 2.13 and 2.48 per cent in 45 days old and 60 days old seedling, respectively. The mortality rate was 6.26 and 6.79 per cent in plots irrigated after four days of transplanting. Thus seedling mortality rate was significantly (pd”0.05) higher in plots which received irrigation after 4 days of seedling transplanting irrespective of the age of seedlings at transplanting. The desiccation of roots

Table1. Important physico-chemical characteristics of surface soils of different experimental sites at Roopnagar district

Site Rasidpur Rasidpur Sarangpur Wajidpur Sarangpur Rasidpur

pH (1:2) 8.09 8.05 7.85 7.92 8.23 8.01

EC(dS m-1) 0.244 0.231 0.214 0.415 0.333 0.889

SOC (%) 0.425 0.415 0.445 0.325 0.355 0.425

Av-P(kg ha-1) 15.9 14.6 18.2 15.9 20.8 16.3

Av-K(kg ha-1) 152.8 145.5 175.0 165.0 156.5 185.5

Soil texture Loamy sand Loamy sand Loamy sand Sandy loam Sandy loam Loamy sand

Six different treatments were S1I1=-transplanting 45 days old seedlings and first irrigation immediately after transplanting, S1I2= first irrigation 2 days after transplanting (DAT) S1I3= first irrigation 4 DAT S2I1= transplanting 60 days old seedlings and first irrigation, immediately after transplanting, S2I2= first irrigation 2 DAT and S2I3 = first irrigation 4 DAT

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Table 2

Effect of age of seedlings and different time lags of first irrigation on yield and other yield attributes in onion var. Punjab Naroya.

Treatments* Mortality (%) S1 I1 S1 I2 S1 I3 S2 I1 S2 I2 S2 I3 LSD (0.05) 2.13 2.28 6.79 2.48 2.70 6.26 0.39

Quality & Yield parameters Bolting (%) Bulb Weight (g) 1.87 1.98 2.08 5.46 5.56 5.71 0.49 56.00 57.30 58.50 57.83 58.00 59.50 NS

Yield (q/ha) 326.00 320.00 294.60 318.00 308.00 277.30 18.93

*-S1-45 days old seedlings, S2-60 days old seedlings, I1-First irrigation immediately after transplanting, I2 -First irrigation 2 days after transplanting, I3-First irrigation 4 days after transplanting

in dry soil can be the reason for higher seedling mortality rate in S1I3 and S2I3 as compared to other treatments where crop received irrigation water immediately after transplanting or two days after transplanting. The surface evaporation of soil moisture over a period of time leads to desiccation of tender roots and results in seedling mortality. Plant Bolting The data on plant bolting observed at the time of crop harvesting revealed significant (pd”0.05) difference among different age of seedlings during transplanting. The average bolting percentage varied non- significantly from 1.87 to 2.08 in S1I1 and S 1 I 3 and 5.46 to 5.71 in S 2 I 1 and S 2 I 3, respectively. Significantly higher average bolting was recorded in plots having 60 days old transplanted seedlings as compared to plots having 45 days old transplanted seedlings (Table 2). No effect of different lags of first irrigation on bolting was observed in all the treatments. Bulb Weight There was a difference in bulb weight at different sites which was due to inherent fertilely status of the soil. Average bulb weight was 56.0
Table 3

g/bulb and 57.8 g /bulb in plots under 45 days and 60 days old nursery irrigated immediately after transplanting, respectively. Bulb weight increased with delay in irrigation. However, overall effect was non-significant. Though the bulbs were heavier when older seedling (60 days) were used for transplanting but again the effect was statistically non significant. Bulb Yield Higher bulb yields of 326 q/ha and 318 q/ha were recorded from plots irrigated immediately after transplanting in S1I1 and S2I2followed by 320 q/ha and 308 q/ha in plots irrigated two days after transplanting in S 1I2 and S2I2 and 294 q/ha and 277.30 q/ha in plots irrigated four days after transplanting in S1I3 and S2I3 respectively (Table 2). Though there was no significant effect of delay in irrigation up to two days after transplanting, however, further delay in applying first irrigation led to significant reduction in bulb yield. This was probably due to higher mortality rate in these plots. However, bulb yield was higher in 45 days old seedlings but over all affect was nonsignificant.

Effect of age of seedlings and different time lags of 1st irrigation on economic parameters in onion cv. Punjab Naroya.

Treatment S1 I1 S1 I2 S1 I3 S2 I1 S2 I2 S2 I3

Average gross returns (Rs. ha-1) 1,30,400/1,28,000/1,17,840/1,26,400/1,23,200/1,10,929/-

Average net returns (Rs. ha-1) 89,400/87,000/76,840/85,400/82,200/69,920/-

BC Ratio 2.18 2.12 1.87 2.08 2.00 1.70

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Significant reduction in foliage growth and bulb yield as a result of prolongation of irrigation interval in onion reported by Abu-Gerab (1987) and Koriem et al. (1994) supports our results. The results were also in line to the observations of Singh and Singh (1974) and Wajtaszek et al. (1993) who reported that bulb yield did not differ due to different age of seedlings. However, the results were different from the observations of Vachhani and Patel (1988) and Lujan–Favela (1992) who reported higher yield in onion with increasing age of seedlings. Economic Returns The economic analysis of different treatments has been given in Table 3. It was evident that because of variation in average bulb yield in different treatments, average gross returns and average net returns to the growers were higher from S1I1 and S1I2 as compared to other treatment. Furthermore, higher benefit: cost (B:C) ratio demarcates the superiority of transplanting 45 days old seedlings and applying first irrigation immediately after transplanting . CONCLUSION In conclusion irrigation immediately after transplanting improved survival and establishment of onion seeding and results in more number of bulbs and thus higher yield. Though use of older seedling results in bigger bulbs whereas the yield loss with use of 60 days seedling, mainly due to high seedling mortality rate and bolting, discourages use of aged seedlings. Infact, contrary to popular belief among farmers, delay in first irrigation does nothing to check bolting but increase mortality. Hence, use of 45 days old

seedling and application of irrigation immediately after transplanting is advisable for getting good yield in rabi onions. REFERENCES
Abu-Awad, A.M. 1996. Irrigation water management for onion trickle irrigated with saline drainage water. Dirasat series-B. Pure and Applied Science 23. 46-54. Abu-Gerab, O.S. 1987. “Effect of same cultural treatments on onion (Allim cepa L.) Ph.D Thesis, Fac. Agri Minufiya University, Egypt”. Anonymous. 2010. Package of Practices for Vegetable Crops. Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, Punjab. Kanton, R.A.L., Abbey, L., Hilla, R. G., M.A. and Tabil, N. D. 2002. Influence of transplanting age on bulb yield and yield components of onion (Allium cepa L.) J. Veg. Crop Production 8: 27–37. Koriem, S.O., EL-Koliey, M.M.A. and M.F. Wahba, 1994. Onion bulb production from “Shandweel” sets as affected by soil moisture stress. Assiut J. of Agricultural Science 25:185-93. Lujan-Favela, M., 1992. Growth and productivity of onion sown and transplanted at different dates, ages and sizes. RevistaFitotecia-Maxicana 15(1):51-60 (Spanish) Roberts, E.H., Summerfield, R.J., Ellis, R. H., Craufwd , P. Q. and Wheeler, T.R.,1997. The induction of flowering. P-6999 In:HC Wein (ed.) The physiology of vegetable crops CAB Intl:Ithaca,N.Y. Shock, C.C., Fiebert, E.B.G. and Sanders, L.D., 1998. Onion yield and quality affected by soil water potential as irrigation threshold. Hort. Science 33:1188-.91. Singh, D. P., Singh, R.P., 1974. Studies on effect of time of sowing and age of seedlings on growth and yield of onion (Allium cepa L.). Indian J. of Hort. 31(1): 69-73. Vachhani, M.U. and Patel, Z.G., 1988. Studies on growth and yield of onion as affected by seedlings age at transplanting. Progressive Hort. 20 (3-4): 297-98. Wajtaszek,T., Kunicki, E., Bednarz, F. and Ponicdzialik, M., 1993. Multiseeded onions: Effect of block spacing and transplant age on yield of onion. Folia-Hort.5 (1): 11-18.

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Effect of Intercropping of Vegetables and Width of Polythene Sheet on Yield and Economic Returns Under Low Tunnel Technology.
Monika Gupta Farm Advisory Service Scheme Ferozepur-152001 (Punjab)
ABSTRACT The present investigation was carried out in rabi 2010-11 at farmers’ fields of District Ferozepur. The intercropping system involved cultivation of summer squash, chilly, capsicum and squash melon as main crop along with cucumber as intercrop under low tunnel technology. These vegetables were also grown as sole crop under transparent polythene sheet by forming low tunnels. Intercropping of chilly and cucumber was the most beneficial treatment to enhance the yield and economic returns of the farmers under low tunnel technology. The next best treatment was cultivation of chilly alone followed by intercropping of capsicum and cucumber. Transparent polythene sheet having 72 inch of width advanced first picking of squash melon by 10.3 days and increased the yield by 41.8 q/ha as compared to 53 inch wide polythene sheet. Key words: Off-season cultivation of vegetables, Protective cultivation, Low tunnel technology, Cucumber, Chilly, Squash melon INTRODUCTION India is the second largest producer of vegetables in the world next only to China. Presently, in Punjab, the total area under vegetable crops is 1,88,430 ha and production of 36,45,030t with total productivity of 19,344 kg/ha (Anon., 2012). The vegetable growers sell their produce at very lower price due to glut of vegetables in the market during the main season of a particular vegetable. Off-season production of vegetables by the adoption of protected cultivation is the best alternative for vegetable growers to fetch higher prices in the market through earlier crop production by 30-35 days as compared to the main season crop. Jensen and Malter (1995) reported that protected cultivation is any technique used to modify a plant’s natural environment in order to optimize plant growth. Many cucurbits (squash, cucumbers, melons) respond well under row covers with increased yields of as much as 25 per cent (Helbacka, 2002). Row covers are used to enclose one or more rows of plants in order to enhance crop growth and production by increasing both air and soil temperatures and
Corresponding author e-mail: monika-fzr@pau.edu

reducing wind damage (Hochmuth et al 2000). Dickerson (2009) also reported that row covers supported with wire hoops will protect the crop from wind. The farmers generally enquire about the enhancement of the economic returns by the adoption of low tunnel technology. Intercropping i.e. growing of more than one crop in the same area for better space utilization, can be practiced to enhance the income of the farmers. Therefore, the objectives of the study were to find out the best intercropping system of vegetables and width of polythene sheet to enhance the economic returns under low tunnel technology. MATERIALS AND METHODS There were two experiments and the detail is given as below: Experiment I: Effect of intercropping of vegetables on yield and economic returns under Low Tunnel Technology The experiment consisted of cultivation of summer squash, chilly, capsicum and squash melon along with cucumber. These vegetables

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Sr. No Treatments

Planting time

Planting distance (Row to row X Plant to plant spacing) 3.5’ X 2.0’ 3.5’ X 1.25’ 3.5’ X 1.20’ 3.5’ X 2.5’3.5’ X 6’’ 3.5’ X 1.25’ 3.5’ X 2.0’ 3.5’ X 6’’ 3.5’ X 2.5’ 3.5’ X 1.20’

Seed Rate (g/ha)

T1T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 T9

Summer squash + Cucumber* Chilly+ Cucumber

Mid December

2,500 250 250 2,500 250 2,500 750 3,750 250

Seedlings were transplanted during first fortnight of November Capsicum+ Cucumber Seedlings were transplanted during first fortnight of November Squash melon First fortnight of December + Cucumber Chilly Seedlings were transplanted during first fortnight of November Summer squash Mid December Cucumber First fortnight of December Squash melon First fortnight of December Capsicum Seedlings were transplanted during first fortnight of November

were also grown as sole crop under low tunnel technology. The area under each plot was 250 sqm. There were nine treatments with three replications. The data was analyzed through randomized block design. The detail of the treatments and cultivation practices is as given below: * Cucumber seed (@ 500g/ha) was sown as intercrop in between the two plants during the first fortnight of December in all the treatments except in squash melon and cucumber where alternative rows of squash melon and cucumber were planted. For nursery raising of chilly and capsicum, seeds were sown on three feet wide beds by the use of marker during the first week of October. The

transparent polythene sheet used to form low tunnels was of 100 gauge thickness. Galvanized iron rod (No. 8) was used to form low tunnels as it is easier to give curve and got fixed firmly in the soil. The plants were covered with the transparent polythene sheet from the month of December to mid-February to protect these from frost incidence. Cultural and plant protection measures were taken up as and when required. The crop yield was calculated on whole plot basis. The harvesting time was given starting from first picking to the last picking of the crop. Span of harvest was calculated by counting the days from first picking to the last picking of crop. Net income was calculated by subtracting the expenditure from

Table 1. Effect of intercropping of vegetables on yield, harvesting time, span of harvest and net income under Low Tunnel Technology

Treatments T1- - Summer

Yield (q/ha) Harvesting time squash + Cucumber 750 750 687.5 675 625 500 750 487.5 500 16.94 March to first week of April + End February to 20th April April to 10th June + End February to 20th April End March to May + End February to 20th April First week of April to end May + End February to 20th April April to 10th June March to first week of April End February to 20th April First week of April to end May End March to May -

Span of Net Income harvest (days) (Rs/ ha) 39.7 102.7 93.0 89.3 67.7 35.0 52.7 55.7 65.7 1.3 2,50,000/8,75,000/5,00,000/3,75,000/6,25,000/1,87,500/2,50,000/2,75,000/3,75,000/15

T2 -Chilly+ Cucumber T3 - Capsicum+ Cucumber T4 - Squash melon+ Cucumber T5 - Chilly T6 -Summer squash T7 - Cucumber T8 - Squash melon T9 - Capsicum CD at 5% level

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Table 2. Effect of width of transparent polythene sheet on maturity, yield and net income of squash melon under Low Tunnel Technology

Treatments T1- 53 inch width T2- 72 inch width CD at 5% level

Maturity (Days) 113 102.67 1.44

Yield (q/ha) 458.3 500.0 14.3

Net Income (Rs/ ha) 2,13,156/2,42,375/-

the total income which may be influenced by the weather conditions and market prices. The initial cost of transparent polythene sheet and galvanized iron rod is approximately Rs 62,500/- ha and the expenditure on other inputs including seed, fertilizer, pesticides, labour charges etc. is Rs 50,000/-ha/ year. The transparent polythene sheet (100 gauge) can be used for 2-3 successive years and the galvanized iron rod can be used for 5 consecutive years depending upon the care of these protective structures. Experiment II: The cultivation practices of the squash melon were as given in Experiment I. There were two treatments with four replications in the experiment as under. T1: 53 inch wide polythene sheet with 4 feet height and T2: 72 inch wide polythene sheet with 6.5 feet height. This experiement was laid out at farmers’ field to assess the effect of worth of transparent sheet on yield and economic returns under low tunnel technology. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION In Experiment I, the yield of summer squash and cucumber, chilly and cucumber and sole cucumber crop was significantly higher (750q/ha) as compared to the other cropping systems (Table 1) followed by capsicum and cucumber with an average yield of 687.5 q/ha. It was recorded that the yield of squash melon as sole crop was significantly less (487.5q/ ha) which was significantly at par with yield of summer squash and capsicum grown as sole crop. The data revealed that the harvesting time (Table 1) was the longest in case of chilly and cucumber (T2) as compared to the other treatments. In this system of intercropping, the cucumber was ready for harvest in end February and lasts up to third week of April, whereas, the harvesting of chilly started
16

in April and ends up to second week of June. The harvesting of summer squash started in the first week of March and it got completed up to the first week of April. The data indicated that the harvesting time of summer squash was found to be the shortest as compared to the other treatments. The span of harvest (Table 1) was found to be significantly long (102.7 days) in intercropping of chilly and cucumber (T2) which was followed by the intercropping of capsicum and cucumber (T3). From the data, it was recorded that the span of harvest was significantly short (35 days) in summer squash cultivated as sole crop. The net income (Table 1) was the highest (8.75 lakh/ha) where chilly was cultivated as main crop and cucumber was grown as an intercrop. This might be due to the fact that this intercropping system has the highest yield (750q/ha) along with the longest span of harvest (102.7 days). The cultivation of summer squash as sole crop under low tunnel technology was the least beneficial crop as it has the shortest span of harvest (35 days only) along with the yield of 500q/ha which was also significantly lower as compared to the other treatments. Hence, the farmers were advised to follow the cultivation of chilly and cucumber as intercrops under low tunnel technology to get the maximum economic returns. In, Experiment II, the maturity of the squash melon crop (Table 2) was significantly advanced (102.7 days) by 72 inch wide transparent polythene sheet with 6.5 feet height (T2) used to form low tunnels while the crop took 113 days to mature where 53 inch wide transparent polythene sheet with 4.0 feet height (T1) was used. It might be due to the fact that the crop did not touch the polythene sheet in T2 and there was no desiccation of early growth by the harmful effect of the frost. It was found that the yield of squash melon was significantly higher (500q/ha) in T2 as compared to the other. The Net Income was also found to be

Journal of Krishi Vigyan

more in T2 (Rs 2,42,375/-ha) as compared to T1 (Rs 2,13,156/-ha). This might be due to the reason that more width and height of the transparent polythene sheet in T 2 helped the vines to give better frost protection and thus resulted in healthy plant growth, advanced the crop maturity and increased the yield and fetches higher market price. CONCLUSION The present studies suggest that the off-season cultivation of chilly as main crop along with cucumber as intercrop under low tunnels is the most beneficial cropping pattern to enhance the economic returns of the farmers. The farmers are also advised to use 72 inch wide transparent polythene sheet when squash melon is grown as sole crop under protective conditions. The expenses on this technology are comparatively

less but still there is need to study the fertilizer requirement of intercrops under low tunnel technology to further reduce the cost of inputs intended for more benefit of the farming community. REFERENCES
Anonymous. 2012. Package of practices for vegetable crops, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, Punjab. PP Dickerson, G.W. 2009. Production Techniques. Guide H (10/ 09)-251. Jensen, M.H. and Malter, A.J. 1995. Protected Agriculture: A Global Review, World Bank Helbacka, J. 2002. Row covers for vegetable gardens, Washington State University, King County Cooperative Extension Service, Fact Sheet No. 19. Hochmuth, G.J.,Kostewicz, S. and Stall, W. 2000. Row covers for commercial vegetable culture in Florida, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, University of Florida, Circular 728.

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Effect of Polypropylene Covers on Frost Protection and Yield of Potato Crop
Kuldeep Singh Bhullar Krishi Vigyan Kendra Hoshiarpur -146 105 (Punjab)
ABSTRACT Acyclic frost occurs in potato growing belt of Punjab i.e. Hoshiarpur, Jalandhar, Kapurthala and adjoining districts which causes huge losses to potato. It severely affects the formation and development of potato tubers. The present study was conducted during the year 2011-12 to find solution of this region specific problem. Three practices evaluated in this study were i) irrigation irrespective of the frost, ii) light irrigations on occurrence of the frost and iii) covering the crop with non-woven polypropylene film after 50 days of sowing and the film was removed after 40 days. The parameters studied were crop damage due to frost, grade of tubers and total yield. The yield was significantly higher (301 q/ ha) in covered potatoes as compared to plots without covering (255 q/ ha and 225 q/ ha). The covering also affected the size of tubers as higher quantity of medium and large sized tubers (83%) were obtained with covering while out of total tubers only 64 to 69 per cent tubers fell in these two categories where potatoes were left uncovered. Keywords: Frost, Non-Woven, Polypropylene, Potato, Yield. INTRODUCTION Potato occupies 13,217 ha. area which is about 50 per cent of the total area under vegetables in the district Hoshiarpur. There are three sowing times for potato crop in the district, early crop (planted in September), main crop (end OctoberNovember planting) and one in spring season. The potato tubers produced in Punjab especially North western districts are marketed as seed in other States as the temperature remains low in Punjab which results higher yield and quality. However the severe cold and acyclic frost occurs in Punjab which causes huge damage especially to fruits and vegetables. Early crop (September-November) escapes frost as farmers plant this crop in September and harvest after 60 days in the month of November but late sown main crop of autumn and early sown spring crop is damaged due to frost in the months of Jan-Feb. The potato tuber yield depends to a higher degree on the rate and duration of the tuber growth. Potato production for an early crop is dependent on the climatic conditions in the vegetative period, especially temperature (Sale 1979, Lachman et al. 2003). The change of conditions of the initial growth and development of potato plants by covering influences not only the yield level, but also tuber quality (Nelson and Jenkins (1990). The use of covers directly on the planted field enables to enhance the harvest of early potato tubers and reduce the variability of the yield. MATERIALS AND METHODS The effect of nonwoven polypropylene covering on the frost protection and tuber yield of potato was investigated. The experiment was carried out in the year 2011-12 on three locations in different frost prone villages selected on the basis of previous experience in district Hoshiarpur. The field was well prepared after addition of recommended dose of farm yard manure i.e. 50 t/ ha. Chemical fertilizers, that is, Diammonium phosphate @129 kg, Urea @177 kg and Murate of potash @100 kg/ ha. were applied as basal dose at time of planting. The field experiment was established in the randomized complete blocks design, in three replications and on three locations. Pre-sprouted seed potatoes treated with Emisan-6 of Kufri Pukhraj cultivar were planted on the 29th October at spacing of 20 cm in row and 60 cm between rows, and. First irrigation was given after

Corresponding author e-mail: kvkhoshiapur@gmail.com, kdeephorticulturist@yahoo.co.in

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5 days of planting. Remaining dose of Urea @ 200kg/ha was broadcasted before earthing up the crop after 40 days of sowing. The treatments consisted of i) Irrigation irrespective of the frost, (P1) ii) Light irrigations on occurrence of the frost (P2) and iii) Covering the crop with non-woven polypropylene film after 50 days of sowing and the film was removed after 40 days (P3).

The potato crop was covered with polypropylene sheet (17gsm) on occurrence of light frost. There was severe frost in the month of January. This film was removed on 30 January and the crop was harvested on 10th February 2012. The data regarding the damage percentage (calculated by counting number of plants died due to frost) and yield were recorded. The tubers were further graded into three sizes viz. large (more than 50g), medium (25-50g) and small (Less than 25g) to analyze the effect of frost on tuber size.

Table 1. Effect of frost protection measures on plant damage (%)

Treatment L1 Irrigation irrespective of the frost (P1) 30.5 Light irrigations on occurrence of the frost (P2) 22.5 Covering the crop with polypropylene film (P3) 13.0 Mean 22.0 CD at 5% for Treatments =1.42 , Locations =1.42, Treatment x Location= NS
Table 2. Effect of frost protection measures on yield.

