Myths of Babylonia and Assyria, by Donald A. MacKenzie, [1915], at sacred-texts.




With Historical Narrative & Comparative Notes.

Illustrations in Colour and Monochrome.



[1915] Clic to enlarge Cover Clic to enlarge Frontispiece: THE TEMPTATION OF EA-BANI From the Painting by E. Wallcousins. Clic to enlarge Title Page Scanned, proofed, and formatted at, November 2005, by John Br uno Hare. This text is in the public domain in the United States because it was published prior to 1923. Myths of Babylonia and Assyria, by Donald A. MacKenzie, [1915], at sacred-texts. com [p. v]

PREFACE This volume deals with the myths and legends of Babylonia and Assyria, and as th ese reflect the civilization in which they developed, a historical narrative has been provided, beginning with the early Sumerian Age and concluding with the pe


riods of the Persian and Grecian Empires. Over thirty centuries of human progres s are thus passed under review. During this vast interval of time the cultural influences emanating from the Tig ro-Euphrates valley reached far-distant shores along the intersecting avenues of trade, and in consequence of the periodic and widespread migrations of peoples who had acquired directly or indirectly the leavening elements of Mesopotamian c ivilization. Even at the present day traces survive in Europe of the early cultu ral impress of the East; our "Signs of the Zodiac", for instance, as well as the system of measuring time and space by using 60 as a basic numeral for calculati on, are inheritances from ancient Babylonia. As in the Nile Valley, however, it is impossible to trace in Mesopotamia the ini tiatory stages of prehistoric culture based on the agricultural mode of life. Wh at is generally called the "Dawn of History" is really the beginning of a later age of progress; it is necessary to account for the degree of civilization attai ned at the earliest period of which we have nowledge by postulating [p. vi] a remoter age of culture of much longer duration than that which separates the " Dawn" from the age in which we now live. Although Sumerian (early Babylonian) ci vilization presents distinctively local features which justify the application o f the term "indigenous" in the broad sense, it is found, li e that of Egypt, to be possessed of certain elements which suggest exceedingly remote influences and connections at present obscure. Of special interest in this regard is Professor Budge's mature and well-deliberated conclusion that "both the Sumerians and ear ly Egyptians derived their primeval gods from some common but exceedingly ancien t source". The prehistoric burial customs of these separate peoples are also rem ar ably similar and they resemble closely in turn those of the Neolithic Europea ns. The cumulative effect of such evidence forces us to regard as not wholly sat isfactory and conclusive the hypothesis of cultural influence. A remote racial c onnection is possible, and is certainly worthy of consideration when so high an authority as Professor Frazer, author of The Golden Bough, is found prepared to admit that the widespread "homogeneity of beliefs" may have been due to "homogen eity of race". It is shown ([*Chapter 1]) that certain ethnologists have accumul ated data which establish a racial inship between the Neolithic Europeans, the proto-Egyptians, the Sumerians, the southern Persians, and the Aryo-Indians. Throughout this volume comparative notes have been compiled in dealing with Meso potamian beliefs with purpose to assist the reader towards the study of lin ing myths and legends. Interesting parallels have been gleaned from various religiou s literatures in Europe, Egypt, India, and elsewhere. It will be found that cert ain relics of Babylonian intellectual life, which have a distinctive geographica l significance, were shared by [p. vii] peoples in other cultural areas where they were similarly overlaid with local co lour. Modes of thought were the products of modes of life and were influenced in their development by human experiences. The influence of environment on the gro wth of culture has long been recognized, but consideration must also be given to the choice of environment by peoples who had adopted distinctive habits of life . Racial units migrated from cultural areas to districts suitable for colonizati on and carried with them a heritage of immemorial beliefs and customs which were regarded as being quite as indispensable for their welfare as their implements and domesticated animals. When consideration is given in this connection to the conservative element in pr imitive religion, it is not surprising to find that the growth of religious myth






s was not so spontaneous in early civilizations of the highest order as has hith erto been assumed. It seems clear that in each great local mythology we have to deal, in the first place, not with symbolized ideas so much as symbolized fol b eliefs of remote antiquity and, to a certain degree, of common inheritance. It m ay not be found possible to arrive at a conclusive solution of the most widespre ad, and therefore the most ancient fol myths, such as, for instance, the Dragon Myth, or the myth of the culture hero. Nor, perhaps, is it necessary that we sh ould concern ourselves greatly regarding the origin of the idea of the dragon, w hich in one country symbolized fiery drought and in another overwhelming river f loods. The student will find footing on surer ground by following the process which exa lts the dragon of the fol tale into the symbol of evil and primordial chaos. Th e Babylonian Creation Myth, for instance, can be shown to be a localized and glo rified legend in which the hero and [p. viii] his tribe are displaced by the war god and his fellow deities whose welfare depe nds on his prowess. Merodach ills the dragon, Tiamat, as the heroes of Eur-Asia n fol stories ill grisly hags, by casting his weapon down her throat. He severed her inward parts, he pierced her heart, He overcame her and cut off her life; He cast down her body and stood upon it . . . And with merciless club he smashed her s ull. He cut through the channels of her blood, And he made the north wind to bear it away into secret places. [paragraph continues] Afterwards He divided the flesh of the Ku-pu and devised a cunning plan. Mr. L. W. King, from whose scholarly Seven Tablets of Creation these lines are q uoted, notes that "Ku-pu" is a word of uncertain meaning. Jensen suggests "trun , body". Apparently Merodach obtained special now-ledge after dividing, and per haps eating, the "Ku-pu". His "cunning plan" is set forth in detail: he cut up t he dragon's body: He split her up li e a flat fish into two halves. He formed the heavens with one half and the earth with the other, and then set t he universe in order. His power and wisdom as the Demiurge were derived from the fierce and powerful Great Mother, Tiamat. In other dragon stories the heroes devise their plans after eating the dragon's heart. According to Philostratus, [*1] Apollonius of Tyana was worthy of being r emembered for two things--his bravery in travelling among fierce robber tribes, not then subject to Rome, and his [p. ix] wisdom in learning the language of birds and other animals as the Arabs do. This accomplishment the Arabs acquired, Philostratus explains, by eating the hearts of dragons. The "animals" who utter magic words are, of course, the Fates. Siegf ried of the Nibelungenlied, after slaying the Regin dragon, ma es himself invuln erable by bathing in its blood. He obtains wisdom by eating the heart: as soon a s he tastes it he can understand the language of birds, and the birds reveal to him that Mimer is waiting to slay him. Sigurd similarly ma es his plans after ea ting the heart of the Fafner dragon. In Scottish legend Finn-mac-Coul obtains th













e power to divine secrets by parta ing of a small portion of the seventh salmon associated with the "well dragon", and Michael Scott and other fol heroes becom e great physicians after tasting the juices of the middle part of the body of th e white sna e. The hero of an Egyptian fol tale slays a "death-less sna e" by c utting it in two parts and putting sand between the parts. He then obtains from the box, of which it is the guardian, the boo of spells; when he reads a page o f the spells he nows what the birds of the s y, the fish of the deep, and the b easts of the hill say; the boo gives him power to enchant "the heaven and the e arth, the abyss, the mountains and the sea". [*1] Magic and religion were never separated in Babylonia; not only the priests but a lso the gods performed magical ceremonies. Ea, Merodach's father, overcame Apsu, the husband of the dragon Tiamat, by means of spells: he was "the great magicia n of the gods". Merodach's division of the "Ku-pu" was evidently an act of conta gious magic; by eating or otherwise disposing of the vital part of the fierce an d wise mother dragon, he became endowed with her attributes, and was able to pro ceed [p. x] with the wor of creation. Primitive peoples in our own day, li e the Abipones o f Paraguay, eat the flesh of fierce and cunning animals so that their strength, courage, and wisdom may be increased. The direct influence exercised by cultural contact, on the other hand, may be tr aced when myths with an alien geographical setting are found among peoples whose experiences could never have given them origin. In India, where the dragon symb olizes drought and the western river deities are female, the Manu fish and flood legend resembles closely the Babylonian, and seems to throw light upon it. Inde ed, the Manu myth appears to have been derived from the lost flood story in whic h Ea figured prominently in fish form as the Preserver. The Babylonian Ea cult a nd the Indian Varuna cult had apparently much in common, as is shown. Throughout this volume special attention has been paid to the various peoples wh o were in immediate contact with, and were influenced by, Mesopotamian civilizat ion. The histories are traced in outline of the Kingdoms of Elam, Urartu (Ancien t Armenia), Mitanni, and the Hittites, while the story of the rise and decline o f the Hebrew civilization, as narrated in the Bible and referred to in Mesopotam ian inscriptions, is related from the earliest times until the captivity in the Neo-Babylonian period and the restoration during the age of the Persian Empire. The struggles waged between the great Powers for the control of trade routes, an d the periodic migrations of pastoral warrior fol s who determined the fate of e mpires, are also dealt with, so that light may be thrown on the various processe s and influences associated with the developments of local religions and mytholo gies. Special chapters, with comparative notes, are devoted to the Ishtar-Tammuz myths, the Semiramis legends, Ashur [p. xi] and his symbols, and the origin and growth of astrology and astronomy. The ethnic disturbances which occurred at various well-defined periods in the Ti gro-Euphrates valley were not always favourable to the advancement of nowledge and the growth of culture. The invaders who absorbed Sumerian civilization may h ave secured more settled conditions by welding together political units, but see m to have exercised a retrogressive influence on the growth of local culture. "B abylonian religion", writes Dr. Langdon, "appears to have reached its highest le vel in the Sumerian period, or at least not later than 2000 B.C. From that perio d onward to the first century B.C. popular religion maintained with great diffic ulty the sacred standards of the past." Although it has been customary to charac













terize Mesopotamian civilization as Semitic, modern research tends to show that the indigenous inhabitants, who were non-Semitic, were its originators. Li e the proto-Egyptians, the early Cretans, and the Pelasgians in southern Europe and A sia Minor, they invariably achieved the intellectual conquest of their conqueror s, as in the earliest times they had won victories over the antagonistic forces of nature. If the modern view is accepted that these ancient agriculturists of t he goddess cult were of common racial origin, it is to the most representative c ommunities of the widespread Mediterranean race that the credit belongs of layin g the foundations of the brilliant civilizations of the ancient world in souther n Europe, and Egypt, and the valley of the Tigris and Euphrates. Footnotes ^viii:1 Life of Apollonius of Tyana, i, 20. ^ix:1 Egyptian Tales (Second Series), W. M. Flinders Petrie, pp. 98 et seq. Myths of Babylonia and Assyria, by Donald A. MacKenzie, [1915], at sacred-texts. com [p. xiii] CONTENTS CHAP.






[p. xiv]



com [p.ASSYRIA'S AGE <page 444> XX. [1915]. MacKenzie. xv] PLATES IN COLOUR Page THE TEMPTATION OF EA-BANI (p. Wallcousins 96 MERODACH SETS FORTH TO ATTACK TIAMAT From the painting by E. by Donald A. 173) From the painting by E. at sacred-texts. Wallcousins 144 THE SLAYING OF THE BULL OF ISHTAR From the painting by E. Wallcousins Frontispiece ISHTAR IN HADES facing From the painting by E. Wallcousins 176 . THE LAST DAYS <page 477> OF SPLENDOUR OF ASSYRIA AND BABYLONIA INDEX <page 501> Myths of Babylonia and Assyria.

R. xvii] PLATES IN MONOCHROME PAGE EXAMPLES OF RACIAL TYPES facing From a drawing by E. by Donald A.THE BABYLONIAN DELUGE From the painting by E. MacKenzie. in the Royal Holloway College. Wallcousins 424 Myths of Babylonia and Assyria. [1915]. Wallcousins 220 THE BABYLONIAN MARRIAGE MARKET From the painting by Edwin Long. Wallcousins 2 STATUE OF A 12 WORSHIP OF THE 50 WINGED MAN-HEADED LION MOON GOD (CYLINDER-SEAL) ROYAL PERSONAGE OR OFFICIAL OF NON-SEMITIC ORIGIN .. By permission of the Trustees 224 THE SHEPHERD FINDS THE BABE SEMIRAMIS From the painting by E. at sacred-texts. Wallcousins 192 NEBUCHADNEZZAR IN THE HANGING GARDENS From the painting by E. com [p.A.




"At the noise of the ta ing of Babylon". . John the Divine had visions of the ultimate triumph of Chri stianity. . . neither shall it be dwelt in from generati on to generation. there we sat down. We hanged our harps upon the willows. the doom of which he pronounced in stately and me morable phrases: Babylon the great is fallen. he referred to its enemies--the unbelievers and persecutors--as the ci tizens of the earthly Babylon. Early Christ ians who suffered persecution compared their worldly state to that of the oppres sed and disconsolate Hebrews. . at sacred-texts. MacKenzie. com [p. [1915]. xx] Clic to enlarge Map of Babylonia and Assyria (175 Kb) A High Resolution image of this map is also available: High resolution Map of Babylonia and Assyria (405 Kb) Myths of Babylonia and Assyria. The merchants of the earth shall weep and mourn over her. And is become the habitation of devils. [1915]. "the earth is moved. And the hold of every foul spirit. whose sorrows are enshrined in the familiar psalm: By the rivers of Babylon. MacKenzie. com [p. is fallen. For no man buyeth their merchandise any more. when we remembered Zion.xx Myths of Babylonia and Assyria. li e them. the symbol of wic edness and cruelty and human vanity. I t shall be no more inhabited forever. xxi] INTRODUCTION Ancient Babylonia has made stronger appeal to the imagination of Christendom tha n even Ancient Egypt. Yea. . we wept. . And a cage of every unclean and hateful bird . cried Jeremiah. . xxii] For her sins have reached unto heaven And God hath remembered her iniquities . and. referring to the origin al Babylon. at sacred-texts. [paragraph continues] In sacred literature proud Babylon became the city of the anti-Christ." The Christian Saint rendered more profound the brooding silen         . and the cry is heard among the nations. When St. because of its association with the captivity of the Hebre ws. [p. by Donald A. they sighed for Jerusalem--the new Jerusalem. . . . by Donald A.

And the voice of the bridegroom and of the bride shall be heard no more at all in thee: For thy merchants were the great men of the earth. Glimpses are being afforded us of its life and manners and customs for some thirty centuries before the captives of Judah uttered lamentations on the ban s of its reedy cana ls. And no craftsman. "a case scarcely three feet square" . withal he was a great traveller. which began there. xxiii] It is only within the past half-century that the wonderful story of early Easter n civilization has been gradually pieced together by excavators and linguists. During his early boyhood he resided in Italy. while sojourning in the East. For by thy sorceries were all nations deceived. and of pipers and trumpeters shall be heard no more at all in thee. Layard s et to wor as an excavator in the "forties". He first set to w or at Kal hi. who was born in Paris. he undertoo the exploration of ancient Assyrian cities. but of Babylon itself". and his education. and obtained the colossi. But before Sir A. had begun to investigate the Nineveh mounds. the Biblical Calah. Through his mother he inherited a strain of Spani sh blood. Botta. and musicians. of whatsoever craft he be. In 1845. w ho have thrust open the door of the past and probed the hidden secrets of long a ges. and an accomplished fine-art critic. The sites of some of the ancient cities of Babylonia and Assyria were identi fied by European officials and travellers in the East early in the nineteenth ce ntury. and other treasures of antiquity which formed the nuc leus of the British Museum's unrivalled Assyrian collection. shall be found any more in thee. The history of the ancient land of which it was the capital survived in but meagre and fragmentary form. are preserved in the Louvre. who is referred to by Isaiah. the distinguished pioneer Assyriologist. C. and England. a charming writer. and an able diplomatist. a strenuous politician. and of saints. the Fr ench consul at Mosul. We now now more about "the land of Babel" than did not only the Gree s and Romans. but these he abandoned [p. P. [*1] [paragraph continues] So for nearly two thousand years has the haunting memory o f the once-powerful city pervaded Christian literature. [*1] Layard. and a few relics found their way to Europe. H. And in her was found the blood of prophets. He w as a man of scholarly habits and fearless and independent character. was continued in schools in France. And of all that were slain upon the earth. Three years previously M. while its bro en walls a nd ruined temples and palaces lay buried deep in desert sand. A slim volume contained all t hat could be derived from references in the Old Testament and the compilations o f classical writers. including the Biblical Shalmaneser and Esarhaddon. mingled with accumulated myths and legends.ce of the desolated city of his vision by voicing memories of its beauty and gai ety and bustling trade: The voice of harpers. as he himself wrote. Switzerland. but even the Hebrew writers who foretold its destruction. [p. And the light of a candle shall shine no more at all in thee. "enclosed all that remained not only of the great city of Nineveh. Victor Place. xxiv] for a mound near Khorsabad which proved to be the site of the city erected by "S argon the Later". He also conducted d                   . The relics discovered by Botta a nd his successor. At Kal hi and Nineveh Layard uncovered the palaces of some of the most famous As syrian Emperors. bas reliefs. was an Englishman of Huguenot d escent.

George Smith. which in this case he utilized in conjunction with the older and more comp licated Assyro-Babylonian alphabetic and syllabic characters to record a portion of the history of his reign. and further excavations had to be suspended until the "seventies" on account of the unsettle d political conditions of the ancient land and the difficulties experienced in d ealing with Tur ish officials. and interested himself intensely in the discoveries whi ch had been made by Layard and other explorers. Twelve years of brilliant Mesopotamian discovery concluded in 1854. W. Rassam studied for a time at Oxford. Smith made rapid progress. In the "fifties" Mr. for the cliff [p. He di stinguished himself as a political agent and diplomatist. During the interval. and says that the "Modern Scientific Period" began with Mr. however. sarcophagus graves. J. This wor was carried ou t at great personal ris . His wor was continued by his assistant. E. archaeologists and philologists were ept fully engaged studying the large amount of material which had been accumulated. xxv] is 1700 feet high and the sculptures and inscriptions are situated about 300 fee t from the ground. At fourteen he was apprenticed to an engraver. Goodspeed refers to the early archaeological wor as the "Heroic Period" of rese arch. in Persian Kurdistan. So greatly impressed was Sir Henry by the young man's enthusiasm and remar able intelligence that he allowed him the use of his private room and provided casts and squeezes of inscriptions to assist hi m in his studies. the seat of the moon cult and the birthplace of Abraham. In 1854 Sir Henry Rawlinson superintended diggings at Birs Nimrud (Borsippa. the pioneer investigator of pre-Hellenic cu lture. he devoted his leisure time to cuneiform studies. while Mr. and pot burials. which he visited regularly to pore over the Assyrian inscriptions. He was born at Chelsea in 1840. near Nineveh. He was a youth of studious habit s and great originality. li e Henry Schliemann. Darius was the first monarch of his line to ma e use of the Persian cuneiform sc ript. and at Eridu. and excavated relics of the Biblical Nebuchadrezzar. This notable ar chaeologist began his career in the East as an officer in the Bombay army. K. a native Christian of Mosul. to the Assyrian Emperor Shal maneser. ornaments. Loftus engaged in excavations at Larsa and Erech. nea r Babylon). Hormuzd Rassam. His earliest discovery was the date of the payment of tribute by Jehu. xxvi] [paragraph continues] Henry Rawlinson. George Smith's expedition to Nineveh in 1873. tablets. At the British Museum. Sir Henry Rawlinson began the issue of his monumental wor The Cuneiform Inscriptions of Western Asia on behalf of the British Museum. The discoveries made by Layard and Botta stimulated others to follow their examp le. Rawlinson's translation of the famous inscription was an important contribution towards the decipherment of the cuneiform writings of Assyria and Babylonia. which is gen erally regarded as the cradle of early Babylonian (Sumerian) civilization. King of Israel. was a self-educated man of humble origin. where important discoveries were made of ancient buildings. While resident at Bagh dad.iggings at Babylon and Niffer (Nippur). Sir Henry availed himself of the young investigator's assistance in pro                         . One of his remar able fea ts was the copying of the famous trilingual roc inscription of Darius the Great on a mountain cliff at Behistun. he attracted the atten tion of Sir [p. Taylor operated at Ur.

the palace of the Biblical Ne buchadrezzar. his (thy) shepherd. So was a brilliant career brought to an untimely end. In 1867 Smith received an appointment in the Assyriology Department of the Briti sh Museum. More tablets were discovered and translated. and on 19th August h e died at Aleppo in his thirty-sixth year.ducing the third volume of The Cuneiform Inscriptions. and various other treasures which are now in the Louvre. and a few years later became famous throughout Christendom as the tra nslator of fragments of the Babylonian Deluge Legend from tablets sent to London by Rassam. Even the Tur ish Government has encouraged research wor . was at the time editor o f the Daily Telegraph. King of all heaven and earth. xxviii] expedition was sent out from the United States by the University of Pennsylvania . which worshippers a pparently pinned on sacred shrines. and began to operate at Nippur in 18 88. sta tues of King Gudea. The Germans. and about fifty thousand tablets. The Emperor invo ed Nebo. including the bronze doors of a Shalmaneser temple. the poet and Orientalist. votive statuettes. King of Babylon. In the following year he returned to the ancient Assyrian city on behalf of the British Museum. of as great antiquity to Ashur-ba ni-pal as that monarch's relics are to us. began in 1877 excavations at the an cient Sumerian city of Lagash (Shirpula). many bas reliefs. who have displayed great activity in the domain of philological research. "the great and noble Asnapp er" of the Bible. indeed. An [p. His last expedition was made early in 187 6. Amo                     . in The wisdom of Ea. which was famous for its "hanging gardens". a cylinder of Nabonidu s. [*2] the art of song. Rassam had obtained the tablets from the g reat library of the cultured Emperor Ashur-bani-pal. M. the French consul at Bassorah. on his homeward journey he was stric en down with fever. The pioneer wor achieved by British and French excavators stimulated interest a ll over the world. the sun temple at Sippar. reverencer of thy divinity. and continued them until 1900. Loo gladly upon this Library Of Ashur-bani-pal. Sir Edwin Arnold. to Nineveh to search for other frag ments of the Ancient Babylonian epic. pray ing: [p. O Nebo. xxvii] Forever. [*1] who too delight. on behalf of his paper. copies and tra nslations of tablets from Babylonia. George Smith's expedition to Nineveh in 1873 was excee dingly fruitful of results. the treasures of science. the famous silver vase of King Entemena. de Sarzec. and its exc avators have accumulated a fine collection of antiquities at Constantinople. to bless his "boo s". and added further by his scholarly achievements to his own reputation a nd the world's nowledge of antiquity. Rassam was engaged to continue Smith's great wor . [*1] [paragraph continues] Mr. and performed a memorable service to modern scholarship b y dispatching Smith. This royal patron of learning included in his library collection. are at present represented by an exploring party which is conducting the systematic exploration of the ruins o f Babylon. god of wisdom and learning. The Babylonian literary relics were. Some of these were then over 2000 years old . and between 1877 and 1882 mad e many notable discoveries in Assyria and Babylonia. He foun d thousands of tablets. as he himself recorded.

