and understand. The sad part has been the heavy toll taken by the severe cyclone of November 1993. Indian Subcontinent which is in an embryonic stage). dualism and materialism). some private companies have provided for an investment of Rs300. To the best of my knowledge the first time 'paradigm' and 'paradigm shift' were applied to forestry was in a paper by Gilmour and King (1989). on the premises of the IGF with Mr Dipak Sharma. DIG. the teak trees average about 150 . religious belief and locale all help to define one people from another. For them.25m. In fact two 'low-tech' interventions . Over 100. Krishnaswamy.for the time being.) I had always understood a paradigm shift to be 'the transfer from one set of domain assumptions to another'. Inspector General of Forests. The conceptual basis for the term was drawn from Gilmour's many years' experience working in what is considered by many to be the most successful community forestry programme in Nepal. who was the Chief Conservator of Forests in Madras State in 1956. Anupam Mukherjee. The potential of teak with irrigation. (A worldview being 'the basic ideas and values shared by members of a particular society. It was repeated in Gilmour and Fisher (1991). by designation. I have hence handed over the Chairmanship of the India UnittoMr Mukherjee (retaining. by which they order all their life experiences'. has prompted 102 companies to come up in India which. community. propose not only to irrigate but also provide the plants with fertilizer. The project was viewed pessimistically by many. when all the good forest areas of the State were transferred to Kerala. Two important developments have taken place in the India Unit of the Commonwealth Forestry Association.S. Westoby (1987) for example. Information on Tanjore teak has mostly remained confined to Tanjore district.OOO. But the trees had attained the size when fanners who have taken to planting teak in the district normally harvest it. functionalism. as seen in the Tanjore district. Government of India. In some of the better sites.J. Minister for Environment and Forests. irrigated by the river Cauvery.Commonwealth Forestry Review Volume 73(2). Unfortunately. classical forest management began to become inoperable and as a result FAO and the World Bank embraced community forestry and encouraged foresters to do likewise. The other office bearers continue to be in Bangalore.600 percubic foot (US$l =Rs3 l). on which the decision was taken in consultation with Mr.OOO per hectare in the case of departmental plantations. 1994
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR
NEWS FROM INDIA Dear Sir. With increasing pressure on natural resources. culture. Implicit in this 'sea-change' was arequirement not only for a new set of forestry domain assumptions but for an attempt to interface with. Shyarn Sunder 2989/D. I had always understood a paradigm to mean 'a set of domain assumptions' and to be a 'sub-set' of a 'worldview'. but very little empirical study has been done on either forester or peasant beliefs.a smokeless stove programme and a check-dam programme . Up until the late seventies the domain assumptions of foresters on a global basis were seemingly influenced by 14th century Germanic silvicultural systems andpractices. maybe because after three years of planting. as Joint Secretary. few took the next step in the analysis to explain why new training was needed. Seemingly we are being asked to believe that the western worldview somehow 'transcends' all others and that a scientific forestry paradigm can be universally applied irrespective of its socio-cultural context?? I have found both the concept of aparadigm and a worldview to be an essential analytical tool to both understand and practise community forestry among the mountain peoples of Asia. has acceded to the request to be the Patron of the CFA India Unit. The high subsoil moisture for about 9 months in the year and the free draining sandy loam soil have produced these results. Karnataka and Andhra due to reorganization of the States. but it was feared the intervention would upset their gods or they could not afford the sacrifice necessary to placate them. The Patron has desired that he should be kept informed of the achievements (and struggles) of the unit. This will be by designation. It fetches around Rs500 . with investors' money. where they do define paradigm as 'a set of domain
S. I am unsure. Mr Kamalnath. I was deeply troubled by D. They also encouraged us to focus more on local beneficiaries than on the requirements of industry and suggested further training courses for foresters. trees planted in 1970 have already attained these sizes.000 sentinels amidst the vast stretches of paddy fields were uprooted. Mr Mukherjee has already set up an office of the CFA Unit in Paryavaram Bhavan. the plantations are handed over to the Public Works Department (for maintenance or otherwise) as the land is vested in that department. if the nature of his complaint is semantic or conceptual. while teakfrom the nearest natural forests (in Kerala State) fetches around Rs750. The late Mr V. A tail piece of forestry interest. is that the IGF. As against an investment of Rs10. should be the Chairman of the India Unit of the CFA. though. stated that 'communityforesters needed to know as much aboutpeasants as trees'. (The benefits of smokeless stoves and check-dams were readily understood. The other development.) The mountain peoples ofAsia have not been influenced by aworldview predicated on enlightenment philosophy (with its reductionism. 72(3)). initiated a plantation programme of teak on the flood banks of the Cauvery. Why not? PARADIGMS Dear Sir Having spent most of the last ten years seeking to practise 'crosscultural' community forestry among the animistic mountain peoples of Asia. Danbury's comments on paradigms (Vol.18Ocmgbh with heights of 20 . Tanjore District is the rice bowl of India. Today. Seemingly this paradigm could be applied universally. There is no natural teak inTanjore district. Government of India. Some did take the analysis further. a people with a very different worldview from their own. Chairmanship of the CFA.very nearly failed because we did not recognize the implications of the local worldview. 12th Main HAL II Stage Bangalore 560 008
15 March 1994
. the world is more integrated: every effect has its causation in the spiritual world: people are inseparable from nature. which receives about 750mm of rainfall from the winter rains.