Extent of Damage (%) L2 L3 29.3 21.6 12.2 21.0 24.9 19.7 8.9 17.8

Mean 28.2 21.2 11.4

Treatment L1

Yield (q/ha) L2

L3 232.3 265.3 313.8 270.4

Mean 225.2 255.2 301.1

Irrigation irrespective of the frost, (P1) 215.4 227.8 Light irrigations on occurrence of the frost (P2) 249.3 251.0 Covering the crop with polypropylene film (P3) 284.7 304.7 Mean 249.8 261.2 CD at 5% for Treatments =6.9 , Locations =6.9, Treatment x Location= NS
Table 3. Effect of frost protection measures on marketable yield of tubers (%)

Treatment Irrigation irrespective of the frost, (P1) Light irrigations on occurrence of the frost (P2) Covering the crop with polypropylene film (P3) Mean Benefit cost ratio: Treatment

L1 63.2 67.4 82.8 71.1

L2 64.5 69.0 83.6 72.4

L3 66.6 70.1 85.2 74.0

Mean 64.8 68.9 83.9

Marketable yield (q/ha.) 145.9 175.8 252.6

Increase in yield over P1 (q/ha.) 0 29.9 106.7

Additional profit over P1 (Rs)* 0 11960 42680

BC Ratio over control ** 1 2.134 1.536

Irrigation irrespective of the frost, (P1) Light irrigations on occurrence of the frost (P2) Covering the crop with polypropylene film (P3)

* Average price of potato over past three years= Rs 400/- per q. ** Cost of non-woven pp film for one hectare= Rs 20,000/-

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The results of the experiment were analyzed statistically by means of analysis of variance using randomised block design (Singh et al 1991). RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The adverse climatic conditions caused quantifiable damage to the crop, resulting in reduced tuber yield as well as marketable yield in all the three locations. It is evident from Table 1 that maximum damage (30.5%) was under practice 1 where no special protection was given to crop at location 1 whereas minimum damage (8.9%) was observed in practice 3 where the crop was kept covered during the period of frost occurrence at location 3. The average plant damage percentage of three locations was significantly higher in practice 1 (28.2%) over the practice 2 (21.2%) as well as practice 2 (11.4%). Thus use of the covers with non woven propylene film in the potato cultivation provided effective protection from frost and resulted in significant reduction in the plant damage. An increase in the tuber yield as a result of covering was obtained in the potato cultivation under polypropylene film in comparison with the traditional cultivation. The tuber yield (Table 2) was maximum (313.8 q/ ha.) in practice 3 at location 3 whereas minimum (215 q/ ha.) in practice 1 at location 1. The mean yield of 301.1 q/ ha. was obtained from the covered crop which was significantly higher over the practice I and practice II, 225.2 q/ ha. and 255.2 q/ ha. respectively. The high yield under the protection was probably due to frost protection afforded by covering and creation of favourable microclimate for plant and tuber growth. The nonwoven polypropylene covering also affected the share towards the marketable tuber yield (Table 3). The quantity of marketable sized tubers was 83.9 percent in practice 3 which was 1.73 times higher over the practice 1 and 1.43

times more than practice 2. There is significant variation in tuber size in different locations, which may be due to variation of soil type, fertility level, crop rotation and other cultural practices. The interaction of the practices and location was nonsignificant which reveals that the propylene film covering has its effect in increasing the tuber size in all the locations. The costs of the early potato production under covers are considerably higher compared with the traditional method. At relatively high costs relating to the area unit, the production is profitable only when leading to obtaining sufficiently high yields which was the case in the present study (Table 4). The additional yields obtained in covered plots not only covered for additional cost incurred but also increased the profit over un-protected crop. CONCLUSION The non-woven polypropylene film covers were effective in protection of the crop from frost damage. The use of nonwoven polypropylene cover in the potato cultivation in frost affected areas has a favorable effect on the yield level and share in the yield of marketable tubers and thus it does not reduce the tuber quality. REFERENCES
Lachman, J., Hamouz, K., Hejtmánková, A., Dudjak, J., Orsák, M. and Pivec V. 2003. Effect of white fleece on the selected quality parameters of early potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers. Plant, Soil and Environment 49: 370–77. Nelson, D.G. and Jenkins, P.D. 1990. Effects of physiologi-cal age and floating plastic film on tuber dry-matter percentage of potatoes, cv. Record. Potato Research 33: 159–69. Sale, P.J.M. 1979. Growth of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) to the small tuber stage as related to soil temperature. Australian J. of Agricultural Research 30: 667–75. Singh, S., Bansal, M.L., Singh, T. P. and Kumar, S .1991. Statistical Methods for Research Workers. Kalyani Publishers, New Delhi

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Ethnobotanical Inventory on Medicinal Plants of North Western Himalayas
Vishal Mahajan, Amrish Vaid, A.P.Singh and Sanjeev Kumar Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Kathua (Jammu and Kashmir)
ABSTRACT The present study highlights useful ethno-botanical information about the uses of plants by the rural population of Jammu province. The study was conducted in eight tehsils of five districts of Jammu province. This folk wisdom, if subjected to scientific studies, could benefit humankind in many ways. The present paper provides information on the indigenous therapeutic application and other traditional uses of 40 plant species belonging to 27 families that are used by the natives of these areas. Information provided includes scientific name, family name, vernacular names and ethno-botanical use clubbed with the common uses.Ethno-botanical plant species were recorded for their medicinal uses and for other remedial purposes by the local inhabitants. Keywords: Traditional Uses, Ethnobotanical, Jammu and Kashmir, Medicinal Plants. INTRODUCTION The Himalaya harbours a rich diversity of ethno-botanical species, which generate considerable benefits from social and economic perspectives. However, the ongoing management strategies and traditional values of ethnobotanical species are difficult to reconcile with the acute conflicts between the local people and foresters (Ananda and Herath, 2005). Indian Himalayan Region (IHR) has a rich heritage of species and genetic strains of flora and fauna and considered as a mega hot spot of biological diversity (Myer et al 2000). It comprises about 18 per cent of India and extends more than 2,800 km in length and 220 to 300 km in width, with an altitudinal range from 200 8000m above MSL. Its flora includes about 8,000 species of angiosperms (40% endemic), 44 species of gymnosperms (16% endemic), 600 species of pteridophytes (25% endemic), 1,737 species of bryophytes (33% endemic), 1,159 species of lichens (11% endemic) and 6,900 species of fungi (27% endemic) (Singh and Hajra, 1996 ; Samant et al, 1998). Most of the traditional medical practices are empirical in nature, over 200 million people in India with limited access to the organized public health service institutions; depending on varying
*Subject Matter Specialist, KVK, Poonch Corresponding author e-mail: vishalmahajan1@gmail.com

degrees in the traditional systems of medicine to cater their health care needs (Farnsworth, 1998). Plant extracts used in ethnomedical treatments is enjoying great popularity, however, lacks scientific validation (Ved and Goraya, 2008). Also, increasing demand of medicinal plants has resulted into its trade, both legitimate and illegal. Traditional harvesting methods have declined and clandestine extraction prevails throughout the year. The Jammu province lies between 32o 17' to 36o 58' North latitude and 73o 26' to 80o 30' East longitude. and altitude varying from 1050 m to 3400 m above MSL. The Jammu division comprises of ten districts and the climate of the district varies from sub-tropical to sub-temperate and receives good annual rainfall ranging from 1280-1420 mm. Ethno-botanically, it is one of the least investigated region of the state of Jammu and Kashmir. There is almost no ethno-botanical and medicinal data available from this area of Jammu and Kashmir. The area is under heavy deforestation and overgrazing pressure, which has reduced regeneration of woody plants. The area is characterized by nomadic tribes and pastoral communities dwelling in the Himalayan region and is reputed to have mastered their traditional practices and knowledge about plants used to

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combat different diseases of their livestock. Among these ethnic groups, the predominant tribal communities are Gujjar and Bakerwal. Gujjar are partly nomadic and partly permanent settlers and practice of cattle rearing, rearing of sheep and goats. Bakerwal are migratory pastoralists. These tribes mostly speak their own dialects such as Gojri and Pahari. These native people are the custodians of indigenous traditional knowledge (ITK) associated with their surrounding biological resources. They have been using these resources for various purposes in their daily life for ages. The wealth of information, which is preserved as an unwritten material medica of the tribal folk is slowly decreasing and old tradition of passing information is fading away. Therefore, an attempt has been made to collect the information from the traditional healers or ‘hakims’, tribals (Gujjar and Bakerwal), drug dealers of the region.Most of the medicinal plants are uprooted by the local people for selling or for domestic needs.
Table 1. Area of study.

and there is a need for holistic approach involving wild and cultivated plants, forest trees and their habitats. Certain species such as Podophyllum hexandrum has been seen in Saujian area of Mandi tehsil. However, the exploitation of Podophyllum hexandrum is so ruthless, such that it is enlisted as an endangered plant species (Nayar and Sastry, 1990). RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The present paper provides information on the indigenous therapeutic application and other traditional uses of 40 plant species belonging to 27 families, 34 genera that are used by the natives of these areas. Among these 40 species, 28 are herbs, 8 shrubs, 3 trees and 1 fungal species. It has been observed that species like Saussuria lappa are subjected to illegal uprooting in this area due to high market value. The root contain essential oil, alkaloid (Saussurine), and small quantities of tannins, inulin, potassium nitrate and sugars etc. The oil shows antiseptic and disinfectant properties. Certain species such as Podophyllum hexandrum has been seen in Saujian area of Mandi tehsils of Poonch district. However, the exploitation of Podophyllum hexandrum is so ruthless, such that it is enlisted as an ‘endangered plant species (En) ( Nayar and Sastry, 1990). Certain species have commercial value across the globe. Viola odorata is among one of them which is used as a source for scent in the perfume industry. CONCLUSION The present observations revealed that the area is rich in medicinal wealth. However, the wealth of information present among the herbal healers, tribal remained untraced and un-documented and is gradually fading away. There are many cases in which the know-how still remains a secret. This could be related to information regarding occurrence, characteristics, therapeutic effects, processing of the drug and use of the plant material for treatment. Therefore, the indigenous traditional knowledge (ITK) system needs to be studied, documented, preserved and used for the benefit of humankind, before it is lost forever.

S. No Name of the district 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Kathua Udhampur Poonch Rajouri Doda

Tehsil/ Area covered Bani, Billawar, Basholi Ramnagar, Chenani Haveli, Mandi, Surankot Thanna Mandi Bhaderwah

MATERIALS ANS METHODS The socio-economic and ethno-botanical information of the people was recorded through interview and questionnaire from drug dealers, shopkeepers, timber dealers, fuel wood sellers, local hakims, tribal and farmers.Priority was given to local elderly people hakims and tribal who were the real users having a lot of information about the plants and their traditional uses. The plants were classified according to their use in that area. The ethno-botanical studies indicated that inhabitants of these regions utilize plant species for their domestic needs. The major usage includes medicinal plants, fuel wood, fodder, and pot herbs, fruit yielding plants, spices and condiments, as mouth wash (timru/meswak). Most of the plants are used for multiple purposes. The conservation of biological diversity requires all possible efforts

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Observations Sr. No Botanical Name
Vern. Name Sultani Booti Asteraceae Flower and leaves Family Part used Uses

1.

Achillea millefolium L.

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Bana Amaranthaceae Leaves Bhrankad Thoom Alliaceae Bulb Acanthaceae Leaves Kwargandhal Simblu/ Sumblu Berbaridaceae Whole plant Liliaceae Leaf pulp Batpaia Patharchat Ustukhdoos Crassulaceae Lamiaceae Leaves Seed Saxifragaceae Rhizome Garanda Rosaceae Solanaceae Rosaceae Gentianaceae Gentianaceae Apocynaceae Roots Stolen Fruit Fruit Root Root Budmewa NeeliBooti Pashanbhed The flower is laxative, diuretic, stimulant, tonic to the brain. The herb is useful in cold and commencement of fever and purifies blood. Fresh leaves decoction is used in colds and other ailments in children. Decoction of leaves is obtained in water by boiling and is given as diuretic. Decoction of leave is also used in bleeding/ swelling of gums. Decoction of leaves is given to animals to kill ticks, mites and leaches. One to two scales are warmed in mustard oil and crushed. The paste is applied in muscular pains, also used to control high blood pressure. Fresh leaf pulp is applied on bleeding wounds, also used as purgative Roots are bitter with unpleasant taste, used in spleenic trouble, tonic, intestinal astringent, good for cough, chest and throat trouble and used in application to boils. Leaves are used as antiseptic. Dried rhizomes are grounded and powder is applied on abrasions. Fresh leaves are looped around the wounds. The seeds are antipyretic, laxative, tonic, and diuretic, useful in inflammation, diseases of heart, difficult breathing, weakness of eyesight due to over age. Used by tribes as expectorant and antispasmodic. The plant is used for fever and cough. Powder of dried roots is sprinkled on wounds and infected sores. The stolens are used as an astringent. Fruit is dried, powdered and mixed with ghee and is given for severe abscises and skin infections. The fruit is edible, laxative and purgative. A tincture of this plant is used for stomachic. The plant has a bitter bad taste. Plant decoction is used as blood tonic, used for fattening horses.

2.

Achyranthus aspera L.

3.

Adhatoda vasica L.

4.

Allium cepa L.

5.

Aloe vera Mill.

6.

Berbris lycium Royle

7.

Berginia ciliate Sternb.

8. 9.

Brophyllum pinnatum Oken. Brunella vulgaris L.

10.

Carrisa opaca Stapf-ex Haines

11. 12.

Cotoneaster microphyllus Wallich Luni Datura metal L. Aak-Datura

13. 14. 15.

Fragaria nubicola Lindl. Gentiana decumbens Wall Gentiana kurrooRoyle

23

24
Vern. Name Family Part used Uses

Sr. No

Botanical Name

16.

Geranium wallichianum D. Don ex Sweat Banbatkari Araliaceae

Rattanjyot

Geraniaceae

Flower and root

17.

Hedera helix Auct.

18. 19. Drek Gushi Muskbala Kakadsinghi Anacardiaceae Meliaceae Helvellaceae Lamiaceae

Impatiens edgeworthii Hook Impatiens glandulifera Royle

Buntil Buntil

Balsaminaceae Balsaminaceae

20. 21. 22.

Melia azedarach Linn. Morchella esculenta Linn Nepetala evigata (D. Don) Hand

23.

Pistacia integerrima Smith

24.

Podophyllum hexendrum Royle

Bankakdi

Berberidaceae

25.

Polygon umalpinum (D. Don) Greene

Masloon

26. Rattenjot Ardul/ Ardulli JangliGulab Akhray Rosaceae Rosaceae Ericaceae Rosaceae

Polygonum amplexicaulis (D.Don) Greene

Masloon

27.

Potentillanepalensis Hook

28.

Rhododendron arboretum Smith

29.

Rosa macrophylla Lindley

30.

Rubus fruiticosus Hook

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Beesa, Bhinsa Salicaceae

31.

Salix alba Linn.

Floral parts and leaves extract is used for vision problem and blood purification. Root powder is also used for jaundice, kidney and spleen problems. Fruit The leaves and berries are stimulating, diaphoretic, cathartic, used in indolent ulcers, abscesses etc. The berries are used in febrile disorder, rheumatism. Leaves The plant is used for gonorrhoea and externally for burns. Flower The flower has cooling properties and is used as tonic. The leaves are used on burns. Leaves Paste of fresh leaves is used for healing as germicidal. Fruiting bodies Fruiting bodies are served as delicacy as vegetables. Seed The seeds of the plant are infused in cold water and are used in dysentery. Leaf Gall Galls are used in traditional medicine to treat coughs, asthma, diarrhoea, dysentery, fever, vomiting, appetite loss, nose bleeding, snake bites and scorpion stings. The plant extracts are used in treating livestock diseases. Rhizomes and roots Very low doses are used for treating constipation and used as purgative. Also used in the treatment of skin diseases and menstrual disorders. Polygonaceae Seed The seeds are used as emetic and purgative. The infusion has been found to be very effective in diarrhoea and children summer complaints. Polygonaceae Leaves The plant is used for making tea which is very effective in flue, fever and joints pain. Leaves The root is considered depurative and is used externally in the form of ashes being applied with oil to burns. Flower The juice of the flower has cooling properties and is given in jaundice. Flower Flowers used for fragrance. It is also used in fencing and as hedges. Also used for preparing ‘Gulkand’. Whole plant An infusion of leaves is taken to stay diarrhoea and for some bleedings. Decoction of root or bark are remedies for released bowls and dysentery. The decoction of root is also useful against whooping cough in its spasmodic stage. Black berries fames and wine are taken for sore throat. Flower The flowers are dried and are given as nervine tonic.

Sr. No

Botanical Name

Vern. Name

Family

Part used

Uses

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Kuth Asteraceae Root Kachmach Chirayetta Solanaceae Gentianaceae Leaves Leaves Jangliajwain Lamiaceae Leaves Kayyari Urticaceae Leaves Guch Violaceae Caprifoliaceae Flower Tavi Timru Lythraceae Rutaceae Flowers Fruit, branches It is subjected to illegal uprooting in this area due to high market value. The root contain essential oil, alkaloid (saussurine), and small quantities of tannins, inulin, potassium nitrate and sugars etc. The oil shows antiseptic and disinfectant properties. It is cardiac stimulant, carminative, expectorant and diuretic. The alkaloid has a remarkable effect in controlling attacks of bronchial asthma. Decoction of fresh leaves is used as antiseptic. The plant is bitter; cooling, anthelmintic, antipyretic, ant periodic, laxative, cures leucoderma, inflammations, pain in the body, urinary discharges, ulcers, asthma, bronchitis, leucorrhoea, piles, bad taste in the mouth, good for vomiting in pregnancy The plant has a sharp pleasant taste, the leaves are laxative used in stomachic, a good tonic for renal colic and eye diseases, useful in bronchitis and purify the blood. The oil is remedy in toothache. The herb is given in weak vision, complaints of liver and stomach It can cause allergy. Leaves when comes in contact with any body part, cause severe irritation and itching swelling of skin which can be soothed by rubbing the leaves of Rumexnepalensis. Fruit Fruit is considered to be laxative and blood purifiers. Plant is bitter and pungent, cures malarial fever, bronchitis, asthma. The root is purgative, tonic, expectorant and diuretic. Dried flowers are given in fever, cough and haemostasis. Powder of dried flowers is used to heal the wounds. ‘Datun’ is prepared from the branches and is used for toothache. Fruits are used in the preparation of chutneys.

32.

Saussuria lappa (Fale) Lipsch

33. 34.

Solanum incanum Linn. Swertia petiolata D.Don

35.

Thymus serphyllum Linn.

36.

Urtica dioica Linn.

37. 38.

Viburnum grandiflorum Wall ex D.C Viola odorata Linn. Banafsha

39. 40.

Woodfordia fruticosa Linn. Xanthoxylum alatum Linn.

25

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The authors are grateful to the knowledge providers (traditional herbalists, drug dealers, tribal) of Poonch for sharing their valuable information and without their support this compilation would not has been possible. REFERENCES
Ananda, J. and Herath, G. 2005. Evaluating public risk preferences in forest land-use choices using multi attribute utility theory, Ecological Economics, 408–419. Farnsworth, N. R. 1998. Screening plants for new medicines, In: Biodiversity, edited by EO Wilson, National Academy Press, Washington DC, 83-97,

Myer, N. 2000. Muttermeier R. A, Muttermeier CA, Fonseca ABG & Kent J, Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities. Nature 403: 853-58, Nayar M. P. and Sastry, A. P. K. 1990. Red data book of Indian Plants, Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta. Samant, S. S., Dhar, U. and PalniL, M. S. 1998. Medicinal Plants of Indian Himalaya: Diversity distribution potential values, Gyanodaya Prakashan, Nainital. Singh, D. K. and Hajra, P.K.1996.Floristic diversity, In: Changing Perspectives of Biodiversity Status in the Himalaya, edited by G. S. Gujaral & V Sharma, British Council Division, British High Commission, New Delhi, 23-38, Ved, D. K. and Goraya, G.S. 2008. Demand and supply of medicinal plants in India, Bishen Singh, Mahendra Pal Singh (Ed)., Dehra Dun and FRLHT, Bangalore, India,

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IDM- In Combating Blast Disease in Rice Crop in Temperate Environment
T. Mubarak, M. A. Zarger and Z. A. Bhat KrishiVigyan Kendra Anantnag-192233 ( Jammu and Kashmir)
ABSTRACT Integrated Disease Management ( IDM) is important for reducing threat to environment and for sustaining higher yields. There is need to test and demonstrate IDM technique at farmers’ field for their wide adaptability. On-farm trials and frontline demonstrations were conducted by Krishi-Vigyan-Kendra Anantnag to popularize IDM module to boost, rice production in blast prone area of district Anantnag. Yield improved to the tune of 36 per cent by IDM module over farmers practice plots. Net returns (Rs.47,952/ha) and benefit cost ratio (1.5) were also higher in same practice. An additional income of Rs.16,589/ha was obtained over the farmer’s practice. Key words: IDM, Rice, Blast. INTRODUCTION Indiscriminate use of agricultural chemicals in general and pesticides in particular has become a great concern. Emphasis is, therefore, being laid on Integrated Pest Management (IPM) for environmental safety, good health and sustainable agriculture.. Technologies developed by SKUASTKashmir needs to be popularized among farming community to boost agricultural productivity and production. Since rice is a staple food of the people of Kashmir valley and blast disease a major biologic threat to crop, an Integrated Disease Management (IDM) module was needed to be tested at Farmers’ field to combat the menace of blast disease in district Anantnag. Krishi-VigyanKendra Anantnag (Pombay) conducted On-farm trials and Frontline Demonstrations to popularize the IDM module in rice. MATERIALS AND METHODS Analysis of Factors Responsible For the Outbreak of Disease A joint survey was conducted by KVK scientist and the officers of agriculture development department to identify hot spots of this disease. During survey it was found that the microclimate of the area and farming practices, were quite favourable for blast disease incidence.

Growing varieties which lack resistance against Blast disease Farmer use varieties (Table 1) which are prone to disease and if proper disease management practices are not taken in time there always remains risk of crop being badly hit by blast disease particularly under fluctuating weather conditions as prevalent in the study area.

Imbalanced use of fertilizers Farmers have tendency towards using heavy doses of nitrogenous fertilizers without and a small number of them apply Potassium supplying fertilizer. This makes plant tissues succulent and more prone to blast disease. Continuously use organic manures striking a balance in the application of N and K fertilizer help some to escape severe disease attack. This signifies the importance of balanced nutrient supply in IDM.

Lack of plant protection measures against the disease Apple is the major fruit crop of the valley. Farmers pay much attention to their apple crop in comparison to paddy. Though the management technology for blast disease is well established but unfortunately farmers do not follow the same resulting in considerable decline in crop yield due to the disease. Not a single farmer even uses a simple technique of seed treatment against the disease.

Factors Which Favoured the Spread of Disease
Corresponding author e-mail: drtasneem.mubarak@gmail.com

drtasneem_mubarak@rediffmail.com

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Blast affected rice plant and Shalimar rice 1 plot

Survey of Blast affected Plot of Jehlum rice

Other causes Poor water management, dense planting of seedlings with 5 to 14 seedlings per hill and lack of coordination between farmers and the line department at zonal level are some other reasons which aggravated the situation.

WP and Hexaconazole 5 EC 0.15% each in cocktail was done as it has been found effective against disease. 4. Sowing time: Early sowing of the rice variety SR-1 for timely maturation of the variety which is essential for successful double cropping in the valley. 5. Balanced dose of fertilizer: Use of balanced Fertilizers was demonstrated to the FLD beneficiaries as per the package of practices. They were advised to strictly follow the recommendations with regard to the dose and time of fertilizer application. In some cases farmers were advised to reduce urea fertilizer dose owing to inherent nitrogen fertility/ consistent use of organic manures in plenty. Emphasis was laid on the application of well decomposed Farmyard Manure. 6. Plant population: Farmers were given training programmes on raising of healthy rice seedlings and at the same time were instructed to transplant 2-3 healthy rice seedling per hill with 35-45 Plants/sq.m. 7. Water management: Impounding of water (5cm) was advocated for the first 15 days after transplanting followed by intermitted irrigation to keep the soil saturated with moisture. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Integrated disease management in rice against the menace of blast disease in demonstration plots gave excellent results compared to the farmers practice. Yield ranged from 61 to 73 q/ha in demonstration plots. Average yield was 66.6 q/ha (Table 1) against the farmers’ practice (48.7 q/ha.). Demonstration yield was 36 per cent higher than

Action Plan All Important causes of outbreak of blast disease in paddy were taken into consideration while framing a strategy to combat this disease and vis-à-vis to improve rice production. On-farm trials were conducted (Table 1) which revealed that the disease incidence and severity was remarkably higher with farmers practice against improved technology. Yield was appreciably higher in improved technology compared to the farmers practices. In view of these results, front line demonstration programme with following technical inputs were conducted in the area (Table1). 1. Variety: Jehlum and K-39 varieties which lack resistance against the blast disease were replaced by Shalimar Rice -1(SR-1) which exhibits resistance to blast disease. This variety was released in 2005 for lower belts of the valley located up to an altitude of 1600m MSL. 2. Seed Treatment: Seed treated with the chemical against paddy diseases( Mancozeb@ 2g + Carbendazim @1g per Kg of seed) was distributed free of cost among the farmers associated with the FLD progamme. 3. Seedbed treatment: Temperature fluctuation during nursery raising period may cause rhizoctonia rot disease. Spray of Captan 50
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Table 1. Performance of different rice cultivars against blast disease in the plains of district Anantnag.

Rice cultivar Jhelum K-39 Shalimar Rice -1

Disease incidence Leaf blast Neck blast 33 % 27.1% 2% 10.7 6.3 0

Disease severity(leaf blast) 13.8 8.3 0.1

Grain yield(q/ha) 38 41 63

Table 2. Summery of farmers’ practice and Technology demonstrated(FLD)

Parameter Variety Seed rate for one hectare Seed treatment/ Kg seed Seed sowing Fertilizer dose(N,P2O5,K2O) Age of seedling at transplanting Plants per hill Time of fertilizer application Water management Crop yield/ha Net returns /ha B : C ratio

Farmers’ practice(Control) K-39 , K-448 >50 kg No seed treatment 1st May-10th May Haphazard 35- 41 days 5-14 No knowledge Running water 48.7 q Rs.31363 0.98

Technology demonstrated(FLD) Shalimar Rice-1 60 Kg Seed treated with Carbendazim (1g) + Mancozeb (2g) Last week of April 120:60:20 25-30 days 2-3 ½ basal, ¼ at active tillering stage, ¼ at panicle initiation stage Intermitted irrigation 66.6 q/ha Rs.47952 1.5

the yield realized in the control plots. Gross returns, net profit and benefit cost ratio per hectare for demonstration were Rs.79,900, Rs.47,952 and 1.5, respectively against Rs.58,444, Rs.31,363 and 0.98 registered in the control. An additional income of Rs.16,589/ha was obtained with the demonstrated technology over the farmers practice (control). Moreover SR-1 enhanced paddy straw production which is an important component of ration for cattle in the winter. Most important aspect of the demonstrated technology was that not a single case of blast incidence was observed. Results also show that in few cases the crop maturity delayed beyond normal which reduced yield of the crop. Analysis of such cases revealed that the reason for delay were;

reproductive phase to unfavourable weather conditions, resulting in increased sterility and chaffy grain.

Inherent higher nitrogen status might be one of the reason.

Early sowing preferably under protected nursery conditions, intermitted irrigation and reduction in nitrogen dose was recommended for such cases. Impact Successful demonstration of SR-1 paddy variety and related technology has highly convinced the other farmers of the area to adopt the technology at much greater speed. Higher yield potential , more recovery percentage and resistance against blast disease makes SR-1 versatile paddy variety. Interaction with farmers and the officers of Development Department confirm that more than 50 per cent farmers used the same technology next year. Adaptation was dramatic in villages most severely hit by blast disease. Exchange of seed among farmers paved the way for speedy spread of the technology.
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Late sowing and transplanting of the crop compared to recommended one due to one or the other reason. Some plots were situated near to the irrigation source(canal) with lower water temperature. Some farmers follow traditional system of irrigation through running water which prolongs the vegetative phase and pushes

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CONCLUSION Jhelum, no doubt is an excellent rice variety but under the microclimatic conditions which favour blast disease adopting recommended management practice against the disease becomes essential. Under the situation when farmer fails to execute the disease management practices in time, there always remains a risk of crop being damaged by diseases. Moreover, Integrated Disease Management (IDM) which is a well established technology to reduce the disease

pressure on a crop not only reduced cost of cultivation by curtailment in expenditure on pesticide purchase and labour but also increases farm income through improvement in crop yield. This approach is environmentally safe and farmers friendly. It promises higher yield and at the same time minimizes threat to the environment. In IDM approach, development and adaptation of disease resistant/ tolerant high yielding crop variety plays a pivotal role.