Commenting on the similari ties presented by certain ancient festivals in various countries. Early Baby lonian history of the Sumerian period begins some time prior to 3000 B. "such homogene ity of civilization may be ta en as evidence of homogeneity of race is a questio n for the ethnologist. and the myths whic h were based upon them. In this connection the reader must be reminded that the chronology of the early [p. however. much light on the relation s between the various civilizations of antiquity. King of the British Museum. the prehistoric Egyptians. and the Ne                        . "There is a growi ng conviction". is the standard wor on the subject. he adds. The Biblical narratives of the rise and decline of the Hebrew ingdoms have also bee n greatly elucidated. it would appear. the exceptions including Professor Flinders Petrie.C. The problem involved has been referred to by Professor Frazer in the Golden Bough. with which the name of Professor Sayce will ever be associated as a pi oneer. especially in the easte rn part of the island. W. and it is shown that the results of modern research tend to establish a remote racial conn ection between the Sumerians of Babylonia.C. Asia Minor. Cret e. yet not a few seem curiously familiar.C. those of our own country occupy a prominent position. Sargo n of A ad flourished about 2650 B. The inflated system of dating which places Mena of Egypt as far bac as 5500 B. One of the most interesting discoverie s of recent years has been new fragments of the Creation Legend by L. according to which the Sixth (Egyptian) Dynasty began at c. are t hose now generally adopted by most European and American authorities.C. 2000 B. a historical narrative has been provided as an appropriate setting fo r the myths and legends. [*1] Petrie dates the beginning of the Twelfth Dynasty at c. and gradually unfolding the story of ancient Eastern civilization. whose scholarly wor . 2540 B. favours the minimum (Berlin) system of Egyptian chronolog y. that becau se a European legend may bear resemblances to one translated from a cuneiform ta blet it is necessarily of Babylonian origin. has been abandoned by the majority of pr ominent archaeologists. In this volume. They belong. and is throwing. we now hear much of the hitherto un nown civilizations of Mitanni and Ura rtu (ancient Armenia).. and the Twelfth at c. How far"." [*1] In [*Chapter I] the reader is introduced to the ethnological problem. to a stoc of common inheritance from an uncertain cultural centre of immense antiquity. The Seven Tablets of Creation. and Egypt has thrown.C. "that Cretan evidence. he suggests th at [p.C. however. We must not conclude.. which contributed to the shaping of ancient history. Certain beliefs. The approximate dates which are given. are older than even the civilization of the Tigro-Euphra tes valley. They are of great antiquity. In addition to the Hittite dis coveries. Hawes. The archaeological wor conducted in Persia. Cyprus. which deals mainly with the intellectual life of the Mesopotamia n peoples.C. xxix] period is still uncertain. writes Mr. the Aegean. Palestine. Rece nt discoveries appear to support the new chronological system. xxx] they may be due to "a remar able homogeneity of civilization throughout Southern Europe and Western Asia in prehistoric times. and Sargon at about 3800 the archaeologists and linguists of various nationalities who are devoting th emselves to the study of ancient Assyrian and Babylonian records and literature. To students of comparative fol lore and mythology the myths and legends of Babyl onia present many features of engrossing interest. and Hammurabi not long before or after 20 00 B. 3400 B.C.

the voluminous Indian epic. In approaching the study of these lin ing myths it would be as rash to conclude that all resemblances are due to homogeneity of race as to assume that fol lore and mythology are devoid of ethnological elements. We must recognize also that the human mind has ever shown a tendency to arrive quite independently at similar conclusions. Scandinavia. li e the Yuga (Ages of the Universe) doctrine and the system of calculation as sociated with it. as was Adonis by the boar form of Ares. the first man. But while many remar able resemblances may be detected between the beliefs and m yths and customs of widely separated peoples. Gilgam esh also figures in Indian mythology as Yama. xxxii] provided for them by nature in lavish abundance. for instance. Due consideration must be giv en to the widespread influence exercised by cultural contact. and it seem s undoubted that the Manu fish and flood myth is a direct Babylonian inheritance . It is of interest to note. the Gree war god. Greec e. for instance . xxxi] [paragraph continues] Ramyana story of the mon ey god Hanuman's search for the l ost princess Sita. and both appear to be variations of the Tammuz-Adonis story. it cannot be overloo ed that prono unced and stri ing differences remain to be accounted for.olithic (Late Stone Age) inhabitants of Europe. too. Variou s habits of life had to be adopted in various parts of the world. we find that behind all systems of primitive religion lies the formative bac ground of natural phenomena. others were compelled to wage a fierce and constant conflict against hostile forces in inhospitable environment s with purpose to secure adequate sustenance and their meed of enjoyment. as well as the southern Persians and the "Aryans" of India. and these prod uced various habits of thought. The Sargon myth. Other Babylonian myths lin with those found in Egypt. and of Semiramis (who was Queen Sammu-ramat of Assyria) and Sha untala. Consequently. while similar stories rema in attached to the memories of "Sargon of A ad" and the Indian hero Karna. The writer has drawn upon that "gr eat storehouse" of ancient legends. in the Be owulf epic. in various parts o f the world. a nd myths and legends of the Mesopotamian peoples to assist the student towards t he elucidation and partial restoration of certain literary fragments from the cu neiform tablets. the patriarch. other relics of similar character suggest that both the Gilga mesh and Hanuman narratives are derived in part from a very ancient myth. the Mahabharata. who explored the wa y to the Paradise called "The Land of Ancestors". resembles closely the myth of Scyld (Sceaf). and it is shown that there are undoubted lin s between the Garuda eagle myths a nd those of the Sumerian Zu bird and the Etana eagle. Of special interest in this connection are the resemblances bet ween some of the Indian and Babylonian myths. and the British Isles and Ireland. Tammuz also resembles in one of his phases the Celtic hero Diarmid. Some peoples. Comparative notes are provided in dealing with the customs. experienced no great difficulties regarding the food supply.                              . religious beliefs. who was slain by th e "green boar" of the Earth Mother. that a portion of the Gilgames h epic survives in the [p. when confronted by similar problems. Human experiences var ied in localities because all sections of humanity were not confronted in ancien t times by the same problems in their everyday lives. the fauna and flora. and the climatic conditions of the area in which it too definite and permanent shape. A mythol ogy reflects the geography. The Indian g od Varuna and the Sumerian Ea are also found to have much in common. Iceland. and over which he subsequently presided as a god. which might be [p.

As a matter of fact Baby lonian mythology fulfils our expectations in this regard to the highest degree. build their houses. as gods in other geographical areas were depicted wearing the s ins of animals which were regarded as ancestors. which caused mud to accumulate.In Babylonia. to find a mythology which has strictly local characteristics--one which mirrors river and valley scenery. [*2] [paragraph continues] Ea acquired in time. They set prosperity upon thy ban s. they conceived tha t the first human beings were created by a similar process: Mardu (son of Ea) laid a reed upon the face of the waters. who didst create all things. li e th eir congeners. xxxiv] and the Neolithic Europeans. The worshippers of the fish god retained ancient modes of thought and perpetuated ancient supersti tious practices. Li e other agricultural co mmunities they were worshippers of the "World Mother". or [p. He was depicted clad in the s in of a fish. as a result of the growth of civiliza tion. who was the                     . control the rivers. But although Ea became a beneficent deity. xxxiii] life principle in. the Euphrates River. therefore. . and had to be propitiated. . He formed man ind. The earliest settlers in the Tigro-Euphrates valley were agriculturists. an a ncient seaport. the Creatrix. the ing of the Deep. he had also a demoniac form. we expect. the habits of life of the people. Traces of primitive thought--survivals f rom remotest antiquity--should also remain in evidence. [*1] [paragraph continues] The Sumerians observed that the land was brought into exis tence by means of the obstructing reeds. where apparently the prehistoric Babylonians (the Sumerians) fir st began to utilize the dried-up beds of shifting streams to irrigate the soil. as elsewhere. or hostile demons that had to be propitiated. created his dwelling. cultivate the fields. When th eir minds began to be exercised regarding the origin of life. Herodotus said that Egypt was the gift of the Nile: similarly Babylonia may be r egarded as the gift of the Tigris and Euphrates--those great shifting and floodi ng rivers which for long ages had been carrying down from the Armenian Highlands vast quantities of mud to thrust bac the waters of the Persian Gulf and form a country capable of being utilized for human habitation. Before they bro e away from the its area of charact erization they had acquired the elements of culture. Originally Ea appears to have been a fish--the incarnation of the spirit of. and also the various stages of progress in the civ ilization from its earliest beginnings. and adopted habits of thoug ht which were based on the agricultural mode of life. as the divine artisan. various attrib utes which reflected the gradual growth of civilization: he was reputed to have taught the people how to form canals. The most typical Babylo nian deity was Ea. Within thee Ea. and so on. the proto-Egyptians [p. One of the several creation myths is reminiscent of those early experiences whic h produced early local beliefs: O thou River. He formed dust and poured it out beside the reed . the god of the fertilizing and creative waters. His centre of worship was at Eridu. When the great gods dug thee out.

and influenced all local theologies. In Egypt Herodotus witnessed festivals and processions which are not referred to in offic ial inscriptions. the creator. then he was slain by a fierce rival who symbolized the season of pestilence-bringing and pa rching sun heat. referred to in the Bible. According to the beliefs of the ancient agriculturists the goddess was eternal a nd undecaying. were. as Babylonia depended for its prosperity on its harvests. and depe nded for their food supply on the prowess of the males. But among the great masses of the people ancient customs as sociated with agriculture continued in practice. Their chief deity was th e s y and mountain god. who had seasonal haunts on hilltops. The most representative people of this class were the "Hatti" of Asia Minor. These were the nomadic pastoralists from the northern steppe lands. as was also the ceremony of ba ing and offering ca es to the Queen of Heaven. despite the e fforts made by conquerors to exalt the deities they introduced. in groves. a nd especially of the ing. it would app ear. and conserved the cr udest superstitions surviving from the earliest times. The fusion in Babylonia of the peoples of the god and goddess cults was in progr ess before the dawn of history. as was the case in Egypt and also in southern Eu rope. who was the guardian of the people. "Husband of his Mother". as the Egyptians put it. who had developed in isolation theories regarding the origin of the Universe which r eflected their particular experiences and the natural phenomena of their area of characterization. Agricultural religion in Egypt was concentrated in the cult of Osiris and Isis. no doubt. and whose lovers were the spir its of the seasons. condemned by Jeremiah. or wild beasts of prey. Domestic religion requ ired no temples. the "Preserver" and also the "Destroyer"--the goddess whose moods were reflected by natural phenomena. absorbed many other local goddesses. the corn god. the force of public opinion tended. The great "burnings" and the human sacrifices in Babylonia. In Babylonia these deities were represented by Tammuz and Ishtar. There were no temples in Crete: the world was the "house" of th e deity. to perpetuate the religious beliefs of the earliest settlers. Her son. li e Isis. In early times the nomads were bro en up into small tribal units. In consequence independent Pantheons came into existence in the various ci ty States in the Tigro-Euphrates valley. xxxv] receive recognition. or in public places. xxxvi] supply. She was the Great Mother of the Universe and the source of the fo od [p. in reed huts. although they were evidently practised from the earliest times . It embraced temple worship and pri vate worship. con nected with agricultural religion of the private order. The religion of the temple was the religion of the ruling class. li e Abraham and his followers. who waged war against the demons of storm or drought. Or it might be tha                 . whi ch obtained in the streets of Jerusalem and other cities. who were of Alpine or Armenoid stoc . or the rainy season. Each year he was born anew and rapidly attained to manhood. an d ensured the food supply of his worshippers. and. became. who was the "World Father". &c. Domestic religion was conducted in homes. In the alluvial valley which they rendered fit for habitation the Sumerians came into contact with peoples of different habits of life and different habits of t hought. Ishtar. and the wielder of the thunder hammer. Babylonian religion was of twofold character.giver of all good things. These were mainly a reflection of city politics: the deities of each influential section had to [p. in caves.

and was supposed to have inaugurated a New Age of the Universe. lunar. who reigned for a long pe riod over the land and had human offspring. a Patriarch. as Cronos was by Zeus and Dyaus by Indra. The complex cha racters of Merodach and Tammuz were not due solely to the monotheistic tendency: the oldest deities were of mystical character. a magical control over them. the first man. "Sargon of A ad" posed as an incarnation of the ancient agricultural Patriarch: he professed to be a man of miraculous b irth who was loved by the goddess Ishtar. [p. who speculated regarding the 1 mysteries of life and dea th and the origin of all things. and as the god who was identified at various seasons with different heavenly bodies and natural phenomena. and thus exercised. Although local or imported deities were developed and conventionalized in rival Babylonian cities. The heroic Patriarch in Egypt was Apuatu. star. a son. in India he was Yama. they still retained traces of primitive conceptions. the earliest form of Osiris. a war god. li e Tammuz. the god of Babylon. he had solar. as they believed. Considering the persistent and cumulative influence exercised by agricultural re ligion it is not surprising to find. As there were i n early times various centres of culture which had rival pantheons. In the Gilgamesh epic we appear to have a form of the patriarch legend--the stor y of the "culture hero" and teacher who discovered the path which led to the lan d of ancestral spirits.t he was slain by his son. they sorrowed or made glad in sympathy with the spirits of nature. was. The myth regarding the father who was superseded by his son may account for the existence in Babylonian city pantheons of elder and younger gods who symbolized the passive and active forces of nature. a demon slayer. and world ruler and guardian. They ex isted in all their forms--as the younger god who displaced the elder god and bec ame the elder god. After death his spirit appeared at c ertain times and seasons as a planet. li e Tammuz. as most of the Egyptian gods had Osirian traits. xxxvii] The King as Patriarch was regarded during life as an incarnation of the culture god: after death he merged in the god. and atmospheric attributes. and he was also the younger god who was born each year. "the opener of the ways". Worshippers also suggested by their ceremonies how t he deities should act at various seasons. were formed in ac cordance with the doings of the deities. astral. The new yea r slew the old year. It wa s decreed that Tammuz should spend part of the year with one goddess and part of the year with the other. In Babylonia the agricultural myth regarding the Mother goddess and the young go d had many variations. "w ho searched and found out the path for many". was loved by two goddess es--the twin phases of nature--the Queen of Heaven and the Queen of Hades. that most of the Bab ylonian gods had Tammuz traits. They utilized floating myths for this purpose. and. He was the ghost o f the elder god. Merodach. a corn spirit. [p. Tammuz was also a Patriarch. li e Adonis. and as the elder god who conciliated the younger god and made him his active agent. In one form Tammuz. a god of fertility. who was exalted as chief of the National pantheon in the Hammurabi Age. and therefore a form of Ea. The social customs of the people. or constellation. xxxviii] The theorizing priests. had to address the people through the medium of popular beliefs. In the different forms in which they survive to us they re          . they represented the "Self Power " of Naturalism as well as the spirit groups of Animism. the adapted myths varied greatly. which had a religious basis. as has been indicated.

The battle of creeds has ever been a battle of minds. not only aspects of local beliefs. The retrogressive tendencies of the mas ses were invariably reinforced by the periodic invasions of aliens who had no re spect for official deities and temple creeds. 17. ^xxvii:1 Langdon's Sumerian and Babylonian Psalms. The endowed priests. 179. p. because the forces at wor were directed by huma n wills. xviii. civilization made progress when wealth was accumulated in suff icient abundance to permit of a leisured class devoting time to study and resear ch. among which the Mesopotamian and the Nilot ic were the earliest. Their aspirations and t riumphs. The history of Babylonian religion is divided into periods of growth and periods of decadence. their prejudices and blunders. however. As in Egypt. and it is only within recent years that we have begun to realize how incalculable is the debt which t he modern world owes to them. moved statesmen to inaugurate and administer humanitarian law s. who performed temple ceremonies. These civilizations of the old world. The influence of domestic relig ion was invariably opposed to the new and high doctrines which emanated from the priesthood.flect. ^xxvi:2 The culture god. The characters must also receive attention. Many ran weeds flourished beside the brightest blossoms of the human intellect that wooed the sun in that fertile valley of riv ers. We must not expect. the faded petals that were once a rose. ^xxvi:1 Ezra. vol. We are not concerned with the plot alone. It should be recognized. xxxix] billowy forces which shaped the shoreland of the story and made history. 10. The epochs in the intellectual life of an ancient people are not comparable to g eological epochs. ^xxiii:1 Nineveh and Its Remains. p.               . for we hav e yet discovered little more than the fragments of the shell which held the pear l. therefore. and in times of political upheaval tended to submerge them in the d ebris of immemorial beliefs and customs. but also grades of culture at differen t periods. Footnotes ^xxii:1 Revelation. Various aspects of Babylonian life and culture are dealt with throughout this vo lume. iv. They made possible " the glory that was Greece and the grandeur that was Rome". were the [p. for instance. regarding which after all we have only a superficial nowledge. were the teachers of t he people and the patrons of culture. whether in the interests of progress or otherwise. were built on no unsound foundations. The Babylon of the Apocalypse is generally believed t o symbolize or be a mystic designation of Rome. to find that the latest form of a myth w as the highest and most profound. i. and exalted Right above Might. and it is shown that the growth of science and art was stimulated by unwho lesome and crude superstitions. We may thin little of their religious bel iefs. that the h uman element bul s as prominently in the drama of Babylon's religious history as does the prince of Denmar in the play of Hamlet. but we must recognize that they provi ded inspiration for the artists and sculptors whose achievements compel our wond er and admiration. We must avoid insisting too strongly on the application of the evolution theory to the religious phenomena of a country li e Babylonia.

409 (3rd edition). MacKenzie. and were the oldest inhabitants of Babylonia of whom we have any nowledge. From the earliest times the sculptors depicted them with abundant loc s. p. BEFORE the dawn of the historical period Ancient Babylonia was divided into a nu mber of independent city states similar to those which existed in pre-Dynastic E gypt. W. flo unced robes. and the prominent distinctive noses and full lips. by Donald A. 1] [ch-01] MYTHS OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA CHAPTER I The Races and Early Civilization of Babylonia Prehistoric Babylonia--The Confederacies of Sumer and A ad--Sumerian Racial Aff inities--Theories of Mongolian and Ural-Altaic Origins--Evidence of Russian Tur estan--Beginnings of Agriculture--Remar able Proofs from Prehistoric Egyptian Gr aves--Sumerians and the Mediterranean Race--Present-day Types in Western Asia--T he Evidence of Crania--Origin of the A adians--The Semitic Blend--Races in Anci ent Palestine--Southward Drift of Armenoid Peoples--The Rephaims of the Bible--A adians attain Political Supremacy in Northern Babylonia--Influence of Sumerian Culture--Beginnings of Civilization--Progress in the Neolithic Age--Position of Women in Early Communities--Their Legal Status in Ancient Babylonia--Influence in Social and Religious Life--The "Woman's Language"--Goddess who inspired Poets . ^xxxiii:1 The Seven Tablets of Creation. which we usua lly associate with the characteristic Jewish type. ^xxxiii:2 Ibid. p. In contrast. and Sumer was now n as Kengi. and appears to have b                                    . or Shumer. They were a people of Semitic speech with pronounced Semitic affinit ies. p. 129. ^xxx:1 The Scapegoat vol. and noses of Egyptian and Grecian rather than Semitic type. pleated i lts. [1915]. King. This division had a racial as well as a geographical signific ance. and went about with the upper part of their bodies quite bare li e the Egyp tian noblemen of the Old Kingdom period. or Kiuri. pp. lo ng full beards. 2] [paragraph continues] "late corners" who had achieved political ascendency in th e north when the area they occupied was called Uri. and also attired in long. Sumerian civilization was rooted in the agricultural mode of life. com [p. the Sumerians had clean-shaven faces and scalps. and the southern in the land of Sumer. 18. suspended from their left shoulders. The A adians were [p. 133-4. Ultimately these were grouped into loose confederacies. while they wore short.. and reaching down to their an les. They spo e a non-Semitic language. at sacred-texts. L. Myths of Babylonia and Assyria. The northern citie s were embraced in the territory nown as A ad.^xxix:1 Crete the Forerunner of Greece.

If. and it is asserted on the evidence a fforded by early sculptural reliefs that they were similarly oblique-eyed. One theory connects them wit h the lan -haired and beardless Mongolians. Although th e languages of the Sumerians and long-headed Chinese are of the agglutinative va riety. Nor can far-reaching concl usions be drawn from the scanty linguistic evidence at our disposal. These bro                                              . so are those also which are spo en by the broad-headed Tur s and Magyars of Hungary. Much controversy has been waged regarding the original home of the Sumerians and the particular racial type which they represented. which is diminutive. The Semitic A adians adopted the distinctive culture of Clic to enlarge EXAMPLES OF RACIAL TYPES From a drawing by E. the prominent Sumerian nose. which is invariably found to be remar ably pers istent in racial blends. Languages afford no sure indication of racial origins or affinities. the broad-headed and long-headed. dar and fair Finns. who are vaguely g rouped as Ural-Altaic stoc and are represented by the present-day Tur s and the dar variety of Finns. Wallcousins [p. It is assumed that they migrated southward in remote tim es in consequence of tribal pressure caused by changing climatic conditions. who are regarded as a varia tion of the Mediterranean race with distinctive characteristics developed in iso lation. As th ey also spo e an agglutinative language. and had in use a syste m of cuneiform writing which was still in process of development from earlier pi ctorial characters. The distinctive feature of their agricultural methods was th e engineering s ill which was displayed in extending the cultivatable area by th e construction of irrigating canals and ditches. Cities had been built chiefly of sun-dried and fire-ba ed bric s. the people were governed by humanitar ian laws. is quite unli e the Chinese.een well developed before the Semites became numerous and influential in the lan d. distinctive pottery was manufactured with much s ill. The late Sumerian sculptu re wor again presents difficulties in this connection. There are also indications that they possessed some nowledge of navigation and traded on the Persian Gulf. it is suggested that they were descende d from the same parent stoc as the Chinese in an ancient Parthian homeland. and exercised an influence on its subsequent g rowth. Acc ording to one of their own traditions Eridu. however. and the theory no longer obtains that new habits of life alter s ull forms which are usually a ssociated with other distinctive traits in the structure of s eletons. 4] broad-headed peoples of the Western Asian plains and plateaus. for instan ce. Another theory connects the Sumerians with the [p. 3] these Sumerians after settlement. fo r in the finer and more exact sculpture wor of the later Sumerian period the ey es of the ruling classes are found to be similar to those of the Ancient Egyptia ns and southern Europeans. and the brune t and short-statured Basques with pear-shaped faces. and abandoned a purely pastoral for an agricultural life. it is evident that the Mongolian type. was their rac ial cradle. for the faces and bulgin g occiputs suggest rather a long-headed than a broad-headed type. originally a seaport. did not survive in the Tigris and Euphrates valleys. the oblique eye was not the result of faulty and primitive art. which formed the nucleus of the Hammurabi code. Other facial characteristics suggest that a Mongolian racial connection is highly improbable.

Further we cannot go. therefore. Boghaz Koi in Asia Minor. and that the elements of the earlier culture were derive d from the same quarter by an indirect route. The Basques. At any rate this fact is generally recognize d by ethnologists. Recent scientific expeditions in Russian and Chinese Tur estan have accumulated importa nt archaeological data which clearly establish that vast areas of desert country were at a remote period most verdurous and fruitful. shave their pointed chins and some times grow short side whis ers to increase the distinctive pear-shape which is g iven to their faces by their prominent temples. and thic ly populated by o rganized and apparently progressive communities. show a tendency towards variation as a result of the crossment of types. which at times may. the capital of ancient Elam. and some of their domesticated anim als. From these ancient centres of c ivilization wholesale migrations must have been impelled from time to time in co nsequence of the gradual encroachment of wind-distributed sand and the increasin g shortage of water. on the other hand. and those of the children of broad-headed Armenians made flatter behind as a result of systematic pressure applied by using cradle [p. and at points in the southern regions of the Bal an Peninsula. but they are importa nt in so far as they afford evidence of early trade relations in a hitherto unsu spected direction. as Professor Elliot Smith believes. were in the habit of nomadic peoples of the Steppes are allied to Tatar stoc . and resembles somewhat other Neolithic specimens found as far apart as Susa. A Central Asiatic source for Sumerian culture has also been urged of late with m uch circumstantial detail. The pottery is decorate d with geometric designs. In contrast. If. or to suggest the original source of early Sumerian picture writing. It is suggested that these various finds are scattered evidences of early racial drifts from the Central Asian areas which were gradually being rendered uninhab itable. and distingu ished from the pure Mongols by their abundance of wavy hair and beard. it may be. 5] boards. that the Sumerians. their ethnic affinities shoul d be loo ed for among a naturally glabrous rather than a heavily-bearded people. At Anau in Russian Tur estan. li e th e Ancient Egyptians. their neighbours. no doubt. The evidence obtainable in Egypt i s of interest in this connection. and the long distances over which cultural influence extended before the dawn of history. t he Andalusians. Pumpelly's view that from the Anau district the Sumerians an d Egyptians first obtained barley and wheat. and t o distinguish them mar edly from the Basques. The fact that the Sumerians shaved their scalps and faces is highly suggestive in this co nnection. where excavations were conduc ted by the Pumpelly expedition. on the borders of Babylonia. T hese. copper was first used by the Ancien t Egyptians. Among the Copper Age artifacts at Anau are clay votive [p. 6] statuettes resembling those which were used in Sumeria for religious purposes. From the earliest times it has been the habit of most peoples to empha size their racial characteristics so as to be able. In this way these rival peoples accentuate their contrasting head forms. This material has been carefully examined                                 . cannot be held to prove a racial connection. for instance. Nor is it poss ible to confirm Mr. where the s ulls of the children of long-head ed Kurds are narrowed. however. When it is found. the seat of Hittite administration. [*1] Another example of similar ch aracter is afforded in Asia Minor. round the Blac S ea to the north. No inscriptions have yet been discovered to render articulate this mysterious Central Asian civilization. Large quantities of food have been ta en from the stomachs and intestines of sun-dried bodies which have lain in their pre-Dyn astic graves for over sixty centuries. that a nowledge of this metal reache d Anau through Sumeria. abundant traces were found of an archaic and for gotten civilization reaching bac to the Late Stone Age. to distingu ish readily a friend from a foeman. one may suggest. grow chin whis ers to broaden their already rounded chins. It brea s quite fresh and interesting ground.

that early Babylonian culture was indigenous. but although n o specimens of the earliest form of picture writing have been recovered from the ruins of Sumerian and A adian cities. Mye rs has ascertained that the modern peasants have s ull forms which are identical [p. of the domesticated sheep and go ats and cattle painted on the pottery. neither have any been found elsewhere. the eastern branch of wh ich reaches to India and the western to the British Isles and Ireland. Dr. to find that in south-western Asia at the present day one particular racial type predominates over all others. These peoples are all primarily long-headed and dar brunet s. In Egypt. and says: "It includes the Persians and Kurds.. The various theories which have been propounded regarding the outside source of Sumerian culture are [p. hus s of barley and millet. Professor Ripley. although varying in stature according t o circumstances. T he possibility remains. says Professor Elliot Smith. [*2] The exhaustive study of thousands of ancient crania in London and Cambridge coll                  . [*1] It is therefore apparent that at an extremely remote period a nowledge of agriculture extended throughout Egypt. Mr. b ut the Ancient Egyptians and the Phoenicians also have been traced to the same s ource. including those. and fragments of mammalian bones. but also upon the more general grounds that negative statements of this sort cannot be assigned a positive evidence for an immigration. whose physical characteristics disting uish them from the Semites of Jewish type. an d we have no reason for supposing that it was not shared by the contemporary inh abitants of Sumer. The argument that no early remains h ave been found is futile. no doubt. S. "with the object of bringing these Sumerians from somewhere else as immigrants into Sumer. [*1] It is n ote-worthy. who are clearly of the same race. through the Egyptians. therefore. but no reasons have been advanced to show that they ha d not been settled at the head of the Persian Gulf for long generations before t hey first appeared on the stage of history. possibly the Ossetes in the Caucasus. for instance. "A great deal of ingenuity has been displayed by many scholars". 8] with those of their pre-Dynastic ancestors. refers to it as the "Iran ian". Its rude begi nnings cannot be traced on the ban s of the Tigris and Euphrates. Hawes has also demonstrated that the ancient inhabitants of Crete are still represented on that famous island. The importance of evidence of thi s character has been emphasized elsewhere." [*1] This distinguished et hnologist is fran ly of opinion that the Sumerians were the congeners of the pre -Dynastic Egyptians of the Mediterranean or Brown race. They incline to slenderness of habit. who summ arizes a considerable mass of data in this connection. Not only the modern peoples. therefore. In the sa me ancient family are included the Arabs. and has yielded. The area of their extension runs off into Africa. and farther to the east a large number of Asiatic tribes. 7] based on the assumption that it commenced abruptly and full grown." The broad-headed type "occurs spo radically among a few ethnic remnants in Syria and Mesopotamia". In them we recognize at once undoubted congeners of our Mediter ranean race in Europe. B ut even more remar able is the fact that the distinctive racial type which occup ied the Palaeolithic caves of the Dordogne valley in France continues to survive in their vicinity after an interval of over twenty thousand years. C. By far the largest portion of this part of Western Asia is inhabited by t his eastern branch of the Mediterranean race. from the Af ghans to the Hindus. among other things. Some light may be thrown on the Sumerian problem by giving consideration to the present-day racial complexion of Western Asia. not only because such a country as Sumer is no more fa vourable to the preservation of such evidence than is the Delta of the Nile.

would then form the big-nosed. 9] apparently. [p. that the ancient Sumerians differed racially from the pre-Dynastic inhabitants of Egy pt and the Pelasgians and Iberians of Europe. but grew the sli ght moustache and chin-tuft beard li e the Libyans on the north and the majority of the men whose bodies [p. especially when its natural resources are restricted by a succession of abnormally dry years. the site of the Sumerian city of Lagash. inhabitants are not of the characteristic Semitic type. so familiar not o nly on the ancient Babylonian and Egyptian monuments. Some of the plump figures of the later period suggest. therefore. long-bearded Semites. The former country has ever been subject to periodic ethnic disturbances and changes. the well. having alien traits.nown Palestin ian [p. belonging to an early period in the Late Stone Age. writes Prof essor Elliot Smith. and many of its present-day. To a later period belong the series of Gezer c ave dwellings. display distinctively Mediterranean s ull forms and faces. It seems doubtful." This blend of Arabs. "the particular alien strain" which in Egypt and elsewhere "is always assoc iated with a tendency to the development of fat". 11]                       . in contrast to "the lean and s inewy appearance of most representatives of the Brown race". where they mingled with the southward-migrating Armenoid peo ples from Asia Minor. the early type. "If". Hugo Winc ler's contention that the f low of Arabian migrations was northwards towards Syria ere it swept through Meso potamia. that Arabia was the or iginal home of the Semites. [*3] Where blen ding too place. continued to predominate. the Arab must have undergone a profound change in hi s physical characters after he left his homeland and before he reached Babylonia . but also in the modern Jew s. Indeed." This authority is of opinion that the Arabians first migrated into Palestine and northern Syria. as elsewhere. Of special interest in this connection is the evidence afforded by Palestine and Egypt. have been discovered in association with th e bones of the woolly rhinoceros. and it appears to be reasserting itself in our own time in Western Asia. In a northern cave fragments of rude pottery. On the Ancient Egyptian pottery and monuments the Arabs are depicted as men who closely resembled the representative s of the Mediterranean race in the Nile valley and elsewhere. however. the result of early admixture. which. howe ver. a country which is favourable for the production of a larger population than it is able to maintain permanently. insmen of the proto-Egyptians and A rmenoids. and a valuable collection of these is being preserved in a French mu seum at Jerusalem." [*1] Such a view is in accord with Dr. They shaved neithe r scalps nor faces as did the historic Sumerians and Egyptians. came these invading Semitic A adians of Jewish type? It is genera lly agreed that they were closely associated with one of the early outpourings o f nomadic peoples from Arabia. were distributed between Egypt and the Punjab. we are confronted at the outset wit h the difficulty that its prehistoric. 10] have been preserved in pre-Dynastic graves in the Nile valley. [*1] This change ma y be accounted for by the presence of the Semites in northern Babylonia. according to Professor Macalister. Its racial history has a remote beginning in the Pleistocene Age. then. Whence. "the generally accepted view is true. It can scarcely be supposed that these invasions of settled districts d id not result in the fusion and crossment of racial types and the production of a sub-variety with medium s ull form and mar ed facial characteristics. In tracing the A adians from Arabia.ections has shown that Mediterranean peoples. the statuettes from Tello. Palaeolithic flints of Chellean and other primitive types have been found in lar ge numbers.

Their pioneers. it may be that the dead of a later people were burned there. "were occupied by a non-Semitic people of low stature. the landed p roprietors in the country of the Rephaim were identified with the aliens from As ia Minor--the tall variety in the Hittite confederacy. This was not a Mediterranean custom. "whose power was bro en only by the Hebrew [p. nor does it appear to have pr evailed outside the Gezer area. there are evidences that the dead w ere cremated. The Mediterraneans mingled in Northern Syria and Asia Minor with the bro ad-headed Armenoid peoples who are represented in Europe by the Alpine race. Mansell                            . however. Wit h them they ultimately formed the great Hittite confederacy. The consequent multiplication of tribes. is r aised by the fact that. in one of the caves. who were probably traders. however. and if not with pure Armenoids. early in the Copper Age. however. and the valleys of the Tigris and Euphrates in another. r emains. The Semites of A ad were probably the conquerors of the more highly civilized S umerians. that the Sumerians were attac ed before they had begun to ma e meta l weapons. and nothing is nown o f their conquests and settlements. It is more probable that the invading nomads had superior military or ganization and considerable experience in waging war against detached tribal uni ts. it does not indicate that the insm en of the Ancient Egyptians came into contact with the remnants of an earlier pe ople. They may have also found some of the northern Sumerian city states at war wi th one another and ta en Clic to enlarge STATUE OF A ROYAL PERSONAGE OR OFFICIAL OF NON-SEMITIC ORIGIN (British Museum) Photo. must have ept this part of Western Asia in a constant state of unrest. This early southward drift of Armenoids might account fo r the presence in southern Palestine. [*1] These people are generally supposed to be representatives of the Mediterranean race. with thic s u lls and showing evidence of the great muscular strength that is essential to sav age life". It is possible that they owed their success to the possession of superior weapons.authority. [*3] Apparentl y a system of land laws prevailed in Palestine at this early period. The possibili ty that unidentified types may have contributed to the Semitic blend. [*1] Joshua drove them out of Hebron. [*2] An interesting problem. and the gradual pressure exercised by the constant stream of immigrants from Arabia and Asia Minor. ap pear to have begun to enter the Delta region before the close of the Late Stone Age. which Sergi has found to have been widely distributed throu ghout Syria and a part of Asia Minor. the Hittite. Fresh migrations of the surplus stoc were evidently propelled towards Egypt in one direction. [*2] in the neighbourhood of wh ich Abraham had purchased a burial cave from Ephron. at any rate w ith peoples having Armenoid traits. Professor Elliot Smith suggests in this connection that the Arabians had become familiar with the use of copper as a result of contact with the Egyptians in Sinai. It is of sp ecial interest for us to note that in Abraham's day and afterwards. There is no eviden ce. 12] invaders". however. Little doubt need remain that the Arabians during their sojourn in Palestine and Syria met with distinctive types. who must have previously occupied that area. If. These Armenoids wer e moving southwards at the very dawn of Egyptian history. [*3] The earliest outpourings of migrating Arabians may have been in progre ss about the same time. of the tall race referred to in the Bible as the Rephaim or Ana im.

No doubt its brilliant historical civilization owed much of its vigour and stab ility to the organizing genius of the Semites. ultimately achieved an intellectual conquest of their co nquerors. as are many of the inhabi tants of Ireland. but ulti mately the language of the Semites became the prevailing speech in Sumer and A ad. li e Latin in Europe during the Middle Ages. This is shown by the fact that the native speech of an cient Sumer continued long after the dawn of history to be the language of Babyl onian religion and culture. 15] We need not assume that Neolithic man led an idyllic existence. In Egypt and Babylonia the soil was tilled and its fertility increased by irrigation. Their mode of life necessitated a n owledge of Nature's laws. which should not be re garded as necessarily [p. All great civilizations have evolved from the habits and experiences of settled communities. 14] an age of barbarism. it was necessary for the great majority of the nomads to engage their activities in new directions after settlement. ere this consummation was reached and Ancient Babylonia became completely Semitized. The Sumerians. but the basis on which it was est ablished had been laid by the ingenious and imaginative Sumerians who first made the desert to blossom li e the rose. Wales. settled communities required peace an d order for their progress and prosperity. while in Egyp t the pre-Dynastic dead were sometimes wrapped in finely woven linen: their deft ly chipped flint implements are eloquent of artistic and mechanical s ill. his triumphs wer                           . they had to ta e note of the seasons and measure time. and the day into twelve double hours. and consequently we find that the earliest great civilizations were rooted in the little fields of the Neolithic farmers. Africa. Early rulers. The Neoliths made p ottery and bric s. and the evidence afforded by the remains of stone circles and temples suggests that in the organization and division of labour the influence o f religious teachers was pre-eminent.[p. and u ndoubted mathematical ability must be credited to the ma ers of smoothly polishe d stone hammers which are so perfectly balanced that they revolve on a centre of gravity.ings--i ncarnations of the deity who owned the land and measured out the span of human l ife. however. therefore. and these had to be governed by codes of laws. Wherever man waged a struggle with Nature he made rapid progress . and they consequently came under the spell of S umerian modes of thought. Although the leaders of invasion may have formed military aristocracie s in the cities which they occupied. For cen turies the mingling peoples must have been bi-lingual. and Babylonia the system of dividing the wee in to seven days. and the Scottish Highlands in the present age. A considerable period elapsed. This change was the direct result of the conquests and the political suprema cy achieved by the northern people. [p. and Europe. The Se mitic A adians. The culture of Sumer was a product of the Late Stone Age. So Egypt gave us the Calendar. for spindle-w horls are found even in the Gezer caves to which we have referred. however. were priest. During its vast periods there were great discoveries and gr eat inventions in various parts of Asia. The agricultural life permitted large communities to live in river valleys. indeed. we now that they invented the art of spinning. adopted Sumerian habits of life which were best suit ed for the needs of the country. 13] advantage of their unpreparedness to resist a common enemy The rough Dorians who overran Greece and the fierce Goths who shattered the power of Rome were simila rly in a lower state of civilization than the peoples whom they subdued. Law and religion were cl osely associated.

17]     were not rigidly appointed two of Similarly Shisha had subdued. In this connection it is of interest. There is only one instance of a Su merian woman ascending the throne. li e the Mediterranean peoples of Egyp t and Crete. and cou ld sue and be sued in courts of law. therefore. Sons inherited family possessions. and especi ally the position occupied by women. But. who owned the Egyptian slave Hagar. the Egyptian Pharaoh. his daughters as rulers of conquered cities in Syria and Elam. Some spinsters. especially of the Med iterranean race. A wife had no rights other than those accorded to her by her husband. and in the event of separation from her hus band she could claim its full value. 16] a daughter". as did the Babylonian Sarah. In every country in Europe we still find the direct descendants of the ancient Mediterranean race. accompanied by shadowy goddesses who were often little el se than figures of speech. as well as the descend ants of the less highly cultured conquerors who swept westward out of Asia at th e dawn of the Bronze Age. Dungi II. Wom en were accorded a legal status and marriage laws were promulgated by the State. Wives could possess private property in their own right. [*1] In the religious life of anc female population exercised an undoubted influence.e achieved by slow and gradual steps. social life was reflected in the conception of con trolling male deities. and in cert               . when they had attained to years of discretion. which is engaging so much attention at the present day. The Ancient Sumerians. The s ulls show that in the Late Stone Age the human brain was fully developed and that the racial types were fixed. Neolithic man. Even the influence of Neolithic intellectual life still r emains. no doubt. It would appear that among the Semites and other nomadic peoples woman was regar ded as the helpmate rather than the companion and equal of man. and Ancient Crete we f ind that the faces are refined and intellectual and often quite modern in aspect . Daughters might possess property over which their fathers exerc ised no control: they could also enter into legal agreements with their parents in business matters. the daughters had no sh are allotted to them. Women. theref ore. Brothers and sisters were joint heirs of th e family estate. or wives. li e Queen Hatshepsut of Egypt. Solomon's wife. handed over the city of Gezer. it was "miserable to have [p. Ancient Egypt. The comparative study of mythology and fol beliefs reveals that we have inherited certain modes of thought from our remote ancestors. wife of Abraham. on the other hand. in various countries it was the custom t o expose female children after birth and leave them to die. Young women who too vows of celibacy and lived in religious institutions could yet ma e bus iness investments. and could be sold by fathers and brothers. reverenced and exalted motherhood in social and religious life. Among the peopl es who observed "male right". had reached a comparatively high state of civilization long age s before the earliest traces of his activities can be obtained. disciplined b y laws. When this type o f man ind is portrayed in Ancient Sumeria. [*1] A woman receive d from her parents a marriage dowry. his legal codes were. to ient Sumeria the excluded from official life. were accustomed t o enter into business partnerships with men or members of their own sex. written in blood and his institutions welded in the fires of adversity. who were the cong eners of the Ancient Sumerians and the Ancient Egyptians. and everywhere there are evidences of crossment of typ es in varying degrees. . who exercised over her the pow er of life and death. an early Sumerian ing. which he his daughter. as a Hindu sage reflected. as surviving records show. The birth of a s on was hailed with joy. [p. to refer to the social ideals of the early peoples wh o met and mingled on the southern plains of the Tigris and Euphrates. which fostered humanitarian ideals.

. Thou dost control our weapons and award In battles fierce the victory at will O crown'd majestic Fate. In temples. In the later Semitic adaptations of these productions. because when Hammurabi codified existing laws. as in our own. . t his conventional reference was altered to "male and female". where Art thou not mighty. And lady ruler of the host of heaven-Illustrious is thy name . They have established thee above the gods And all the host of heaven . were at wor to restrict the position of women they did not meet with much success. Thou bringest lamentation. The heavens and earth are under thy control. Thou sovran wielder of the wand of Doom. The gift of strength is thine for thou art strong. It must not be inferred. The following hymn is addressed to that deity in her Val yrie-li e character as a goddess of war. . Lady of ladies. just as present-day orators address themselves to "ladies and gentlemen". the Babylonian Venus. that the ladies of Sumeria had established a speech which differed from that u sed by men. Ishtar most high. peerless. thou queen of war Girded with battle and enrobed with fear . Thou stately world queen. O light divine. however . the ancient rights of wo men received mar ed recognition. At thought of thee the world is filled with fear. but her more feminine traits are not obscured:-[p.ain temples there were priestesses. howe ver. and on the earth                       . Ishtar who shapes the lives of all man ind. Adored art thou in every sacred place. Thy will is urgent. the ideal of womanhood was the poet's chief source of inspiration. Gleaming in lofty splendour o'er the earth-Heroic daughter of the moon. O lady of the gods. broo ing no delay. in majesty and pow'r. oh! hear. holy dwellings. and supreme? Anu and Bel and Ea have thee raised To ran supreme. . The reference would appear to be to a softer and homelier dialect. p erhaps the oldest of the two. sovran of the s y. 18] Hymn to Ishtar To thee I cry. it is significant to note. thou dost urge With hostile hearts our brethren to the fray. in which poetic emotion found fullest and most bea utiful expression. goddess without peer. and thine images not made? Where are thy temples not upreared? O. Thy hand is violent. The gods in heaven qua e. There were two dialects in ancient Sumeria. and the invocatory hymns were compos ed in what was nown as "the women's language". and among the hymns the highest reac h of poetic art was attained in the invocation of Ishtar. In these ancient days. If influences. The oldest hymns give indication of the resp ect shown to women by ma ing reference to mixed assemblies as "females and males ". Who art exalted over all the gods. Where is thy name not lauded? where thy will Unheeded. O stately queen. . and in shrines. .

. . . my lady. . . 19] Thy ways are just and holy. What have I done that thou hast turned from me? Have I neglected homage to my god And thee my goddess? O deliver me And all my sins forgive. Hear en to my pray'r! Is anger pity? May thine eyes loo down With tenderness and blessings. . that I may share Thy love and be watched over in thy fold. And I am destitute and full of woe. . "'T is enough and be appeased". O shepherdess of all. When thou stoopest o'er The dying with compassion. And when the sic behold thee they are healed. and all man ind bow down With reverence for thy name . And robbing me of joy? . Now linger not. Tears from mine eyes Are falling as the rain from heaven falls. . Oh! have mercy. . . . And ta e away their power to wor me ill. Be merciful. bring me peace And rest and comfort. . . wor ing ill. I thee adore-The gift of strength is thine and thou art strong-The wea ly are made strong. And li e the dove I moan. . Oh! how long Shall demons compass me about and cause Affliction without end? . hear my cry And unbewitch me from the evil spells. . . yet I am wea . . That I may crush them. Oh! how long Shall these my foes pursue me. but come! O goddess fair. pity ta e And answer. O hear me! I am glutted with my grief-This flood of grief by evil winds distressed. How long must my heart sorrow and ma e moan And restless be? How long must my dar home Be filled with mourning and my soul with grief? O lioness of heaven. . thou dost gaze On sinners with compassion. Hear me. on thee I wait. How long wilt thou be angry? Hear my cry. . O Lady Judge. My heart hath fled me li e a bird on wings. Hear en to my pray'r! And bless me so that all who me behold                                   . Thou dost brea the bonds Of these thy handmaids . . That I may see thy glory . . and behold Thy servant. . . . .All spirits pause. Then smite my foes. . And may thy fold be wide. . thou drawest nigh With feet unwearied . . [p. And turn again to prosper all my ways-O may thy wrath be crumbled and withdrawn As by a crumbling stream. and each morn Leadest the wayward to the rightful path. weeping. . . For I am full of sorrow and I sigh In sore distress. 20] . lo! they live. thy pen secure. . thy servant! hear en to my pray'r. [p.

p. p. Z. Hawes. 146 et seq. G. ^7:1 The Ancient Egyptians. 443 et seq. xvi. pp. 21] [ch-02] CHAPTER II The Land of Rivers and the God of the Deep Fertility of Ancient Babylonia--Rivers. ^8:2 The Races of Europe. p. p. 9. pp. W. 8-16. xvi. A. While I exalt thy power over all Ishtar is highest! Ishtar is the queen! Ishtar the peerless daughter of the moon! Footnotes ^4:1 The Races of Europe. 114. 144-5. 130. by Elliot Smith. ^17:1 1 Kings. ^11:2 The Mediterranean Race (1901 trans. p. God of the Deep. and Climate--Early Trad e and Foreign Influences--Local Religious Cults--Ea. H. xi. [1915]. p. Canals. ^12:1 A History of Civilization in Palestine. p. Macalister. 8. and H.). 136. ^12:3 Genesis. ^9:1 The Ancient Egyptians. Seasons. 1911. MacKenzie. 140. 41 et seq. R. ^8:1 Crete the Forerunner of Greece. p. com [p. 16. p. ^10:1 The Ancient Egyptians. 203. S. 21. by Donald A. p. ^8:3 The Ancient Egyptians. at sacred-texts. Myths of Babylonia and Assyria. W. B. 20 et seq. identical with Oannes of Berosus--Origin as a Sacred Fish--Compared with Brahma and Vishnu --Flood Legends in Babylonia and India--Fish Deities in Babylonia and Egypt--Fis h God as a Corn God--The River as Creator--Ea an Artisan God. and lin s with Egy   . Z. xxiii. ^16:1 Genesis. Sergi. ^11:3 The Ancient Egyptians. ^12:2 Joshua. ^6:1 The Ancient Egyptians. ^11:1 A History of Palestine. Ripley. Ripley.May laud thee and may magnify thy name. C. 23 et seq.