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Impact of KVK Training Programme on SocioEconomic Status and Knowledge of Trainees in Kathua District
Berjesh Ajrawat and Ajay Kumar Krishi Vigyan Kendra Kathua-184101 (Jammu)
ABSTRACT The investigation was undertaken among 120 on-campus trainees and 120 off-campus trainees among six purposively selected villages from three blocks The trainees were selected randomly from each selected villages. Two variables namely respondents socio-economic status and their levels of knowledge about the training programme were measured by utilizing pre-structured and pre-tested interview schedule. Findings of the study showed that 42.0 per cent of oncampus trainees had medium socio-economic status followed by low (35.0 %) socio-economic status and only 23.0 per cent had high level of socio-economic status. However in case of offcampus trainees, 57.0 per cent had low socio-economic status followed by 40.0 per cent medium level and only 3.0 per cent possessed high level of socio-economic status. The study revealed considerable difference on and off-campus trainees regarding their socio-economic status. It was also found that 26 per cent respondents had medium and low level of knowledge (1.0 %), wereas in case of on-campus trainees, 74.0 per cent respondents had medium level of knowledge, 17.0 per cent had high level of knowledge followed by 9.0 per cent who had low level of knowledge about the KVK training programme. This indicates that there has been significant difference between the on and off-campus trainees with regard to this knowledge about KVK training programmes. Key words: Impact, Socio-economic status, Knowledge INTRODUCTION Indian economy is predominantly rural and agriculture oriented where the declining trend in the average size of the farm holding poses a serious problem. In agriculture 84 per cent of the holding is less than 0.8 ha. Majority of them are dry lands and even irrigated areas depend on the vagaries of monsoon. In this context, the socio-economic status of farmers is low because of inherent social hierarchy and economic deprivation. To ameliorate the poor socio-economic conditions of the farmers by raising the level of farm productivity, income and employment with application of agricultural innovation generated at research station, an innovative extension education institution i.e. Krishi Vigyan Kendra (KVKs) was introduced by Indian council of Agricultural Research (Dubey et al 2008). MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 240 respondents (120 on-campus and 120 off-campus trainees) were selected for this study. The data were collected through personal interview method using structural schedule as give under. The entire data were transformed into normal score. The level of knowledge was categorized as low, medium and high on the basis of scores obtained. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Socio-Economic Status (SES) of Respondents: The SES status scores of the respondents were computed and their distribution is given in Table 1. As revealed from the Table 1, majority of the on-campus trainees (42.0 %) had medium Socioeconomic status followed by low socio-economic

Corresponding author e-mail: bajrawat@rediffmail.com

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Table: 1. Distribution of trainees according to their socio-economic status score.

Category(SES Scale)

Trainees On-Campus Off-Campus Frequency Percentage Frequency Percentage 42 51 27 120 35.00 42.00 23.00 100.00 68 48 04 120 57.00 40.00 3.00 100.00 Z. value (0.05) 5.23

Low (Up to 40) Medium(> 40 up to 80) High(Above 80) Total

Table 2. Distribution of respondents according to their knowledge

Category (Level of Knowledge) Low (Up to 8) Medium (Above 8 up to 16) High (> 16)

Trainee (On-Campus) Frequency Percentage 01 31 88 1.00 26.00 73.00

Trainee (Off-Campus) Frequency Percentage 11 89 20 9.00 74.00 17.00 Z-Value (0.05)=12.93

status (35.0%) and only 23.0 per cent had higher level of socio-economic status, whereas, in case of off-campus trainees 57.0 per cent had low socio-economic status followed by 40.0 per cent medium level and only 3.0 per cent had high level of socio-economic status. Thus it can be concluded that the on-campus trainees had higher socio-economic status than the off-campus trainees. The calculated values of ‘Z’ were found to be 5.2 which was greater than the table value of ‘Z’ (1.96) at 5 per cent level of significance. Thus there was significant difference between trainees on and off-campus regarding their socioeconomic status. The findings were in conformity with the findings of Dubey et al (2008). Knowledge of on and off-campus trainees about KVK Training Training programme: Knowledge of the trainees of on and off-campus about KVK training programmes was determined by a set of twentyfive question. A perusal of the data in Table 2 revealed that majority (73.0 %) of the on-campus trainees had high level of knowledge followed by medium level of knowledge (26.0 %) and low level of knowledge (1.0 %) where as in case of off-campus trainees 74.0 per cent respondents had medium level of knowledge, 17.0 per cent had high level

of knowledge followed by 9.0 per cent had low level of knowledge. Hence, it may be concluded that on-campus trainees had high level of knowledge than the off-campus trainees about KVK training programme. To value of ‘Z’ was found to be 12.93 which was greater than the table value ‘Z’ (1.96) at 5 percent level of 298 degree freedom. This indicates that, there was a significant difference between the trainees of on and off-campus with regard to this knowledge about KVK training programme. Thus it was concluded that the oncampus trainees have more knowledge about the KVK training programme than the off-campus trainees. These finding tally with those of Kumar et.al. (1994), Murthy and Veerabhadraih (1998) and Dubey et al (2008). CONCLUSION It is evident from the findings that KVK is capable to bring about significant changes in the Socio-economic status as well as the level of knowledge among different categories of trainees. Training and guidance provided to trainees have played prime role in influent technological change, besides management orientation. Therefore, there is a need to give due importance for the above factors with suitable changes by the staff to promote successfully function of KVK training programmes.

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REFERENCES
Dubey, A.K., Srivastava, J. P., Singh, R.P. and Sharma, V.K. 2008. Impact of KVK training programme on socio-economic status and knowledge of trainees in Allahabad district. Indian Res. J. Ext. Edu. 8 (283): 60-61. Kumar, A., Ramchandran, M. and Nair, N.K. 1994. Effectiveness

of training programmes for agricultural assistants. Maharashtra J. Ex. Edu.12 (3): 163. Murthy, B. K. and Veerabhadriah, V. 1999. Impact of IPM farmer field schools training programme on knowledge level of rice farmers. Current Research, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore, 28 (9&10): 125-127.

Proforma used for Interview schedule 1.Name of the Respondent 5. District 6. Age Up to 30 years 31 to 45 years 46 and above 8. Caste General caste Backward caste SC/ST 9. Family Composition 9.1 Type Of Family Single Joint 10. Occupation Labour Caste occupation Business Independent Profession Agriculture Service 12. Domestic material possession Cycle/bullock cart/radio /TV TV B/W Colour Refrigerator Scooter/ M Cycle 14. Social Participation No Participation Member in one organization Member > one organization Office bearer Distinctive features 2. Father’s Name Score 1 2 3 3. Village 7.Education Illiterate Can Read only Can read and write Primary Middle High school/ High Secondary Graduate/PG 9.2 Size of Family Upto 5 Members Above 5 Members 11. Income Very low Low Medium High Very High 4. Block Score 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Score 1 2 Score 1 2 3 4 5

3 2 1

Score 1 2 Score 1 2 3 4 5 6 Score 1 2 3 4 Score 0 1 2 3 4

13. Land Upto 1 Hectares 1 to 2 Hectares 2 to 3 Hectare Above 3 hectares 15. Urban Contact Thrice a week Weekly Fortnightly Monthly Quarterly

Score 1 2 3 4 Score 5 4 3 2 1

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S. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25

Parameter Do you know about Crop husbandry Have you any knowledge regarding Horticulture crop production and management Do you know about Integrated Nutrient Management in different crops Have you any knowledge about Integrated Pest Management Do you know about Production and processing tech for major cereals Have you any knowledge regarding Integrated wheat production techniques and processing Do you know about Pulse production and processing techniques. What are your views about Oilseed production and processing techniques. Have you any knowledge about Integrated nutrient management of coarse cereals. Do you know about Integrated nutrient management for pulses Have you any knowledge regarding Integrated nutrient management for cash crops. Do you know about Integrated nutrient management for fruits and vegetables. Have you any knowledge regarding Mango production and post harvest techniques Do you know about Litchi production technology. Do you know about Production and post harvest techniques of guava Have you any knowledge about Hi-tech floriculture Protected cultivation for high value horticultural crops Do you know about Protection and management of quality planting material in nursery. Protection and post harvest technology for exportable vegetable Production technology for leafy vegetables Do you have knowledge to raising Mushroom production packing and marketing techniques. Have you any knowledge Production technology for Cole crops Do you practice Integrated pest management in major cereals. Do you practice Integrated pest management in pluses. Have you applied Integrated pest management techniques in fruits and vegetables

Correct/ Yes(1)

Incorrect/ No(0)

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Implication of Participatory Communication in Indian Agricultural Development Context: Few Selected Strategies
Ajay Kumar and Netrapal Malik Krishi Vigyan Kendra Pithoragarh 262 530 (Uttarakhand)
ABSTRACT India has registered substantial progress in agricultural development. Besides, remarkable growth in food production, improvement in socio-economic life of farming community can also be observed. Population explosion, illiteracy, malnutrition and environmental degradation have become the problems requiring much attention. In this scenario, the focus of development should be shifted to the grass root level, where the farmers need to involve themselves in the process of defining their problems and selecting alternatives based on their own knowledge and resources. This can only be achieved by the participatory communication, the essence of success of which depends on the participation of people starting from needs identification to media utilization. Participatory need based trainings lead to skill development and adoption of new skills whereas horizontal spread of technology between farmers depends upon its usefulness and ease of adoption. Therefore, an attempt has been made to analyze the lessons of participatory communication for development and their implication. Key Words: Participatory Communication, Development, Message Designing, Training, Horizontal Spread. INTRODUCTION Communication and development are interwoven. Development is a relative term and road to development passes through grass root participation. Participatory communication has the power to transform the society from the unsatisfactory situation to the situation which is humanly better. No national consensus or individual change can take place without dialogue; within groups of people with public and planners. This implies horizontal communication within and between groups in which people are organized. Participatory development communication is a two-way interaction, which through dialogue transforms ‘grass-root’ people and enables them to become fully engaged in the process of development and become self-reliant (Nair and White 1987). It was further pointed out that ‘the environment of participatory development communication is expected to be supportive,
Corresponding author e-mail: drajaysrivastava@gmail.com

creative, consensual, facilitative, sharing ideas through dialogue’. It brings about a transformation in communication competencies and social behaviour among those who engage in the process. This publication is an attempt to focus on some issues in the vast field of communication and education for development. It provides an overview of the tools and methodologies of participatory communication as well as some of the most significant experiences of KVK. GLOBAL EXPERIENCES OF PARTICIPATORY COMMUNICATION Participatory communication is a well tested tool for development. Experiments conducted in different parts of the globe have proven its power as catalyst to development. Silva (1975) reported that the concept of participatory wall newspaper i.e. communication system by and for the people, was found successful in Cebu province of Philippines. The wall newspaper prepared by the people stimulated

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the discussion among the people. They proved the concept of participatory message development as a way to empower the rural people. In 1965, Nigeria started mimeo graphical bulletins for areas where literacy programme were underway. Since then, the rural processes spring up all over the continent. Zambia had established a series of monthly community newspapers published in vernacular languages by the government information service. Tanzania had established the biggest rural press project in East Africa in collaboration with UNESCO, based on a newspaper linked with local functional literacy drives. Kenya had tried two experiments using mobile vans and they printed and distributed their own publication and surveyed the responses of the public. The results of these experiments had demonstrated that participatory rural press was not only a source of reading materials for neo-literates, but also a link with national policies and plans as well as local activities and production. National daily newspaper, The Hindustan Times conducted an experiment to transform traditional village to modern through a package of development programme. This is famous with the name ‘Chhatera Experiment’. The village Chhatera near Dehli was the focus of a fortnightly column published in 1968 by The Hindustan Times, which showcased life in an Indian village. The column “Our Village Chhatera” became a channel for grassroots input on how development could take place in the community. The column found itself playing the role of a catalyst by planting new ideas in the minds of the villagers and providing the needed linkage system between the people and the authorities (Varghese 1976). Nutrition Centre of Philippines aimed to enhance nutritional status of pre-schoolers by increasing nutrition related knowledge of mothers. It followed a systematic approach to developing communication support. This was one of the earliest projects to use video-van (vehicles containing video play back equipment that are taken to communities) as key component to improve nutrition of pre-school children. Each van was equipped with TV monitor, video players and public address system, operated by driver-cum-technician. The well formulated communication approach helped in efficient management of project at planning,
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implementation and evaluation stages (Kumar, 1999). There is unending series of participatory communication, which have proven its power as panacea for the evil of underdevelopment. IMPLICATIONS IN INDIAN CONTEXT During the past three decades, the role of communication has undergone a dramatic change from a one-way, top-down transfer of messages by technicians to farmers, to a social process which starts with farmers and brings together both groups in a two-way sharing of information among communication equals. This approach, known as participatory communication, highlights the importance of cultural identity, concerted action and dialogue, local knowledge and stakeholder participation at all levels: international, local and individual. In recognizing that rural people are at the heart of development, participatory communication has become the key link between farmers, extension, and research for planning and implementing consensus-based development initiatives. Increased food production implies the need for new technologies, new skills, changed attitudes and practices, and new ways to collaborate. All of this requires that farmers have access to what they consider to be relevant information and knowledge. Along with communication, a parallel investment in “human capital” through education and training of adults is essential for project success and for effective development. The focus is on having farmers become active partners and key actors in their own development projects. The process begins by “listening to rural people” and a shift to farmerled identification of learning and training needs through critical reflection based on practical experience. PARTICIPATORY MESSAGE DESIGNING All India Radio, Doordarshan, farm publications, etc. are already engaged in dissemination of development messages. But their efforts are one sided, dominating in the form of active media agency and passive information receivers. With the same infrastructure, resources, manpower, these agencies can come nearer to the heart of the people. These have to change their message designing strategies. People have knowledge, needs, feelings, ideas but they do not

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write. Message designer writes but they have imaginary ideas about people’s knowledge, needs, feelings, ideas and attitudes. This gap can be filled up through conducting trainings in the field of journalism. By this way, more rural people can be motivated to write for media. Media agency can play role of facilitator in this process. The words jotted down through the pen of rural people will be words of the people, by the people and for the people. While selecting the development message media agencies must go to the people and should identify their development needs. In this process participatory tools like Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA), Rapid Rural Appraisal (RRA) etc. can be used. PARTICIPATORY TRAINING Training people for rural development is a process that involves transformation of values and attitudes of systems and institutions, of knowledge and skills among the stakeholders of community development efforts (Say, 2002). State Agricultural Universities, Krishi Vigyan Kendras (KVKs), and different departments of state government and some institutes of central government seldom organize trainings for rural people. In the process of organizing trainings, these agencies must start their entry into the village with participatory approach like transact walk and should follow the participatory approaches in their all steps of training with human touch. Trainings for rural development should follow three learning philosophy and principles: ✍ Trainees or participants learn best what they feel they need to learn; ✍ Trainees or participants learn better what they have experienced themselves; and ✍ Trainees or participants learn better based on what they see, hear and do. Currently there are 630 KVK’s in the country and they organize need based training to farmers and train nearly 1.2 million farmers per year. Outcome of these trainings can be improved for skill development if training organized is based on participatory methodology. KVK, Pithoragarh organized need based trainings for farmers and the adoption level was studied (Table 1).

Table-1: Adoption level of different training activities.

Sr. Title of the training No. 1. 2. 3. 4. Seed Treatment Balance fertilizer application* Backyard poultry Chemical weed management

Number of Adoption farmers trained level ( %) 300 150 160 200 65 45 40 25

*Average consumption of NPK/ha/yr in Pithoragarh district is approximately 5.0kg/ha/yr and fungicide and pesticide use is negligible.

PARTICIPATORY TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT (PTD) India has big infrastructure with huge amount of human and non human resources in agricultural technology development. National Agricultural Research System includes 45 Research Institutes, 25 Project Directorates, 17 National Research Centers and 61 All India Coordinated Research Projects, 17 Net Work Project, 53 SAUs and 630 Krishi Vigyan Kendra. These technology development agencies are working hard to match with the world trend in agricultural research but we should not forget our main clients, the Indian farmers. Their technological needs might be addressed effectively through participatory technology development. There are two main benefits of participatory technology development over traditional approach to technology development: 1. Experimenting by Farmers- Participatory technology development takes advantage of the ability of farmers to experiment and solve problems on their own farms. Unlike the relatively modern field of scientific research, farmers have been conducting experiments for thousands of years. Often all they lack to solve their problems is access to information and new technologies to test. 2. Improved Technology Adoption-PTD improves the chances of wider adoption of agricultural technologies. Any new technology developed and expanded by farmers themselves has a better chance of wider adoption than technology developed solely on research stations for extension to farmers.
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Table-2: Horizontal spread of few selected technologies in district Pithoragarh.

Sn Technology

Village

Area of demonstration (ha) 4.0 3.0 4.0 2.0

Horizontal Spread (ha) 45 30 20 6

Advantage Total Menetary to farmers/ advantage in ha (Rs) spread area (Rs) 7000 9000 6500 2000 3.15Lakh 2.7 Lakh 1.3 Lakh 12000

1 2 3 4

HYV- Rice Variety Pant Dhan-11 HYV-Soybean Variety PS-1092 HYV- Wheat Variety VL-738 Weed Management*

Egyardevi Kiri Dungri Dungri

*Farmers of the village used chemical weed management for first time

3. Horizontal Spread of technology-Usefulness and ease of adoption of technology leads to its horizontal spread among farmers. Any technology which has its usefulness would be adopted by farmers quickly, also its spread among farmers is faster. Following technologies in district Pithoragarh have horizontal spread in the following selected villages (Table -2). The practices of organic farming started in village Bagrihat of Pithoragarh district in 2.0 ha area has increased to 35 ha area till date. Similarly, Pithoragarh district is an example for promotion of Power tiller in the country. During 2005, KVK Pithoragarh had the first power tiller in the district and presently there are more than 200 power tillers being used by the farmers. This has happened due to the effective demonstration of power tiller by the KVK scientists followed by subsidy @ Rs. 45000/power tiller given by the State Government. Likewise, better farmer to farmer led demonstration of technology resulted in the horizontal spread and thus, farmers are earning Rs.40,000/year whereas the cost of power tiller is Rs. 1.5 lakh. PARTICIPATORY USE OF NEW INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES New Information Technologies (NITs) like internet, telephone, fax, etc. have immense potential in collection of accurate and relevant information and its timely distribution to the potential users. Potential of these technologies can be harnessed through establishing ‘Village Information Centre (VIC)’ for a cluster of villages. The VIC can be developed by coordinated efforts of State Agricultural Universities, target groups that include farmers, farmwomen and other

extension organizations. It should be managed by village people with the help of communication experts. It should possess all NITs and other communication media. NITs like internet, fax, e-mail can be used to connect the VIC with other institutions like SAUs, KVKs, Research Centres, Hospitals, etc. and other media like video cassette recorder/player, audio cassette recorder/player, charts, posters, bulletin boards, etc. can be used for dissemination of the information to the villagers. In this way relevant information can reach to the farmers timely and in desired format and dialect. CONCLUSION There are various ways in which participatory development communication can boost-up the development process. Central idea of participatory communication moves around the pivot of people’s feeling of own self that not only gives the benefit of technical information loaded on media but also empower the people, creates confidence and tighten the social networking due to mass participation with personal touch. In Indian context latest technology interventions are to be used in participatory communication for effective technology transfer, mobile advisory services by experts and by farmers, use of video/ film vans can play useful role in technology transfer. REFERENCES
Kumar, B.(1999). Global Experiences in Development Support Communication, Summer School on Media Production Skills for Development Support Communication, Unpublished Reference Mannual, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar Mody, B.(1991). Designing Message for Development Communication, New Delhi: Sage Publication, pp.19-21.

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Nair, K.S. and White, S.A. (1987). Participation is the Key to Development Communication, Media Development 34(3):3640. Quebral Nora, C. (1975). Development Communication; Where Does it Stand Today, Media Asia 2(4):198 Say, Y. (1998). Participatory Training for Sustainable Rural/ Local Community Development: Principles and their Applications in CIRDAP Pilot Projects, Paper presented at the APO Seminar on Training Method for Integrated Local Community

Development held in Seoul, Korea from 26 August to 4 September 1998. Silva, F. (1975). The Wall Newspaper of Moalboal. Atlas World Press Review. 1975, p. 34. Swanson, B.E. Bentz, R.P and Sofranko, A. J. (1998). Improving agriculture extension. A reference manual. FAO 1998. Verghese, B. G. 1976. Project Chhatera: An experiment in development journalism, Occasional Paper no.5, AMIC, Singapore.

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Job Performance of Agricultural Scientists of Selected State Agricultural Universities and its Relationship with Socio-Personal Charateristics
Kiran Yadav, D S Dhillon and R K Dhaliwal Department of Extension Education Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana 141 001 (Punjab)
ABSTRACT The present study was based on 300 agricultural scientists selected from the three agricultural universities viz. PAU, GBPUAT and HAU. A structured questionnaire was prepared for collecting the relevant data. The data were tabulated and analyzed with the help of appropriate statistical tools by using SPSS. The components of job performance like administration, knowledge of work, communication, team work, employee responsiveness and grand total of the entire component in case of HAU were significantly different from GBPUAT and PAU whereas in decision making, expense management, human resource management and managing change HAU was significantly different from GBPUAT and PAU. GBPUAT and HAU showed significant difference in respect to personal appearance and dependability (p<0.05) and safety (p<0.01) and in between PAU and GBPUAT, teamwork and expense management (p<0.05) and safety p<0.01) showed significant difference with respect to their job performance. In GBPUAT, it was noticed that there was positive and significant correlation between the age of the respondents and job performance and also significant difference was found between males and females job performance where males (131.38) reported higher job performance than females (117.3).In PAU, there was significant difference in job performance of Assistant Professors, Associate Professors and Professors and it was positively correlated with their service experience. In HAU, it was observed that there was negative and significant correlation between respondent’s job performance and family income which revealed that as the income increases, job performance declines. In GBPUAT and HAU, the agricultural scientists residing with their families showed significantly (p<0.01) more job performance in comparison to those who were not residing with their families. Greater insights on the relationship between agricultural scientists and their job performance will assist university professionals as they strive to enhance the essentials of agricultural universities in a highly competitive, global arena. Keywords: Job Performance, Agricultural Scientists, Socio-Personal Characteristics, Service Experience, Statistical Package for Social Sciences INTRODUCTION Agricultural Universities are the premise where agricultural scientists perform three fold functions viz. teaching, research and extension and are responsible for managing the Undergraduate and Postgraduate programmers, conducting research and arranging various extension activities and programmes for the dissemination of the latest scientific technology to the farmers. It is obvious that the productivity of the agricultural scientists is not the same as it is
Corresponding author e-mail: daljitsdhillon@hotmail.com

not dependent only on one factor rather various factors are responsible for their performance. The work atmosphere, the psychological environment in the organization where agricultural scientists live and work is one of the important factors influencing their performance and satisfaction. The scientific productivity is the resultant outcome of performance being influenced by personal antecedent variables such as educational background , length of service , higher trainings , socio psychological factors such as job autonomy,

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task identity , achievement motivation , job satisfaction , job involvement and personal importance enjoyed by the employee; organizational factors such as organizational commitment. All these have direct or indirect influence on the job perspective of the individual scientist, which ultimately influences his/her scientific productivity directly or indirectly through interaction with each other (Sharma and Shivamohan 1975). The present investigation was conducted with the objectives to determine the job performance of the agricultural scientists, factors affecting their job performance and their relationship of sociopersonal characteristics with job performance. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present study was conducted in three purposively selected State Agricultural Universities of Northern region in India viz. Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana (PAU) ; Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture and Technology , Pantnagar (GBPUAT) and Choudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University , Hisar (HAU); due to their easy accessibility to the investigator. One hundred agricultural scientists who had minimum five years experience were randomly selected from each university by allocating the number of agricultural scientists in teaching, research and

extension proportionally. Further for selecting the scientists from Professors, Associate Professors and Assistant Professors, proportional allocation method was used in each cadre. The total sample comprised of 300 agricultural scientists selected from the three agricultural universities. A structured questionnaire was prepared for collecting the relevant data. It contained close ended as well as open ended items/questions regarding job performance of agricultural scientists, factors affecting job satisfaction, relationship of socio-personal characteristics with their job performance. The data were tabulated and analysed with the help of appropriate statistical tools by using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). RESULTS AND DISCUSSION It was revealed from job performance evaluation (Table 1) that mean scores of the respondents with respect to administration (15.09PAU , 14.74GBPUAT, 16.73HAU), knowledge of work (11.80 PAU , 11.48 GBPUAT , 12.95 HAU ), communication (12.01PAU , 11.77GBPUAT, 13.31HAU), team work(4.00 PAU , 3.80 GBPUAT , 4.24 HAU ), employee responsiveness(12.17PAU , 11.90GBPUAT, 12.80HAU), and safety (4.31PAU , 4.06GBPUAT, 4.42HAU) factors showed significant difference at 1 per cent level of significance in PAU, GBPUAT and HAU. On the other hand, decision making (8.20 PAU ,

Table 1. Analysis of variance of factors of job performance across the three agricultural universities

PAU Mean SD 1. Administration (4) 2. Knowledge of Work (3) 3. Communication (3) 4. Team Work (1) 5. Decision Making (2) 6. Expense Management (2) 7. Human Resource Management (4) 8. Independent Action (2) 9. Job Knowledge (2) 10. Leadership (2) 11. Managing Change (2) 12. Employee Responsiveness(3) 13. Personal Appearance (1) 14. Dependability (1) 15. Safety (1) Overall (15) 15.09 11.80 12.01 4.00 8.20 8.01 16.02 8.30 8.43 8.20 8.12 12.17 4.38 4.18 4.31 133.22 3.19 1.82 1.98 0.75 1.52 1.24 2.68 1.41 1.37 1.37 1.31 1.76 0.63 0.66 0.71 18.54

GBPUAT Mean SD 14.74 2.45 11.48 1.97 11.77 1.75 3.80 0.78 8.03 1.34 7.78 1.11 15.83 2.43 8.20 1.09 8.15 1.06 8.11 1.24 7.97 1.27 11.90 2.03 4.26 0.60 4.04 0.68 4.06 0.62 130.12 19.02

HAU Mean SD 16.73 12.95 13.31 4.24 8.54 8.32 16.90 8.51 8.41 8.23 8.44 12.80 4.51 4.28 4.42 140.59

F-ratio

2.31 9.51** 1.49 16.09** 1.82 10.23** 0.70 8.78** 1.26 3.52* 1.42 3.26* 2.74 3.52* 1.21 1.46 1.12 1.69 1.18 1.09 1.01 3.38* 1.74 4.89** 0.61 4.15* 0.51 3.76* 0.59 8.33** 16.61 7.65**

*Significant at 5 per cent level of significance** Significant at 1 per cent level of significance

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Table 2. Mean differences of significant factors of job performance across the universities

S.No. Factors of Job Performance 1. Administration (4)

Universities Mean PAU 15.09 GBPUAT 14.74 HAU 16.73 PAU 11.80 GBPUAT 11.48 HAU 12.95 PAU 12.01 GBPUAT 11.77 HAU 13.31 PAU GBPUAT HAU PAU GBPUAT HAU PAU GBPUAT HAU 4.00 3.80 4.24 8.20 8.03 8.54 8.01 7.78 8.32

SD 3.19 2.45 2.31 1.82 1.97 1.49 1.98 1.75 1.82 0.75 0.78 0.70 1.52 1.34 1.26 1.24 1.11 1.42 2.68 2.43 2.74 1.31 1.27 1.01 1.76 2.03 1.74 0.63 0.60 0.61 0.66 0.68 0.51

F-ratio 9.51**

CD 0.62

Mean differences in job performance MDPAU-GBPUAT =0.35 MDGBPUAT-HAU =1.99** MDHAU-PAU =1.64** MDPAU-GBPUAT =0.32 MDGBPUAT-HAU =1.47** MDHAU-PAU =1.15** MDPAU-GBPUAT =0.24 MDGBPUAT-HAU =1.54** MDHAU-PAU =1.3** MDPAU-GBPUAT =0.23** MDGBPUAT-HAU =0.54** MDHAU-PAU =0.31** MDPAU-GBPUAT =0.19 MDGBPUAT-HAU =1.07* MDHAU-PAU =0.88* MDPAU-GBPUAT =0.23* MDGBPUAT-HAU =0.54* MDHAU-PAU =0.31* MDPAU-GBPUAT =0.19 MDGBPUAT-HAU =1.07* MDHAU-PAU =0.88* MDPAU-GBPUAT =0.15 MDGBPUAT-HAU =0.47* MDHAU-PAU =0.32* MDPAU-GBPUAT =0.27 MDGBPUAT-HAU =0.90* MDHAU-PAU =0.63** MDPAU-GBPUAT =0.12 MDGBPUAT-HAU =0.25* MDHAU-PAU =0.13 MDPAU-GBPUAT =0.14 MDGBPUAT-HAU =0.24* MDHAU-PAU =0.10 MDPAU-GBPUAT =0.25** MDGBPUAT-HAU =0.36** MDHAU-PAU =0.11 MDPAU-GBPUAT =0.31 MDGBPUAT-HAU =0.36** MDHAU-PAU =0.11

2.