Bedouins camp beside sandy heaps which were once popu lous and thriving cities. and. and the area traversed by the Shatt-el-Arab is slowly extend ing at the rate of a mile every thirty years or so. and here and there the shrun en remnants of a people o nce great and influential e e out precarious livings under the oppression of Tur ish tax-gatherers who are scarcely less considerate than the plundering nomads of the desert. Storm and War God of Nippur. it was "a land of corn and wine. "This territory". It is believed to mar the course followed                               . Ireland. &c. was a se aport at the head of the Persian Gulf. too miles wide at its broadest part. I now myself. and sweeping past Nippur. Odin. how large a tree grows. A networ of canals was constructed throughou t the country. li e Adad. In the days of Babylonia's prosperity the Euphrates was hailed as "the soul of t he land" and the Tigris as "the bestower of blessings". This historic country is bounded on the east by Persia and on the west by the Ar abian desert. which pours into the Persian Gulf after meeting the Karun and drawing away t he main volume of that double-mouthed river. i t produces three hundredfold. When Sumeri a was beginning to flourish. the Tigris and the Euphrates. but shal l not record. flowed li e the letter S towar ds Larsa and then rejoined the river. and Egypt--Ea's Spouse Dam ina--Demons of Ocean in Babylonia and India--Anu. I n the days of Heze iah and Isaiah.--Early Gods of Babylonia and Egypt o f common origin--Ea's City as Cradle of Sumerian Civilization. Scotland. when it had come under the sway of the younge r civilization of Assyria on the north. ANCIENT Babylonia was for over four thousand years the garden of Western Asia. and narrowing to 35 miles towards the "tail" in the latitude of Baghdad. [*1] Herodotus found it still flourishing and extremely fertile. [p. a land of oil olive and of honey". which is called Shatt en Nil to the north. The greatest of these canals appear to have been anciently river beds. the "head" converges to a point above Basra. Greece. it lies between the two great rivers. God of the S y--Enlil. Rome. 22] and from millet and sesame seed. being well aware that even what has already been said relating to the crops produced has been enough to cause disbelief in those who have not visi ted Babylonia. One. A day's journey separated the river mouth s when [p. curved eastward from Babylon. 23] [paragraph continues] Alexander the Great bro e the power of the Persian Empire. which now lies 125 miles inland. he wrote. where the rivers meet and form the Shatt-el-Ar ab. it is so good that it retur ns as much as two hundredfold for the average. as a result of the steady ac cumulation of silt and mud carried down by the Tigris and Euphrates. a land of bread and vineyards. The blades of the wheat and barley there grow to b e full four fingers broad. which aforetime yielded two and three crops a year. when it bears at its best. are in summer partly barren wastes and part ly jungle and reedy swamp." [*1] To-day great tracts of undulating and India--Ea as the Hebrew Jah--Ea and Varuna are Water and S y Gods--The Ba bylonian Dagan and Dagon of the Philistines--Deities of Water and Harvest in Pho enicia. Scandinavia. In shape somewhat resembling a fish. The distance from Baghdad to Basra is about 300 miles. S ilful engineers had so lved the problem of water distribution by irrigating sun-parched areas and preve nting the excessive flooding of those districts which are now rendered impassabl e swamps when the rivers overflow. t he seat of the cult of the sea god Ea. "is of a ll that we now the best by far for producing grain. these two rivers had separate outlets. and Eridu. which restricted the destructive tendencies of the Tigris and Eup hrates and developed to a high degree their potentialities as fertilizing agenci es. and Shatt el Kar to the south.

alabaster. Another important canal. suitable for building. while the air was ever wonderfully transparent under cloudless s ies of vivid blue. but remar ably dry and unvarying. which lies lower at this point. the Shatt el Hai. and basalt had to be ta en from northern Mesopotamia. they also use it as a n antiseptic." [*1] Present-day Arabs ca ll it " iyara". on the Euphrates. More sluggish in movement. and is in flood for a more extend ed period. Then the period of drought ensues. the Euphrates. the ancient Babylonians developed to the f ull the natural resources of their country. the b uc ets or s in bags were roped to a weighted beam. they are full of seams of bitumen. an excellent clay being found in abundance. which is 1146 miles long. the sun rapidly burns up all vegetation. Where the artificial canals were constructed on higher levels than the streams which fed them. When bric walls were ceme nted with bitumen they were given great stability. before the end of June it again subsides . ha ve been drawn upon from time immemorial. writes a traveller. By c ontrolling the flow of these mighty rivers. was very scarce. preventing disastrous floods. and does not run so fast . This resinous substance is fo und in the north and south. . The swift Tigris. and made it--what it may once again become--one of the fairest and most habitable areas in the world. and apply it to cure the s in diseases from which camels suffer. sweeping over sterile wastes and piling up the shapeless m ounds which mar the sites of ancient cities. as were certainly the vine and the fig tree. crossed the plain from the Tigr is to its sister river. bitumen and cold water. Occasional sandstorm s dar en the heavens. Nature conferr ed upon them bountiful rewards for their labour. Then as now the heat was g reat during the long summer. "flows hot water blac with bitumen. which has moved steadily w estward many miles beyond the sites of ancient cities that were erected on its b an s. The nights we re cool and of great beauty. The date palm was probably introduced by man. Stone. It is possible that this toi lsome mode of irrigation was substituted in favourable parts by the primitive wa ter wheels which are used in our own day by the inhabitants of the country who c ultivate strips of land along the river ban s. and the plain is carpeted in sprin g by patches of vivid green verdure and brilliant wild flowers. Except Eridu. with the aid of which they we re swung up by wor men and emptied into the canals. whether in brilliant moonlight or when ponds and ca nals were jewelled by the lustrous displays of clear and numerous stars which gl orified that homeland of the earliest astronomers. 25] imported from the earliest times. the water was raised by contrivances nown as "shaddufs". Meanwhile the rivers are increasin g in volume. and st oring and distributing surplus water. In Babylonia there are two seasons--the rainy and [p. shows sign s of rising a fortnight later than the Tigris. while the other discharges intermittently bitumen. and everywhere the e ye is wearied by long stretches of brown and yellow desert. . espec ially in the north. after a rainstorm. Babylonia is a treeless country. Rain falls from November till March. which is 1780 miles long. and the cities increased in splendour and strength. It bubbles up through crevices of roc s on river ban s and forms small ponds. 24] the dry. Where roc s crop out in th e plain above Hit. and export it for coating boats and roofs. Two famous springs at modern Hit. marble. all the cities were built of bric . . "From one". where ancient wor ers quarried sandstone from its sea-shaped ridge. where the mountains also yield copper and lead and the early Sumerian period by the Euphrates river. trade and industries flourished .                                           . begins to rise early in Marc h and reaches its highest level in May. which were widely cultivated. and timber had to be [p. and limestone . it does not shrin to its lowest level until early in September. or. being fed by the melting snows at their mountain sources far to the north.

It is probable that t he complex character of certain deities was due to the process of adjustment to which they were subjected in new environments. for instance. and gods and goddesses were not sharply defined from the various spirit groups. one of rural c haracter had to be changed to respond to the various calls of city life. bear the names of deities. who was supreme at the anc ient sea-deserted port of Eridu. 26] political ascendancy. local gods could not be ignored on account of their popularity. how ever. so that they thems elves might obtain necessary concessions and achieve a degree of [p. A distinctive and characteristic Sumerian god was Ea. The petty ingdoms of Sumeria appear to have been tribal in origin. The Indian creative gods Brahma and Vishnu had f ish forms. The chief deity of a state was the central figure in a pantheon. however. Originally Ea may have been a sacred fish. to offer in exchange for what it most required from other cou ntries. A deity of pastoral nomads had to rece ive attributes which would give him an agricultural significance. and similarly showed a tendency to absorb the attributes of their [p. Cities. and the seals and other animals who could di vest themselves of their "s in coverings" and appear in human shape. but also the services of the conquered. It does not follow. fine wool a nd woven garments. called Pir-napishtim. Law and religion being closely associated. in deed. and it may be that they induced or encouraged Semitic and other raid ers to overthrow governments and form military aristocracies. that the peasant class was gr eatly affected by periodic revolutions of this ind. as a rule. including corn and figs. advising him to build a vessel so as to be prepared for th e approaching Deluge. Ea befriended in similar manner the Babylonian Noah. which suggests that several were founded when Sumerian religion was in its early animistic stages. which brought little more t o them than a change of rulers. farms were rented or purchased from the priesthood. Each city wa s presided over by a deity who was the nominal owner of the surrounding arable l and. with a fish's tail". these constituted the basis of Sumerian prosperity. [* 1] who referred to the deity as "a creature endowed with reason. As a result. the eponymous "first man". where we find. with feet below li e those of a man.Sumeria had many surplus products. the artisan god Ptah supreme at Memphis. and the f airy lore about swan maids and men. and the cat goddess Bast at Bubastis. they had to adapt their gods to suit the requirements of exi sting social and political organizations. He is identified with the Oannes of Berosus. which h ad its political aspect and influenced the growth of local theology. No doubt numerous alien merchants were attracted to its cities. with a body li e that of a fish. Conquerors have ever s ought reward not merely in spoil. and pasture was held in common. 27] rivals. The needs of the country necessitated the contin uance of agricultural methods and the rigid observance of existing land laws. is instructed by the fish to build a ship in which to save himself when the world would be pu rged by the rising waters. have had a bris and flourishing foreign trade at an exceedingly remote period. In Sans rit literature Manu. In nor thern Babylonia the invaders apparently found it necessary to conciliate and sec ure the continued allegiance of the tillers of the soil. i mported beliefs and religious customs must have been fused and absorbed accordin g to their bearing on modes of life in various localities. the sun god Ra at Heliopolis. did not. This description recalls the familiar figures of Egyptian gods and priests attired i n the s ins of the sacred animals from whom their powers were derived. Indeed the Indian legend appears to throw light on the ori ginal Sumerian conception of Ea. It relates that when the fish was small and in                    . pottery. It must. As in Egypt. therefore. Besides . the various local Sumerian and A adian deities had distinctive characteristics.

loch. was identified with a migrating fish. his life pass es into the waters where he is buried. O thou River who didst create all things. For these services the god in fish form instructed Man u regarding the approaching flood. was hailed as a creator of all that grew on its ban s. wrote Professor Robertson Smith. The idea is that "where a god dies. "is n ot to the salt ocean. by leading him. and afterwards piloted his ship through the w eltering waters until it rested on a mountain top. who was a phase of Sebe . as appears probable. They set prosperity upon thy ban s. the King of the Deep. that is. as Aphrodite sprang from sea foam. It gradually in creased in bul . in another form of the Euphrates legend. and he transferred it next to a tan and then to the river Gang es.danger of being swallowed by other fish in a stream it appealed to Manu for prot ection. and as a god of fertility he is symbolized by the ram. created his dwelling . the fish god. was a fertilizing deity. In time the fish complained to Manu that the river was too small for it. the crocodile god. and this again is merely a theory to brin g the divine water or the divine fish into harmony with anthropomorphic ideas. The Euphrates. or as A targatis. The reference. as the Indian Manu led the Creator and "Preserver" in fish form. her husband is Ba-neb-Tettu. T he same thing was sometimes effected in another way by saying that the anthropom orphic deity was born from the water. . or river. and through streams and canals irrigate the fields". Osiris. wat                 . "specially connected with the worship of Atargatis". whose name signifies "to weep". according to a legend common to Hierapolis and Ascalo n. was born of an egg whic h the sacred fishes found in the Euphrates and pushed ashore. thou art mighty! O River. [*1] As Babyloni a was fertilized by its rivers. Atargatis and her son. the vague primitive Egyptian deity who symbolized the primordial deep. Within thee Ea. ceases to exist in human form. but the sweet waters flowing under the earth which feed th e streams. however. plunged into the waters--in the first case the Euphrates. thou art supreme! O River. a form of Ptah. Thou judgest the cause of man ind! O River. thou art righteous! [*2] In serving Ea. "the divine life of the waters resides in the sacred fish that inhabit th em. The [p. When the great gods dug thee out. [*1] If this Indian myth is of Babylonian origin. Another Egyptian fish deity was the god Rem. He may be identical with Rem i. . . . a developed attribute of Nu. indeed. he wept fertilizing tears . Ea was the "King of the Watery [p. The growth of the fish suggests the growth of the river rising in flood. according to Jastrow. In Eg ypt the "Mother of Mendes" is depicted carrying a fish upon her head. The connecti on between a fish god and a corn god is not necessarily remote when we consider that in Babylonia and Egypt the harvest was the gift of the rivers. the embodiment or the water spirit. in the second the s acred pool at the temple near the town--and were changed into fishes". and R a." [*2] As "Shar Apsi". she lin s with Isis and Hathor. and corn was sown and reaped amidst lamentations. 29] [paragraph continues] Deep". so he carried it to the sea. . from river to water pot. In a class of legends. 28] sage at once lifted up the fish and placed it in a jar of water. it may be that the spirit of the river Euphrates. Ea. "the soul of the land". In Celtic fol tales high tides and valley floods are accounted for b y the presence of a "great beast" in sea.

he sha ped the universe and hammered out the copper s y." Jah's name "is one of the words for 'god' in the Assyro-Babylonian l anguage". showing a wish to identify Jah with Dagon. is believed to be identical with Ea. shows an identificatio n of Jah with Aa. as well as Engur. was identified with Ya. Indeed. "seems to spea of the Euphrates as being 'the boundary of Dagan'. whose name is also rendered Aa. and then again to river and ocean. "Hammurabi". [*2] Li e Ptah. to wor metals. Sa. Ea was the "potter or moulder of gods and man". the god of waters was also a s y and earth god. Another Babylonian deity. In later inscriptions the form Daguna. the framers of laws. 31] Ea. [*2] It is possible that the Philistine deity Dagon was a [p. " lord of heaven and earth". "ruler of the land". It may be that Ea-Oannes and Varuna were of common origin. "Who but Ea creates things". Ya'u. This change from artisan god to creator (Nudimmud) may have been due to the tendency of early religious cults to attach to their chief god the attributes of rivals exalted at other centres. He taught t he people how to form and use alphabetic signs and instructed them in mathematic s: he gave them their code of laws. chanted the hymn ma er. and to build temples. the ma e rs of bric s. Kus i-banda. Amma-ana. exclaimed a priestly poet. &c. "g od of the potter". 32] specialized form of ancient Ea. "Ea noweth everything". he lived in the Persian Gulf. Naqbu. which approaches nearer to the West Semitic form (Dagon of the Philistines).--the divine patron of t he arts and crafts. whilst another interesting name. His word became the creative fo rce. Li e the Egyptian artisan god Ptah. [p. is found in a few personal na mes. and every day came ashore to instruct t he inhabitants of Eridu how to ma e canals. "lord of the world". 'Jah is Dagon'". Au-Aa. fashioned the universe after the simple manner in which the Aryans made t heir wooden pot to pond or canal. he named those things he desired to be. 30] the Babylonians became expert engineers and experienced agriculturists. as Oannes. or Au. two names which have every appearance of being etymologically connected. " ing of the river". or "lord of what is beneath". "we h ave the elements reversed. the Jah of the Hebrews. Berosus states that. "god of goldsmiths". to ma e pottery and bric s. he was the artisan god--Nun-ura. whom he call s his creator. and Lugal-ida. writes Professor Pinches. Ea was their instructor.alama. [*1] Ea was "En i". Ea built the world "as an arch itect builds a house". As rain fell from "the waters above the firmament". who wielded a hammer li e Ptah. rather tha n Dagon with Jah. the builders of cities. Ptah mould ed the first man on his potter's wheel: he also moulded the sun and moon. Ea also developed from an artisan god into a sublime Creator in the h ighest sense.i. His worship was certainly of great antiquity. "the deep". to grow crops. "go d of the abyss". "In Ya-Daganu. and the lin ing deity Khnumu. The Indian Varuna was similarly a s y as well as an ocean god before the theoriz ing and systematizing Brahmanic teachers relegated him to a permanent abode at t he bottom of the sea. named Dagan. not merely as a producer of crops. [p. [*1] Similarly the Vedic Indra. who was either imported from Babylonia or was a                                           . their civiliz ation was a growth of Ea worship. writes Professor Pinches. and they came into existence.

" Merodach was their son: in time he became the Bel. with the result that "the head of Dagon and both the palms of his han ds were cut off upon the threshold. illumine thee with her countenance. th at Baal-dagon represents a fusion of deities. a land anim al god and a god of ocean and the s y. a gazelle. he may have had some connection with Poseidon. As we have seen in the case of EaOannes and the deities of Mendes. [*3] A fu rther reference to "the threshold of Dagon" suggests that the god had feet li e Ea-Oannes. as they believ ed. the Bab                                       . li e Ea. suggests that Dagon was the fertilizing har vest god. It may be. chanted the priests. que en of the deep. the Oannes of the Scottish Hebrides. or "Lord". such as the winged solar di sc. only the stump of Dagon was left". There are references to a Beth-dagon [*1]. [*1] made by the Philistines. Professor Sayce ma es reference in this connection to a crystal seal from Phoenicia in th e Ashmolean Museum. He was a brother of Zeus. exal t thy head. and is not yet forgott en. the earth and corn goddess. had for wife Boann. half men. received oblations fr om those who depended for their agricultural prosperity on his gifts of fertiliz ing seaweed. whose worship extended thro ughout Greece. D agda. the Nereids. "May Dam ina. Amphitrite was his spouse. Near the name is an ear of corn. but there is no fish. and that the resemblance between the words Dagan and Dagon are accidental. 33] land". The "ferryman" who ept watch over the river of death was ca lled Arad-Ea. and other symbols. and. but especi ally in the art of training horses. of course. Ea-Oannes had control over the spirits and demons of the deep. the harvest god. bearing an inscription which he reads as Baal-dagon. by the mista e committed of placing the ar of Israel in the temple at Ashdo d. and Samson destroyed it by pulling down the two middle pillar s which were its main support. The authorities are a t variance regarding the form and attributes of Dagan. boars. There are also references to sea maidens. "lad y of the earth". The offering of golden mice representing "your mice that mar the [p. The connection between agr iculture and the water supply was too obvious to escape the early symbolists. among other things. it was argued that Dagon was a corn god. Li e the Indian Varuna. Ea's "faithful spouse" was the goddess Dam ina. An obscure god Shony. carr ied a lightning trident and caused earthqua es. [p. He is referred to in Martin's Western Isles. When the captured ar of the Israelites was placed in it the image of Dagon "fell on his face". Those who hold that Dagon had a fish form derive his name from the Se mitic "dag = a fish". the goddess of the river Boyne. who is somewhat li e the Roman Neptune. The Philistines came from Crete. the sea god. he had also a temple at Gaza. and if their Dagon was imported from that is land. who was also called Nin. "May Ea ma e thee glad". the s y and atmosphere deity.i. and rams were offere d to this sea god of fertility. In his train were the Tritons. "house or city of Dagon". he instructed man ind. 34] may Merodach (Mardu ). Bulls. Oxford. the mighty overseer of the Igigi (heavenly spirits). and several stars. Os iris and Isis of Egypt were associated with the Nile. of th e Babylonian pantheon. hal f fishes. the Irish corn god. He was a national rather than a city god. an d many other proofs of this than those referred to could be given. The Eddie sea god Njord of Noatun was the father of Frey. and suggest that after the idol fell only the fishy part ( dago) was left. As a horse he pursued Deme ter. This god of the sea. and had bull and horse forms.sea god of more than one branch of the Mediterranean race. a fish god may also be a corn god. "servant of Ea". Our now-ledge regarding him is derived mainly from the Bible. and the water fairies. [*2] A third temple was situated in Ashdod. On the other hand. whose usefulness had been impaired.

Mighty destroyers. recall the stormy Maruts.                         . and "lord of demons" by various authorities. or Nereids. signifying "the high one". the followe rs of Indra. In each district the character of the deity was shaped to accord with local conditions. All these are deities of tempest and the mountains--Wil d Huntsmen in the Raging Host. according to a Babylonian chant. His name. Those attached to a deity as "attendants" appear to represent the origi nal animistic group from which he evolved. [*1] [paragraph continues] A suggestion of the Vedic Vritra and his horde of monsters . or that its priests were influential at the court of a ruler who was the over lord of several city states. whose name is translated "lord of mist". who. li e Ea and Anu. the chief god was Enlil. seven are they. he also resembles the Semitic Adad or Rim-man. . . the thunder and rain god. "lord of might". and "lord of heaven and earth". which was situated on the vague and shifting boundary line between Su mer and A ad. in the chant: Seven are they. Even the beneficent Ea is associated with monsters and furie s. . he shares the attributes of the Indian Indra. appears to have been closely associated with Ea in the earliest Sumerian period. with reference to foreign countries. who were his messengers. Bred in the depths of ocean. It is possib le that he was developed as an atmospheric god with solar and lunar attributes. But as the ideogram for "mountain" and "land" was used in the earliest times. He was a storm go d and a war god. Battening in heaven seven are they. 36] the chief figure in a triad in which he figured as earth god. Of these seven the first is the south wind. . to distinguish him from Bel Merodach o f Babylon. These seven demons were also "the messengers of Anu". [*1] it is more probable that Enlil was exalted as a world god who had dominion over not only Sumer and A ad . but also the territories occupied by the rivals and enemies of the early Babyl onians. An atmospheric deity. "heaven". The second a dragon with mouth agape. This classification suggests that Nippur had either risen in political importance and dominated the cities of Erech and Erid u. Stal ing at the right hand of the storm god. 35] When we deal with a deity in his most archaic form it is difficult to distinguis h him from a demon. We have a glimpse of sea giants. At Nippur. with Anu as god of the s y and Ea as god of the deep. . were "the bitter venom of th e gods". who lin s with the Hittite Tar u. the wind god.ylonian mermaids. although specialized as a s y god in more than one pantheon. The seven demons. he was the city god of Erech (Uru ). The name of Enlil's temple at Nippur has been tra nslated as "mountain house". is derived from "ana". or "li e a mountain". "Evil spirits". [*2] [p. In the ocean deep seven are they. which resemble th e Indian Danavas and Daityas of ocean. . the deluge of the storm god. He was [p. and the theory obtained for a time that the god must therefore have been imported by a people from the hills. They are referred to as Forcing their way with baneful windstorms. a s King shows. and Vayu. Enlil is nown as the "older Bel" (lord).

is of later charact erization than the first pair of primitive deities who symbolized the deep. Ea. and among whom they possessed more power than is usually th e case with Oriental peoples. or consort of an early god with whom she was equal in powe r and dignity. The fourth pair is missing. the mother of moon and sun and the stars. the Babylonian god. Originally the wives of Anu and Ea may have made up the group of eight p rimitive deities. [*1] The Egyptian group comprises four pairs of vague gods and goddesses--Nu and his consort Nut. the writer believes. She appe ars to be identical with the other great goddesses. Anu. but the names of Anu and Ea (as Nudimmud) are m entioned in the first tablet of the Creation series. he says." [*1] We cannot say definitely what these various deities represent. The sun god Ra was the chief figure of the earliest pantheon of this character at Heliopolis. and the name of a third is lost. given to his gods wives [p. There can be little doubt but that Ea. and Enlil for the pair which would correspond to those found in Egypt.. Enneads were formed in Egypt by placi ng a local god at the head of a group of eight elder deities. Nu was the spirit of the primordial deep. Ke ui and his consort Ke uit. 37] and offspring. later nown as "Beltu--the lady". Professor Budge is of opinio n that "both the Sumerians and the early Egyptians derived their primeval gods f rom some common but exceedingly ancient source". and Nut by Mummu-Tiama t or Tiawath. Ishtar.Associated with Bel Enlil was Beltis. he achieved fo r them the victories over the destructive forces [p. and the social and moral ideals of a people well advanced in civilization. his god or gods in his own image. Zer-panitum. Nu is represented in Babylonian mythology by Apsu-Rishtu. When Ea was one of the pre-Babylonian group--the triad of Bel-Enlil. The attributes of this beneficent god reflect the progress. Nana. he was their leader and instructor. but the nature of the position ta en by the wives of the gods dep ends upon the nature of the position of women in the households of those who wri te the legends and the traditions of the gods. "Man always has fashioned". He rewarded man ind for the s ervices they rendered to him. In brief. as he survives to us. Anshar and Kis har. The gods of the oldest company in Egypt were. and existed in groups. a distinction. Hehu and his consort Hehut. and Ea               . for he finds in the Babylonian and Nile valleys that there is a resemblance between two early groups which "see ms to be too close to be accidental". for the deities were n ot sharply defined. In the later systematized theology of the Babylonians we seem to trace the fragm ents of a primitive mythology which was vague in outline. The others were phases of light and dar ness and the forces of nature in activity and repose. having reac hed a certain stage in development. although Ea was still credited with the victory over the dragon's husband. and he has always. he was the dragon slayer. "and probably alway s will fashion. the next pair is Lachmu and Lachamu. & c. 38] of nature. and Nut of the waters above the heavens. which was attached in later times to his son Merodach. by the way. and Kerh and his consort Kerhet. invented by people in whose households women h eld a high position. Professor Budge thin s that the Assyrian editors substituted the ancient t riad of Anu. a "Great Mother". whil e at Hermopolis the leader was the lunar god Thoth. and the third.

to Sumerian politica l conditions. her husband. ^22:1 Herodotus. [*1] It may be that Ea's s acred bush or tree is a survival of tree and water worship. the father. and Apsu.C.--he resembled the Indian Vishnu. Excavations have shown that Eridu was protected by a retaining wall of sa ndstone. bu ilt of bric .           . and others. In its temple tower. 193. it was possibly the cradle o f Sumerian civilization. the Preserver. is sharply questioned by Mr. which means "on the seashore". however. ^27:1 A Babylonian priest of Bel Merodach. was invo ed by wor ers of spells. Here. It is referred to in the fragments of early literature which have survived as "the splendid house . the early Sumerians may have been in touch with Punt (Somali-land). p. 140. i. Apollodorus. symbolized the beneficence of the waters. Josephus. 160. 32. the Creator and Father of All. pp. the priestly magicians of historic Baby lonia. he composed in Gree a history of his native land. 159. Campbell Thompson o f the British Museum. amidst the shifting rivers in early times. 141. which receives treatment in a later chapter. Li e the early Egyptians. and Ea. 160. was a marble stairway. ^25:1 Peter's Nippur. as we have seen. was invested with great sanctity from the earliest times. "god of the sailor"--may have brought it into contact with other peoples a nd other early civilizations. of which material many of its houses were made. and Anu. Ea. Extracts from it are given by Eusebius. The mythological spell exercised by Eridu in later times suggests that the civilization of Sumeria owed much to t he worshippers of Ea. Its proximity to the sea--Ea was Ninbubu. i. the ag riculturists may have learned to control and distribute the water supply by util izing dried-up beds of streams to irrigate the land. xviii. the difference in exact adjustment being due. Whatever successes they ach ieved were credited to Ea. which some regard as the cradle of t he Mediterranean race. that "none may enter". In the third century B. supreme Brahma. 39] of the dead passed towards the great Deep. and evidences have been forthcoming that in the later Sumerian period the structure was lavishly adorned. Professor Sayce has suggested tha t it is the Biblical "Tree of Life" in the Garden of Eden. The Egyptians obtained from that sacred land incense-bear ing trees which had magical potency. the arch-enemy of the gods. ^28:1 Indian Myth and Legend. their instructor and patron. while Bel-Enlil resembled Shiva . In a fragmentary Babylonian charm there is a reference to a sacred tree or bush at Eridu. The ancient Sumerian city of Eridu. R. At the sacred city the first man was created: there the so uls [p. pp. who does not accept the theory. ^28:2 The Religion of the Semites. shady as the forest". "god of everything". their destructive force was represented by Tiamat or Tiawath. Footnotes ^21:1 2 Kings. the dragon. the Destroyer. perhaps. If Eridu was not the "cradle" of the Sumerian race. His translations of c ertain vital words. he was Nadimmud. We shall find these elder demons figuring in the Bab ylonian Creation myth. which has perished. the "great magician of the gods".

See also Sayce's The Religion of Ancient Egypt and Babylonia (Gifford Lectures.. vi. vol. ^30:2 Cosmology of the Rigveda. ^30:1 Religious Belief in Babylonia and Assyria. 91. vol. ^37:1 The Gods of the Egyptians. pp. W. xliii . p. 290. T. and Death--Shamash as the "Great Judge"--His Mitra N ame--Aryan Mitra or Mithra and lin ing Babylonian Deities--Varuna and Shamash Hy          . ^29:2 The Seven Tablets of Creation. Thompson. 129. 1-9. p. vol. p. p. G. i. M. ^32:1 Joshua. xix. ^33:1 1 Sam. i. p. Blood. xv. Wallis. ^39:1 The Devils and Evil Spirits of Babylonia. Jastrow. com [p. 1. Pestilence. Pinches. R. W. &c. Pinches. 54. by Donald A. King.. pp. ^36:1 The Gods of the Egyptians. vol. p.-Life Principle in Breath--Babylonian Ghosts as "Evil Wind Gusts"--Fire Deities-Fire and Water in Magical Ceremonies--Moon Gods of Ur and Harran--Moon Goddess and Babylonian "Jac and Jill"--Antiquity of Sun Worship--Tammuz and Ishtar--Sol ar Gods of War. p. ^31:2 The Religion of Babylonia and Assyria. i. p. &c. 5. 92. [1915]. Campbell Thompson. Jastrow. xlii. ^34:1 The Devils and Evil Spirits of Babylonia. an d Pinches' The Old Testament in the Light of Historical Records.^29:1 Religion of Babylonia and Assyria. 59-61. L. 41. ^32:3 1 Sam. MacKenzie. i. E. T. 88. Myths of Babylonia and Assyria. King. 40] [ch-03] CHAPTER III Rival Pantheons and Representative Deities Why Different Gods were Supreme at Different Centres--Theories regarding Origin of Life--Vital Principle in Water--Creative Tears of Weeping Deities--Significan ce of widespread Spitting Customs--Divine Water in Blood and Divine Blood in Wat er--Liver as the Seat of Life--Inspiration derived by Drin ing Mead. G. 19 03. 287. p. ^31:1 The Old Testament in the Light of the Historical Records and Legends of As syria and Babylonia. i. M. Wallis Budge. 385. ^35:1 A History of Sumer and A ad. R. C. xvi. London. ^32:2 Judges. i. Intro. L. 27. ^34:2 The Devils and Evil Spirits of Babylonia. vol. and Indian Myth and Legend. at sacred-texts. v.. 71. 10. 88. vol. p. p. 1902).

but were presided over by different supreme gods. the eponymous ancestor of a people who invaded prehistoric Britain. and was so pronouncedly Sumerian i n character. To hold [p. it was necessary to recognize officially the various gods w orshipped by different sections. Alien deities were therefore associated with local and tribal deities. the Babylonian Hercules. IN dealing with the city cults of Sumer and A ad. were also ready to ac nowledge the greatness of their war gods. In the epic of Gilgamesh. Ea-bani appears to have represented in Babylonian fol legends a certa in type of foreign settlers in the land. His loc s were li e a woman's. Thic as corn grew his abundant hair. consideration must be given t o the problems involved by the rival mythological systems. we meet with Ea-bani.mns compared--The Female Origin of Life--Goddesses of Maternity--The Babylonian Thor--Deities of Good and Evil. Clad in a garment li e Gira. He had eaten grass with the gazelles. We can see the slim. When they came as military allies to assist a city fol against a f ierce enemy. presided at Larsa and Sippar. and rewarded by the rulers. 42] He was a stranger to the people and in that land. As has been indicated. they were naturally much admired and praised. Other deities were sim ilarly exalted in other states. But these were not always im posed upon a community by violent means. His delight was to be among water dwellers. [p. those of t he unlettered fol s with those of the learned people. the moon god Nannar remained supreme at Ur. "Nowhere". so as to secure the constant allegiance of all classes to their rulers. Li e the giant Alban. 41] a community in sway. whos e Semitic name was Shamash. while the sun god. shaven Sumer ians gazing with wonder and admiration on their rough heroic ally. was given first place at Eridu. those of the nomads with those of the agriculturists. for instance. One city's chi ef deity might be regarded as a secondary deity at another centre. The gods of walled-round Erech To flies had turned and buzzed in the streets. honoured by the women and the bards. Reference has been made to the introduction of strange deities by conquerors. All his body was covered with hair. The fusion of beliefs which followed must have stimulated thought and been produ ctive of speculative ideas. a Golia th of the wilds. the god. The poet wh o lauded him no doubt mirrored public opinion. Pantheons not only va ried in detail. "does a high f orm of culture arise without the commingling of diverse ethnic elements. No doubt the city dwellers. remar s Professor Jastrow. and to admit them into the pantheon. who is entreated to come to the aid of the besieged city of Ere ch when it seemed that its deities were unable to help the people against their enemies. Indications are not awanting that the w orshippers of alien gods were sometimes welcomed and encouraged to settle in cer tain states. Ea-bani was attracted to Erech by the gift of a fair woman for wife. who were im pressed by the prowess of the hairy and powerful warriors. He had drun water with savage beasts. Although Ea."                          . a mythological system must have been strongly influenced by city politics. The winged bulls of walled-round Erech Were turned to mice and departed through the holes.

It is not surpri sing. In cities. When life came to an end-Food of death will be offered thee . and was accordingly considered to be the greatest in a. [p. The god of Er idu was the source of the "water of life". He fertilized parched and sunburnt wa stes through rivers and irrigating canals. Elsewhere it might happen.             . . The reputation won by a particular god throughout Babylon ia would depend greatly on the achievements of his worshippers and the progress of the city civilization over which he presided. . for the people to win the favour of the god or goddess who seemed most powerful. . One section of the people. especially when embraced by influential teachers. there were differences of opinion regarding the origin of life and the particular natural element which represented the vital principle. Bel-Enlil's fame as a war deity was probably due to the political supremacy of his city of Nippur.We must also ta e into account the influence exercised by leaders of thought li e En-we-dur-an. a third exalted the war god. The teachings and exam ple of Buddha. he may have controlled the destinies of exceedingly well organized communities in which law and order and authority were held in high est eem. as in Egypt. therefore. pa rticular district. therefore. [p. the sun god. how ever. where official religions were formulated. it was considered necessary to render hom age unto whom homage was due at various seasons and under various circumstances. foreign ideas were more apt t o be imposed. The p riests systematized existing fol beliefs and established an official religion. The religious attitude of a particular community. A rain god presided over the destinies of one community. no doubt b ecause raids were frequent and the city owed its strength and prosperity to its battles and conquests. it was assured by devotion to E a and obedience to his commands as an instructor. we should also consider the influence of divergent conceptions regarding the origin of life in mingled communities. for instance. whose piety did much to inc rease the reputation of the cult of Shamesh.i. In accounting for the rise of distinctive and rival city deities. Water of death will be offered thee . To secure the prosperity of the State. . It was n ecessary. or the parching. which reflected ancient habits of life and perpetuated the doctrines of eponymous ancestors. as we have seen. and conferred upon man the sustaining "food of life". 43] [paragraph continues] At Eridu. that Ea's gifts were restricted or withheld by an obstructing force--the r aging storm god. and to adjust th e relations of man ind with the various forces represented by the deities. 44] however. revolutionized Brahmanic religion in India. Each foreign element in a community had its own intellectu al life and immemorial tribal traditions. must have been larg ely dependent on its needs and experiences. the fol religion which entered so intimately into their customs and labo urs must have remained essentially Babylonish in character. therefore. appear to have believed that the essence of life was contained in water. who were represented by the worshippers of Ea. to find that in Babylonia. and a god of disease and death over another. The food supply was a first consider ation. A mythology was an attempt to solve the riddle of the Universe. pestilence-bringing deity of the sun. Among the agricultural cl asses. the famous high priest of Sippar. and there wa s probably good reason for attributing to the sun god a pronounced administrativ e and legal character.

Moon and water worship were therefore closely associ ated. R. Merodach. The sacred water might also be found at a confluence of rivers. water was vitalized by the intoxicating juice of the Soma pla nt. . Thompson's Translation. To revive the . so that I may drin . and god of creation (Nudimmud). The worship of rivers and wells which prevailed in [p. Similar beliefs obta ined among various peoples. and Isis mixed the vitalizing moisture with dust. they en couraged the god to weep creative tears. to "draw water from the mouth of two streams". His aid was invo ed by means or magica l formulae. . the land of the dead . the Gree giant. Orion. The weeping ceremonies in connection [p.                     . The body moisture of gods and demons had vitalizing properties. the source of vitalizing moisture and the hiding-place of the mead of the gods. sic man The great lord Ea hath sent me. 46] with agricultural rites were no doubt believed to be of magical potency.Offerings of water and food were made to the dead so that the ghosts might be no urished and prevented from troubling the living. ." The goddess of the dead commanded her servant to "sprin le the lady Ishtar with the water of life and bid her depart". and poets were inspired by it. upwards. Even the gods required water an d food. 45] many countries was connected with the belief that the principle of life was in m oisture. [*2] The creative tears of R a. Ea bade his son. Drin ing customs had originally a religious significance. the sun god. He hath added his pure voice to mine. wept at the beginning. the god of the deep. the servant of Ea exclaimed "Hail! lady. wept creative tears. . was also "lord of life" (Enti). they were immortal because they had drun ambrosia and eaten from the pl ant of life. may the well give me of its waters. fell as shining rays upon the earth. In India. Those wh ich fell from the eyes of the evil gods produced poisonous plants and various ba neful animals. Ea. The Teutoni c gods also dran this mead. sprang from the body moisture of deities. C. Prajapati. and thus made the serpent which bit and paralysed the great solar deity." [*1] The ancient Egyptians believed that all men were born from the eyes of Horus exc ept negroes. became the s y. "that (the tears) which fell into the water became the air. As the "great magician of the gods" he uttered charms himself. who came from other parts of his body. When this god grew old sali va dripped from his mouth. That which he wiped away. One spell runs as follows: I am the sorcerer priest of Ea . and w as the patron of all magicians. When the goddess Ishtar was in the Underworld. which inspired priests to utter prophecies and filled their hearts with reli gious fervour. He hath added his pure spittle to mine. [*3] Other Egyptian deities. and "on this water to put his pure spell". It was believed in India that the sap of plants was influenced by the moon. " ing of the river" (Lu gal-ida). When the Indian creator. He hath added his pure spell to mine. the blood of animals and the sap of plants were vitalized by the water of life and under control of the moon. including Osiris and Isis.

and a calumniator a "spit-poison". meaning tha t her life is spent with grief. 48] [paragraph continues] The ruddy colour which the swollen river derived from the soil at a certain season was ascribed to the blood of the god. When the Eye of Ra was blinded b y Set. 450. the largest proportion required b y any single organ. Pliny has expressed belief in the efficacy of the fasting spittle for curing disease. Spitting ceremonies are referred t o in the religious literature of Ancient Egypt. In the Underworld the devil serpent Apep was spat upon to curse it. North of England boys used to tal of "spitting the ir sauls" (souls). We still call a hasty pers on a "spitfire". The first money ta en each day by fishwives and other d ealers is spat upon to ensure increased drawings. by the way. and his saliva became the gods Shu and Tefnut . [p. li e tears. Inspiration was derived by drin ing blood as well as by drin ing intoxicating li                               . Thoth spat in it to restore vision. and also to bless when children were named. When the Newcastle colliers held their earliest stri es they made compacts by spitting on a stone.." [*1] In Babylonia the river was regarded as the source of the life blood and the seat of the soul. Thus as Milton writes: Smooth Adonis from his native roc Ran purple to the sea. refers in his Travels to his carriers spitting on a flat sto ne to ensure a good journey.Saliva. The sun god Turn. as we have seen. In India sap was called the "blood of trees". [*1] In China spitting to expel demons is a common practice. had creative and therefore curative qualities. In England. Li e Pl iny. [p. as was als o its waxen image which the priests fashioned. Scotland. "blood is generally conceived as the pr inciple or vehicle of life. Arabian holy men and descendants of Mohammed spit t o cure diseases. an d references to "bleeding trees" are still widespread and common. Jeremiah ma es "Mother Jerusalem" exclaim: "My liver is pour ed upon the earth for the destruction of the daughter of my people". Brand. was believed to have been der ived from the tears of deities. the explorer. [*1] Several African tribes spit to ma e compacts. Sophocles. supposed with blood Of Thammuz yearly wounded. "Among the anc ients". &c. who was lin ed with Ra as Ra-Tum. Mohammed spat in the mouth of his grandson Hasen soon after bir th. and Ireland spitting c ustoms are not yet obsolete. 47] and Plutarch testify to the ancient Grecian customs of spitting to cure and to c urse. The life principle in trees. quotes Scot's Discovery of Witchcraft regarding the saliva cure for ing's evil. Scot recommended ceremonial spitting as a charm against witchcraft. There are still "spitting stones" in the n orth of Scotland. hands are spat upon before they are sha en. practised in the Hebrides. Par . who refers to various s pitting customs. Theocritus. When bargains are made in rural districts. and referred to the cust om of spitting to avert witchcraft. wrote Professor Robertson Smith. and to curse. spat on the ground.--Paradise Lost. No doubt this theory was based on the fact that the human liver co ntains about a sixth of the blood in the body. i. which is still. and lay buried beside the sacre d source. it also expel led and injured demons and brought good luc . who received his death wound in Lebanon at that time of the year. declare friendship. and so the account often given of sacred waters is t hat the blood of the deity flows in them.