Knowledge of Work (3)

16.09**

0.32

3.

Communication (3)

10.23**

0.56

4.

Team Work (1)

8.78**

0.19

5.

Decision Making (2)

3.52*

0.62

6.

Expense Management (2)

3.26*

0.19

7.

Human Resource Management (4) PAU 16.02 GBPUAT 15.83 HAU 16.90 Managing Change (2) PAU GBPUAT HAU 8.12 7.97 8.44

3.52*

0.62

8.

3.38*

0.21

9.

Employee Responsiveness (3)

PAU 12.17 GBPUAT 11.90 HAU 12.80 PAU GBPUAT HAU PAU GBPUAT HAU PAU 4.38 4.26 4.51 4.18 4.04 4.28

4.89**

0.62

10.

Personal Appearance (1)

4.15*

0.18

11.

Dependability (1)

3.76*

0.16

12.

Safety (1)

4.31 0.71 GBPUAT 4.06 HAU 4.42 18.54 19.02 16.61

8.33** 0.62 0.59 7.65**

0.21

Overall (15)

PAU 133.22 GBPUAT 130.12 HAU 140.59

2.89

*Significant at 5 per cent level of significance 42

** Significant at 1 per cent level of significance

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8.03GBPUAT, 8.54HAU), expense management(8.01PAU , 7.78 GBPUAT , 8.32 HAU ), human resource management(16.02 PAU , 15.83 GBPUAT, 16.90 HAU), managing change(8.12PAU , 7.97GBPUAT, 8.44HAU), personal appearance(4.38PAU , 4.26GBPUAT, 4.51HAU) and dependability (4.18PAU , 4.04GBPUAT, 4.28HAU) factors were significantly different (p<0.05) with respect to the respondents mean scores among the three selected universities. Independent action, job knowledge and leadership were found to be non significant. Further, it was concluded that in the components of job performance like administration (15.09PAU , 14.74GBPUAT, 16.73HAU), knowledge of work(11.80 PAU , 11.48 GBPUAT , 12.95HAU), communication(12.01PAU , 11.77GBPUAT, 13.31 HAU ), team work(4.00 PAU , 3.80 GBPUAT , 4.24 HAU ), employee responsiveness(12.17 PAU , 11.90GBPUAT, 12.80 HAU) and overall (133.22PAU , 130.12GBPUAT, 140.59HAU) the entire component; in case of HAU were significantly different with respect to job performance evaluation mean scores from GBPUAT and PAU whereas in decision making (8.20 PAU , 8.03GBPUAT, 8.54HAU), expense management (8.01 PAU , 7.78 GBPUAT , 8.32HAU), human resource management (16.02PAU , 15.83 GBPUAT , 16.90 HAU ) and managing change(8.12 PAU , 7.97 GBPUAT , 8.44 HAU ), the respondents of HAU were significantly different from respondents of GBPUAT and PAU in respect

of mean scores of factors of job performance evaluation at 5 per cent level of significance. GBPUAT and HAU showed significant difference in respect to personal appearance and dependability (p<0.05) and safety (p<0.01). It was also noticed that all the significant components of Table 2 showed non significant difference in between the respondents of PAU and GBPUAT with respect to the mean scores of factors of job performance evaluation except teamwork (4.00PAU , 3.80 GBPUAT ) (p<0.05) , expense management (8.01PAU , 7.78GBPUAT) (p<0.05) and safety (4.31PAU , 4.06GBPUAT) (p<0.01) ( Table 2). The relationship of age of respondents with job performance revealed (Table 3) positive and significant correlation in PAU and in GBPUAT and HAU. In parallel to this result, the study conducted by Quinones et al., 1995 revealed the direct effect of age on performance, age tends to reflect accumulated work experiences and it could be expected to positively affect the job performance. The relationship between job performance and distance (km) of respondent’s permanent home was found non-significant in all the three agricultural universities i.e. PAU, GBPUAT and HAU as shown in Table 3. The job performance of PAU respondents was positively correlated with their service experience at 5 per cent level of significance. Job performance with experience of the respondents of GBPUAT

Table 3 . Relationship of personal and job related factors of the respondent with respect to job performance

Sr.No. 1.

Personal andJob RelatedFactors Age (Years) 25 to 35 35 to 45 > 45 Upto 50 50 to 150 150 to 250 Above 250 Upto 5 5 to 10 10 to 15 Above 15 Low (25,000-75,000) Medium (75,000-1,25,000) High (1,25,000-1,75,000)

Job Performancer-value PAU GBPUAT HAU 4.16* 0.94 1.21

2.

Distance(kms)

0.041

0.011

0.070

3.

ServiceExperience(Years)

0.200*

-0.049

0.112

4.

FamilyIncome(Rs)

0.031

0.153

-0.325**

*Significant at 5 per cent level of significance** Significant at 1 per cent level of significance

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Table 4. Differences in personal and job related factors of respondents with respect to job performance

Sr.No. 1. 2. 3. 4.

Personal andJob Related Factors PAU Male Female Background Rural Urban Type of Family Nuclear Joint Respondentsresiding withfamily 3.13** No F-ratio PAU Designation Assistant Prof. Associate Prof. Professor Gender 0.70 0.44 0.32 Yes

Job Performancet-value GBPUAT 2.72** 0.48 0.95 1.06

HAU 1.01 0.91 1.82 4.58**

5.

GBPUAT 4.16*

HAU 0.94

1.21

*Significant at 5 per cent level of significance** Significant at 1 per cent level of significance

showed negative and non-significant correlation whereas respondents of HAU reported positive and non-significant correlation in the same respect. A perusal of the data given in Table 3 further envisaged that the job performance of respondents of PAU and GBPUAT showed non-significant correlation with their family income while in HAU, a negative and significant correlation between respondent’s job performance and family income was observed which revealed that as the income increases, job performance declines. Job and family involvement measures the degree to which an individual’s psychological identity is tied to either family or work roles and it assesses the importance of those roles to an individual’s self image and the individuals’ commitment to that role. Individuals who are strongly invested in a particular role are much more likely to be aware of and sensitive to the demands and problems of that role (Pleck and Joseph 1985) and to suffer conflict and overload if they find they cannot meet their own or others’ expectations regarding performance in that role. Heavy involvement in either the work or family domain is likely to produce conflict across domains (Family and Work Institute 1998). A critical look at the data (Table 4) shows that no difference was found in job performance of agricultural scientists with respect to their background (rural/urban) and family type i.e. nuclear and joint among the three agricultural
44

universities i.e. PAU, GBPUAT and HAU. In PAU, no significant differences in job performance were observed between the respondents residing with their family and not residing with families but in GBPUAT and HAU, the respondents residing with family showed significantly (p<0.01) more job performance in comparison to their respective counterparts. A close examination of data given in Table 4 further revealed that in PAU, there was significant difference in job performance of Assistant Professors, Associate Professors and Professors whereas in GBPUAT as well as in HAU, nonsignificant differences were found with respect to job performance. Implications of the Study Administration, knowledge of work, communication, team work, employee responsiveness, and safety factors were significantly different (P < 0.01) while decision making, expense management, human resource management, managing change, personal appearance and dependability were significantly different (p<0.05) in the three agricultural universities viz. PAU, GBPUAT and HAU. The components of job performance like administration, knowledge of work, communication, team work, employee responsiveness and grand total of the entire component in case of HAU were significantly

Journal of Krishi Vigyan

different from GBPUAT and PAU whereas in decision making, expense management, human resource management and managing change HAU was significantly different from GBPUAT and PAU (P < 0.05). GBPUAT and HAU showed significant difference in respect to personal appearance and dependability (p<0.05) and safety (p<0.01) and in between PAU and GBPUAT, teamwork and expense management (p<0.05) and safety p<0.01) showed significant difference as far as the job performance of agricultural scientists was concerned. In GBPUAT, it was noticed that there was positive and significant correlation between the age of the respondents and job performance and also significant difference was found between job performance of males and females (P<0.01) where male (131.38) reported higher job performance than females (117.3). In PAU, there was significant difference in the job performance of Assistant Professors, Associate Professors and Professors and it was positively correlated with their service experience at 5 per cent level of significance. In HAU, it was observed that there was negative and significant correlation between respondent’s job performance and family income which revealed that as the income increases, job performance declines. In GBPUAT and HAU, the respondents residing with their families showed significantly (p<0.01) more job performance in comparison to their respective counterparts i.e. those who were not residing with their families.

CONCLUSION One likely future direction of scientist attitude research will be to better understand the interplay between the person and the situation and the various internal and external factors that influence their job satisfaction which affect their job performance. In particular, a better understanding of the role of emotion, as well as broader environmental impact, is needed and has been largely overlooked in past research. In addition, ongoing research will provide more in-depth understanding of the effects of attitude of agricultural scientists and job satisfaction on organizational measures. Greater insights on the relationship between agricultural scientists and their job performance will assist the university professionals as they strive to enhance the essentials of agricultural universities in a highly competitive, global arena. REFERENCES
Family and Work Institute (1998). National Study of the Changing Workforce, executive summary . New York . Families and Work Institute. Pleck and Joseph, H. (1985) Working Wives/Working Husbands. Thousand Oaks CA: SagePublications Quinones, M. A., Ford, J. K. and Teachout, M. S. (1995) The relationship between work experience and job performance:A conceptual and meta-analytic review. Personnel Psychology, 48(4):887-910. Sharma, K. D. and Shivamohan, M. V. K. (1975) Management of Research in IARI. In: Management of Scientific Research (Proceedings of the national seminar on Management of Scientific Research Laboratories, held at Hyderabad on October, 10-12,1983. Singh J. (Ed.)) pp.228,Administrative staff college Hyderabad ,India.

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Knowledge Level of Farmers Regarding Package of Practices for Gram Crop
Nikulsinh.M. Chauhan Krishi Vigyan Kendra Vyara Distt. Tapi 394 650 (Gujarat)
ABSTRACT The study was undertaken in Tapi district of South Gujarat. It was observed that initially 78 per cent farmers were possessing low, 16 per cent medium and 6 per cent high level of knowledge whereas after acquiring training the values were 8 per cent for low, 10 per cent for medium and 82 per cent for high level of knowledge regarding gram cultivation. It was noticed that 87.0 per cent of the farmers adopted new high yielding variety followed by land configuration (81.0 %), integrated nutrient management (83.0 %) and used recommended seed rate (82.0 %) after acquiring trainings from the KVK. It was also noticed that due to enhanced knowledge and adoption of scientific practices, the yield of gram increased by 36.7 per cent, 45.8 per cent and 46.2 per cent over the yield obtained under farmer’s practices during the year 2008-09, 200910 and 2010-11, respectively. Thus, study suggests the need of conducting intensive trainings, FLDs and effective use of all means of extension education to educate the gram growers for achieving higher production of gram in the district. Key words: Impact, Training ,Knowledge, Gram, Package of Practices. INTRODUCTION A number of agricultural improvement programmes have been introduced in India to increase the agricultural production and income of the farming community, but the outcome of these programmes is not satisfactory in terms of achieving higher agricultural production. The most important factor identified for this poor outcome was lack of understanding by the farmers about various technological recommendations made by the research institutes. As a result, more emphasis on farmers training activities is being given by the ICAR, SAUs along with the respective State Department of Agriculture. It is a known fact that training to farmers increases the technical efficiency of an individual. In Tribal area of Tapi district, farmers grow gram crop on conserved moisture or after giving a light irrigation, however, get very low yields due to use of low yielding variety and poor knowledge about scientific cultivation of gram crop. KVK, Tapi made an effort and conducted 7 each on-campus as well as off-campus training programmes for the benefit of farmers and farm women. Additionally, a total number of farmers covered under front line demonstrations were 112 in 20 different villages. In order to evaluate the impact of training programmes as well as other extension activities of KVK, the present study was undertaken with the objectives to assess the knowledge and adoption level of package of practices and to find out the yield gap analysis in gram production. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study was undertaken in 5 villages and from each village 20 farmers were selected thus, making a total sample size of 100 tribal farmers. The data were collected through personal interview by designing a questionnaire. The data were collected, tabulated and analyzed by using statistical tools like frequency and percentage. The extension gap, technology gap and the technology index were worked out as per formulae given by the Samui et al. (2000). The practices followed under the front line demonstration (FLD) and farmers’ practices are given in table 1.

Corresponding author e-mail: nikulsinh_m@yahoo.in

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In FLDs, the practices followed are shown in table below

Particulars Variety Fertilizer Seed treatment

Demonstration practice GG-2 Bio-compost – 6 ton/ha Chemical Fertilizer – 20 + 40 + 00 PSB and Rhizobium – 2l / 2 kg/ha

Farmer’s practice Local Basal – None Chemical Fertilizer-not used —Nil—

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION In order to assess the impact of training programmes on the knowledge level of farmers regarding gram cultivation practices, the data were classified in to before and after training programme (Table 1).It was observed that initially 78 per cent farmers were possessing low, 16 per cent medium and 6 per cent high level of knowledge whereas after acquiring training the values were 8 per cent for low, 10 per cent for medium and 82 per cent for high level of knowledge. Thus, indicating that there was a considerable increase in the knowledge level of farmers who attended the KVK programmes organized both on campus as well as off campus.
Table 1. Change in knowledge level of farmers before and after training.

data were presented in Table 2. It was evident that farmers take keen interest about the performance of different varieties or hybrids as well as all were knowledgeable about seed rate, bio-fertilizers and INM. On perusal of the data (Table 3), it was inferred that demonstration of various production technologies resulted in the increased level of adoption, thus confirming the notion that “Seeing is believing”. Though in the adoption of an enterprise number of factors is responsible but economic factor is the most important. In case of front line demonstrations, it was observed that farmers generally make use of all the required inputs at their plots but the method of application, dose or time of application is not as per recommendations. Most of the time farmers take advice from the fallow farmers. Hence, conductance of FLD programmes proved an important activity of the KVK and resulted in the increased adoption of the technology demonstrated. The data showed that 76.0 per cent of the farmers had low level of adoption which was increased to 84.0 per cent. Thus, it can be said

Knowledge Level Low Medium High

Before Training (%) 78 16 06

After Training (%) 08 10 82

Similarly, all the ex trainees were interviewed about individual production technology and the

Table 2. Knowledge level of farmers about package of practices of gram crop.

Sr. No 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Particular Low High Yielding varieties Land configuration Seed rate Bio fertilizers Weeding Integrated Nutrient management 08 06 14 19 17 07

Knowledge level Medium 05 13 08 06 12 10

High 87 81 78 75 71 83

Table 3. Change in adoption level of scientific cultivation of gram .

Category Low level of adoption Medium level of adoption High level of adoption

Before Training (%) 76 18 06

After Training (%) 04 12 84 47

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that overall knowledge level and adoption level of the tribal farmers about package of practices of gram had increased up to 82.0 per cent and 84.0 per cent, respectively after acquiring training at KVK, Tapi. Yield Gap Analysis of Gram Cultivation The results indicated that the highest yield in FLD plots and farmer’s plots was 22.3 q and 13.8 q/ha respectively. The average yield of gram under demonstration ranged between 17.5 q to 20.1 q/ ha during different years. The results clearly showed that due to enhanced knowledge and adoption of scientific practices, the yield of gram increased by 36.7 per cent, 45.8 per cent and 46.2 per cent over the yield obtained under farmers practices during the year 2008-09, 2009-10 and 2010-11, respectively. The above findings were in agreement with Dubey et al. (2010). Average extension gap was 5.7 q/ha which emphasized the need to educate the farmers through various extension means like FLD whereas the technology gap was 11.7 q/ha. However, it was observed that the average technology gap was narrowing down during last three years. The technology gap observed may be attributed to difference in the soil fertility status, agricultural practices, local climate conditions, rainfed agriculture and timeliness of availability of inputs. Lower the value of technology index, more is the feasibility of the technology demonstrated (Sagar and Chandra, 2004). Therefore, reduction of technology index from 48.9 per cent observed during 2008-09 to 45.0 per cent in 2010- 11 exhibited the feasibility of technology demonstrated. Thus FLD obtained a significant positive result and also provided the
Table 4. Performance of Front line demonstrations on Gram.

researchers an opportunity to demonstrate the productivity potential and profitability of the integrated nutrient management under field conditions. CONCLUSION It was noticed that knowledge level and adoption level of the tribal farmers were enhanced after imparting training and conducting FLDs by KVK scientists. KVK is working as a knowledge hub for latest agricultural technology in Tapi district. The frontline demonstration conducted on Integrated Nutrient Management in gram at farmer’s fields in Tapi district of Gujarat revealed that the farmers can get increased gram yield by following the recommended package of practices. It improved the productivity by 42.9 per cent. The productivity gain under FLD over farmer’s practice created awareness and aggravated the other farmers to adopt integrated nutrient management and high yielding variety of gram in the district. This study suggests for conducting intensive trainings, FLDs and effective use of all means of extension education to educate the gram growers for higher production of gram and to get higher net return on sustainable basis. REFERENCES
Dubey, S., Tripathy, S., Singh, P. and Sharma, R. K. 2010. Yield gap analysis of black gram production through frontline demonstration. J. Prog. Agri. 1 (1): 42-44 Sagar, R. L. and Chandra, G. 2004. Front line demonstration on sesame in West Bengal. Agricultural Extension Review. 16 (2): 7-10 Samui, S. K. Maitra, S., Roy, D. K., Mandal, A. K.and Saha, D. 2000. Evaluation of front line demonstration on groundnut. J. Indian Soc. Costal Agri. Res.. 18 (2): 180-183.

Year 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 Mean (EG) (TG) (TI)

Area No. of Demo. Yield (q/h) Highest Lowest Average 5 5 5 20.5 39 39 34 18. 18.8 20.4 22.3 19.1 16.1 18.4 19.5 13.3 17.5 19.7 20.1 42.9

FP 12.7 13.5 13.8 5.7

% increase EG 36.7 45.8 46.2 11.7 4.69 6.18 6.35 46.6

TG 12.2 11.5 11.2

TI 48.9 46.0 45.0

Extension gap= Demonstration yield- Farmers yield Technology gap = Potential yield – Demonstration yield Technology index= (Potential yield – Demonstration yield) X 100 Potential yield

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Knowledge of Dairy Farmers about Improved Animal Husbandry Practices in Kheda District of Gujarat
P. K. Sharma, B. S. Shekhawat and M. K. Chaudhary Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Dethali, Distt. Kheda-378210 (Gujarat)
ABSTRACT The present study was undertaken in Kheda district in Gujarat with the objectives to study the knowledge and socio – economic status of the dairy farmers in adoption of some improved animal husbandry practices. It was observed that 52 per cent dairy farmers belonged to middle age group, 60 per cent obtained secondary education, 80 per cent had membership of social organisation, 32 per cent possessing marginal land holding and 70 per cent were dependent upon canal irrigation. Fifty four per cent of farmers had big size family ( more than five members) whereas 60 per cent had one earning member in a family and 78 per cent were engaged in agriculture and animal husbandry. Seventy to ninety per cent of dairy farmers had high level of knowledge regarding breed improvement, nutritional management, water management, improved animal husbandry practices of milking management and disease control practices. Thus, it was concluded that dairy farmers of Kheda tehsil possessed medium to high level of knowledge regarding improved animal husbandry practices. Key words: Knowledge, Improved Animal Husbandry Practices, Socio-Economic Status, Dairy Farmers INTRODUCTION In Gujarat, dairy farming is providing subsistence to millions of small, marginal land less farmers. The milch animals are being reared mainly through the utilisation of crop residues and thus, the milk production is essentially a subsidiary activity in agriculture. There are 13,141 dairy cooperative societies with 27,16,000 members. It is a known fact that the bulk of milk production is handled by small milk producers who are illiterate and unaware of economic aspects of milk production. Therefore, there is a need for poverty alleviation through adoption of dairying as commercial enterprise. However, most of the rural farmers who keep dairy animals don’t follow the recommended package of practices of dairy management. Hence, it was felt that there is an urgent need to sensitise the dairy farmers about the scientific technologies and various interventions required in dairy production, in order to enhance milk quality and quality from dairy animals.
Corresponding author e-mail: kvkkheda@gmail.com

Keeping in view the above situation, the present study was undertaken with the objectives to study the knowledge and socio-economic status of the dairy farmers in adoption of some improved animal husbandry practices. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study was carried out in 5 villages of Kheda tehsil of Kheda district . The dairy farmers having dairying as their major or subsidiary occupation were randomly selected from the selected villages. For this purpose, a comprehensive list of dairy farmers was prepared with the help of secretaries of milk co-operative societies, artificial insemination worker and village extension worker. Thus, a total sample size of 50 respondents was taken for this study. The knowledge of an innovation is prerequisite for adoption. For measuring the knowledge regarding improved practices of animal husbandry knowledge scale was developed. On the basis of information collected for this purpose,

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respondents were classified in three groups namely high, medium and low. The data were collected through the personal interview to get first hand information and classified with the help of average, frequency and percentage. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Age The data revealed that majority of the dairy farmers belonged to middle age group (52%) followed by old age group (28%) where as only 20 per cent belonged to the young age group. This was probably due to the fact that the younger generation is less interested in taking up dairy farming as their occupation. Moreover, middle age is considered as the most productive time period in the life of an individual. These finding are similar to those reported by Toppo (2005), Bhatt (2006) and Sen (2007). Education It was found 60 per cent of the dairy farmers had obtained secondary education, where as 20 per cent and 12 per cent had primary and graduate level education respectively. Only 4 per cent people have higher education and 6 per cent of the respondents were illiterate. It was therefore, concluded that 80 per cent of the dairy farmers were having primary or secondary level of education. The probable reason might be the facility for primary to higher secondary education available at the village and the nearby cities which have encouraged the dairy farmers to study up to that level. Similar findings have been reported by Gour (2002), Bhatt (2006) and Sen (2007). Social Participation Social participation denotes that extent to which an individual is actively involved in the affairs of the community. It was observed that 80 per cent of the dairy farmers were the members of various social organisations like milk cooperatives society, gram panchayat and village cooperatives society. These findings were in agreement with those of Khokhar (2008) and in contradictions to those of Bhatt (2006). Use of information and land holding Majority of respondents using television,
50

newspaper, and poster/charts displayed in village level dairy co-operatives as a source of information of improved animal husbandry practices. Furthermore, it was noted that 36 per cent of the dairy farmers were small, 32 per cent marginal, 16 per cent medium, 6 per cent large and 10 per cent landless. Therefore, it can be said that majority (80%) of the farmers had only 1 to 4 hectares of land. This might be due to high density of population in Kheda district as well as industrialisation and urbanisation might have played an important role in reduction of per capita availability of land. These results were in agreement with Bhatt (2006) and Sen (2007). Family Size The size of family plays an important role while taking a decision regarding adoption of an innovation. It was noticed that 54 per cent of respondents had big size family with more than five members and 46 per cent of respondents had small family size (up to 5 members). It was noticed that 60 per cent families were with one earning member,28 per cent with 2 earning members and only 12 per cent families were there with more than 2 earning members. In Kheda tehsil,70 per cent farmers were dependant on canal irrigation and 3 per cent possessed own bore well whereas 6 per cent farmers were totally dependent upon annual rainfall. Occupation Occupation refers to an engagement of dairy farmers in different activities as a source of income for their livelihood. Seventy eight per cent of the dairy farmers were engaged in agriculture and animal husbandry only. The persons having agriculture, animal husbandry and government service or private employees were 4 per cent and 12 per cent were engaged in business along with agriculture and animal husbandry. Hence, it can be said that 80 per cent respondents were found to be dependent on agriculture, dairy farming and related occupations under two or three tier production system. This finding was in agreement with Gour (2002) and Sen, (2007). Herd size Herd size is the total number of animals owned by a farmers at his dairy unit. It was

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observed that 76 per cent farmers were keeping buffalo, 20 per cent rearing both a cow and buffalo and 4 per cent only cow and were not aware of the importance of crossbred cow rearing and dairy business. These findings were in contrast to those reported by Gour (2002).

Linkages with Extension Agencies It was noticed that majority of farmers were found to have contact with the officer of dairy co-operatives, subject matter specialist of K.V.K followed by government veterinary doctor and village extension workers for getting information

Table 1. Distribution of the dairy farmers according to their personal and socio- economic characteristics (n=50)

Sr. No. 1

Characteristics Age Young age(18 to 35 years) Middle age(36 to 50 years) Old age(above 50 years) Education Illiterate Primary Education Secondary Education Higher Education Graduate Membership in Social Participation Membership Use of source of information News Paper Poster/Charts Radio Television Godarshan/Krishigovidya Land Holding Landless Marginal Farmers Small Farmers Medium Holding Big Farmers Family Size Small Family (up to 5 persons) Big Family (Above5 persons) Earning members in family 1 earning member 2 earning members More than 2 members Irrigation Facility No Irrigation facility Canal and Borewell Canal Borwell Occupation Animal Husbandry Agriculture and Animal Husbandry Agriculture, Animal Husbandry and Service Agriculture, Animal Husbandry and Business No. of animals possessed Only Cow Only Buffalo Both Buffalo and Cow

Frequency 10 26 14 2 10 30 2 6 40 30 28 20 38 5 5 16 18 8 3 23 27 30 14 6 6 6 35 3 3 39 2 6 2 38 10

Percentage 20 52 28 4 20 60 4 12 80 60 56 40 76 10 10 32 36 16 6 46 54 60 28 12 12 12 70 6 6 78 4 12 4 76 20 51

2

3 4

5

6

7

8

9

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of improved animal husbandry practices. This was probably due to the fact that the farmers might have taken interest in various effective transfers of technology services provided by extension agencies of state agriculture department, Amul dairy, state animal husbandry department, veterinary college and K.V.K. Similar findings were reported by Gour (2002), and Bhatt (2006). Average performance of milch animals Six per cent farmers had local cows with 6 to 10 l/d, 4 per cent had animals up to 5 l/d. whereas 12 per cent had cross bred cows producing milk
Table 2. Linkages with extension agencies

more than 10 l/d. On the other hand 54 per cent farmers were keeping buffalo with 5 l/d followed by 30 per cent with 6 to 10 l/d and 8 per cent with more than 10 l/d. It was evident from the data ( Table4) that the knowledge level of all the farmers was quite high in terms of recommended package of practices. Only disease control and calf management were the areas where special attention was required. CONCLUSION Fifty two per cent of dairy farmers belonged to middle age group, acquired secondary

Sr. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6

Extension Worker Veterinary Officer Livestock Inspector Deputy DirectorA.H. Extension Worker SMS of KVK Officer of Dairy Co-operatives

Visited Frequency Percentage 14 2 3 14 41 41 28 4 6 28 82 82

Never Visited Frequency Percentage 36 48 47 36 9 9 72 96 94 72 18 18

Table 3. Performance of dairy animals

Sr. No. 1

Particulars Age at first calving (in years) No. of lactation (in years) Average milk production (litres/day/ animal) 0 to 3 3 to 5 Above 5 1 to 2 2.1 to 4 Above 4 Up to 5 lit. 6 to 10 lit. Above 10 lit.

Local Cow Frequency % 0 0 4 2 1 1 2 3 0 0 0 8 4 2 2 4 6 0

Crossbred Cow Frequency % 0 0 6 2 3 1 0 0 6 0 0 12 4 6 2 0 0 12

Buffalo Frequency % 1 1 36 13 18 8 27 15 4 2 2 72 26 36 16 54 30 8

2

3

Table 4. Distribution of the dairy farmers on the basis of knowledge about improved animal husbandry practices

Sr.No. Improved A.H. practices High Frequency 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 52 Breed Improvement Calf management Nutritional management Water management Animal shed management Milking management Disease control Improved reproductive practices 36 32 37 46 43 35 35 41 % 72 64 74 92 86 70 70 82

Knowledge Medium Frequency % 8 5 5 3 5 5 3 4 16 10 10 6 10 10 6 8

Low Frequency % 6 13 8 2 3 10 12 5 12 26 16 4 6 20 24 10

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education, were active members of rural social organisations, using television, newspaper and posters/charts as a source of information of improved animal husbandry practices. Most of the dairy farmers were marginal and dependent on canal irrigation, big size family and have members more than five and have one earning member in family but were found to have high level of knowledge regarding breed improvement, nutritional management and improved disease control practices.

REFERENCES
Bhatt, P.M. 2006. Effect of mass media exposure on dairy farmers regarding animal husbandry practices. Ph.D. Thesis. AAU, Anand. Sen, P.N. 2007. Management practices adopted in dairy farming by the farmers of Vadodara district of Gujarat. Ph.D. Thesis, AAU, Anand. Gour, A.K. 2002. Factors influencing adoption of some improved animal husbandry practices of dairying in Anand and Vadodara districts of Gujarat state. GAU, Sardar Krushinagar. Toppo, 2005. A study of participation and decision making of farm women in dairy occupation. M.Sc. Thesis, AAU, Anand.

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On Farm Testing and Popularization of Integrated Management Module of Apple Root Rot Under High Altitude Temperate Conditions
Z.A.Bhat, F.A. Sheikh, T. Mubarak, J. A. Bhat, M.A. Zargar, Akhlaq A. Wani, G.H. Rather and H.U. Itoo Krishi Vigyan Kendra Anantnag -192 233 (Jammu and Kashmir)
ABSTRACT White root rot caused by Dematophora necatrix is the major threat to apple in Kashmir valley especially in south Kashmir. The moist conditions of the orchards, faulty irrigation system and conversion of paddy fields into orchards were the factors found giving fillip to the disease in the area. To test and popularize the university recommended integrated disease management (IDM) module for apple root rot management, On farm research trials (OFT’s) were conducted during the kharif season of 2007-2008 in farmers participatory mode at three locations in the high altitude area of south Kashmir of Jammu and Kashmir. The experiment consisted of two treatments viz., recommended practice (Pruning of rotted roots and pasting of cut ends with a disinfectant paste + proper drainage + adding more organic matter + Basin irrigation system + drenching with carbendazim 50 WP @0.1 %) and farmers practice (which varied from location to location however, exposing the roots of affected plants to sunlight was common). The recommended practice (RP) recorded 56.6 per cent recovery percentage as against 1.66 per cent in farmers practice (FP). Survey conducted during 2010 in 40 villages of district Anantnag and Kulgam on the impact of awareness/training programmes on IDM of apple root rot revealed that out of 81 affected orchards, 60 were treated with RP which showed recovery of 51.6 per cent. Key words: Apple, Integrated management, OFT, Root rot INTRODUCTION In Kashmir, apple is grown over an area of about 132.5 thousand hectares with an annual production of 1332.8 thousand MT, constituting about 87 per cent of the total fresh fruit production of the state (Anonymous, 2010). In spite of quite conducive environmental conditions for the cultivation of apple in the valley, the yields have not been so encouraging as a result of multitude of diseases affecting the crop. Although, all the foliar disease which affect apple crop under Kashmir conditions can be managed successfully by following the spray schedule developed by the SKUAST-K, Shalimar.However, successful management of soil borne diseases is difficult task and involves integration of all available practices as the pathogen can survive and multiply in the permanent soil medium.
Corresponding author e-mail: zahoorbhat2012@gmail.com

Apple root rot caused by Rosellinia necatrix Berl. Ex Pril. (Anamorph: Dematophora necatrix Hartig), a major fungal soil borne disease under Kashmir conditions is highly destructive both in nurseries and orchards. The affected plants are killed within a short period depending upon the stage of the host and prevalent environmental conditions. The seedlings are sometimes wiped out within three weeks, whereas, the adult plants survive for 2-3 years (Sztejnberg et al., 1987). The disease symptoms are observed on the underground plant parts which give a reflection on the foliage. Initially, the rotting of the fine roots is observed which extends to secondary and tertiary roots. In advance stage, the roots are completely devoured and diseased seedlings or trees are easily uprooted from the soil. The symptoms on foliage are premature chlorosis of

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leaves, small size of leaves and fruits. The disease has been noticed for the last few years severely affecting the apple plantation in district Kulgam and realized as a major threat to apple cultivation. The disease in some villages of the district came up in severe form during 2007.The farmers used to follow traditional methods like exposing the roots for longer period to sunlight which could not help in recovering the affected plants. Further this practice sometimes aggravated the problem due to accumulation of rain water in the dugout portion. Keeping in view the importance of apple crop and the threat caused due to the disease in its profitable production, on farm trial on the management of this disease was conducted during 2008 and 2009 in order to test the IDM module for the management of the disease under microclimatic conditions of the area.

Farmers’ practice (FP): Exposing the roots of affected plants to sunlight University Recommended IDM Practice (RP): Pruning of rotted roots and pasting of cut ends with a disinfectant paste + proper drainage + changing of texture of clayed soil by adding more organic matter + basin irrigation system + drenching with carbendazim 50 WP @0.1 % The treated plants were kept under observation and plants which did not show any symptoms of root rot during next year cropping season, were treated as recovered plants and those which got killed or showed root rot symptoms again, as unrecovered. To popularise the IDM technology in the district, awareness/training camps and TV talks were organized in the area. The farmers were demonstrated the proper methods of fungicide drenching, drainage and basin irrigation system. Diagnostic visits in the affected areas were carried out for timely diagnosis and management of the disease. To assess the impact of these awareness/ training programs, 100 orchards belonging to 40 villages of district Anantnag and Kulgam were randomly selected. The number of affected orchards treated with RP, number of plants affected and recovery percentage of treated plants was recorded. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Fig. 1. Adoptation of IDM module of apple root rot

MATERIALS AND METHODS On-farm research trials (OFT’s) on the management of root rot disease of apple were designed and conducted in farmer’s participatory mode during year 2008 and 2009 at three different locations viz., Sehpora, Nilow and Pombay, selected from the badly hit areas. Twenty root rot affected plants were selected at each location. Ten plants which served as check were treated with farmers practice and ten plants with recommended IDM practice for apple root rot developed by SKUAST-Kashmir. The details of treatments were as under:
Treatments

The interaction with the orchardists and on the spot examination of affected orchards, revealed following factors responsible for the outbreak of the disease. Factors Responsible For Disease Development Establishment of apple orchards on paddy fields: Majority of the orchards established in the district were having the previous history of paddy cultivation. In case of paddy fields hard pan of soil is developed by puddling to retain the water for longer duration. Water retention for longer

Table 1. Results of OFT’s on integrated management of root rot of apple

Recovery Percentage of root rot affected plants at village Sehpora Nilow Pombay Mean Pooled Mean 2008 2009 2008 2009 2008 2009 2008 2009 0.0 60 0.0 50 0.0 60 0.0 40 0.0 70 10 60 0.0 63.3 3.3 50 1.65 56.6 55

Farmers’ practice (FP) Recommended practice (RP)

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duration in the root zone of apple predisposes the apple roots to the invasion by the root rot pathogen. Poor drainage of the orchards: Most of the affected orchards were having poor drainage and retained the irrigation and rain water for longer duration. Recommendations for improvement of drainage system by making drainage channels as per the field conditions were given. Intercropping with Vegetables: Many affected orchards were intercropped with vegetables. Frequent irrigation of vegetables in these orchards created moist conditions in the vicinity of apple trees and thus helped in pathogen invasion. Intercropping with pulse crops was recommended as they require less water. All the above factors were found to prolong moist conditions in the orchards which favours invasion of roots by the pathogen. Sztejnberg (1998) reported that the high ambient moisture conditions favours rapid growth and development of root rot pathogen. Faulty irrigation system: Farmers followed flood irrigation system to irrigate orchards which

not only helps in maintaining the moist conditions for prolonged time but also helps in spread of the disease. Anselmi and Giorceli (1990) demonstrated that R. necatrix can be dispersed by irrigation water. Farmers were advised to follow improved irrigation methods like basin/ ring irrigation. Procurement of saplings from the unregistered and unreliable sources: Saplings for the establishment of new orchards and for filling the gaps were procured from unregistered nurseries located in low lying areas where chances of root rot infection of the saplings are higher. There is every possibility that introduction of these saplings in the orchards might have brought the innoculum in the orchards which then spread through irrigation water and caused the invasion of healthy plants. Non availability of standardized rootstocks: Most of the nursery growers in the district use seeds of red delicious variety for raising root stocks which is susceptible to root rot disease.

Table 2. Success rate of the IDM technology in managing the root rot disease of apple

Name of the village Arreh Beigam Kulgam Bumrath Chaugalpora Manzgam Kulgam Chawagam Kulgam Gadihama Kulgam Galwanpora Manzgam Kulgam Gopalpora Gudar Harveth Kulgam Manzgam Kulgam Mirhama Kulgam Modergam Kulgam Mohanpora Kulgam Mohipora Kulgam Nilow Kulgam Odura Kulgam Parivan Kulgam Pombay Kulgam Sallar Anantnag Samnoo Nihama Kulgam Sehpora Kulgam Shus Kulgam Waky Kulgam Total 56

Number of affected orchards 3 3 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 3 5 9 1 1 3 7 1 6 2 1 3 1 2 60

No. of plants affected 7 9 2 4 23 3 5 5 3 3 11 13 35 3 3 27 12 5 25 33 5 42 2 5 285

No. of Plants Recovered 4 3 1 2 13 2 3 3 1 2 5 7 11 1 2 15 7 3 13 19 2 25 1 2 147

Recovery (%) 57.1 33.3 50.0 50.0 56.5 66.6 60.0 60.0 33.3 66.6 45.4 53.8 31.4 33.3 66.6 55.5 58.3 60.0 52.0 57.5 40.0 59.5 50.0 40.0 51.6

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On Farm Trials (OFT’s) The results of OFT’s (Table 1) revealed that the plants treated with the RP showed average recovery percentage of 56.6 as against 1.7 per cent in case of FP. The recovery percentage with the RP was highest at Pombay during 2008 and lowest at Nilow during 2009. There was 0 per cent recovery at all the locations with farmers practice except 10 per cent recovery at Pombay during 2009. The difference in the recovery percentage in RP may be attributed to the variable stages of tree damage. The higher recovery of affected plants due to RP as compared to FP was assigned to better drainage and irrigation system and curative action of carbendazim drenching. Herrera and Bonilla (2007) reported that under in vitro conditions, carbedazim 50 WP (@0.1 %) inhibited mycelia growth of R. necatrix by 97.0 per cent. Carbendazim 50 WP (@0.1%) in combination with Enterobacter aerogenes, showed 92.0 per cent apple root rot control in pot experiment (Gupta and Sharma, 2004). Sousa (1985) observed both preventive as well as curative effects of carbendazim against apple root rot disease. Popularization/ Adaptation of IDM of Apple Root Rot Results of the survey conducted in 40 villages of district Anantnag and Kulgam revealed that 81.0 orchards were affected with root rot out of which 60.0 (285.0 plants) were treated with RP (Fig 1) which showed overall recovery of 51.6 per cent (table 2). The recovery percentage was highest (66.6) at Gadihama, Harveth and Mohipora followed by Galwanpora, Gopalpora and Pariwan (60.0) and lowest at Modergam (31.4) (Table 2). The difference in recovery at different locations with RP was again attributed to varied degree of root damage.

CONCLUSION Root rot is the most destructive disease of apple and major threat to apple cultivation in Kashmir valley. Like other soil borne diseases management of this disease is difficult once the plants get infected. Further, the disease is manifested as above ground symptoms after few years of infection when damage is already done to roots. Although the integrated management developed by the SKUAST-Kashmir has been successful in recovering some affected plants, however, the management of the disease is difficult task and expensive. Therefore, preventive measures especially avoiding the establishment of apple orchards on paddy land, need to be taken to avoid the conditions favourable for development of the disease. Keeping in view the economic importance of the disease and higher cost involved in management of the disease there is urgent need to evaluate and find resistant to moderately resistant rootstocks against the disease under Kashmir conditions. REFERENCES
Anonymous 2010. Digest of Statistics, Directorate of Economics & Statistics, Government of Jammu & Kashmir pp-117-19. Anselmi, N. and Giorcelli, A. 1990. I maciumi radicali del pioppo Rosellinia necatrix Prill. Informatore Fitopatologico 40:4552. Gupta, V.K. and Sharma, K. 2004. Integration of chemicals and biocontrol agents for managing white root rot of apple. Acta Horticulturae 635:141-50. Herrera, C.J.Z. and Bonilla, T.Z. 2007. Effects of benomyl, carbendazim, fluazinam and thiophanate methyl on white root rot of avocado. Crop Protection 26:1186-1192. Sousa, A.J.T.D. 1985. Control of Rosellinia necatrix causal agent of white root rot, susceptibility of several plant species and chemical control. European Journal of Plant Pathology 15: 323-32 Sztejnberg, A. 1998. Rosellinia (Dematophora) Root Rot In: “Compendium of tropical fruit diseases” (eds. Ploetz, R.C., Zentmyer, G.A., Nishijima, W.T., Rohrbach, K.G. and Ohr, H.D), APS Press, St. Paul, MN., USA, PP 80-81. Sztejnberg ,A., Freeman, S., Chet, I. and Katan, J. 1987. Control of Rosellinia necatrix in soil and in apple orchard by solarization and Trichoderma harzianum. Plant Disease 71: 365-69.

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Performance of Fruit set, Yield and different Attributes of Kiwi Fruit Varieties under West Kameng District of Arunachal Pradesh
N. D. Singh, T. S. Mishra and A. K. Singh Krishi Vigyan Kendra West Kameng, Dirang 792 104 (Arunachal Pradesh)
ABSTRACT An experiment was conducted to evaluate five varieties of Kiwi viz. Allison, Bruno, Hayward, Monty and Abbott at Dirang, Bomdila and Salari areas under the district in the year 2011-12. 50 per cent leafing was observed after 87, 72, 78, 82,83 days in Abbott, Bruno, Monty, Hayward and Allison varieties respectively after pruning in the first day of February. The 50 per cent flowering was observed in Bruno in 42 days and the Hayward taking the longest time of 46 days. Bruno and Abbott varieties took 14 days to fruit set after flowering while minimum days for fruit set (13 days ) was recorded in Allison. The maximum number of fruits per variety, average weight of fruits, fruit yield per plant, number of fruits per plant and fruit yield per ha, highest T.S.S. were recorded in Allison variety. Higher fruit diameter and maturity days were observed in Bruno. Highest fruit length was recorded in Hayward variety. The higher score for appearance, taste, flavour and over all acceptability was accorded to Allison followed by Hayward. Thus, on the basis of yield, taste, flavour and overall acceptability, Allison is the best under West Kameng district of Arunachal Pradesh, India. Key words: Fruit set, Yield, Kiwi, Variety, Arunachal Pradesh. INTRODUCTION Kiwi fruit (Actinidia deliciosa chev.) is a unique and delicious fruit among temperate fruits having high vitamin ‘C’ (80-100 Mg/100g) and Vitamin ‘A’ (175 I.U/100g) content. Kiwi fruit though being introduced very lately in the year 2000, is gaining popularity in the mid- hill parts of Arunachal Pradesh. The crop though being a new entrant in the area is luring the attention of farmers owing to its high returns per unit area, easy management and its resistance to number of pests and diseases. It was however grown since long on commercial basis in other parts of the country like Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Uttrakhand, Meghalaya, Nagaland, and Nilgiri hills of south India etc. A warm subtemperate climate with an annual precipitation of 100-150 cm is the prerequisite for ideal Kiwi cultivation. The West Kameng District of the state Arunachal Pradesh located at 910 30" to 920 40" E longitudes and 260 54" to 28 01" N latitudes with its unique and diverse topography and
Corresponding author e-mail: ndsingh62kvk@gmail.com

climatic condition harbors different varieties of temperate fruits. The kiwi fruit is a healthy choice among fruits as it prevents asthma, wheezing and coughing, especially in children, protects our DNA from mutations, provides a healthy amount of antioxidants and vitamins and helps prevent colon cancer due to its high fiber content. Ripe fruits are being utilized in the preparation of jam and kiwi juice. A judicious pruning is required every year to regulate vegetative growth and fruiting as fruiting occurs only from current growth which arises from a bud development of the previous season. An essential management practice is to undertake summer pruning which involves removal of current year’s growth as it affects the vegetative growth of the plant and modifies plant to fruit ratio, bud number and microclimate within the canopy Taylor and Ferree (1986). Therefore, the present investigation was undertaken with an objective to find out the suitable variety having higher yield and T.S.S as well as with better

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chemical properties, qualities and acceptability among consumers. MATRIALS AND METHODS The investigation was carried out on 6 (six) years old plant of kiwi fruit cv. Hayward, Allison, Abbott, Bruno and Monty planted at a spacing of 4m x6m and trained on T-bar trellis system during 2011-2012. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design with three different replications. Three plants of each variety from every replication were randomly selected for observation on fruit set, yield and yield parameters. The total soluble solids were determined by hand refractometer. The statistical analysis was done as per procedure described by Panse and Sukhatme (1985). RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The lowest number of days to 50 per cent leafing after pruning was recorded in Bruno 72 days and while Abbott took 87 days to reach 50 per cent leafing stage. The 50 per cent flowering was attained in Bruno in 41 days and the maximum number of days (46 days) to 50 per cent flowering were recorded in Hayward (Table 1). The lowest days of fruit set were recorded in Allison 13 days and highest days of fruit set were

recorded in Bruno 14 days. Significantly, highest length of fruit was recorded in Hayward 6.05cm and lowest length of fruit in Bruno 5.28cm. The highest width of fruit was recorded in Bruno 4.57cm and lowest width of fruit was recorded in Allison 3.73cm. The fruit weight was maximum in Hayward 73.18 gm and it was minimum in Monty 48.96 gm. Non significantly, the lowest days (172 days ) of maturity were recorded in Abbott and highest days to maturity (176 days) in Allison. The highest days of ripening were recorded in Allison 197 days and lowest days of ripening were recorded in Hayward 189 days. The variation in fruit diameter, fruit length and pulp thickness might be based on the fact that every genotypes has its own nature in development of fruits which may be varied due to various physiological phenomenon, viz. photosynthetic efficiency, rate of translocation of photosynthesis from source to sink and photo-respiration that takes place in the plant body Dinesh et al (2000). The total soluble solids were found in Allison followed by Hayward, whereas minimum T.S.S was found in Abbott. The variation in TSS in varieties might be due to their genetic makeup and the nature of the variety which govern the chemical composition of the fruits. These results are in accordance with the finding of Chandel et

Table 1: Days taken to 50 per cent leafing and 50 per cent flowering different varieties

Treatment V-1: Allison V2: Bruno V3: Hayward V4: Monty V5: Abbott CD 0.05

50% leafing (in days) 83 72 82 78 87 NS

50% flowering ( in days) 43 41 46 42 44 NS

Total flower (in days) 50 500 52 47 52 NS

Table 2: Physico-chemical properties, yield attributes and yields of different Kiwi varieties

Treatment

Fruit set Fruit Fruit (days) maturity ripening (days) (days) 13.60 14.20 13.40 13.80 14.20 NS 176.80 175.80 172.20 176.00 172.00 NS 197.00 191.80 189.40 190.40 191.80 NS

Fruit Fruit Fruit length diameter weight (cm) (cm) (gm) 5.52 5.28 6.05 5.32 5.52 0.5 3.73 4.57 3.42 3.95 3.98 0.24 51.12 64.27 73.18 48.96 52.86 12.15

T.S.S

Yield per plant (kg) 54.40 27.87 35.18 44.33 42.37 NS

Yield (q/ha). 226.84 116.21 146.70 184.86 176.68 NS

V-1: Allison V2: Bruno V3: Hayward V4: Monty V5: Abbott CD 0.05

8.60 7.62 8.52 8.00 6.51 NS

* **Significant at 5% and 1% levels. NS = Non significant, TSS = Total soluble solids

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al (2004). The highest number of fruits per plant, yield per plant and fruit yield per hectare were given by Allison. The lowest values of these parameters were observed in Bruno among evaluated varieties. The variations in yield attributes of Kiwi might be due to various physiological phenomenon, viz. photosynthetic from source to sink and photo-respiration that took place in the plant body and different genetic constitution of varieties, which are responsible for expression of genetic characters under a particular set of environment. Moreover, yield performance of any variety is considered as a cumulative effect of yield attributes Marini et al (1982). The maximum average yield per plant, yield per ha and over all acceptability was recorded to Allison followed by Hayward, Bruno, Monty and Abbott (Table 2). CONCLUSION Based on the parameters of the experiment carried out in five different varieties of the fruit in a fruiting season in the trail area, the highest score

for appearance, taste, flavour, fruits per variety, yield per plant, and maximum yield per hectare was recorded in Allison followed by Hayward. Thus, based on the overall performance among the five varieties Allison is recommended as to be the ideal variety suitable in the district of West Kameng in Arunachal Pradesh. REFERENCES
Chandel, J.S., Bharti, O.A. and Rana, R.K.2004. Effect of pruning severity on growth, yield and fruit quality of kiwifruit (Actinidiadeliciosachev.) Indian J Hort 61: 114-17. Dinesh, M.R.,Reddy, B.M.C. and Reena, N.A. 2000. Varietal improvement of Papaya. J Appl Hort 2: 121-23. Marini, R.P. and Barden, J.A. 1982. Yield, fruit size and quality of three apple cultivars as influenced by summer or dormant pruning. J American Soc Hort Sci 107: 474-79. Panse, V.G. and Sukhatme, P.V. 1985. Statistical method for Agricultural Workers, Indian council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi, pp.145-48. Taylor, R.H. and Ferree, 1986. The influence of summer pruning and fruit cropping on the carbohydrate, nitrogen, and nutrient composition of apple trees. J American Soc Hort Sci 111: 342-46.