A woman who dran the blood of a sacrificed lamb or bull uttered prophetic sayings. Their origin is obscure. G irru. [*2] Malayan exorcists still expel demons wh ile they suc the blood from a decapitated fowl. It is possible that this conception was popularized by the Semi tes. in Sumer or A ad eithe r. The Aryan f ire worshippers cremated their dead so that the spirits might be [p. A Babylonian charm runs: The gods which seize on men Came forth from the grave. A man died when he ceased to breathe.quors--the mead of the gods. The ascendancy of storm and wind gods in some B abylonian cities may have been due to the belief that they were the source of th e "air of life". the hero invo es the dead Ea-bani. used in Babylonia for magical purposes. In the Flood legend the Babylonian Noah burned i ncense. induced a prophetic trance. and are referred to in the Bible. believed that fire. Fire was. ye pollute yourselves with a ll your idols". as was once believed. Indian magicians who drin the blood of the goat sa crificed to the goddess Kali. was identical with the atmosphere--the moving wind--and was accordingly derived fro m the atmospheric or wind god. When. was the principle of life which was manifested by bodily heat. some were apparently of opinion that it was in breath--the air of life. li e those of the Indian Agni. Human sacrifices might also have been offere                              . Inspiration was perhaps derived from these deities by burning incense. whic h. it was argued. Gish Bar. [*1] Eze iel declared that "when ye offer your gift s. To demand payment of rites and the pouring out of libations They have come forth from the grave. Germany. li e a whirlwind. his spirit. and put to flight the spirits of disease. The god s were also invo ed by incense. however. It destroyed demon s. and thus enabled to prophesy." In Egypt devotees who inhaled the breath of the Apis bull were enabled to prophesy. when ye ma e your sons to pass through the fire. Possibly the fire-purification cere monies resembled those which were practised by the Canaanites. in the Gilgamesh epic. Ahaz "made his son to pass through the fire. [*4] But while most Babylonians appear to have believed that the life principle was i n blood. Gibil. In addition to water and atmospheric deities Babylonia had also its fire gods. Hath come forth from the grave. It is doubtful if the ir worshippers. All that is evil in their hosts. and other countries. The evil wind gusts Have come forth from the grave. 49] up li e a "breath of wind". if we follow evidence obtained elsewhere. This practice. [*2] In Leviticus it is laid down: "Thou shalt not let any of th y seed pass through the fire to Moloch". however. did not obtain among th e fire worshippers of Persia. are believed to be temporarily possessed by her sp irit. [*3] It may be that in Babylonia the fi re-cleansing ceremony resembled that which obtained at Beltane (May Day) in Scot land. according to the a bominations of the heathen". [*1] The Hebrew "nephesh ruach" and "neshamah" (in Arabic "ruh" and "nefs") pass from meaning "breath" to "spirit" [*2] In Egypt the god Khnumu was "Kneph" in his ch aracter as an atmospheric deity. and Nus u. [*3] Similar customs were prevalent in Ancient Greece. "The gods smelled a sweet savour and gathered li e flies over the sacrif icer. the "vital sp ar ". therefore. 50] transferred by fire to Paradise. nor. the ghost rises [p.

li e Agni. the belief never be came prevalent. of course. it had its origin at an exceedingly remote period. as we have seen. that the god of water--more particularly Ea--and the god of fire . 52] the west ban of the Euphrates and the low hills bordering the Arabian desert. and were identified or associated with Baby lonian gods in the later imperial pantheon. with which. that fire was regarded as the vital principle by some city cults. the excavations conducted there have afforded proof that it flourished in the prehistoric period. Mansell. a "house of light". and gave human offspring. [*2] It is possible. between [p. for Merodach had solar attributes. No doubt. from which Abraham migrated to Harran. It is not surprising. Moon worship appears to have been as ancient as water worship. where the "Baal" (the lord) was also a moon god. they appear to have resembled him mai nly in so far as he was connected with the sun. "are ta en by fire and water--suggesting. At Ur he was exalted above Ea as "the lord and                       . Ur was situated in Sumer. and crops to grow. w hich rose from the primordial deep. it was "bound and confined". 51] burned constantly. When Merodach or Babylon was exalted as chief god of the pantheon his messages were carried to Ea by Nus u. In some temples there wa s a bit rim i. trees. and a bit nuri. was pre pared to sacrifice Isaac. (c. and throughout ancient Europe and elsewhere. a nd not far distant from sea. [p. The most enduring influence in Babylonian religion was the early Sumerian. King of Ur. Sarah's first-born.d up as burnt offerings. and as Sumerian modes of thought were the outcome of habits of life n ecessitated by the character of the country. the moon god o f Sumeria was regarded as the "friend of man". had their origin in the everlasting fire in Ea's domain at the bottom of the sea. He controlled nature as a fertili zing agency. The Babylonian incantation cult appealed to many gods.C. Patesi of Ish un-Sin (in North Babylonia). Nannar or Sin. this fire. was the ancient city of U r. He may have therefore symbol ized the sun rays.. Nus u. would burst forth at the last day and c onsume the universe. a "house of washing".) Photo. washed Eridu. therefore. In the Indian god Varuna's ocean home an " Asura fire" (demon fire) Clic to enlarge WORSHIP OF THE MOON GOD. it was closely associated. says Jastrow. As in Arabia. li e that city. they were bound. The fire gods of Babylonia never a chieved the ascendancy of the Indian Agni. It was widely prevalent throughout Babylo nia. It is possible that the be lief obtained among even the water worshippers of Eridu that the sun and moon. which were influenced by imported ideas. F ed by water. was also the " messenger of the gods". sooner or later. to find that imported deities assumed Babylonian characteristics. 2400 B. [*1] A similar belief can be traced in Teutonic mythology. ar e the chief deities on which the ritual itself hinges". . . and va ssal of Ur-Engur. Cylinder-Seal of Khash hamer. At any rate. he increased floc s and herds. The chief seat of the lunar deity. t o leave a deep impress on the minds of foreign peoples who settled in the Garden of Western Asia. in the south. it was believed. who came from the Sumerian city of Ur. ther efore. but "the most important s hare in the rites". If so. but could not be extinguished. Abraham. he caused grass. Egypt.

and read the thoughts of men. li e the Indian destroying god Shiva. which he shared with Ea. She lin s with Ishtar as Nin. The m ountains of Sinai and the desert of Sin are called after this deity. the youthful shepherd. The sun god also illumined the world. he was the enemy of wro ng. As a war god he thirsted for human blood. as Isis of Egypt lin ed with other mother dei ties. Even his father feared him. he was also called "g reat Anu". The moon god was believed to be the father of the sun god: he was the "great steer with mighty horns and perfect limbs". No doubt the s y god Anu had his solar as well as his lunar attributes. [*1] But the burning summer sun was symbolized as a destroyer. He was the ing of death. His name Sin is believed to be a corruption of "Zu-ena". he loved righteousness and hated sin. who upheld justice. 54] [paragraph continues] Eresh. In these the sun god. and when he was advancing towar ds Nippur. to soothe the raging deity wit h soft words. and therefore a war god. and was exalt ed as the great Judge. Ninip was symbolized as a wild bull. another solar deity. which. according to J ensen. He had much in common with Nin-Girsu. who was in turn regarded as a form of Tammuz. 53] The consort of Nannar was Nin-Uruwa. as befit ted a god of battle. He was the chief deity of the c ity of Cuthah. the moon measured time and controlled the seasons. he waged war against the earth s pirits. he was apparently an instructor of man ind. goddess of death. Sun worship was of great antiquity in Babylonia. an indication that Anu. as both lin ed with water worship. who was made in the li eness of Anu. nothi                                          . Jastrow suggests. and was depicted as a mighty lion. As Ninip or Nirig. li e the lunar girl and boy of Teutonic mythology immortalized in nursery rhyme s as Jac and Jill. li e the Egyptian Abydos. and was furiously hostile towards the deities of alien peoples. "the lady of Ur". it also entered trees and crops. a slayer of men. sent out Nus u. was the patron de ity. the moon god scattered dar ness and reduced the terrors of night. so that moon and stone worship were closely asso ciated. supreme in heaven. the "light pro ducer".prince of the gods. who was loved by the earth goddess Ishtar and her r ival Eresh. who was also called Nin-g ala. His sp irit inhabited the lunar stone. so that moon worship lin ed with earth worship. The two great cities of the sun in ancient Babylonia were the A adian Sippar an d the Sumerian Larsa. The twin children of the moon were Mashu and Mashtu. the son of Enlil. and at the beginning of spring Ishtar descended to sear ch for him among the shades. brought disease and pestilence. and. but appears to have been season al in its earliest phases. the s y god. Shamash or Babbar. During the winte r Tammuz dwelt in Hades.i-gal. and was similarly a deity of Fate. Nergal. a brother and sister. and crops were ripened by the harvest moon. husband of [p. [p. the lawgiver. seeds were sown a t a certain phase of the moon. He was a god of Destiny. was situated beside a burial place of gr eat repute. a god of Lagash. As Nannar. had at one time a lunar characte r. all misfortunes due to excessive heat. was connected with stone wors hip. the lord of the living and the dead. [*1] Li e the lunar Osiris of Egypt. queen of Hades. the Father of all". he inspired his worshippers with recti tude and punished evildoers. and his rays penetrated every quarter: he saw all things. which Jastrow considers to be a variation of "Nannar".i-gal. the Babylonian Persephone. which signifies " nowle dge lord". messenger of the gods. The spring sun was personified as Ta mmuz.

whether lunar. god of the s y and upper atmosphere. Yea. It is possible that the close resemblances between Mithra and Mitra of the Aryan -spea ing peoples of India and the Iranian plateau. One of his names was Mitra. measured out the span of human life. When through our want of thought we violate thy laws. They were the source of all heavenly g ifts: they regulated sun and moon." [*2] In Persian mythology Mitra. and "the Mediator" between heaven and earth. Other rival chiefs of city pantheon s. with the waters abov e the firmament. as a s y and atmospheric deity with Anu. and the sun god of the Babyl onians--the Semitic Shamash. a ingly wrongd oer is reminded that the sun sees secret sin. li e Varuna. or water deities. and all within the s y. atmospheric. whatever the offence may be That we as men commit against the heavenly fol . on one of the monuments "cornstal s instead of blood are seen issuing from the wou nd inflicted with the nife". Chastise us not. were similarly regarded as the supreme deities who ruled the Universe. which held sway for a period ov er Assyria. the Sumerian Utu--were due to early contact and cul tural influence through the medium of Elam. 56] sublime Vedic hymns addressed by the Indian Aryans to Mitra and Varuna the impre ss of Babylonian religious thought: Whate'er exists within this earth. the winds and waters. li e the god who was lin ed with Varuna in the Indian Rigveda. Arnol d's trans. and commanded Pir-nap ishtim. because they were w ise and the children of wisdom. and law with Shamash. "Enter into the midst of thy ship and shut thy door". [*1] These did the gods establish in royal power over themselves. and as a god of truth. [*1 ] As a s y god Mitra may have been associated. The solar deity th us appears as a form of Anu." says Professor Moulton. and the seasons.                             . iv. 55] of Truth. as Mithra. [*2] Shamash was similarly exalted in Babylonian hymns: Rigveda. of Rigvedic Hymn. . We seem to trace in the [p. who controls t he seasons and the various forces of nature. 16. is the patron [p. earth. righteousness. Rigveda. for that iniquity. . "one in whi ch Indian thought comes nearest to the conception of conscience.--Prof. As a solar and corn god. vii. [*2] The Assyrian word "metru" signifies rain. and they chastised sinners. These twin deities. 89. Mithraic sculptures depict the deity as a corn god slaying the harvest bull. King Varuna perceives. all that is beyond. Rain would therefore be gifted by him as a fertilizing deity. [*1] This god was also wo rshipped by the military aristocracy of Mitanni. "In a stri ing passage of the Mahabharata. Mitra and Var could be concealed from Shamash. and decreed when man should recei ve benefits or suffer from their acts of vengeance. In Roman times the worship of Mithra spread into Europe from Persia. . and because they excelled in power. I n the Babylonian Flood legend it is the sun god Shamash who "appointed the time" when the heavens were to "rain destruction" in the night. O god. Mitra and Varuna were protectors of hearth and home. [*1] O Varuna. the Persian Mithra lin s with Tammuz.

experiences. the religious faith of the people as a whole did not differ to any mar ed extent. and was "probably so called as the ' mother' of all things". whoever they be. and Enlil. the Rimmon of the Bible. whose barque sailed [p. suc ling a babe. or Ma mi. [*4] As we have seen. Shamash lin s with the Egyptian sun god Ra. She was similarly the goddess of maternity. Thou nowest their transgressions. "the boat of the s y". Hadad. the plan of the wic ed thou rejectest. Ceremonial practices no doubt v aried [p. a corn g od. but although one section might exalt Ea and another Shamash. Li e the Hittites. "the creatress of the seed of man ind". All. and is depicted in this character. The grave was the "house of clay". Mama. What their mouth utters in thy presence Thou wilt destroy. and his attendants were Kittu and Mesh aru. He was a wind and thunder deity. Indra. whose attributes they symbol ized in various forms. who were a ll sons of the s y. He was not a presiding deity in any pantheon. t hey served the gods according to their lights. what issues from their mouth thou wilt dissipate. and a god of battle li e Thor. He who ta es no bribe. We can trace in Babylonia. Another Babylonian lady of the gods was Ama. or Dadu. Jupiter. Is favoured by Shamash. li e Isis and other goddesses of similar char acter. bu t was identified with Enlil at Nippur. 58] here and there. Tar u. 57] over the heavens by day and through the underworld of dar ness and death during the night. for the land of death and "no return" was regarded as a plac e of gloom and misery. which was reached by crossing the mountain s and the rushing stream of death. [*1] A characteristic atmospheric deity was Ramman. so that life might be prolonged a nd made prosperous. Nin-sun lin s with Ishtar. and others. a rain bringer. the Semi tic Addu. Mitra. [*3] The worshippers of Varuna and Mitra in the Punjab did not cremate their dead li e those who exalted the rival fire god Agni.--his life shall be prolonged. The prominence accorded to an individual deity depended o n local conditions. which Jastrow renders "the annihilating lady". As a hammer god. At Erech she had a shrine in the temple of the s y god Anu. as in Babylonia. and influences. In this brief review of the representative deities of early Babylonia. "Truth" and "Righteousness". who was identical with Yama. the Babylonian solar go d Nergal was also the lord of the dead. .The progeny of those who deal unjustly will not prosper. are in thy care. it will b e seen that most gods lin with Anu. as Se het. who cares for the oppressed. the early belief that life in the Univer se had a female origin. who. When the Babylonians appear before us in the early stages of the historical peri od they had reached that stage of development set forth so vividly in the Oratio                                       . The consort of Shamash was Aa. . Ishtar appears to be identical with the Egyptian Hathor. Ea. as in Egypt. Adad. whose Sumerian name is Nana. the Babylonians had also a sun goddess: her name was Nin-sun. . slaught ered the enemies of the sun god Ra. As Ma-banda-anna. ruled over departed souls i n the "Land of the Pitris" (Fathers). he was imported by the S emites from the hills.

pp. ^47:1 Brana's Popular Antiquities. C. iv. 30. ^49:1 Devils and Evil Spirits of Babylonia. were host ile to man ind. p. 1 et seq. p. vol. Thurston. ^53:1 In early times two goddesses searched for Tammuz at different periods. xvi. vol. 313. vol. 37. ^51:1 Indian Myth and Legend. G. 156 et seq. who reflecte d the growth of culture. ^45:3 Egyptian Myth and Legend. ^48:2 Castes and Tribes of Southern India. ^54:1 Indian Myth and Legend. E.Jastrow. those whose department is that of calamities and punish ments have harsher titles: to the first class both private persons and states er ect altars and temples. ^50:2 Eze iel. from vague spirit groups. Those spirits who could be propitiated were exalted as benevolen t deities. ^52:1 The Religion of Babylonia and Assyria. The saliva of the frail and elderly was injurious. 31. developed their deities. ii. 37. the second is not worshipped either with prayers or burn t sacrifices. li e ghosts. A better understanding of the character of Babylonian deities will th erefore be obtained by passing the demons and evil spirits under review. pp. . 312. xx. p. 81. iii. [*1] The Sumerians. R. li e the Ancient Egyptians. 159. p. p. Thurston (1912). E. 158. which. ^46:1 Osiris and the Egyptian Resurrection. E. 24. pp. pp. 245. ^49:2 Animism. 65. p. p. T. Footnotes ^45:1 Indian Myth and Legend. Pinches. 35. 100.). ^48:4 Pausanias. ^45:2 Maspero's Dawn of Civilization.         . 24 6. but in their case we perform ceremonies of riddance". Wallis Budge. ^51:2 Religious Belief in Babylonia and Assyria. M. ^50:1 2 Kings. ii. xviii. ^48:1 The Religion of the Semites. 3. tablet Y. E. 203 et seq. those who could not be bargained with were regarded as evil gods and goddesses. Clodd. ^54:2 Early Religious Poetry of Persia. 1.ns of Isocrates: "Those of the gods who are the source to us of good things have the title of Olympians. 187. p. p. Thompson. ^55:1 Early Religious Poetry of Persia. 21. p. ^50:3 Leviticus. 259-263 (1889 ed. ^48:3 Omens and Superstitions of Southern India.

For we a re also his offspring. as certain also of your own poets have said.. ^56:2 A History of Sans rit Literature. 10). s eeing that he is Lord of heaven and earth. . 3rd editi on. Myths of Babylonia and Assyria. Pinches. for in him we live. and Scottish parallels--Traces of Progress from Animism to Monotheism. v. Arabian. ii. . com [p. 117. and Germani c parallels--Elder Gods as Evil Gods--Animal Demons--The Babylonian "Will-o'-the -Wisp"--"Foreign Devils"--Elves and Fairies--Demon Lovers--"Adam's first wife. ^57:1 The Religion of Babylonia and Assyria. Fairies. p. Harrison. Europe. and move. pp. E. xxxii. J. India. and 38 et seq. p. and all things ." [*1]                  . Indian. [1915]. neither is worshipped with men's hands as though he needed any thing. MacKenzie. pp. and Ghosts Spirits in Everything and Everywhere--The Bringers of Luc and Misfortune--Germ Theory Anticipated--Early Gods indistinguishable from Demons--Repulsive form of Ea--Spirit Groups as Attendants of Deities--Egyptian. . he declared. THE memorable sermon preached by Paul to the Athenians when he stood "in the mid st of Mars' hill". ^58:1 The Religion of Ancient Greece. dwelleth not in temples made with han ds. Gree . "I perceive". . could have been addressed with equal appropriateness to the a ncient Sumerians and A adians. ^56:4 Indian Myth and Legend. or stone. by Donald A. at sacred-texts. M. an d Mexico--Burial Contrast--Calling Bac the Dead--Fate of Childless Ghosts--Reli gious Need for Offspring--Hags and Giants and Composite Monsters--Tempest Fiends --Legend of Adapa and the Storm Demon--Wind Hags of Ancient Britain--Tyrolese St orm Maidens--Zu Bird Legend and Indian Garuda Myth--Legend of the Eagle and the Serpent--The Sna e Mother Goddess--Demons and the Moon God--Plague Deities--Clas sification of Spirits. 94.^55:2 The Golden Bough (Spirits of the Corn and Wild. "that in all things y e are too superstitious. ^56:1 Indian Wisdom. T. God that made the world and all things therein. we ought not to thin that the Godhead is li e unto g old. Professor Macdonell. L ilith"--Children Charmed against Evil Spirits--The Demon of Nightmare--Ghosts as Enemies of the Living--The Vengeful Dead Mother in Babylonia. 59] [ch-04] CHAPTER IV Demons. G. . p. ^56:3 Religious Belief and Practice in Babylonia and Assyria. vol. and breath. 46. Sir Monier Monier-Williams. or silver. and have our being. 60] [paragraph continues] God. seeing he giveth to all life. 11 2. graven by art and man's device. Orat. Jastrow. Forasmuch then as we are the offspring of [p. and Egyptian. and Isoc.

They were vaguely defined. they were ma nifested in the thunderstorm. They attributed all n atural phenomena to the operations of spirits or gods. the stars. But what may seem poetic to us. They new nothing regarding the compositi on [p. which h ave been approved and elaborated in later times when they lit sacred fires. Dar ness w as peopled by demons and ghosts of the dead. was invariably a grim reality to the Babylonians. and the wraith s of mist rising from the steaming marshes. betrayed that tendency to symbolize everything which has ever appealed to the human mind. and were ever see ing to wor evil against the Babylonian. appear to have evolved from early spirit groups. There is no reason for supposing that they thought otherwise. in our own day. As has been said. The statue or picture w as not merely a wor of art but a manifestation of the god or demon. the gods and goddesses who formed group s were indistinguishable from demons. and had changin g shapes. pro gress. which were originally associated with magical ceremon ies. Our painters and poets and sculptors are greatest when they symboliz e their ideals and ideas and impressions. li e other ancient fol s . they believed that the spirit of the god inhabited the idol. the sandstorm. They made discoveries. The spirits of disease were ever ly ing in wait to clutch him with cruel invisible hands. sunshine and storm. who are too prone to regard ancient peoples from a twentiet h-century point of view. li e modern scientific investigators. the glare of sunset. and used oils and herbs to charm away spirits of pestilence .Babylonian temples were houses of the gods in the literal sense. When attempts were made to depict them they were represented in many v                                           . In peopling the Universe with spirits. the frown of the brazen image was the frown of the wic ed demon. it was believed t hat the god himself had been ta en prisoner. In the early stages of Sumerian culture. rivers and ocean. The gods. the gods were s upposed to dwell in them. 62] When an idol was carried away from a city by an invading army. They controlled also the lives of me n and women. 61] of water or the atmosphere. summer and winter. or of the che mical changes effected in soils by the action of bacteria. The good spirits were the source of luc . for they anticipated the germ theory. The early fol s based their theories on t he accumulated nowledge of their age. they may be said to have achieved distinct. Their "beauty and their terror are sublime". bath ed in sacred waters. All the world swarmed with spirits. although they were unable to explain why and how cures were accompl ished. mountains and deserts. and the sun and moon. and was therefore unable any longer to help his people. Some modern writers. assist excavators to resc ue them from sandy mounds in which they have been hidden for long centuries [p. The spirits controlled Nature: they brought light and dar ness. The bad spirits caused mi sfortunes. their spirits having entered into the graven images or bloc s of stone. the Babylonians. too. and by so doing ma e us respond to the ir moods. the s y. In believing that certain demons caused certain diseases. It is probable that li e the Ancient Egyptians they believed a god had as many spirits as he had attributes. w hich inhabited stones and trees. are still practised in our own day. of the cause of thunder and lightning. They were found to be effective by earl y observers. the ai r. express grave doubts as to whether "intelligent Babylon ians "really believed that spirits came down in the rain and entered the soil to rise up before men's eyes as stal s of barley or wheat. many fol cures. Indeed. They entertained as much dr ead of the winged and human-headed bulls guarding the entrance to the royal pala ce as do some of the Arab wor men who. as we have said.

in the old religious poems has also primitive attributes of li e characte r. which issued from the Underworld to attac man ind. had "spawned" at creation the demons of cold and rain and dar ness. Photo. swept over the land. Nergal. followed by the spirits of pestil ence. sunstro e. to reflect the growth of culture.W. and were humanized. the sea raged furiously. the storm god desolated the land. C. A sea monster. Bel Enlil and his fierce son. [*2] The Indian Shiva. The ears are li e those of a basilis . had a serpent's head. The Sumerian gods never lost their connection with the early spirit groups. From his nostrils mucus tric les. He wears a veil in his head band. the burning sun struc down its victims. [*1] Osiris in prehistoric ti mes had been "a dangerous god". Some were winged bulls or lions with human heads. hind legs of an eagle. which preyed upon man ind in bl ea and desolate places when night fell. "the Destr oyer". and destruction. the fore legs of a lion. His name is Sassu-wunnu. was served by the demons of disease . Anu. who never los t his demoniac character. &c. the s y god deluged it with rain.                                         . Bel Enlil. the leopard which preyed upon children.. The base of his feet are claws. the c omposite monster god So ar was "the lord of fear". ever hungering for human victims. In Egypt the sun god Ra was similarly a "producer of calamity". [*1] Even after the gods were given beneficent attributes. Nergal. Mansell [p. Ea had several monster forms. a form of Ea. the air and earth god. the terrible serpent. the sul y and ill-tempered lord of death and destruction. they still retained many of their savage characteri stics. and the floods played havoc with the dy es and houses of hum an beings. which wa s portrayed on walls of temples. The body is a suh-fish full of stars. now in the British Museum. were destroyers Clic to enlarge WINGED MAN-HEADED LION In Marble. weariness. a body covered with scale s. Dam ina. who executed a deity's stern and vengeful decrees. The "dragon of Babylon". and some of the Pharaohs sought protection again st him in the charms inscribed in their tombs. Thes e continued to be represented by their attendants. "the beloved sons of Bel". R. The following description of one of these is repulsive enough:-The head is the head of a serpent. In one of the Babylonian charms the demons are referred to as "the spleen of the gods"--the symbols of their wrathful emotions and vengefu l desires.arying forms. Thompson's Translation. In the ocean home of Ea were bred the " seven evil spirits" of tempest--the gaping dragon. His horns are twisted into three curls. The sole of his foot has no heel. were served by groups of devils and giants. for instance. From N. and a long wriggling serpenti ne tail. Palace of Nimroud. 63] of man ind. His mouth is beslavered with water. others had even more remar able composite forms. Even Ea and his consort. the great Beast. the s y god.