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Reaction of Farm Women about the Self Help group in Navasari District of Gujarat
R. M. Naik, G.G. Chauhan, M. R. Prajapati and C.S. Desai Krishi Vigyan Kendra Navsari - 396 450 (Gujarat)
ABSTRACT A total of 120 farm women belonging to 40 self help groups located in 8 different villages were selected randomly for the collection of required information for the study. It was observed that rural women were able to increase their savings and income with the help of SHGs. The study emphasizes the importance of the self help promoting institutions like banks and the NGOs. The NGO intervention was the major motivating factor for the women to join the SGHs. The women opined that these institutions were initiators for starting income generating activities and their guidance is needed for the smooth functioning of SHGs. Therefore, there is a need to encourage and establish SHGs in all the villages for the betterment of poor particularly the women. Keywords: Farm Women, SHG, Empowerment, Banks, INTRODUCTION A self-help group (SHG) is a village-based financial intermediary usually composed of 10– 20 local women from a similar class and region, who come together to form savings and credit organization. Many self-help groups, especially in India, under NABARD’s SHG-bank-linkage program, borrow from banks once they have accumulated a base of their own capital and have established a track record of regular repayments. This model has attracted attention as a possible way of delivering services to poor populations that have been difficult to reach directly through banks or other institutions. It is worth to mention that by aggregating their individual savings into a single deposit, SHG minimize the bank’s transaction costs and generate an attractive volume of deposits. Through, SHGs, the bank can serve small rural depositors while paying them a market rate of interest. The major benefit of becoming a member of SHG is that an economically poor individual gains strength as part of a group. Similarly, borrowers as part of an SHG cut down expenses on travel (to and from the branch and other places) for completing paper work and on the loss of workdays in canvassing for loans. Members make small regular savings contributions over a few months until there is
Corresponding author e-mail: chaksdesai@yahoo.co.in

enough capital in the group to begin lending. Funds may then be lent back to the members or to others in the village for any purpose. The approach combines access to low-cost financial services with a process of self management and development for the women who are SHG members. The SHGs’ are implemented with support of Non-governmental Organizations (NGOs) and banks. The present study was undertaken with a view to assess the reaction of farm women who were the members of various self help groups working in the district in order to know their socio economic status as well as facilities available to them. Other objectives were to study the general characteristic features of the members, the loan availed by the members and their savings position, factors motivating the members to join the SHGs and to elucidate the opinion of the members regarding the micro financial institutions. MATERIALS AND METHODS Primary data were collected through personal interview method from the SHG members with the help of a well structured and pre-tested schedule developed by KVK. Vansda Taluka was purposefully selected. Based on the highest number of self help groups operating, eight

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Table 1. General characteristics of the respondents (n = 120)

Sr. No. Category Number 1 Age a. Young (18-35 years) b. Middle (36-50 years) c. Old (Above 50) Marital Status a. Married b. Unmarried c. Widow Educational qualification a. Illiterate b. Primary education (1-4) c. Secondary education (5-12) d. College Family type a. Joint Family b. Nuclear family Caste a. SC b. ST c. SEBC 47 65 08 87 23 10 14 25 38 43 18 102 30 32 58

Respondents Percentage 39.1 54.2 6.7 72.5 19.2 8.3 11.7 20.8 31.7 35.8 15.0 85.0 25.0 26.7 48.3

2

3

4

5

villages were selected purposively from the Taluka for the study. Five SHGs from each village which carried out income generating activities were purposively selected. Thus a total 120 farm women from 40 SHGs with three members from each SHG were selected randomly for the collection of required information for the study. To know about the functioning of SHGs and Bank / NGO, the respondents were asked to give their reaction on a 3 point continuum scale i.e., Yes (3), Partly (2) and No (1). The data were classified based on frequencies and percentage. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Characteristics of the Members of Self-Help Groups The
Table 2

information

on

socio-economic

characteristics of rural women of self help group like age, marital status, educational qualification, family type, caste were presented in Table 1. It was found that majority of the members (54.1%) belonged to middle aged group and 39.1 per cent of the members belonged to the young age group. The women of middle age were more efficient and responsible than their younger counter parts. The results were in agreement with the findings of Joseph and Easwaran (2006). Marital status of the women indicated that 72.5 per cent of the members were married as most of women belonged to the middle age (36-50 years). Women tend to leave their village (home town) once they got married and as SHGs are a long-term activity and leaving the group in between could affect its progress. About 8.3 per cent of members were widows and the SHG movement could thereby

Factors motivating the members to join SHG (n = 120)

Sr. No. Factor 1 2 3 4 5 6 62 NGO intervention Emulation of others SHG Initiation by other agencies SHG is a good means to save money The intention to start income generating activity To gain social status by being a part of the group

Frequency(no. of members) 98 48 14 68 72 54

Percentage 81.6 40.0 11.6 56.6 60.0 45.0

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Table 3. Details of loan availed and savings of the sample members (n=120) (in Rs.)

Sr. No. Particular 1 Loan i. SHG (since inception) ii. Bank Savings / year I. SHG

Total Amount(Rs)

Average amount per member(Rs) 2360 18,184 1404

2,83240/21,82,056/1,68,432/-

2

make them self reliant and self sufficient. Majority of the members were educated due to the education facilities available in the district. Educated women proved as an asset to the groups as they take care of the maintenance of all records and documents of the group. It was noticed that 85 per cent of the members belonged to nuclear family and only 15 per cent belonged to joint family. Majority of the members belonged to the SCBC caste category (48.3 %) followed by scheduled tribe category (26.6 %) who are the economically suppressed class. SHGs encourage and aim at improvement of their living status and encourage persons living below poverty line to join SHG. Table 2 showed that the majority of the members (81.6 %) opined NGO intervention as the major motivating factor. This was followed by the members’ intention to start income generating activities which needs investment. About 56.6 per cent of the members opined that they joined SHG as it is a good means to save money and it might be because their money can be saved in smaller amount/thrifts on weekly basis. Emulation of other SHG and to gain social status was also opined as factors, which motivated 40 per cent and 45 per cent of the members,
Table 4. Opinion of beneficiaries about bank / NGO (n=120)

respectively. Loan Availed and Savings of the Members The amount of loan availed and the savings of members in SHGs is presented in Table 3. The total loan availed by SHG members since inception was Rs. 2, 83,240/- and average amount to each member was Rs. 2,360/-. The loan availed from bank was Rs. 21, 82,057/- and average amount for each member was Rs. 18,184/-. The members collected their savings in each week and most of the members contributed on the fixed day. Average amount of savings per member was Rs. 1,404/-. Opinion of Beneficiaries About Bank / NGO Majority of the members opined as yes with respect to ease in getting loan collectively. Nearly 61.6 per cent of the members opined partly with respect to the repayment were easy due to collective responsibility (Table 4). Regarding the adequacy of amount of loan sanctioned by the bank to perform the activities, 74.1 per cent of the members opined as partly. About fifty two per cent of the members opined as ‘partly’ with respect to better supervision by bank / NGO which will avoid mis-utilization of loan. About 57.5 per cent of the members opined that Bank / NGO staff

Sr. No. Opinion F 1 2 3 4 5 6 4 7

Yes % F

Partly % 16.6 61.6 43.3 74.1 45.0 45.0 57.5

No F 2 2 38 3 24 62 8 % 1.6 1.6 31.6 2.5 20.0 51.6 6.6

It is easy to get loan collectively 98 81.6 Easy for repayment due to collective responsibility 44 36.6 Rate of interest if lower than SHG loan 30 25.0 Amount sanctioned by the bank is adequate to 28 23.3 perform the activities Available of technical guidance 42 35.0 Better supervision by the Bank / NGO staff avoids misutilization of loan 3.3 Bank / NGO staff gives clear guidance about the scheme 43 35.8

20 74 52 89 54 54 69

F = Frequency (number of members)

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Table 5. Opinion of beneficiaries about SHG.

Sr. No. Opinion F 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Timely and convenient to get credit Repayment terms are easy The Scheme is beneficial No exploitation in money lending Lower interest rate Easy procedure in advancing Increased social participation Helps in overall development of family Willingness to continue as members of SHG? 87 42 68 3 105 20 88 76 96

Yes % 72.5 38.3 56.6 2.5 87.5 16.6 73.3 63.3 80.0 F 30 74 46 37 10 91 12 18 24

Partly % 25.0 61.6 38.3 30.8 8.3 75.3 10.0 15.0 20.0 F 3 4 6 80 5 9 20 26 0

No % 2.5 3.3 5.0 66.6 4.1 7.5 16.6 21.6 0.0

partly gave clear guidance about the scheme. The NGO and bank were initiators for starting income generating activities and formation of SHGs and the clear guidance is very much needed. Reaction of Beneficiaries about SHG Seventy three per cent of the members opined that SHG provided timely and convenient credit to the members ( Table 5). About 61.6 per cent of the members opined that the repayment terms were easy and 66.5 per cent of the members opined that there was no exploitation in money lending, as the members themselves were involved in lending activities. The scheme proved beneficial to members in a number of ways as it increased social as well as economic empowerment of farm women. About 87.5 per cent of the members informed that the interest rate was less as compared to interest rates of money lenders and other informal sources. Seventy six per cent members opined that the procedure to get advance money was easy in the SHGs. Hence, the existence of SHGs had increased their social participation, attended meetings and programmes conducted for the social welfare of the people. Similarly, 63.3 per cent members were of the view that SHGs had helped in the overall development of the family. Majority of the members (80.0 %) informed that

they were willing to continue as members of SHG which indicates that the members were highly benefited by the activities of SHGs working in the study area. CONCLUSION It can be concluded from the present study that majority of the members join SHGs because of NGO intervention. Most of them opined yes in terms of getting loan collectively and repayment was easy because of collective responsibility. SHGs provided timely and convenient credit to the members and repayment terms were also easy. The interest rate in SHGs compared to interest rates of money lenders and other informal sources was also low. Linked not only to banks but also to wider development programmes, SHGs are seen to confer many benefits, both economic and social. SHGs enable women to grow their savings and to access the credit which banks are increasingly willing to lend. Purpose of SHGs is to make women economically independent and to increase their funds so that they should start any enterprise. So, majority of the members were willing to continue as members of SHGs as they not only to increase their family income but also for overall development of family. REFERENCES
Joseph, L. and Easwaran, K. 2006. SHGs and tribal development in Mozoeam, Kurukshetra 54(3): 37-48.

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Recycling of Hair (Saloon Waste) by Vermicomposting Technology
Kamla Kanwar and S.S. Paliyal CSKHPKV, Hill Agricultural Research and Extension Centre, Dhaulakuan, District Sirmour 173001 (Himachal Pradesh)
ABSTRACT An experiment on recycling of saloon wastes (hair) by vermicomposting has been completed successfully at CSKHPKV, HAREC, Dhaulakuan, District Sirmour (HP) during summer months of May to August, 2010. A good quality compost was obtained in about hundred days using 1 kg culture of African Red Worms (Eudrilus eugeniae), a widely adapted species of earthworms in 10x3x2 ft surface vermibeds of cow dung and human hair mixed in 2:1 (v/v) ratio. These were sprinkled with water twice a week at alternate days. pH and temperature were recorded at weekly interval. The physico-chemical properties and nutritional status of human hair vermicompost, the final product was found equivalent to that of general vermicompost. Key words: Saloon Waste, Hair, Vermicompost, Earthworm. INTRODUCTION Earthworms, the lowly and timid worms are physically an aerator, crusher and mixer; chemically a degrader and biologically a stimulator in the decomposing system. Earthworms are natural bioreactor and their activity stimulates the rate of decomposition of organic residues by means of increasing both the surface area and aeration of the substrate (Sharma et al.2004; Lodha, 2007). Due to that, vermicomposting technology has emerged as an efficient, eco-friendly waste management technique wherein earthworms are used as natural bio-reactors for the production of manure as well as cleaning up the environment. In barber shops / beauty saloons, huge quantity of wastes especially hair, are produced daily that is usually put in garbage and ultimately ends up in landfills. The disposal of these hair is a big problem as they do not decompose easily because it takes hundreds of years to decompose when buried in the soil and when happen to decompose in landfills, it increases the probability of nitrate leaching into the ground water (Zheljazkov, 2005). Burning of hair results in toxic elements which cause allergies and pollute the environment (Kohli (2008). Hair contains keratin, a fibrous structural protein that is hard and
Corresponding author e-mail: sukhdev.paliyal@yahoo.co.in

insoluble in most substances. Keratin makes it difficult for hair to decompose easily. According to Kohli (2008), an enzyme present in the gut of the earthworm breaks down keratin. In this context, an experiment on recycling of saloon wastes i.e. hair by vermin-composting has been completed successfully at CSKHPKV, HAREC, Dhaulakuan during summer months of May to August, 2010 where a good quality compost was obtained within a period of about hundred days. Besides producing useful organic fertilizer, vermicomposting helps in improving environment quality, reducing health hazards and providing employment and income to many. MATERIALS AND METHODS Cow dung and saloon wastes i.e. human hair in the ratio of 2:1 (v/v) were used to prepare vermibeds. A simple bed of 3 feet wide and 10 feet long on the plain surface of earth was prepared. On the surface 4-5 inch layer of dry leaves and straw was spread. Above this, cow dung layer of 4-5 inches was spread. This layer was followed by spreading of vermiculture (Eudrilus eugeniae). Then layers of saloon waste i.e. hairs and cow dung were spread alternately till the heap becomes 2.5 feet high. About 1 kg of vermiculture was used in a 10x3x2.5 feet sized vermibed. Then

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Saloon waste (Hair)

Vermiculture (Eudrilus eugeniae)

Earthworms feeding on Saloon waste

Vermibeds of Saloon waste

the whole bed was covered with dry leaves and straw etc. A thatched roof was made above the heaps. The beds were sprinkled with water at alternate days. The whole material was converted into vermicompost in about hundred days. The worms and the vermicompost were separated by disturbing and reshaping the beds into narrow vertical heaps. The pH, OC and total nutrients were determined by following standard methods of analysis. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION During the initial stages of vermi composting, the pH (8.5) as well as temperature (48oC) of the beds were high which decreased with the passage of time under normal weather conditions (Fig. 1). At the harvesting stage, temperature of the heap was stabilized to the atmospheric temperature (31oC) and pH near neutrality (7.1). When pH and temperature stabilization occur, it shows the
66

harvesting stage of vermicompost. The initial increase in temperature may be due to the heat of combustion of organic materials, while the production of organic acids during the initial stages of vermicomposting causes further acidification (pH 4.5-5.0) (Brady, 1990). Similar findings have also been reported by Sharma et al. (2004) while studying the changes during vermicomposting of Lantana and Parthenium weeds in combination with cow dung. Vermi compost produced is rich in nutrients (Table 1) and nutrient composition varies with the substrate used for vermi composting. In general, the vermicompost produced from human hair was almost equivalent to that of cow dung alone except some secondary and micronutrients. The Ca contents of human hair vermicompost were found to be double than the concentration in the cow dung vermicompost, whereas the cow dung vermicompost was almost three times richer in Fe and Zn and twice in Cu

Journal of Krishi Vigyan

Fig. 1. Weekly temperature and pH of the vermicompost beds of human hair
Table 1. Chemical properties of vermicompost prepared from saloon waste

Particulars pH Organic Carbon (%) Nitrogen (%) Phosphorus (%) Potassium (%) C:N Calcium (%) Magnesium (%) Iron (%) Zinc (%) Copper (%) Manganese (%)

Vermicompost from cow dung alone 7.3 19 0.60 0.5 0.5 31.5:1 0.22 0.34 0.096 0.092 0.37 0.06

Vermicompost from saloon waste + cow dung (1:2 v/v) 7.1 15 0.5 0.52 0.6 30:1 0.42 0.37 0.029 0.028 0.20 0.045

than human hair vermicompost. These findings corroborate with those of Zheljazkov (2005). The waste material ingested by the earthworms undergoes bio-chemical changes leading to the cast containing plant nutrients and growth promoting substances in an assimilated form. This higher level of nutrients also contributed by the enzymatic and microbial activity of the

earthworms. Addition of cow dung as a palatable substrate accelerated the breakdown of organic wastes resulting in the reduction of C: N ratio by increasing certain nutrients. The C:N ratio is one of the most widely utilized parameters to follow the development of material undergoing a composting or vermicomposting process, and it varies remarkably depending on the feedstock and
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by itself can hardly give reliable indications of compost maturity. Though the stability and maturity degrees of a given vermicompost are usually inferred from the quantity and quality of the humic substances in the resulting compost. The composting process typically reduces the pH of the end product and the compost acts like a buffer in soil. Muthukumarasamy et al. (1997) and Parthasarathi and Ranganathan (2000) also observed increased nutrient contents of vermicompost obtained from pressmud, bigasse and coir waste and Lodha (2007) in municipal solid waste. Total organic carbon decreased with time and lost as carbon- dioxide while total nitrogen increased as a result of carbon loss (Crawford, 1983). However, ordinary composting for such wastes takes a long time (years together) where vermicomposting is very effective for such wastes and is completed in about three and half months. The maturity of vermicompost can be judged by physical appearance as well chemical parameters. One maturity the vermi compost becomes soft, spongy and dark brown in colour with no smell. It should also be free from pathogonic microbes. CONCLUSION Vermi composting technology was found to be cost effective and eco-friendly in converting the saloon waste i.e. human hair into a useful manure which otherwise is a pollution hazard.

The final product was neutral in reaction and its nutrient concentration was almost equivalent to general vermi compost. REFERENCES
Brady, N.C. 1990. Nature and Properties of Soils (10th edition). MacMillan Publishing Company, New York pp 510-512. Crawford, J.H. 1983. Review of composting. Process of Biochemistry. 8: 14-15. Kohli, R. K. 2008. No hair- raising experiences this; courtesy earthworms, hair, weed easily converted to manure. Down To Earth, August 16-31, 2008. pp 40. Lodha, B. (2007). Effect of maturity and nutritional parameters during vermicomposting of municipal solid waste. International J. of Environmental Technology and Management 7 (3-4): 454-463. Sharma, V., Kanwar, K and Dev, S.P. 2004. Efficient recycling of obnoxious weed plants (Lantana camara L.) and congress grass (Parthenium hysterophorus L.) as organic manure through vermicomposting. J. of Indian Society of Soil Science 52 (1) : 112-14 Parthasarathi, K. and Ranganathan, L. S. 2000. Aging effect on enzyme activities in pressmud vermicasts of Lampito mauritii (Kinberg) and Eudrilus eugeniae (Kinberg). Biology and Fertility of Soils 30: 347-50. Muthukumarasamy, R., Revathi, G., Murthy, V., Mala, S. R., Vedivelu, M. and Solayappan, R. 1997. An alternative carrier material for bio-fertilizers. Co-operative Sugar 28: 677- 80 Sharma, V., Kanwar, K and Dev, S.P. (2004). Efficient recycling of obnoxious weed plants (Lantana camara L.) and congress grass (Parthenium hysterophorus L.) as organic manure through vermicomposting. J. of Indian Society of Soil Science 52 (1) : 112-114. Zheljazkov, V.D. (2005). Assessment of wool and hair waste as soil amendment and nutrient source. J. of Environment Quality 34: 2310-2317.

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Review of Factors affecting the Adoption of Drip Irrigation Technology
Mahendra Kumar and R. C. Jitarwal Krishi Vigyan Kendra Maulasar, Nagaur 341 001 (Rajsthan)
ABSTRACT The study was conducted on 240 respondents of four panchayat samities of Jaipur and two of Sikar districts of Rajasthan. Two gram panchayat samities from each panchayat samities were selected to know the factors which hinders the adoption of drip irrigation technology. It was concluded that economic motivation, size of land holding, mass media exposure and socioeconomic status were found positively and significantly associated with the extent of adoption of drip irrigation by the farmers while irrigation potentiality found negatively associated with the adoption of drip irrigation technology. Experience in farming was non-significantly associated with the adoption of drip irrigation technology. Key words: Drip irrigation, Adoption, Factors INTRODUCTION Rajasthan is such a state where water is a limiting resource, rains are uneven, drought is a recurring factor and topography is undulating. Under such situation the need of the hour is to conserve water and its efficient utilization but the farmers are clanged to old methods of irrigation whose irrigation efficiency is less. Drip irrigation happens to be the technology capable of providing more efficient use of water. Drip irrigation is basically precise and slow application of water in the form of discrete continuous drops, sprayed through mechanical devices called emitters in to the root zone of the plants (Singh, 1995). This is a more efficient method of irrigation but still the farmers have not adopted this system at a large scale. Keeping all this in view, the present study was undertaken with the objective to study the factors responsible for non adoption of drip irrigation technology in a big way. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present study was conducted in Jaipur and Sikar districts of Rajasthan. Those districts were selected where maximum drip irrigation technology was in operation. Out of thirteen,four panchayat samities were selected from Jaipur district and two panchayat samities out of six were selected from Sikar district and two gram
Corresponding author e-mail: muwal24775@gmail.com

panchayats from each of the selected panchayat samities were selected. From the selected 12 gram panchayat, 240 respondents were selected on the basis of proportionate random sampling technique and data were recorded in specific format. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The association between adoption of drip irrigation technology and the selected six independent variables viz., economic motivation, experience in farming, irrigation potentiality, size of land holding, mass media exposure and socio economic status of farmers was tested with the help of correlation coefficient.
Table1. Association between selected independent variables and extent of adoption of drip irrigation technology by the farmers ( N=240)

Sr. No. Independent variable 1 2 3 4 5 6 Economic motivation Experience in farming Irrigation potentiality Size of land holding Mass media exposure Socio economic status

Correlation coefficient 0.885** 0.105 NS -0.817** 0.739** 0.752** 0.838**

** Significant at 1% level of significance NS = Non significant

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Economic Motivation and Extent of Adoption It is evident from the data that economic motivation was positively and significantly (P< 0.01) associated with the extent of adoption of drip irrigation technology (Table 1). This is due to the fact that every farmer wants to maximize his profit. It is worth to mention that the economic motivation is a factor responsible for the adoption of an innovation. Therefore, this single variable might be responsible for the adoption of drip irrigation technology in order to get higher economic returns. The present finding were supported with the findings of Raigar (1998) and Motamed and Singh (2003), who reported that economic motivation was positively and significantly associated with the level of adoption. Experience in Farming and Extent of Adoption The experience in farming was found to be non-significantly (P< 0.01) associated with adoption of drip irrigation technology (Table 1). It means experience in farming did not make significant difference in adoption of drip irrigation technology by the farmers. The results seemed to be quite logical due to the fact that the drip irrigation is of recent origin so both experienced and un-experienced farmers adopt this technology. Hence, non-significant influence of experience in farming was observed over the adoption of drip irrigation technology. Similar finding was also reported by Subashini and Thyagarajan (2002). Irrigation Potentiality and Extent of Adoption The data reported in Table 1 revealed that the irrigation potential was negatively and significantly associated with adoption of drip irrigation technology (P< 0.01). It could be inferred that irrigation potentiality exerts its negative and significant impact on extent of adoption of drip irrigation technology. It means that more the irrigation potentiality less will be the adoption of drip irrigation technology. Hence, these systems are more useful in water scarcity conditions. Size of Land Holding and Extent of Adoption The size of land holding was positively and significantly(P< 0.01) associated with the extent of adoption of drip irrigation (Table 1). Thus, it is stated that size of land holding of farmers exerted
70

highly significant influence on the adoption of drip irrigation technology. Farmers having large size of land holding were capable of taking risk of using latest technology. Subashini and Thyagarajan (2002) also reported that size of land holding showed positive and significant relation with adoption level of wheat production technology. Mass Media Exposure and Extent of Adoption The data showed that the positive and significant (P< 0.01) association was found between mass media exposure and the extent of adoption of drip irrigation technology (Table 1). It was concluded that the extent of adoption of drip irrigation technology by the farmers increased with the increase in mass media exposure. The mass media provide the relevant and timely information about drip irrigation technology and enhancing their level of awareness and knowledge about the technology. The mass media exposure had a significant and positive relationship with adoption of cultivation practices of kharif maize and tapioca technologies (Subashini and Thyagarajan, 2002). Socio –Economic Status and Extent of Adoption It was observed that there was positive and significant (P< 0.01) association between socioeconomic status and extent of adoption of drip irrigation technology. It was inferred that adoption of drip irrigation technology increased with the increase in socio-economic status. The farmers who had higher socio-economic status i.e. literate and having surplus monetary resources were capable of purchasing drip irrigation technology easily. This was in conformity with the findings of Subashini and Thyagarajan (2002) who reported that socio economic status was positively and significantly associated with adoption of tapioca and wheat production technology. CONCLUSION It was concluded that positive and highly significant association was found between economic motivation, size of land holding, mass media exposure and socio-economic status of the farmers with the extent of adoption of drip irrigation technology by the farmers. Irrigation potentiality was found negatively and

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significantly associated and experience in farming was found non-significantly associated with the adoption of drip irrigation technology by the farmers. REFERENCES
Singh, R. 1995. Best way of saving water through drip system. Special edition on farmers fair, 1995. Apna Patra. Directorate of Extension Education, Udaipur (Rajasthan) 65-67.

Raigar, M. L. 1998. Knowledge and attitude of farmers towards sprinkler system of irrigation in Danta Ramgarh panchayat samiti of Sikar district (Raj.). M.Sc. (Ag.) Thesis (Unpub.), S.K.N. College of Agriculture, Jobner. Motamed, M. K. and Singh, Baldeo 2003. Correlates of adoption of improved sericulture practices. Indian J of Ext Edu. 39: 51-57. Subashini, S. and Thyagarajan, S. 2002. Characteristics of tapioca farmers and their adoption behaviour. Indian J Ext Edu. 38: 85-87.

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Social Metabolism: The Kinetics of Entropy and Osmosis in Transforming Farming System
S. K. Acharya, N. K. Sharma and S. Bera Department of Agricultural Extension Faculty of Agriculture Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur, Nadia 741 252 (West Bengal)
ABSTRACT The creation, growth and decay of any social system, retaining myriads of life forms, have basically been the concerns and exposition of energy. Social Metabolism envisages a natural connectivity amongst physical, biological and social systems ad their under lying cybernetics. It is the flow of energy that drives the social systems generating information, applying information and transforming the present social process in to a desired social out come. Energy remains retained, shelved and configured within a cell and within a social capsule and also is subject to a ruptured release for unlashing motivations and psychological capabilities. The present paper examines the collision and collusion between imposed technologies vis-a-vis extraneous knowledge vs. intrinsic vis-a-vis in situ knowledge. The rejection of innovation, prescribed by experts, has got a reverse osmosis impact in the entire technology socialization process. Key words: Social Metabolism, Entropy and Osmosis, Farming System INTRODUCTION The history of ten thousand years of agrarian civilization is basically the history of humane innovation to tame the nature and shape the life, the way we desire. From hunting economy to present day technology driven society, the role of human knowledge keeps getting exponential. The conflict between indigenous and exotic knowledge is classical as well as ephemeral. This has become worst with the process of urbanization as well as modernisation in the very system of agricultural production and management. Our extreme hegemony in favour of making farmers adopting energy intensive technology and contraecological approaches has made a near disastrous situation, can be branded as an entropy of knowledge and technology. Knowledge Conflict in Farming System and the Contra Adoption Process The traditional and in situ knowledge are being contradicted by imported knowledge in agro-ecosystem, which again is undergoing constant reforms, adjustments and evolution. In
Corresponding author e-mail: acharya09sankar@gmail.com

certain cases, where indigenous knowledge keeps offering a space for social osmosis, prescribed knowledge are assimilated and acculturate. In other cases, withdrawal and non-compliances are happening simply because the initial knowledge balance, characterizing a unique social echelon has failed to assimilate exotic knowledge. These all lead to a knowledge dissonance attributing to a negative social metabolism over a slice of temporal distribution. The different aspects of knowledge dissonance and the crux of social entropy in farming system resource bases, enterprise pattern, household livelihood and constraints and for which similar development strategies and intervention can be applied. Farming system in India has been characterised with high level of adoption, rejection and discontinuance. Agriculture in India demands transfer of technology, external supply of inputs as well as knowledge, where rural people have become mere recipient of input and technology. In India in general and West Bengal in particular through the continuous imposing of knowledge and motivating the rural people a gap has been found between motivation unleashed and

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accomplished made and there is a gradual dissolving of the most advance societies due to intrinsic disorder that may be referred to as social entropy. This is responsible for institutional conflict, organizational disorder or social entropy. Social entropy is a macro-sociological system theory. It is a measure of the natural decay within a social system. It can be defined as the decomposition of social structure or of the disappearance of social distinctions. Social entropy is the amount of motivation unavailable for performing in system. Mitchel (2009) studied on a village (Jacobs) in 1998 through creative destruction developed and predicted the fate of communities that became the base of their development on the co-modification of rural heritage. You, L et al. (2006) while reporting agricultural production statistics on geopolitical and on national basis concludes that there is a need to know the status of production or productivity within specific sub regions, watersheds or agroecological zones. His study depicts entropy based approach to make spatially disaggregated assessments of distribution of crop production. Jen et al. (1999) in his multi-method field study of 92 work groups explored the three types of workgroups diversity (Social category diversity, Value diversity and informational diversity) and two moderators (task type and task interdependence) where these workgroups not only became central to organization but also presented their own intrinsic problem of coordination, motivation and conflict management. Social Equilibrium, Rural Poverty and Flow of Energy Therefore, keeping core periphery contradiction in the development process that has caused structured chaos and dissonance in view, the present research has been conducted for the prediction of the social entropy amongst the farmers from a score of socio-personal, sociopsychological and communication variation. Farming systems deals with production system and production function, it is load based, crop based, and natural resource base and thus crop productivity is a function of physical, biological and social subsistence. The stage of equilibrium, physical, biological and social is the prime concern

of any system, it is more important for extension system because it aims at adding disequilibrium to a depletive function e.g. (Poverty) in order to invite neo-equilibrium (sustainable livelihood). Social Metabolism and Social Entropy Every day an immense mass of the materials and the energy of nature are, through work activity, appropriated by the social body, only to be adapted to its needs, through production activity and distributed to the various parts through circulation, transformed into the social fabric by means of absorption (as for food) by both institutions and individuals, and returned into the lap of nature through the consumption of goods and bodily forces. Schaffle clearly outlined the mechanism of that social metabolism by means of which the energy and the matter existing in nature enables the social body to maintain itself. The economic and physiological exchange of material does not entail the destruction of the material and energy but, rather, it entails their reorganization into sources of energy and into institutions which make their social use possible. Basically, Schaffle applied thermodynamic principles to social exchange. According to this principle energy and matter are not destroyed but are only transformed, disorganised and then reorganised for other uses. An efficient mechanism of social metabolism can neither allow any energy to be lost nor permitting increasing entropy, would the result be crisis within the social organism itself. (Schaffle, A. 1874). At certain stage of development, chemical process lead to formation of Protein body and on the basis of emergence of life i.e. to the biological form of motion of matter. It follows that some forms of motion of matter can turn into the other forms of motion of matter, which is reflected in the law of conservation and transformation of energy and matter. Each stage in the development of matter corresponds to a form of motion, differ qualitatively, and the highest forms of motion of matter cannot be reduced to the lowest. Social Osmosis: The Science of Knowledge Exchange Social osmosis is the indirect infusion of social, cultural knowledge. Effectively social control is diffused and by happenstance authentic
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experience is displaced by degrees of mediated separation before a subject acquires knowledge of a social phenomenon (Raaj K. Sah, 1990). Knowledge always undergoes a social osmosis process to exchange, imbibe and assimilate. Knowledge Entropy in Farming System : Issues of Compliances and Conflicts An empirical study was conducted to elicit the factors and reasons for non-compliance and conflict in the process of technology transfer, technology socialization either. In the study 73 respondents were selected randomly from 250 growers of village Ghoragaccha of Block Haringhata in Nadia district of West Bengal, India. Socio-personal variables like age (x1), Education (x2), Family education status (x3), Family size (x4), Cropping intensity (x5), Farm size (x6), Annual income in Rs/year/capita (x7), Sociopsychological variables like scientific orientation (x8), Independency (x9), Innovation proneness (x10), Risk orientation (x11), Economic motivation (x12), Orientation towards competition (x13), Attitude towards discontinuance (x14), Attitude towards rejection (x15), Communication variables like Social participation (x16), Utilization of source of information (x17), and

training received (x18) as predictors, whereas, among predicted or dependent variables, Noncompliance (Y1), Disagreement (y2), Conflict (Y3), Alienation (Y4) Social Entropy (Y5) were taken. Social entropy (y5) was obtained first by multiplying all the four predicted variables y1, y2, y3, y4 and then dividing the resultant product by 4. Data were collected directly from the farmers with the help of structured schedule through personal interview methods. Collected data from the selected farmers were analysed with the help of several statistical tools like mean, standard deviation, coefficient of variation, correlation, regression and path analysis. A. The farmers having less innovation proneness are more vulnerable to entropy situation. B. With the increase of income the rural people, for certain cases, are showing increasing dissonance against proposed technology, might be, there are now more exposed to choice of alternatives than before. Stepwise regression and backward elimination techniques considering highest regression coefficient for social Entropy (Y5) as dependent variable and remaining 18 variables as predictors.

Table 1: Coefficient of Correlation: Entropy (Y5) vs. 18 Independent Variables

Sr. No. Variables 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 14 15 16 17 18 19 Age in years (x1) Education (x2) Family Education status (x3) Family Size (No. Of members) (x4) Cropping Intensity (x5) Farm size in bigha (x6) Annual Income (x7) Scientific orientation (x8) Independency (x9) Innovation Proneness (x10) Risk orientation (x11) Economic motivation (x12) Orientation towards Competition (x13) Attitude towards discontinuance(x14) Attitude towards Rejection (x15) Social participation (x16) Utilization of Cosmopolite Sources of information (x17) Training received in days in last 3 years (x18) *significance of r at 5%= **significance of r at 1%=

Coefficient of Correlation -0.067 0.033 0.115 -0.027 0.184 0.074 0.025 -0.121 -0.129 -0.124 -0.239* 0.007 0.085 0.146 0.152 -0.114 0.041 0.029 0.230 0.300

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Economic gain has both consolation and contradiction. Consolation generates because present problem has been resolved and contradiction simmers because whether to justify the glory over the inglorious one. The competition in agrarian society is increasing while hegemony starts ignoring the access to income by others. The sudden surplus income creates a stress in the serene and soft relationship, the binding force is family. [Y5 = 22.17 – 2.21 X11** R2 =0.06, R2 (adj) = 0.04, Se (estd.) =4.77 Where, Y5 is social entropy X11 = Annual Income (Rs/year/Capita) R= Régression Coefficient SE = Standard Error Residual effect = 0.6902095] C. Motivation and Social Entropy : Technical discourses vs. Farmers’ voice Economic motivation is skewed version of emotion pinpointed for economic gain, may

be through competition, denial to others rights, or through a clandestine performance which again can be clever or a deceiver one. The elements of consumerism, an unhealthy competition, the other side of monolithic development has done more harms than the goods delivered by it. Innovation proneness has got profuse impact on generating competition to supersede the laggards and ultimately make them subjugated in a system hierarchy. If not properly refined every ego has got deleterious impact over the peers or the defeated ones amongst the peers. Farm size with high economic motivation has made one victorious and the others deleted ones. This has got, certainly, a catalyzing role in making social entropy a more complex hecatomb to make life confined and claustrophobic: this is what we call Social Entropy. D. Knowledge, Motivation, Sources of Information, Family Education..... are adding entropy and chaos, gone inevitable and intrigue as a system function

Table 2: Path analysis for estimating direct, indirect and spurious effect Entropy (Y5) vs. 18 exogenous Variables Sl. Variables Direct Indirect Total Substantial Indirect effect No. effect effect effect (r) I II III 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Age in years (x1) Education (x2) Family Education status (x3) Family Size (No. of members) (x4) Cropping Intensity (x5) Farm size in bigha (x6) Annual Income (x7) Scientific orientation (x8) Independency (x9) Innovation Proneness (x10) Risk orientation (x11) Economic motivation (x12) Orientation towards Competition (x13) Attitude towards discontinuance (x14) Attitude towards Rejection (x15) Social participation (x16) Utilization of Cosmopolite Sources of information (x17 Training received in days in last 3 years (x18) -0.02799 -0.07394 0.11994 -0.13765 0.08339 0.14627 0.11055 -0.10436 -0.19570 -0.18714 0.12864 0.13456 0.11082 0.10025 -0.03901 -0.067 0.10694 0.033 -000494. 0.115 0.11065 -0.027 0.10061 -0.07227 -0.08555 -0.01664 0.0667 0.03394 -0.05186 -0.12164 -0.04956 0.03518 0.184 0.074 0.025 -0.121 -0.129 -0.124 -0.239* 0.007 0.085 0.146 0.152 0.02751 (x2) 0.09631 (x3) -0.05937 (x2) 0.06436 (x6) -0.02179 (x6) -0.03617(x10) 0.03206 (x7) -0.02452 (x8) 0.01990 (x10) 0.02750 (x6) -0.02759 (x9) -0.1624 (x9)

-.04264(x10) 0.02735(x3) 0.02603(x9) -0.06057 (x4) -0.04341 (x8) 0.02959 (x12) -0.05007 (x10) 0.04502(x12) 0.03478 9x3) 0.06085 (x6) 0.05043 (x12) -0.03761 (x11) 0.03583 (x17) 0.01931 (x6) 0.01691 (x3) 0.03505 (x7) 0.02804 (x12) 0.02435 (x3) 0.03062 (x12) -0.02356 (x15) 0.02311(x6) -0.04454 (x11) -0.04091 (x8) -0.03869(x7) -0.01445(x4) 0.01404(x11) -0.01295(x10) 0.02776(x8) 0.02200(x16) -0.01957 (x9)

-0.10000 0.05175

0.04398(x11) -0.03975(x12) -0.02565 (x7)

0.10356 -0.014 -0.114 -0.02717(x10) -0.02438(x14) 0.02300(x7) 0.00234 -0.06256 0.041 -0.06771(x9) 0.02384(x6) 0.02100(x16) 0.00234 0.02666 0.029 0.02807(x3) 0.02326(x4) -0.02056(x2)

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It is clear from the table that family education, Economic motivation, Orientation towards competition and Attitude towards rejection has been precisely chosen for conceptualising Social Entropy. Farmers in different parts of India and here in west Bengal, are engaged in or confronted with each other to show the power or defined their rights. The ambition for earning more may deny the rights of others or a sense of flamboyant intrusion may make others feel suppressed or denied. The attitude towards rejection may not go as a placid social action, but may generate harsh social reaction, too. These all are becoming more complex by the oriented towards competition. Competition never goes linear or insulated, rather it begets splash of micro-confrontations of aims and interests, a vision and vistas of goes and gateways. That’s why it is really scintillating to see that the interaction between right side and left side variables have assumed the character of a ‘chi late’ function wherein, the predicted character ‘social conflict has directed and precisely selected some of the right side factors or ultimately being defined as congenital and interactive disposition of social conflict.
Table 3: Canonical Variate of Root 4 {Social Entropy (Y5) vs. 10 Independent Variables)

G. Entropy Pyramid- Disagreement to Alienation resulting Social Entropy of system Continuous dissonance between in situ and ex situ knowledge would lead, as the empirical study evidences, to the inevitable consequence of social entropy. If the entropy sustains to remain for a protractile period, it would generate a deleterious impact on food as well as social security. The sub orbital configuration follows the value of beta-coefficient in an increasing order. CONCLUSION : The entire paper has examined the huge aspects of dissonance and entropy in the flow of knowledge and technology socialization process having impact on social metabolism as well as food security. Agricultural production system is basically a flow and exposition of knowledge, flow-in and flow-out, that can be expressed in different forms of compliances or conflicts. While farming system as a whole is passing through unrest and chaos of knowledge non-compliance, entropy is a must to generate and of course would lead to a neo equilibrium state. The present study was a concept paper on social entropy, an analogy of principle of Second law of thermodynamics. According to second law of thermodynamics transformation from matter to energy is an irreversible phenomenon therefore it needs to be kept at a manageable level. The gradual modernization in agriculture has produced the jerk, chaos or disorder following the attitudes of the farmers towards discontinuance of the stale technologies and their increasing attitude towards rejection. This has an explicit exhibition of noncompliant behaviour, attitude towards disagreement, conflict and ultimately gets alienated. This has gradually added to, that can be refer to, social entropy. REFERENCES
Fisher, Kowalsky and Haberly, H. 1994). On the Cultural Evolution Of Socail Metabolism with Nature, Schriftenreihe Soziale Okologie –Iff Vienna, n. 40. p. 3. Goldschimdt, W. 1998. Conclusion: The Urbanizaion of Ruarl America. In K.M. Thu & E. P. Durrenberger(Eds). Pigs, Profit and Rural communitie. (193-198). Albany, NY: State University of New York Press. Jehn, K., A., Gregory,-B. Northcraft, Margaret A. Neale. 1999. Why Differences Make a Differences: A Field Study of Diversity, Conflict and Performance in Workgroups; Administrative Science. Quarterly, Vol. 44.

Left Side Right Side Variables Social -1.608 Age (X1) Entropy Family Education Status (X3) Cropping Intensity (X5) Farm Size (X6) Annual Income (X7) Economic Motivation (X12) Orientation Towards Competition (X13) Attitude Towards Rejection (X15) Utilization of Cosmopolite Sources of Information (X17)

-0.169 -0.205 -0.214 -0.249 -0.336 -0.205 -0.304 -0.102 -0.168

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Mitchell, CJA; wall, -S-B-de.2009). Revisiting the model of creative destruction: St. Jacobs, Ontario, a decade later: J. Rural Studies,25 (1):156-167. Ponting, Clive. 1991. A green history of the Earth: The environment and collaps of great civilization. New York. NY: Penguin Books. P 17. Sah, Raaj K. 1990. Social Osmosis and Pattern of Crime: A Dynamic Ecomomics Analysis Yale Economic Growth Center, paper 609, 1990 Schaffle, A. Bau and Leben des socialen Korpers ( Structure and Life of Social bodies), 1874 ed. It., Struttura e vita dei corpi sociali, Utet, Torino, 1881.

Spencer, H. (1876). The Principal of Sociology, William and Norgate, Lodan 1876 Vol. 1 Now in Spencer, H., Structure, Function an Evolution, Edited by S. Andreski, Charls Scriber’s Sons New York, 1971, p.17. You,-L, Wood,-S. 2006. An entropy approach to spatial disaggregation of agricultural production; international Food Policy Research Institute; Agricultural Systems 90, (1-3), pp. 329-347.

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Studies on Seeding Depths and Establishment Methods of Direct Seeded Rice in North-Western Indo-Gangetic Plains
Simerjeet Kaur and Surjit Singh Department of Agronomy Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana 141 001 (Punjab)
ABSTRACT The experiment was conducted at Students’ Research Farm, Department of Agronomy, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana (Punjab) during kharif 2009 to study the effect of crop establishment methods and weed control methods on growth and yield. The rice seeds should not be drilled beyond 2 cm depth in the soil regardless of soil type for optimum crop stand. Weed dry matter accumulation, effective tillers and grain yield did not vary significantly among establishment methods. The maximum grain yield (71.06 q) was recorded in weed free treatment which was at par with integrated use of pendimethalin 0.75 kg/ ha with bispyribac 0.025 kg or azimsulfuron 0.02 kg/ ha. Key Words: Direct Seeded Rice, Sheath Blight Disease, Crop Establishment Method, Weed Control INTRODUCTION Direct seeding is a good alternative of transplanting and yield potential of direct seeded rice is equivalent to the transplanted rice under good water management and weed control conditions. The alternative tillage and crop establishment are site specific and therefore, evaluations under wide agro-ecological conditions is important to have significant adoption. Uniform crop emergence with optimum plant density is crucial for achieving good yields for any system, including direct drill-seeded rice. Good crop establishment depends on many factors including land preparation, planting date, seed rate, types of planting machinery used and depth of seeding. Seeding depth is critical for all rice varieties but more so for semi-dwarf plant types because of their shorter mesocotyl length compared with conventional tall varieties (Kumar and Ladha 2011). Some innovative farmers of Punjab state have started growing direct seeded rice adopting different drills with different plant densities which needs standardization. Identifying herbicides with wide-spectrum weed control ability for efficient and economical weed management is also crucial for improving the potential of direct seeding of
Corresponding author e-mail: simer@pau.edu

rice in the state. Keeping this in view, two studies were carried out; pot study was done to ascertain the seeding depth of direct seeded (dry) rice in different soil types available in this North- Western Indo-Gangetic Plains and field study was carried out to study the influence of crop establishment methods and weed control methods on growth and yield of direct seeded rice. MATERIALS AND METHODS Experiment I: Pot study The pot experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design with three replications. Treatments consisted of sixteen combinations of three different soil types (heavy, medium and light) and six seeding depths (on surface, 1 cm, 2 cm, 3 cm, 4 cm and 5 cm deep in the soil). The heavy (clay) textured soil was collected from village Koom Kalan, Distt Ludhiana; medium (loam) textured soil from village Jhande, Distt Ludhiana and light (loamy sand) textured soil was collected from Research Farm, Department of Agronomy, P.A.U. Ludhiana. The texture of different soil types were determined using International Pipette method (Piper 1966) and are

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presented in Table 1. Ten seeds of rice cv. PAU 201 were sown at different soil depths in pots. The pots were daily watered to keep the soil moist. The emergence of rice seedlings were recorded every day starting from fourth day, the day first seedlings got emerged upto 15 days after sowing and then experiment was terminated.
Table 1.Characteristics of soil texture

Soil type Heavy (Clay) Medium (Loam) Light (Loamy sand)

Sand (%) Silt (%) Clay (%) 7.4 48.7 81.7 33.2 33.3 7.4 59.4 18.0 10.8

Experiment II: Field study The field experiment was conducted at Research Farm, Department of Agronomy, PAU, Ludhiana, Punjab during kharif 2009. The experiment laid out in split plot design with 4 replications comprising 5 crop establishment methods {direct seeding with zero till drill, modified furrow drill, conventional drill, puddled broadcasted and puddled transplanted} in main plots and 4 weed control methods {pendimethalin 0.75 kg/ha. pre-emergence alone and integrated with bispyribac 0.025 kg and azimsulfuron 0.02 kg/ ha. at 30 DAS/T and weed free} in sub-plots. The soil of the experimental site was loamy sand in texture with normal soil reaction and electrical conductivity, low in organic carbon and available nitrogen and medium in available phosphorus and potassium. The drill sowing of rice cv. PAU 201 was done at 20 cm row spacing using primed seed after seed treatment on seed-bed prepared in three respective main plots. The sowing was done after calibration of drills at the seed rate of 35 kg/ ha. The three different drills were zero till drill, modified furrow drill and conventional drill. zero till drill has fluted roller mechanism as seed metering system and seeds fall continuously. There was problem of seed breakage (5-6 %) at this seed rate (35 kg/ ha.) which was taken care of while calibration of drill. Modified furrow drill, prepared by a progressive farmer of village Kularh, district Ludhiana drilled the seeds on each slope of ridge (two rows per ridge) and was fitted with inclined plate seed metering system. Conventional drill was manufactured by M/s A S Foundry, Jandiala Guru with inclined plate seed metering system and places seeds and fertilizer using an inverted T-type

opener. In the fourth establishment technique, primed seed was broadcasted in puddled field (wet seeding) and suspended mud is allowed to settle down and form a protective cover over the seeds sown (same operation was done as in nursery sowing is done). In the fifth establishment technique, after seed bed preparation on the day of direct sowing, the respective plots were left unsown and weeds were allowed to germinate. For this puddled transplanting crop establishment method, nursery was raised by sowing on the date of direct seeding i.e. 6 th June 2009 and transplanted manually with 30 days old seedlings at 20 cm×15cm spacing in puddled field. Prior to the transplanting, the respective plots were cleaned off weeds and puddling operation was done. Phosphorus (30 kg P 2 O 5/ ha) as single super phosphate, potassium (30 kg K2O/ ha.) as muriate of potash and zinc sulphate heptahydrate (62.5 kg/ ha.) were applied at the time of seedbed preparation by broadcasting. Nitrogen (187.5 kg N/ ha.) as urea was applied as broadcast in four equal splits at 2, 4, 7 and 10 weeks after sowing. The plots of direct seeded rice were kept moist at least for 2 weeks with light irrigation after sowing was completed and during these days irrigation was applied at two days interval. Thereafter, irrigation was applied at 3-5 days intervals to avoid water stress to the crop. No irrigation was applied on rainy days. Irrigation was stopped 15 days before harvesting of the crop. Two sprays of propiconazole 0.125 kg/ ha. (Tilt 25 EC 500 ml/ ha.) were done to control sheath blight. Stem borer and leaf folder insects were controlled with sprays of monocrotophos 0.504 kg/ ha (Monocil 1400 ml/ ha) and chloropyriphos 0.50 kg/ ha done alternatively. The number of seedlings emerged were counted at 15 days after sowing (DAS) from five randomly selected places in each plot. The observation was taken from 50 cm × 50 cm area with the help of quadrat. Finally, counted plant population was expressed as number of seedlings per sq.m. Plant height from base of plant to the tip of panicle was recorded and expressed as average of ten plants in cm. The number of effective tillers (panicle bearing tillers) was counted at harvest from plants of 50 cm × 50 cm area with the help of quadrat from each plot. Count was finally expressed as number of effective tillers/
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sq. m. Weed dry matter accumulation at maturity of crop was recorded by removing weeds from quadrat of 30 cm ´ 30 cm from each plot. The samples were sun dried and then oven dried at 60°C. Dry matter of weeds was expressed as q/ha. The crop was harvested manually on October 26th and 27th, 2009 from the net plot area. Harvested produce from the net plot was threshed manually and grain yield recorded in kg. It was then converted to q/ha. at 14 per cent moisture content. The data collected on various parameters under study were statistically analyzed as prescribed by Cochran and Cox (1967) and adapted by Cheema and Singh (1990) in statistical package CPCS-1. The comparisons were made at 5 per cent level of significance. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Experiment I: Pot study The perusal of data of emergence count embodied in Table 2 showed that emergence of rice seedlings was completed at 12 DAS. Soil texture type had non-significant effect on periodic emergence count, suggesting that soil texture type was not so important for proper crop establishment. Periodic emergence count was significantly affected by seeding depth of rice seeds in soil, indicating that depth of seeding plays a major role in maintaining optimum crop stand. At 4 DAS, no emergence was observed with seeding rice seeds below 1 cm. Emergence count

was the maximum (5.5) at seeds sown on surface of soil and it was significantly more as compared with all other treatments. At 5 DAS, the maximum number of seedlings emerged at surface, being at par with seeding at 1 cm deep in soil and it was significantly better as compared with all other treatments. There was nil emergence count recorded in seeding beyond 3 cm soil depth after 5 days of sowing. At 6 DAS, emergence of rice seedlings was observed from all seeding depths although the maximum number of seedlings was observed from seeding at surface, at par with seeding depth of 1 cm and was significantly more as compared with seeding depths of 2, 3, 4 and 5 cm in the soil. All the ten seedlings emerged after seven days of sowing at surface regardless of soil type and it was at par with seeds sown at 1 and 2 cm deep in the soil. Similar results were observed at 8, 9, 10 and11 DAS. At 12 DAS, there was a 100 per cent seedling emergence with seeds sown on surface or 1-2 cm deep in the soil and it was significantly more as compared with seeding depths of 3, 4 and 5 cm in the soil. Similar results were observed at 15 DAS. Experiment II: Field study The crop stand in the experimental field was uniform (Table 3). However, numerically lower emergence count (135.8 m -2) was observed in puddled broadcasted crop establishment method. This lower emergence count might be due to the bird damage as seed was broadcasted on surface

Table 2. Effect of soil texture and seeding depth on emergence count of rice.