[*1] The grand-mother of the Teutonic deity Tyr was a fierce gia ntess with nine hundred heads. In Scotland the hag-mother of winter and storm and dar ness is the enemy of growth and all l ife. Apsu and Tiamat. Now the elder deiti es in most mythologies--the "grandsires" and "grandmothers" and "fathers" and "m others"--are ever the most powerful and most vengeful. the Semitic "labashu" and "ach-chazu" . hungering for human flesh. Other examples of this ind could be multiplied. resolve to destro y their offspring. Certain evil spirits were let loose at certain periods. his father was an enemy of the gods. As we have seen ([*Chapter II]) the earliest group of Babylonian deities consist ed probably of four pairs of gods and goddesses as in Egypt. the Sumerian "dimmea" and "dimme. Other spirits inhabited the bodies of animals and were ever hovering near.--so as to bring about universal an d enduring confusion and evil. the protector of palaces. They appear to represent primitive "layers" of savage thought. Not until she is destroyed can the beneficent god s establish law and order and ma e the earth habitable and beautiful. li e the birds of Fate which sang to Siegfried. 66] was "mulla". is more powerful than her husband Apsu. 65] dragons. and creates also a brood of monsters --serpents. the "alu" was a bull-li e demon of tempest. they hastened. 64] In Indian mythology Indra was similarly followed by the stormy Maruts.[p. they came as roaring lions and howling jac als. Tiamat. or by invo ing the gods to thwart them and bind them. fish men. there are many parallels to this m yth among primitive peoples in various parts of the world. The Gree Cronos devours even his own chil dren. the father and mother of the gods. or formless monsters which were v aguely termed "seizers" or "overthrowers". Similarly the Babylonian chao s spirits. But although Tiamat was slain.ur". the female dragon. These invisible enemies were either charmed away by performing magical ceremonies. and prevent the union of her son with his fair bride. according to an old rhyme. and fierc e Rudra by the tempestuous Rudras. because they begin to set the Universe in order. who personified the primordial deep. She summons to her aid the gods of evil. In Gree mythology the ocean furies attend upon fic le Poseidon. who is slain by his son E a. as the late Andrew Lang has shown. Professor Pinches thin s it not improbable that "mulla" may be conn ected with the word "mula". and they strove to accomplish the destruction of man i nd and his wor s. &c. they haunted empty houses. and she raises storms to stop the grass growing. and suggests that it referred to a " will-o'-the-wisp". moaning d ismally. they fluttered through the evening air as bats. across barren wastes searching for food or lay in wait for travellers. to slay young animals. and. raging hounds. A dialectic form of "gallu" or devil [p. Of li e character was the "lamassu". [*1] In these islands. depicted as a winged bull with hu man head. meaning "star". In Teutonic mythology Odin is the "Wild Hunts man in the Raging Host".                                     . The g hosts of the dead and male and female demons were birds. and there were also many composite. Lang regarded the Gree survival as an example of "the conservatism of the relig ious instinct". [p. The first pair was Apsu-Rishtu and Tiamat. Ghost s and evil spirits wandered through the streets in dar ness. the everlasting battle between the forces of good and evil was ever waged in the Babylonian world. When the owl raised its melancholy voice in the dar nes s the listener heard the spirit of a departed mother crying for her child. The " shedu" was a destructive bull which might slay man wantonly or as a protector of temples. vipers. distorted.

"he doth with l aughter leave us. whom shed scent And soft shed isses and soft sleep shall snare? Lo! as that youth's eyes burned at thine. O Lilith. In some countries the "fire dra e" is a bird with gle aming breast: in Babylonia it assumed the form of a bull. ere the sna e's. "death fires". Hovering and blazing with delusive light. Li e the Indian "Dasyu" and "Dasa". [*4] [p. Hob-goblin. and "Jac with a lantern". preserved in the Talmud. Some of the supernatural beings resemble our elves and f airies and the Indian Ra shasas. sang Drayton. The rose and poppy are her flowers. [*3] [paragraph continues] "When we stic in the mire". Till heart and body and life are in its hold. and left his straight nec bent And round his heart one strangling golden hair. Which oft. for where Is he not found. Misleads th' amaz'd night wand'rer from his way To bogs and mires. to point his grave. was the demon l over of Adam. at other times they are vaguely monstrous. And her enchanted hair was the first gold. her sweet tongue could deceive. Draws men to watch the bright web she can weave. And. [*2] Gal lu was applied in the sense of "foreign devil" to human and superhuman adversari es of certain monarchs. And still she sits. they say. Milton wrote als o of the "wandering fire". [*1] The Sumerian "mulla" was u ndoubtedly an evil spirit. young while the earth is old. And in it stic and hide. [paragraph continues] Other names are "Kitty". "Peg". There swallowed up and lost from succour far. 67] Pliny referred to the wandering lights as stars. "Poor Robin" sang: I should indeed as soon expect That Peg-a-lantern would direct Me straightway home on misty night As wand'ring stars.                               .Some call him Robin Good-fellow. who. so went Thy spell through him. Joh nson commented that the reference was to "Jac with a lantern". which. and may have had some connection with the bull of Ishtar." These fires were also "fallen stars". and oft through pond or pool. quite out of sight. some evil spirit attends. In Sha espeare's Tempest [*2] a sailor exclaims: "Your fairy. Dr. it is told (The witch he loved before the gift of Eve) That. Occasionally they appear in comely human guise. The best nown of this class is Lili th. subtly of herself contemplative. is a harmless fairy. has done little better than played the Jac with us". And some againe doe tearme him oft By name of Will the Wisp. according to Hebrew tradition. or mad Crisp. you say. She has been immortalized by Dante Gabriel Rossetti: Of Adam's first wife Lilith. and "fir e dra es": So have I seen a fire dra e glide along Before a dying man.

. the mermaids. Seven of these supernatural beings were reputed to be daughters of Anu. searching for him in vain: A savage place! as holy and enchanted As ere beneath the waning moon was haunted By woman wailing for her demon lover . her grief had demented her. and Nereids of the Europ ean fol tales. who appears to have w edded human beings li e the swan maidens. the deeper the love had been. Coleridge's Kubla Khan. was also a spirit which caused nightmare.Lilith is the Babylonian Lilithu. the Sumerian Lila. . It endeavoured to smother sleepers li e the [p. it turned love to hate. was a female who haunted mountains and ma rshes. [*1] and the various f airy lovers of Europe who lured men to eternal imprisonment inside mountains. the s y god. who for a time was the wife of King Shant anu of the Mahabharata. li e the ancient Babylonians. Death chilled all human affections. Sh e resembles Surpana ha of the Ramayana. 69] [paragraph continues] Scandinavian hag Mara. regard as a fearsome demon the ghost of a woman who died while pregnant. who became [p. In Babylonia this evil spirit might also cause sleeplessness or death by hovering near a bed. and the sister of the demon Hidimva. or vanished for ever when they were completely under their influence. to whom we have referred.                                     . who accordingly had to wear charms round their nec s for protection. and the goddess Ganga. the deeper became the enmity fostere d by the ghost. [*1] A similar belief prevailed in Mexico. so were the ghosts of dead men and women. The most terrible ghost in Babylonia was that of a woman who had died in c hildbed. and her hostility was accompanied by the most tragic sorrow. or on t he day of the child's birth. her impurity clung to her li e poison. In Northern India the Hindus. one of the heroes of the Mahabharata. leaving them demented. And close your eyes with holy dread. li e the Germanic Laurin of the "Wonderful Rose Garden". 68] enamoured of Bhima. who made love to Rama and La shmana. His flashing eyes. Another materializing spirit of this class was Ardat Lili. a feminine form of Lilu. For he on honey dew hath fed And drun the mil of Paradise. li e the fairies and hags of Europe. she stole or afflicted children. his floating hair! Weave a circle round him thrice. a storm deity. Certain ghosts might also be regarded as particularly virulent a nd hostile if they happened to have left the body of one who was ceremonially im pure. No spirit was mo re prone to wor evil against man ind. [*2] who carried away the fair lady Kunhild to h is underground dwelling amidst the Tyrolese mountains. In Europ e there are many fol tales of dead mothers who return to avenge themselves on t he cruel fathers of neglected children. The Alu. The elfin Lilu similarly wooed young women. As most representatives of the spirit world were enemies of the living. [*3] The Labartu. she was doomed to wail in the dar ness. and similarly deprived them of powe r to move. She was pitied and dreaded. In shape it might be as horrible and repulsive as the E gyptian ghosts which caused children to die from fright or by suc ing out the br eath of life. or left them haunting the place of their meetings.

.A sharp contrast is presented by the Mongolian Buriats. li e a flood they pass through. Jeremiah Curtin. The dead required to be cared for. . So do immemorial beliefs survive to our own day. Demons mi ght possess the pig. Come bac and wor for your children. Do not wander along the mountains. Ta e pity on your friends . the gho sts of drowned men which rose from the water. they storm. No bolt can turn them bac . It is necessary to live a real life. Tearing the wife from the embrace of the man. Through the door. t o be fed. 71] through the streets or enter houses searching for scraps of food and pure water. they glide. Driving the freedman from his family home. whose outloo on the spi rit world is less gloomy than was that of the ancient Babylonians. Return to your peaceful home. li e the wind. Others who suffered similar fates were t he ghosts of men who died in battle far from home and were left unburied. because he had no children. Through the hinge. sometimes the spirit moans and sobs. and destruction rose from the depth s of ocean. How can you leave the little ones?" If it is a mother. the raven. to have libations poured out. Do not be li e bad spirits. or t he haw . the gh osts of travellers who perished in the desert and were not covered over. [*1] There were hags and giants of mountain and desert. of river and ocean. they were devoid of mercy and compassion. the goat. They pe netrated everywhere: The high enclosures. or the ibis. [*2] [paragraph continues] These furies did not confine their unwelcomed attentions t o man ind alone: They hunt the doves from their cotes. [*2] In his Arabia D eserta [*3] Doughty relates that Arab women and children moc the cries of the o wl. One explained to him: "It is a wailful woman see ing her lost child. The seven spirits of tempest. 70] dreaded in the Scottish Highlands. these wor ds have great effect. although he had performed rigid penances . the horse. and the Buriats tell that there have been instances of it returning to the body. and there were hosts of demons which could not be overcome or baffle d by man without the assistance of the gods to whom they were hostile. [*1] The Buriats address the ghost. li e a sna e. fire. having no offspring. Many were sexless. saying: " You shall sleep well. Come bac to your natural ashes. As in India. the broad enclosures. so that they might not prowl [p. No door can shut them out. the lion. The Babylonian ghosts of unmarried men and women and of those without offspring were also disconsolate night wanderers. According to Mr. this interesting people are wont to perform a ceremony with purpose to entice the ghost to return to the dead body--a proceeding which is [p. she has become this forlorn bird". . 72]                                 . it would appear that the eldest son performed the funeral cerem ony: a dreadful fate therefore awaited the spirit of the dead Babylonian man or woman without offspring. the ghosts of prisoners starved to death or executed. [p. In Sans rit literature there is a reference to a priest who was not allowed to enter Paradise. From house to house they dash along. And drive the birds from their nests. The duty of giving offerings to the dead was imposed apparently on near relativ es. the ghosts of people who died violent deaths before their ap pointed time.

What comes o' thee? Whare wilt thou cow'r thy chittering wing. [*1] The south wind was raised by Shutu. This her o was engaged catching fish. Mansell [p. Adapa. . gibbering below". She was depicted with lidless staring eyes. broad flat nose. Another terrible atmospheric demon was the south-west wind. was filled with pity for the animals which suff ered in the storm: List'ning the doors an' winnoc s rattle. was moved to anger against Ea's son Clic to enlarge TWO FIGURES OF DEMONS The upper head is that of Shutu. wha bide this brattle O' winter war. . 73] and summoned him to the Celestial Court. Smiting sheepfold and cattle pen. comes the wind which fares Over all the dwellers of earth. the south wind. R. Through the gloomy street by night they roam. whose wings were bro en by Adapa. is recalled by the Babylonian legend of Adapa. C. appeared in garments of mourning and was forgiven. Shutting up the land as with door and bolt. Anu. a plumed storm demon resembling Hraesvelgur of the Icelandic Eddas: Corpse-swallower sits at the end of heaven. the s y god. mouth                             . And close thy e'e? According to Babylonian belief. Anu offered him the water of life and the bread of life which would have made hi m immortal. The Babylonian poet. when Shutu. A Jotun in eagle form. however. In his wrath Adapa immediately attac ed the storm demon and shattered her pinions. "the great storms directed from heaven" were cau sed by demons. . son of the god Ea.And chase the marten from its hole. wee. that the s y god desired him to parta e of the bread of death and to drin of the water of death. helpless thing! That in the merry months o' spring Delighted me to hear thee sing. . li e Burns. son of Ea (British Museum) Photo. [*2] The northern story of Thor's fishing. believing. . Or silly sheep. as his father had w arned him. but Ea's son refused to eat or drin . which caused destruc tive storms and floods. Il happing bird. the demon of the south-west wind. and claimed many human victims li e the Icelandic "corps e swallower". upset his boat. I thought me o' the ourie cattle. Man ind heard them "loudly roaring above. they say. From his wings. . when he hoo ed and wounded the Midgard ser pent. Thompson's Translation.

the wor er of evil. Thy snare is li e unto the distant heaven! Who hath ever escaped from thy net? Even Zu. [p. "moc ed the wind with his fleetness". which is represented among the sta rs by Pegasus and Taurus. once aspired to rule the gods. In England the wind hag is Blac Annis. In Indian mythology. and with high chee eyebrows. robs the Amrita (ambrosia) of the gods which gives them their power and renders them immortal. 74] tale tells of three magic maidens who dwelt on Jochgrimm mountain. bright as the sun. other gods appear to have shrun from t he conflict. Their demon lovers were Ec e. half eagle. Angerboda. A Tyrolese fol [p. the pot which hangs from the croo is empty during t he spring storms. t o attac the Zu bird. associated with the "Paps of Anu". W. The Zu bird escaped with the Tablets and fou nd shelter on its mountain top in Arabia. Indra. and it may ha ve been assumed. 75] flung his bolt in vain. is also a storm demon. Afterwards. addressing the sun god. which gave him his power over the Universe as controller of the fates of all. she raises gale af ter gale to prevent the coming of summer. however. There is a reference. however. Garuda.In Scotland the hag of the south-west wind is similarly a bloodthirsty and fears ome demon. which prevent fishermen going to sea. whi ch Garuda had delivered to his enemies. "h e who causes dismay". and low bulging forehead. Vasolt. who raised the head of evil [did not escape]! L. to the moon god setting out towards the mountain in Arabia with purpose to outwit the Zu bird and recove r the lost Tablets. who raised the head of evil". but he was afraid. and stole from Bel. the thunderer. who dwells in a Leicestershire hill cave. She is most virulent in the springtime. This Indian eagle giant became the vehicle of the god Vishnu. It had assum ed a golden body. that the thunder god was powerless against the sands torm demon. She may be identical w ith the Irish hag Anu. he could not wound Garuda. and. Shamash. to free his mother from bo ndage. bones. because the legend survi ves in fragmentary form. How the rebel was overcome is not certain. the Tablets of Destiny. accord ing to the Mahabharata. A legend relates that this "wor er of evil. Thunder is associated with the rainy season. this wind demon of spring is the "Cailleach" (old wife). "he who causes fear". the Icelandic hag. King's Translation. heavy                                   . She gives her name In the Highland calendar to the stormy period of late spring. he stole the moon goblet containing the Amrita. the serpents. however. and only displaced a single f eather. and the scornful Dietrich in his mythical character of Don ar or Thunor (Thor). the thunderer. It would appear that the Babylonian Zu bird symbolized the summer sandstorms fro m the Arabian desert. half giant. by the moon. and finally overcome by the tr iumphant sun when it bro e through the dar ening sand drift and brightened heave     gaping horribly. Anu called on Ramman. In another legen d--that of Etana--the mother serpent. "the lord " of deities. the thunderer. Another Sumerian storm demon was the Zu bird. but represents the east wind. How he fared it is impossible to ascertain. who was chased. According to Gaelic lo re. where they "b rewed the winds". and showing tus -li e teeth. At Cromarty she is quaintly c alled "Gentle Annie" by the fisher fol s. says: Thy net is li e unto the broad earth. therefore. who repeat the saying: "When Gentle An nie is s yawlan (yelling) roond the heel of Ness (a promontory) wi' a white feat her on her hat (the foam of big billows) they (the spirits) will be harrying (ro bbing) the croo "--that is.

"The serpent lies in this wild ox": He swooped down and stood upon the wild ox. the home of Anu: They clustered angrily round the crescent of the moon god. He again examined the flesh. and dispatched his son Merodach to net the demons by magic. he made for the hidden parts. examined the flesh. Nintu. hath been grievously bedimmed". " rushing loose over [p. The serpent seized him by his wing. and threw him into a pit where he perished from hunger and thirst. and Adad. From the loins to the sole of the foot Scales li e those of a sna e are visible. The moon god Sin. 'When he entered into the midst. The Eagle . "the seed of man ind". According to Sumerian belief. Shamash. . The close association of gods and demons is illustrated in an obscure myth which may refer to an eclipse of the moon or a night storm at the beginning of the ra iny season. and claws. the King. the warrior. . "a form of the goddess Ma". she tore off the Eagle's p inions. unheeding the warning of one of his ch ildren. And won over to their aid Shamash.n and earth. slayer of serpents. He loo ed about carefully before and behind him. the Bengali goddess of smallpox. In the "Legend of Etana" the Eagle. Then. her left arm holds "a babe suc ling her breast": From her head to her loins The body is that of a na ed woman. The Mother Serpent appears to be i dentical with an ancient goddess of maternity resembling the Egyptian Bast. is wo                           . the serpent mother of Bubastis. who was compelled to execute the decree of Shamash. was half a serpent. He in structs the Mother Serpent to slay a wild ox and conceal herself in its entrails . [p. moving swiftly. 76] [paragraph continues] In vain the Eagle appealed for mercy to the Mother Serpent . saying: "My son Sin . And Ishtar. Shamash the sun. whom he sent to Ea in the ocean depths. and are assisted by Adad (Ramman) the thunderer. wings. Bel called upon his messenger. for instance. [*1] This myth may refer to the ravages of a winged demon of diseas e who was thwarted by the sacrifice of an ox. and Ishtar. For this offe nce against divine law. using "a t wo-coloured cord from the hair of a virgin id and from the wool of a virgin lam b. He loo ed about carefully before and behind him. Ea lamented. she is "girt about the loins". Hath founded a shining dwelling. who with Anu. Thompson's Translation. was dar ened by the demons who raged. 77] the land" li e to the wind. the mighty. the sun god. C. another demon which lin s with the Indian Ga ruda. who says. . pronounces the Eagle's doom. . The Eagle comes to feed on the carcass. "netting" the rebellious demon who desired to establish the rule of evil over gods and man ind. devours the brood of the Mother Serpent. where Shitala." [*1] As in India. R. On her head there is a horn. The demons go to war against the high gods. They desire to wrec the h eavens.

cloudy shapes. Ev en the spirits of Fate who served Anu. In the Egyptian Boo of the Dead the indly spirits are overshadowed by the evil ones. A sculptor or storyteller who desired to convey an impression of a spirit of storm or pest                                                      . was of complex character. Some times they were comely and beautiful. and they were fic le and perverse and difficult to please even when inclined to be friend ly. a comfortable feeling of security after performing magical ceremonies . the Babylonian spirit s were extremely hostile and irresistible at certain seasonal periods. and it was never controlled by natura l laws. and foreigners were called "devils". This could be accomplished by reciting a formula. but often vaguely defined. Even when a demon was given concrete human form it remained essentially non-human: n o ordinary weapon could inflict an injury. goats or pigs. Li e the European fairies of fol belief. and restored to good health those patients whom she selected to favou r. serpents or cats. The Jinn of present-day Arabians are of li e character. [p. Damu.i-gal. they no doubt shared. because the various magical spells which were put on record were directed against those supernatural beings who were enemies of man ind. in their charm-protect ed houses. and that "Nom" of the Und erworld. a friendly fairy goddess. They were also similarly manifested from time to time in various forms. a plague demon. at other times they were apparitions of ho rror. however. the Babylonians also had their indly spirits who br ought luc and the various enjoyments of life. Its inha bitants were numberless. 78] afflicted. 79] Some of the composite monsters of Babylonia may suggest the vague and exaggerate d recollections of terror-stric en people who have had glimpses of unfamiliar wi ld beasts in the dus or amidst reedy marshes. The Babylonian spirit world. It appears probable. these may be giant s. Similarly in Bab ylonia the fragments of this class of literature which survive deal mainly with wic ed and vengeful demons. because she inspired pleasant dreams. Indian serpent worshippers believe that their devotions "destroy all danger proceeding from sna es". The spirits of disease and tempest and dar ness were creations of fancy: they symbolized moods. was well loved. Eresh.rshipped when the dreaded disease she controls becomes epidemic. But they cannot be wholly account ed for in this way. might sometimes be propitious: if the dei ties were successfully invo ed they could cause the Fates to smite spirits of di sease and bringers of ill luc . queen of Hades. the members of the ro yal house. god of the s y. but ultimately consented to spare those who praised his name and exalted him in recognition of his bravery and power. and the family affairs of their acquaintances. comely women. it would be misleading to assert that the spirit world reflects confused fol memories of human and bestial enemies. A good "labartu" might attend on a human being li e a household fairy of India or Europe: a friendly "shedu" coul d protect a household against the attac s of fierce demons and human enemies. [*2] Li e the Ancient Egyptians. they were the causes which explained effects. and were happy enough when they gathered round flic ering lights to listen to ancient song and story and gossip about crops and traders. A tablet relates that Ura. once resolved to destroy all lif e. Although they were surrounded by bloodthirsty furie s who desired to shorten their days. and one class of demons lin ed with another. While animals were often identified with supernatural beings . relieved the sufferings of the [p. it will be seen. that the highly emotio nal Sumerians and A adians were on occasion quite as cheerful a people as the i nhabitants of ancient Egypt. so in Babylonia the people sought to secure immunity from attac by worshipping spirits of dise ase. and their nights were filled with vague low ering phantoms which inspired fear.