Treatments 4 Soil texture type Light Medium Heavy CD (p=0.05) Seeding depth (cm) Surface (0) 1 2 3 4 5 CD (p=0.05) 80 1.6 1.4 1.5 NS 5.5 3.5 0 0 0 0 0.4 5 4.0 3.8 3.9 NS 8.0 7.6 6.5 1.2 0 0 1.0 6 5.4 4.7 5.8 NS 9.6 8.7 7.8 4.2 1.2 0.2 1.8

Emergence count (No.) DAS 7 8 9 10 6.3 5.2 6.5 NS 10.0 9.5 8.0 5.5 2.5 0.3 2.1 7.3 5.8 7.1 NS 10.0 9.8 9.0 7.0 3.8 0.8 1.9 7.8 6.6 7.8 NS 10.0 9.8 9.3 7.3 6.0 1.8 1.7 7.8 6.6 7.8 NS 10.0 9.8 9.3 7.3 6.0 1.8 1.7

11 7.8 6.6 7.8 NS 10.0 9.8 9.3 7.3 6.0 1.8 1.7

12 8.1 7.4 8.3 NS 10.0 10.0 10.0 8.0 6.7 2.8 1.3

15 8.1 7.4 8.3 NS 10.0 10.0 10.0 8.0 6.7 2.8 1.3

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itself. The effect of different weed control treatments on emergence count was found to be non-significant. The effect of crop establishment methods on plant height was non-significant at harvest. Application of pendimethalin 0.75 kg/ ha. applied as pre-emergence recorded significantly lower plant height (84.8 cm) as compared to all other weed control treatments. The weed dry matter accumulation was recorded statistically similar with application of pendimethalin 0.75 kg applied as pre-emergence either alone or integrated with azimsulfuron 0.02 kg/ ha. but was significantly more as compared with weed free treatment and application of pendimethalin 0.75 kg as preemergence integrated with post emergence application of bispyribac 0.025 kg/ ha. This might be due to more weed pressure in these treatments. The establishment methods had nonsignificant effect on number of effective tillers during both the years of study. Although higher number of total tillers was observed in directly sown crop, intra-plant competition ultimately resulted into more tiller mortality and thus resulted in statistically similar number of effective tillers. The effective tillers were numerically higher in

direct drilled rice establishment methods as compared with transplanting method. These results are in conformity with those reported by Saharawat et al (2010) that number of effective tillers was numerically higher in direct drilled rice as compared with transplanting method. Among different weed control treatments, the maximum number of effective tillers (303.8 m -2 ) was obtained in weed free treatment which was at par with integrated application of pendimethalin 0.75 kg/ ha. applied as pre-emergence followed by bispyribac 0.025 kg or azimsulfuron 0.02 kg/ha. applied at 30 DAS. Alone application of pendimethalin 0.75 kg/ ha. applied as preemergence produced significantly lower number of effective tillers (226.6 m-2) as compared with all other herbicidal treatments. The effect of different crop establishment methods on the grain yield was statistically nonsignificant and its numerical value ranged from 57.42 q to 64.08 q/ ha. (Fig 1). In case of puddled broadcasting method, numerically lower grain yield (57.42 q/ ha.) was observed as compared to other direct seeding methods (drills). The maximum grain yield (71.1q/ ha.) was obtained

Table 3. Effect of crop establishment methods and weed control treatments on emergence count, plant height, weed dry matter accumulation and effective tillers.

Treatments

Emergence count/ m-2

Plant height Weed dry matter Effective (cm) at accumulation tillers/ m-2 at harvest at harvest harvest

Crop Establishment Methods Direct Seeding with Zero Till Drill Direct Seeding with Modified Furrow Drill Direct Seeding with Conventional Drill Puddled Broadcasted Puddled Transplanted C.D. (p=0.05) Weed Control Treatments Pendimethalin 0.75 kg ha-1 pre-em. Pendimethalin 0.75 kg ha-1 pre-em. f.b. bispyribac 0.025 kg ha-1 at 30 DAS Pendimethalin 0.75 kg ha-1 pre-em. f.b. azimsulfuron 0.02 kg ha-1 at 30 DAS Weed free C.D. (p=0.05) 139.1 138.2 NS 89.9 89.1 3.9 6.80 (45.71) 1.00 (0.00) 0.28 293.8 303.8 24.4 139.8 140.0 140.6 135.8 NS 139.2 139.6 88.8 89.9 90.4 86.1 89.1 NS 84.8 91.0 3.90 (22.76) 3.91 (22.98) 3.89 (22.66) 4.00 (24.10) 3.82 (21.73) NS 6.82 (45.68) 1.00 (0.00) 283.2 284.9 288.3 271.5 269.0 NS 226.6 293.3

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Fig 1. Effect of crop establishment methods on grain yield.

Fig 2. Effect of weed control methods on grain yield.

in weedfree treatment (Fig 2) which was at par with integrated application of pendimethalin 0.75 kg/ ha. applied as pre-emergence followed by bispyribac 0.025 kg or azimsulfuron 0.02 kg/ ha. applied at 30 DAS. Alone application of pendimethalin 0.75 kg/ ha. applied as preemergence recorded significantly lower grain yield (39.09 q/ ha.) as compared with all other herbicidal treatments. These results are in conformity with the findings of Mahajan and Timsina (2011); Mahajan et al (2009) and Walia et al (2009) that where they used integrated weed management, rice grain yield was significantly more than that of alone application of a herbicide. CONCLUSION The rice seeds should not be drilled beyond 2 cm depth in the soil regardless of soil type for optimum crop stand. Rice can be seeded directly with zero till drill, modified furrow drill and conventional drill with inclined plate metering system. The follow-up application of preemergence pendimethalin 0.75 kg/ ha.with postemergence bispyribac 0.025 kg or azimsulfuron 0.02 kg/ ha. provided effective control of weeds in direct seeded rice.

REFERENCES
Cheema, H. S. and Singh, B .1990. A user’s manual to CPCS1. Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana. Pp 46. Cochran, W. G. and Cox, G. M. 1967. Experimental Designs. John Wiley Publisher’s. New York. Kumar, V. and Ladha, J. K. 2011. Direct seeding of rice: recent developments and future research needs. Advances Agron 111: 297-413. Mahajan, G., Chauhan, B. S. and Johnson, D. E. 2009.Weed management in aerobic rice in Northwestern Indo-Gangetic Plains. J. Crop Improvement 23 (4): 366-82. Mahajan, G. and Timsina, J. 2011. Effect of nitrogen rates and weed control methods on weeds abundance and yield of direct seeded rice. Archives Agron and Soil Sci 57 (3): 239-50. Piper, C. S. 1966. Soil and plant analysis. Hans Publishers, Mumbai.Pp 368. Saharawat, Y. S., Singh, S., Malik, R. K., Ladha, J. K., Gathala, M., Jat, M. L. and Kumar, V. 2010. Evaluation of alternative tillage and crop establishment methods in a rice-wheat rotation in North Western IGP. Field Crops Res 116: 260-67. Walia, U. S., Bhullar, M. S., Nayyar, S. and Sidhu, A. S. 2009. Role of seed rate and herbicides on growth and yield of direct dry-seeded rice. Indian J. Weed Sci. 41 (1 &2): 33-36.

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Journal of Krishi Vigyan

Use of Information and Communication Technology in Agriculture by Farmers of District Kapurthala
Manoj Sharma, Gagandeep Kaur and M S Gill* Krishi Vigyan Kendra Kapurthala 144 620 (Punjab)
ABSTRACT The Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are now seen as an important tool for development in agriculture. These can play a big role in pushing the agriculture development in Punjab beyond the plateau on which it seems to stuck during last few years. In a study conducted in district Kapurthala, it was emphasised to numerate the availability of such ICT tools with the farmers and their use in agriculture. This study was conducted using sample survey method and farmers were interviewed to collect data. It was found that 41 per cent farmers had landline phone but only 47 per cent of them used it for agriculture purposes. Similarly, 98 per cent farmers possessed television set but only 49 per cent of them used for watching the agriculture related programs. The mobile phone ownership among farmers was more than 98 per cent which are mostly used by them as a social communication tool, whereas, 78 per cent of farmers said that once in while they use their mobile phone for agriculture advisory liking calling agriculture departments or relatives or commission agents to enquire about the rate of produce. Mobile phones were found to be the most powerful means of communication among farmers for exchanging agriculture information. This was probably due to cost affordability, better network, easy availability and cheap tariff rates. Further, the farmers were observed to be dependent on their large social network and took advice from the agricultural scientists, fellow farmers, relatives, commission agents, pesticide dealers and friends. Interestingly, most of the farmers showed their inability to use the agro-advisory received through short message service (SMS) as they were not able to read those SMS. Eighty nine per cent households subscribe to newspaper and read it regularly but were of the view that the information in newspaper related to agriculture and its subsidiary fields is limited. The radio has far less popularity among the farming community. The various other factors which affected the use of such tools in agriculture were age of the farmer, size of the land holding, educational qualification and the cropping system. Key words: Information, Communication, Agro Advisory, Agriculture, Farmer, Kapurthala. INTRODUCTION The Indian agriculture is today face to face with three challenges: to improve the economic condition of farmers, to improve agriculture productivity to feed ever-increasing population and maintenance of environment. Agricultural extension, which is essentially a message delivery system, has a major role to play in agricultural development. It serves as a source of advice and assistance for farmers to help them improving their production and marketing (Adams, 1988). The task of extension education is accomplished by different extension methods/media, which may come under individual, group and mass contacts. The success of agricultural development programmes in developing countries largely depends on the nature and extent of use of mass media in mobilization of people for development. The planners in developing countries realize that the development of agriculture could be hastened with the effective use of mass media for technology transfer (Md Salleh et al 2010). Transferring of new findings and technologies to rural farmers remains a promising strategy for

* Director of Extension Education, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana Corresponding author e-mail: drmanojsh1@gmail.com

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increasing agricultural productivity. The new idea must reach farmers’ fields and homes through effective extension, so that they can adopt new technologies and put them into use at their farms (Ekoja, 2003). To reach beyond this plateau and to give a fresh impetus to agricultural productivity, a push towards higher agricultural productivity will require an information-based, decisionmaking agricultural system. This is often described as the next great evolutionary step in agriculture. The most effective way to deliver knowledge intensive management in agriculture is ICT which is based on information as well as is dynamic in nature. The Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) is an emerging field and can play a central role in facilitating the exposure of farmers to a variety of information. It involves application of innovative ways to use ICT in the rural domain. Radio and television has been acclaimed to be the most effective media for diffusing the scientific knowledge to the masses. Similarly the increasing penetration of mobile phones and mobile-enabled information services, computers in rural India can complement the role of extension services. There is no doubt that information and communication technologies have influenced educational circumstances more than any other categories (Asnafi and Hamidi, 2008). The advancements in ICT can be utilised for providing accurate, timely, relevant information and services to the farmers, thereby facilitating an environment for more remunerative agriculture. Also ICT could make the greatest contribution by telescoping distances and reducing the cost of interaction between three prime stakeholders of agricultural sector i.e. research, extension, and the farmers, which can uplift this important sector through mutual endeavour. According to Pandey (2003), Information Technology can be used as a great facilitator in agriculture marketing by providing connectivity between marketers and exporters, through a wide area network of national and international linkages in order to provide dayto-day information with regard to commodity arrivals and prevailing market rates. Given the development scenario in Indian Agriculture, ICT movement is still evolving. However, all the ICT initiatives are not uniform with disparities between regions in the level and
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quality of telecommunications, information and the effort of individuals, public and private organizations, and differentiated nature of demand of the farmers in different areas. At the same time the actual availability of such tools with farmers and their optimal use in agriculture need to be understood for effective implementation of such initiatives. Hence, the study discusses about the progressive farmers of Kapurthala district of Punjab state in India who are employing latest tools related to information technology in their daily agricultural practices. The objectives of the study were to identify the sources from which the farmers learned about agriculture technologies, to assess the extent to which the farmers make use of these ICT tools and to understand constraints on realising the potential benefits of these ICT tools on knowledge dissemination. MATERIALS AND METHODS Study area The district Kapurthala is situated in the Bist Doab and comprises two non-contiguous parts, separated by some 32 kilometres. Kapurthala, Sultanpur Lodhi and Bholath Tehsils form one part and Phagwara Tehsil, the second separated portion. The former area lies between North latitude 31.07’ and 31.39’ and East longitude 74.55’ and 75.36’. Phagwara tehsil lies between north latitude 31° 22' and east longitude 75° 40' and 75° 55'.Total geographical area of the district is 1633 Sq.Km. Ninety five per cent to total area of district (1633 sq km) is rural area (1554 sq km). For administrative purpose the district is divided into five blocks Kapurthala, Sultanpur Lodhi, Nadala, Dhilwan and Phagwara. In 2011, Kapurthala had population of 8,17,668 of which male and female were 4,27,659 and 3,90,009 respectively. Sixty seven per cent of total population of district is rural. The density of population is 501 per sq.km. The literacy rate in the district is around 80 per cent. The total number of agriculture workers is 58,430 of which 55,406 are cultivators. In order to assess the status of agricultural information being used by the progressive farmers of the district Kapurthala, a survey was performed in all the 5 blocks of district namely, Kapurthala,

Journal of Krishi Vigyan

Sultanpur Lodhi, Nadala, Dhilwan and Phagwara. In each block, 2 villages were selected and from each village 12 farmers were interviewed. Thus, a total of 120 progressive farmers were taken in this study. The data regarding possession of radio, television, computer, phone line, mobile phone, newspaper, use of helpline were collected and was related with size of land holding. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION i) Source and Type of Information It was found the most farmers access the information through cell phones and they call fellow progressive farmers, relatives input dealers, traders and government agricultural extension services and Krishi Vigyan Kendra. The other important sources of information were newspaper, radio and television. The internet and helpline telephone number was found to be least preferred sources among the farmer. However, the perceived quality and relevance of the information provided by these sources was highly variable. Also the farmers expressed un-satisfaction at the type of information being transmitted by one way media like television or radio or print media and prefer telephone/ mobile as two-way communication is more satisfying where they can put queries. Further it was concluded from discussions with that they require information on weather, market prices, plant protection (disease/pest control), and seed/ varieties, but don’t know where to get reliable information on these aspects and thus use a combination of tools. ii) Ownership and Use of ICT Tools

Use of landline phones: The data presented in Table 1 .1 showed that 64.3 per cent farmers were possessing landline phone who were cultivating > 10 ha. and were considered under large category whereas 47.4 per cent farmers from medium category were keeping land line phones. Thirty three per cent farmers from all other three categories were possessing phones but on analysing the utility of this facility for agricultural purpose, maximum use was made by semi-medium followed by medium, large and small category. Marginal farmers were not making use of this facility for acquiring information about agricultural production technology which might be due to low degree of confidence amongst them. Use of computer: A linear correlation trend was observed between the use of computer by the progressive farmers and the size of land cultivated. Fifty per cent of marginal farmers were possessing computers but were not using it for getting information and keeping records related to agriculture and related fields. About 60 to 65 per cent farmers from medium and large category possessed the computers but only 20 to 22 per cent of them were using it to get information through internet and record keeping. It was noticed that the average age of the farmers engaged in the cultivation of field crops was between 40 to 55 years. Therefore, firstly they were ignorant about the use and handling of computers and secondly at this stage of age there was no interest to learn amongst them. In fact, their children studying in different classes in schools or colleges were making use of these computers that’s why they have purchased these machines. This was the main reason that even 50 per cent of marginal farmers were possessing computers especially for their children. The low use of this machine by farmers can be thus attributed to high cost of computers, time required to learn the use of it, lack of knowledge about its potential use, low level of education of farmers, age, size and type of farming operations. Watching of television: Television is acknowledged as the most important medium for communicating with the rural population of developing countries (FAO,
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Land cultivation: Based on sample analysis, it was found that in district Kapurthala 5;20.8,30.8,31.7 and 11.7 per cent farmers were cultivating land < 1 ha.,1-2 ha., 2-4 ha.,4-10 ha. and > 10 ha., respectively (Table 1.1). Therefore, they were classified into 5 categories viz., marginal, small, small-medium, medium and large. The data showed that about 26 per cent farmers were cultivating land up to 2 ha. and 62.5 per cent between 2 to 4 ha whereas only 11.7 per cent farmers were cultivating more than 10 ha.

Journal of Krishi Vigyan

2001). The television set has become commonplace in homes, businesses and institutions, particularly as a vehicle for advertising, a source of entertainment, and news. Since the 1970s the availability of video cassette, laser discs, DVD and now Blue-ray disc, have resulted in the television set frequently being used for viewing recorded as well as broadcast material. In recent years, internet television has seen the rise of television available via the Internet, e.g. iPlayer. Although other forms such as closed circuit television (CCTV) are in use, the most common usage of the medium is for broadcast television, which was modeled on the existing radio broadcasting systems developed in the 1920s, and uses high-powered radio frequency transmitters to broadcast the television signal to individual TV receivers. In this survey, it was noticed that every farm family was possessing the television set but its use was only about 49 per cent (Table 1) for watching agricultural related programmes. A very famous programme Mera Pind Mere Khet is telecasted at 6.00 PM to 7.00 PM daily except Sunday. Majority of the farmers reported that they could not watch the programme due to its scheduled time as at that time they are in their fields for undertaking various field operations. Hence, timing of the programme needs to be changed. Listening of radio programmes: The data (Table 1) showed that 57.5 per cent of farmers were possessing radio but only 37.7 per cent amongst them were using this medium for getting information related to agriculture. Interestingly, 42.9 per cent large category farmers were possessing radio but only 16.7 per cent of them were using it for listening to agriculture related program (Table 1.1). Contrary to this, 100 per cent of marginal farmers were possessing radio set and 33.3 per cent of them were listening agricultural related programmes and rest were using it for listening songs on FM stations. In these days, FM radio stations are in service throughout the day and most of the farmers use this medium for entertainment rather than acquiring knowledge. An agricultural related programme Dehati Programme is broadcasted daily through

All India Radio Station, Jalandhar but its utility seem to be up to only 37.7 per cent. Reading of newspaper: Print media were found to be most effective in dissemination information amongst the rural farming community as 90.0 per cent of farming families were getting newspaper and out of them 77.8 per cent were reading about the various techniques and programmes undertaken by various development departments. Moreover, its cost was most affordable i.e. Rs. 2.5 /d and keep the readers aware about the day to day events going on in the society. The highest readership was observed in the marginal category and the lowest in the large category. This might be due to paucity of the time for large category or difference in the educational qualification. However the full potential of this media for dissemination of agriculture information is not yet explored as only once a week agriculture supplement is provided in each newspaper which is not enough to cater all information needs. Use of mobile phones: Possession of a mobile phone by an individual can be considered as a status symbol or a necessity as well. In the sample villages 98.3 per cent of the farmers possessed this magic tool and out of it 78.0 per cent were using this device for getting information from dealers, relatives, scientists, extension workers, banks etc. However, only 66.7 per cent of marginal farmers were using it for agricultural purpose whereas possession was 100 per cent. In the market, various mobile models as well as different schemes have been launched by various service providers but due to incapability of handling this device for various purposes, its use is mainly limited to listening of voice messages. It was informed by approximately 70 per cent of the farmers that they were unable to read the messages sent through short message service being sent by different companies as well as by this Krishi Vigyan Kendra from time to time. Thus despite having resources, lack of skill has been major hindrance in use of this service effectively. It can thus, be concluded that still there is a wide gap between the technology generated and its use by the user.

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Use of free helpline service: A centrally sponsored scheme have been launched for the benefit of farming community in which a farmer has to dial a toll free number 1551 from land line phone and call centre will give the reply of the query posed to it. It was noticed that only 16.7 per cent farmers were making use of this facility (Table 1). The main difficulty reported by the farmers was that most of the time the lines remain busy and could not make contact with the call centre. The other reason may be that since this 1551 number is dialled from the land line phone and the number of land line phone sets is decreasing day by day as 40.8 per cent of the farmers possessed these connections. Ownership of ICT tools block-wise: It has been found (Table 2) that 40.8 per cent farmers possessed the landline phones in the district. On computing the data block-wise, it was found that maximum land line phones were present in Nadala block (69.6%) whereas in all other 4 blocks the range varied between 37.5 to 46.7 per cent Kapurthala block was leading in term of farmers possessing computers, television, radio, newspaper and mobile phones in comparison to other blocks. This may be due to the linkages of these farmers with the various line departments at the district headquarter which have enhanced their overall awareness about the ICT tools. Lowest figure for computer and radio sets possessed by the farmers was observed in block Sultanpur Lodhi. This was mainly due to the fact that in this block, farmers belonged to all 5 categories (Table 2.1) whereas in Kapurthala block only medium (35%) and large (65%) category was found as farmer take large chunks of land on lease. Similarly, the cropping scheme followed in both these blocks was also different. In Sultanpur block, farmers prefer to grow vegetables as the land holding is small, besides they grow paddy, muskmelon, potato, watermelon and Sunflower whereas in Kapurthala farmers are cultivating land after taking on lease and are growing mainly Paddy-Potato- muskmelon on a large area. iii) Constraints in Adoption of ICT Tools in Agriculture Though the progressive farmers are keen to get relevant and timely information and are in

possession of ICT tools, their use in agriculture is low. It was observed that the major gap in adoption of these tools for fetching is non availability of relevant information and lack of skill on part of farmers. The utility of available infrastructure is also an issue e.g. the farmers either don’t have computers or those who have , don’t have internet connection which limits its utility. · The information-action ratio indicates the relationship between a piece of information and what action, a consumer is expected to take. It was found that the information-action ratio among the respondent was low. Factors hindering the full exploitation of available information and action on it, is high transaction costs that deter the entry of small farmers into the market For example, even if farmer is able to access information on market price he doesn’t go to far off market due to high transport costs involved. Language poses barrier to use of mass media, Timing of television programme pertaining to agriculture is not suitable for most of the farmers Inconsistent power supply in rural areas limits the use of mass media. Lack of awareness regarding source of information. Other causes are the lack of a policy and regulatory environment and the low progress in research on use ICT and mobile infrastructure for agriculture purposes. CONCLUSION ICT can be a powerful tool to help farmers get the information delivered to them at a time and place of their choice. The scope of these tools especially mobile-enabled information services in agriculture is evident by high ownership of these tools in the district. The present study, of course has been more of preliminary study and more rigorous assessment of benefit of these technologies is necessary to help providing policy inputs. The realization of the potential benefits however, is limited by certain set of constraints which prevent the farmers from fully leveraging the information they receive via these tools. Constraints are very limited exploitation of these

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TV No. Agri use No. Agri use 6 25 35 38 14 118 98.3 3 15 16 17 7 58 49.2 6 14 19 24 6 69 57.5 2 2 9 12 1 26 37.7 6 24 30 35 13 108 90.0 5 19 25 27 8 84 77.8 0 2 7 8 3 20 16.7 6 23 37 38 14 118 98.3 No. Radio Newspaper Helpline Mobile serivce phone Agri use Agri use No. Agri use 4 20 28 29 11 92 78.0 6 25 37 38 14 120 2 8 12 18 9 49 40.8 0 2 10 8 3 23 46.9 3 8 16 24 9 60 50.0 0 1 3 5 2 11 18.3 5.0 20.8 30.8 31.7 11.7 33.3 32.0 32.4 47.4 64.3 0.0 25.0 83.3 44.4 33.3 50.0 32.0 43.2 63.2 64.3 0.0 12.5 18.8 20.8 22.2 100.0 100.0 94.6 100.0 100.0 50.0 100.0 60.0 56.0 45.7 51.4 44.7 63.2 50.0 42.9 33.3 14.3 47.4 50.0 16.7 100.0 96.0 81.1 92.1 92.9 83.3 79.2 83.3 77.1 61.5 0.0 8.0 18.9 21.1 21.4 100 92.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 66.7 87.0 75.7 76.3 78.6

Table 1. Classification on basis of land size (figures in numbers) (N=120) Farm size Land Number of Landline phone Computer holding farmers No. Agri use No. Agri use

Marginal farms Small Semi-medium Medium Large Total (number) Percentage

< 1 ha 1-2 ha 2-4 ha 4-10 ha >10 ha

Table 1.1 Ownership of ICT tools and its use for agriculture purpose among the farmers of different land holding categories (figures in percentages) Farm size Land Number of Landline phone Computer TV Radio Newspaper Helpline Mobile holding farmers serivce phone No. Agri use No. Agri use No. Agri use No. Agri use No. Agri use Agri use No. Agri use

Marginal farms Small Semi-medium Medium Large

< 1 ha 1-2 ha 2-4 ha 4-10 ha >10 ha

Journal of Krishi Vigyan

Table 2. Ownership of ICT tools in different blocks of district Kapurthala (% of farmers) Block Landline phone Computer TV Radio Newspaper Mobile phone Sultanpur Lodhi Kapurthala Dhilwan Nadala Phagwara 46.7 40.0 37.5 69.6 40.0 23.3 80.0 70.8 52.2 60.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 36.7 85.0 41.7 43.5 0.0 76.7 90.0 62.5 60.9 70.0 96.7 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Table 2.1 Distribution of farmers on the basis of land holding in different blocks of district Kapurthala (% of farmers) Block < 1 ha 1-2 ha 2-4 ha 4-10 ha Sultanpur Lodhi Kapurthala Dhilwan Nadala Phagwara 3.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 10.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 23.3 0.0 0.0 4.3 20.0 53.3 35.0 41.7 43.5 50.0

>10 ha 10.0 65.0 58.3 52.2 30.0

tools for dissemination of agricultural information, lesser awareness among extension agents and farmers regarding range of services available. Further the adoption of information is limited by infrastructural constraints like assess to market and storage. Capacity building of both extension workers and farmers in field of utilization of these technologies, strengthening of extension agencies by equipping them with modern facilities, providing latest customised information in local language are required to harvest the potential of these tools for improving agricultural productivity. REFERENCES
Adams, M. E. 1988. Agricultural Extension in Developing Countries. ELBS edition, Longman Singapore Publishing, Singapore.

Asnafi, A and Hamidi, A. 2008. The role of ICT in developing of knowledge. Centre of Iran informationandscientificevidence.EJournal 3(2) http://aeizhazmi.persianblog.ir/post/13 Ekoja, I. 2003. Farmer’s access to agricultural information in Nigeria.Bull. Am. Soc. Info. Sci. Technol. 29(6): 21- 23. F.A.O. 2001. Knowledge and information for food security in Africa from traditional media to the Internet. Communication for Development Group, Sustainable Development Department. Rome: FAO. Md Salleh, H., Hayrol Azril, M.S., Abu Samah, B., Shahkat Ali, M.S. and Ramli, N.S. 2010. Agriculture Communication in Malaysia: The Current Situation. American J. Agric. Biol. Sci. 5(3): 389-396. Pandey, M. 2003.Information technology application in agri input marketing. Agriculture Today Vol 6, pp. 25-28.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The editorial office of Journal of Krishi Vigyan expresses its extreme gratitude to the following honorable reviewers from across the country, for reviewing the manuscripts and providing their expert comments from July 2012 to December, 2012. The valuable input by the worthy reviewers in terms of their precious time and sincere efforts is greatly admirable.
Sr. No Reviewer’s Name No. of Articles 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Anil Sharma Bhupinder Singh D S Dhillon Gobinder Singh Gurdeep Singh Gurmeet Singh Inder Preet Kaur Kanchan Sandhu M I S Gill 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 State New Delhi Haryana Punjab Punjab Punjab Punjab Punjab Punjab Punjab Sr. No Reviewer’s Name No. of Articles 10. 11. 17. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. Mukesh K Gupta P K Sharma R D Kaushik Rajendra Pashin Rajendra Yonzone Rakesh Nanda Ram Singh S K Acharya 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 State Odisha Uttar Pradesh Haryana J&K West Bengal J&K Punjab West Bengal

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