It will be seen. were nimble-footed as gazelles. 80] sometimes regarded as degenerate gods. According to Hebridean fol belief. ^66:2 Act iv. the "nimble men" (aurora boreal is). They might appear as bea utiful girls or handsome men and seize unsuspecting victims in deathly embrace o r leave them demented and full of grief. for instance. "Apparently". 149 et seq. Monsters were all the more repulsive when they were partly hum an. horns to gore. J. and other half-human demons. p. writes Professor Pinches. ^63:1 Egyptian Myth and Legend." [*1] To this middle class belong the evil gods who rebelled ag ainst the beneficent deities. In Beowulf the "brood of Cain" includes "m onsters and elves and sea-devils--giants also. p. Fairies and elves. the son of Bel-Enlil and Eresh.ilence created monstrous forms to inspire terror.45 et seq. that they had claws to clutch. others remained something between these two classes of supernatural beings: they might attend upon gods and goddesses. boo ix. vol. who long time fought with God. Withal they dran blood li e ravens and devoured corp ses li e hyaenas. 38. n.i -gal. or come as birds and suddenly assume aw esome shapes. ^63:2 Development of Religion and Thought in Ancient Egypt. The human-headed sna e or the sna e-headed man and the man with the horns of a wild bull and the legs of a goat were horrible in the extreme. pp. n. ^67:2 Indian Myth and Legend. Sudden and unexpected visits o f fierce and devastating demons were accounted for by asserting that they had wi ngs li e eagles. was a spirit of fate. [*2] Similarly the Babylonian spirit groups are liable to division and subdivision. ^66:1 The Religion of Babylonia and Assyria. 2nd boo .                         . p. ^66:4 Chapman's Caesar and Pompey. and powerful fore legs li e a l ion to smite down victims. that while cert ain spirits developed into deities. 70. Breasted. 22-31. and could also have power over cert ain of the gods. queen of Hades. Footnotes ^60:1 The Acts. Evil spirits m ight sometimes achieve success by practising deception. ^67:1 Natural History. are [p. and the "blue men of the Minch". ii. 108. H. "he executed the instru ctions given him concerning the fate of men. ^62:1 Devils and Evil Spirits of Babylonia. The "namta ru". ^66:3 Paradise Lost. xvii. the fallen ang els are divided into three classes--the fairies. however. fo r which he gave them their reward". ^64:1 Custom and Myth. 74. The various classes may be regarded as r elics of the various stages of development from crude animism to sublime monothe ism: in the fragmentary legends we trace the floating material from which great mythologies have been framed. or op erate independently now against man ind and now against deities even. scene 1. cunning and watchful as serpent s. xxxix.

^76:1 Babylonian Religion. i. 186-8. 401. 400." In England and Ireland. 53. ^71:1 Adi Parva section of Mahabharata. 103. p. It revived soon afterwards. as well as in Scotland. Jeremiah Curtin. ^77:1 The Devils and Evil Spirits of Babylonia. 110. The writer was once pre sent in a room when a child was supposed to be dying. p. ^80:1 The Religion of Babylonia and Assyria. com [p. ^72:1 R. near relatives must not call out th eir names in case the soul may come bac from the spirit world. Myths of Babylonia and Assyria. Clar Hall. King. p. 424 et seq.. pp. during which the individual will suffer great agony. vol. ^80:2 Beowulf. ^70:1 When a person.^68:1 Indian Myth and Legend. 254. p. E.. p. ^72:2 The Elder or Poetic Edda. p. Thompson's trans. 81] CHAPTER V Myths of Tammuz and Ishtar Forms of Tammuz--The Weeping Ceremony--Tammuz the Patriarch and the Dying God--C ommon Origin of Tammuz and other Deities from an Archaic God--The Mediterranean Racial Myth--Animal Forms of Gods of Fertility--Two Legends of the Death of Tamm                 . 104. Two old wom en who had attempted to prevent "the calling" shoo their heads and remar ed: "S he has done it! The child will never do any good in this world after being calle d bac . W. i. the belief also prevail s in certain localities that if a dying person is "called bac " the soul will ta rry for another twenty-four hours. young or old. [1915]. Campbell Thompson. 124. p. at sacred-texts. in the Lowlands. 164 et seq. 202-5. Croo e. ^68:3 Indian Myth and Legend. &c. p. Thurston. vol. p. p. part i. L. ^70:2 A Journey in Southern Siberia. ^70:3 Vol. Suddenly the mother called out the child's name in agonized voice. pp. MacKenzie. Olive Bray. by Donald A. p. R. 635. W. ^69:1 Popular Religion and Fol Lore of Northern India. ^68:2 Teutonic Myth and Legend. pp. C. 14. 305. is dying. 312. ^71:2 Jastrow's Aspects of Religious Belief in Babylonia. Roy's trans. especially among women. ^77:2 Omens and Superstitions of Southern India. 53 et seq. A similar belief still lingers.

in addition to Merodach. probably "revealers" or "oracles". "world destroyer". they shed fertilizing tears. He is referred to in the Bible by his Babylonian n ame. This ancient custom. He that goeth forth and weepeth. shall doubtless come aga in with rejoicing. the amorous Queen of Heaven--the beautiful youth wh o died and was mourned for and came to life again. bringing his sheaves with him. and as the Babylonian h arvest was the gift of the rivers. "broad ear". "shall reap in joy. 83] imagery of the Bible." [*1] In Egypt the priestesses who acted the parts of Isis and Nepthys. li e King Os iris. but from the earliest times of which we have nowledge until the passing of Babylonian civilization. When Eze iel detailed the various idolatrous practices of the Israelites. David sang. Sisters. Khi-dimme -azaga. This fam ily group was probably formed by symbolizing the attributes of Ea and his spouse Dam ina. it is probable that one of his several forms was Dumu-zi-abzu. and. He does not figure by his pop ular name in any of the city pantheons. and Diarmid Slain by a Boar--Laments for Tammuz--His Soul in Underworld and the Deep--Myth of the Child God of Ocean--Sargon Myth Version--Th e Germanic Scyld of the Sheaf--Tammuz Lin s with Frey. b ehold. "the heale r". "They that sow in tears". [*1] The weeping ceremony was connected with agricultural rites. 82] [paragraph continues] "the child". how to grow corn and cultivate fruit trees. Burnunta-sa. Ki-gulla. which included the worship of the sun and "every form of creeping things and abominabl e beasts"--a suggestion of the composite monsters of Babylonia--he was brought " to the door of the gate of the Lord's house. mourned for the slain corn god Osiris. in his character as a patriarch. and Bara and Baragulla . Heimdal. god of the Deep. he played a promine nt part in the religious life of the people Tammuz. She may have been identical with Belit-s heri. Tammuz. there sat women weeping for Tammuz". "the heroic lord". AMONG the gods of Babylonia none achieved wider and more enduring fame than Tamm uz. may have been regarded as a h ostage from the gods: the human form of Ea. and the sowers simulated the sorrow of divine mourners when they cast seed in the soil "to die". Corn deities were we eping deities. "the sentinel". who is referred to in the Sumerian hymns as the sister of Tammuz. and Wives--Great Mothers of Babylonia--Immortal Goddesses and Dying Gods--The V arious Indras--Celtic Goddess with Seven Periods of Youth--Lovers of Germanic an d Classic Goddesses--The Lovers of Ishtar--Racial Significance of Goddess Cult-The Great Fathers and their Worshippers--Process of Racial and Religious Fusion-Ishtar and Tiamat--Mother Worship in Palestine--Women among Goddess Worshippers .uz--Attis.--Assyr ian Legend of "Descent of Ishtar"--Sumerian Version--The Sister Belit-sheri and the Mother Ishtar--The Egyptian Isis and Nepthys--Goddesses as Mothers. whose other sons. li e Osiris of Egypt. He was also [p. who instructed man ind. Agni. "Tammuz of the Abyss". Adonis. "child of the renowned spirit". "Tammuz of the Abyss" was one of the members of the family of Ea.                 . &c. As the youth who perished annu ally. an obscure deit y. were Nira. which was towards the north. he was the corn spirit. li e many others. and the patriarch who reigned over the early Babylonians for a considerable period. so that it might sp ring up as corn. In addition there was a daughter. was an agricultural deity. who was loved by Ishtar. bearing precious seed. contributed to the poeti c [p. Gods and men before the face of the gods are weeping for thee at the same time.

It also lin s with the myth of Osiris. the central figure of a myth wh ich was not only as ancient as the nowledge and practice of agriculture. It is suggested that the myth of Adonis was derived in post-Homeric times by the Gree s indirectly from Babylonia through the Western Semites. ho wever. Worshippers of nature gods. Diarmid concealed himself in a tree when purs                         . All thy sister goddesses are at thy side and behind thy couch. who received at the same time the new name of Adonis.when they behold me! . which belongs to the archaeological "Hunting Period". or the Celtic story of "Diarmid and the boar". It would appear probable that Tammuz. Adonis sprang from the trun of this tree. writes Professor Robertson Smith. who was pursued by her angry sire. There are traces in Gree mythology of preHellenic myths about dying harvest deities. cannot be accepted without qualifications. meaning "lord". bears a close resemblance to the G ree myth of Adonis. who decreed that Adonis should spend part of the year with one goddess and part of the year with the other. The Babylonian myth of Tammuz. W e [p. having placed the child in a chest. for ins tance. According to Profess or Sayce. the Semitic title "Adon". Live before us. This theory. If they remained unsympathetic. Persephone desired to retain the young god. and Aphro dite (Ishtar) appealed to Zeus (Anu). . Calling upon thee with weeping--yet thou are prostrate upon thy bed! . Osiris of Eg ypt resembles Tammuz. the shepherd of Pantibibla". ." [*3] By observing their ritual. The Adonis version of the myth may be summarized briefly. but ha d existence even in the "Hunting Period". the worshippers won the sympathy and c o-operation of deities. Adonis sprang from a tree. . It does not explain the existe nce of either the Phrygian myth of Attis. Traces of the Tammuz-Osiris story in v arious forms are found all over the area occupied by the Mediterranean or Brown race from Sumeria to the British Isles. who resembles th e Babylonian Eresh. queen of Hades. "if they regarded the necessary ope rations of agriculture as involving the violent extinction of a particle of divi ne life. Apparently the original myth was connect ed with tree and water worship and the worship of animals. [*2] It was believed to be essential that human beings should share the universal sor row caused by the death of a god. having been mista en for a proper name. desiring to behold thee. "The dread of the worshippers that the neglect of the usual ritual would be followed by disaster. which was developed differently from t he Tammuz myth. who appear to have been mourned for. Tammuz is identical with "Daonus or Daos. . There is every possibility. therefore. but his Mesopotamian origin has not been proved. is particularly inte lligible". referred to by Berosus as the ruler of one of the mythical ages of Babylonia. Osiris. as the river goddesses of the fol tales are pursued by the well demons. transformed herself into a tree. the body of Osiris was concealed in a tree which grew round the sea-drifte d chest in which he was concealed. the deities wo uld punish them as enemies. that the Tammuz ritual may have been attached to a harvest god of the pre-Hel lenic Gree s. 84] have therefore to deal with Tammuz in his twofold character as a patriarch and a god of fertility. and Aphrodite. Ere the god was born. his mother. or exercised a magical control over nature.i-gal. and the deities represented by Adoni s and Diarmid were all developed [p. li e Hya inthos and Erigone. Attis. based their c eremonial practices on natural phenomena. therefor e. the dying god. 85] from an archaic god of fertility and vegetation. committed him to the care of Persephone.

sacrificed a pig to him annually. Set. In Egypt the soul of Osiris entered the Apis bul l or the ram of Mendes. Tammuz in the hymns is called "the pre-eminent steer of heaven". . The Gree Adonis was similarly illed by a boar. whose human body had been recovered from the sacred tree by Isis. by self-mutilation un der a sacred tree. This animal was a form of Ares (Mars). however. Of the exalted one of the nether world. Various animals were associated with the harvest god . Osiris had also associations with swine. my lord. According to one account. References in the Sumerian hymns suggest that there also existed a form of the l egend which gave an account of the slaying of the young god by someone else than Ishtar. When Set at full moon hunted the boar in the Delta marshes. "is conjectured to mean 'lord of the wild b oar'". he probably hunted the boar form of Osiri s. . He was a war deity. in his character as a love god.000 years. yea ra diant.ued by Finn. might be substitut ed by a suc ing pig. to connect Tammuz's slayer with the boar which illed Adonis. so apparently did the soul of Osiris pass fr om incarnation to incarnation. who also loved Aphrodite (Ishtar). and the bull to the tree. who appea rs to have symbolized the destroying influence of the sun. the Babylonian Hercul es. . queen of Hades. When that goddess wooed Gilgamesh. he was the blac pig who devoured the waning moon and blinded the Eye of Ra. [*1] migrated from the blossom to the bull. he upbraided her. with lunar attributes. according to one legend. the hero of the Egyptian fol tale. As the soul of Bata. yea dove-li e. water I drin not . him of the radiant face. saying: On Tammuz. and the Egyptians. he departed to Hades or the Abyss. was slain by "the green boar". ah me! I will say. according to Herodotus. him of the dove-li e voice. that he was slain by a b oar. Osiris. King's Translation. When he died. a nd his name. reigned in Babylonia for 36. however. had als o a boar form. the demon slayer of the harvest god. Food I eat not . Tammuz the King Daonus or Daos of Be rosus. is the Adonis-li e god who lived on earth for a part of the year as the shepherd and agriculturist so dearly beloved by t he goddess Ishtar. crying: Oh hero.i -gal (Persephone). Then he died so that he might depart to the realm of Eresh. [p. Osiris. god of war and tempest. There is no direct evidence. The Celt ic Diarmid. however. Thou didst lay affliction every year. which appears to have been one of the animals of a ferocious H                             . after reigning over the Egyptians. his death was cause d by the fic le Ishtar. the spouse of thy youth. 86] In his character as a long-lived patriarch. Because of the exalted one of the nether world. Professor Pinches says. became Judge of the De ad. however. [*1] [p. Tammuz of the Sumerian hymns. The slayer may have been a Set-li e demon--perhaps Nin-shach. Another account sets forth. The blood of Tammuz. Ishtar's innocence is emphasized by the fact that she mourned for her youthful lover. for his spirit pervaded all nature. which. 87] The Phrygian Attis met his death. who appears to have been manifested from time to time in different forms. . and Adonis reddened the swollen rivers which fertilized the soil. and a popular s acrifice was "a white id of the god Tammuz".

and he so fierce. [*2] Tammuz died with the dying vegetation. . li e Tammuz. the forests. . Finn cried: No maiden will raise her eye Since the mould has gone over thy visage fair . . had much beauty. for the perishing children. [*3] The month of Tammuz wailings was fro m [p. which all suffer because the god of fertili ty has departed. in the middle of the year the fields languish . verily. "they are not produced". That Grey Eyebrows had with her herd of swine. the blows were heard in Lochlann (Scandinavia). . In his temple. where the mother bore thee". Diarmid. The wailing is for the grain. verily. . . who. . The wailing is for the perishing wedded ones. the parched me adows. In the month of thy year which brings not peace hast thou gone. li e Adonis and Osiris. lord of nowledge. the d ar -headed people create no more. The mourner cries:                     . Red is it this day with Diarmid's blood. The child. 88] [paragraph continues] 20th June till 20th July. the soul of life perishes. . in his inhabited domain. he has gone to the bosom of the earth. There is wailing for Tammuz "at the sacred cedar. The mourners chanted: He has gone. why have they slain? . and the palace. 89] plains. That venomous boar. an earth and air "mother" with various names. the cane bra es. when the heat and dryness brough t forth the demons of pestilence. a reference which connects the god. . ears are not produced. . The following extract contains a reference to the slaying of the god: The holy one of Ishtar. the man of sorrows. the "god of the tender voice and shining eyes". Thou hast gone on a journey that ma es an end of thy people. The wailing is for the habitations. Blue without rashness in thine eye! Passion and beauty behind thy curls! . As a thunder god Finn carried a hammer with whi ch he smote his shield. with tree worship: The wailing is for the herbs: the first lament is. . Oh. and accordingly set the young hero to hunt the boar. plotted to bring about his rival's death. abides no more . li e Ares. and Diarmid expired when the hills appare ntly were assuming their purple tints. The [paragraph continues] The wailing is also for the shrun en river. the wise one. the gardens. the [p. And the dead are numerous in the land . W hen he expired. for the floc s which bring forth no more. Men are filled with sorrow: they stagger by day in gloom . . the fishpools. . In the meadows. [*1] [paragraph continues] Diarmid had eloped with the wife of Finn-mac-Coul (Fingal) . In one of the many Fingalian s tories the animal is . . yesternight it was green the hilloc .

for instance. says Plutarch. among the garden flowers he is cast away .How long shall the springing of verdure be restrained? How long shall the putting forth of leaves be held bac ? Whither went Tammuz? His destination has already been referred to as "the bosom of the earth". is called "the ever young". Among the tamaris s he slumbers. 91] peoples. the Egyptian moon god. and were afterwards ceremonially fed with mil . In his manhood in the submerged grain he lay. he slu mbers li e Tammuz and awa es in the Spring. The same myths may have been attached to corn gods and corn goddesses. the Osiris bull was also a child of the m oon. "it was begotten". 90] with its blood. the Patriarch. Apparently it was believed that the child god. was associated with th e Spring sun. it is stated that Tammuz "upon the flood was cast out". The fact that Ishtar descended to Hades in quest of Tammuz may perhaps explain the symbolic references in hymns to mother goddesses being in su n en boats also when their powers were in abeyance. with woe he causes us to be satiated. In his lunar character the Egyptian Osiris appeared each month as "the child surpassingly beautiful". Although Tammuz of the hymns was slain. The following extract refers to the garden of Damu (Tammuz) [*1]:-Damu his youth therein slumbers . It is possible. moon. and grew into full manhood in a comparatively br ief period. as well as "my hero Damu". who resembles Eros. who desired to retain the young god. In this Hades bloomed the nethe r "garden of Adonis". that the boat had a lunar and a solar s ignificance. and "the light is never seen"--the gloomy Babylonian Hades. returned from the earlier Sumerian Paradise of the Deep. being a deity of fertility and therefore a corn spirit. sun.                           . the Irish Angus. Khonsu. and stars. "where dust is their nourishment and their food mud". it was believed that agricultural civilization had a female origin. however. He is wailed for as "child. he returned again from Hades. li e Vyasa and other super-men of Indian mythology. In the Egyptian legend Osiris received the cor n seeds from Isis. Tammuz. queen of Hades. "by a ray of generative light falling fro m the moon". he was a f orm of Osiris. which suggests that among Great-Mother-worshipping [p. The ancient Gree god E ros (Cupid) was represented as a wanton boy or handsome youth. as they were sup posed to have "renewed their youth" and become children. When the bull of Attis was sacrificed his worshippers were drenched [p. Apparently he came bac as a child. who sojourned on earth to teach man ind how to gro w corn and cultivate fruit trees. Lord Gishzida". Among the garden flowers he slumbers. [*1] The "boat" may be the "chest" in which Adonis was concealed by Aphrodite when sh e confided him to the care of Persephone. The reference may be to the submarine "house of Ea". as were those of the god for part of each year. and in the Assyrian version of the "Descent of Ishtar" he dwells in "the house of dar ness" among the dead. associated w ith water. or the Blessed Island to which the Babylonian Noah was carried. A couplet from a Tammuz hymn says tersely: In his infancy in a sun en boat he lay. Another god of fe rtility. In one of the Sumerian hymns. too. but was compelled by Zeus to send him bac to the goddess of love and vegetation.

drew me forth. men. When he died. child as he was. . In the Anglo-Saxon Beow ulf poem. suggest that the ing desired to be remembered as an agric ultural Patriarch. a new myth would not have suited Sargon's purpose so well as the adaptation of an old one. which was more li ely to ma e popular appeal when connected with his name. 93] received that load. It runs as follows: "I am Sargon. In it lay a child fast asleep. cannot for cert ain tell. was laid in a ship which was set adrift: Upon his breast lay many treasures which were to travel with him into the power of the flood. . whose grandson Hrothgar built t he famous Hall. The references to the goddess Ishtar. his head pillowed upon a sheaf of grain. it was probably founded on a form of the Tammuz-Ad onis myth. educated me as his son. their spirit sorrowful. chiefs of council. they set besides a gold-embroidered standard high above his head. the water drawer. In B eowulf Scyld is the father of the elder Beowulf. in drawing water. The Northern peoples. whose brother inhabited the mountain. his body. Indeed. and cast me adrift on the river. an d others adhered to "Sceaf" as the name of the Patriarch of the Western Saxons. including the fire-borer. heroes under heaven. William of Malmesbury. at any rate of semi-divine origin. treasure. the water drawer. and various implements. of the usur per King Sargon of A ad. and let the flood bear him--gave him to the sea. Scyld is the patriarc h of the Scyldings." It is unli ely that this story was invented by Sargon. [*1]                           . When my mother had c onceived me. Their soul was sad. derived their nowledge of agriculture. My mother was a vestal (priestess). I was beloved by the goddess Ishtar. Moreover. As a gardener.That there existed in Babylonia at an extremely remote period an agricultural my th regarding a Patriarch of divine origin who was rescued from a boat in his chi ldhood. . The child was reared by the people who found him. in his early days. . The child is called "Scef" or "Scea f". the reference is to "Scyld". if not of divine. and therefore their agri cultural myths. He was surrounded by armour. A i. Li e the many variants of it found in other countries. The poem opens with a reference to the patriarch "Scyld of the S heaf". a people of mixed origin. . according to the request he had made. she bare me in a hidden place. The r iver floated me to A i. 92] grow corn and become great warriors. the mighty King of A ad. or "Scyld. s topped the door thereof with pitch. but Ethelweard. The legend runs that one day a boat was seen approaching the shore. is suggested by the legend which was attached to the memory. from the Neolithic representatives of the Mediterranean race wit h whom they came into contact. What appears to be an early form of the widespread Tammuz myth is the Teutonic l egend regarding the mysterious child who came over the sea to inaugurate a new e ra of civilization and instruct the people how to [p. who. my f ather an alien. which signifies "Sheaf". and made me his gardener. She laid me in a vessel of rushes. as archaeological evi dence suggests. of tribal treasures. it was not p ropelled by oars or sail. . the son of Sceaf". Certainly they (the mourners) furnished him with no less of gifts. and he became a great instructor and warrior and ruled over the tribe as ing. Who [p. than those had done who. and Sargon's earl y life as a gardener. the Danes. started him ov er the sea alone. There can be no doubt but that the Teutonic legen d refers to the introduction of agriculture.

for instance. Agni. especially in his Mitra character: Agni has been established among the tribes of men.Sceaf or Scyld is identical with Yngve. Tammuz is "a youthful warrior ". 3. The floc s of Tammuz. [*3] The storms. These were t he clouds illuminated by the sun. The hero unto the nether herding place has ta en his way. 94] So the Sumerian hymn-chanters lamented: Li e an herdsman the sentinel place of sheep and cattle he (Tammuz) has forsa en . of cou rse. the son of the waters. 98. And might of manhood to many a warrior. "triumphing over the storms of winter". i. also lin s with Tammuz. was therefore a demon slayer li e Heimdal and Agni. [*2] the sea god. as the s y sentinel. the "wise one". . "the heroic lord". [*1] Agni. In Teutonic mythology. who. the "lord of nowledge". Tammuz. the patriarch of the Ynglings. watchman of the Teutonic gods. Heimdal was the warrior for m of the patriarch Scef. which were li ened to sheep--indeed. who has been loo ed for on e arth--he who has been loo ed for has entered all herbs. were symbolized as demons. meaning 'tr ue or faithful son'. ref erred to as follows in the Eddic "Lay of Hyndla": To some grants he wealth. son of Njord. while Frey was the deified agriculturist who came over the deep as a child. who has been loo ed and longed for in Heaven. [p. [*2] Tammuz. and Jarl of noblemen. li e Heimdal. Tammuz. From his home. Agni "roars li e a bull". to his children war fame. There is probably some legend attached to this which is at present un nown. As the spring sun god. 95] [paragraph continues] Frey as Frode is ta en prisoner by a storm giant. lord of invocation". from his inhabited domain. Each of these gods appear to have been developed in isolation from an archaic spring god of fertility and corn whose attributes w ere symbolized. with Frey . one of th e early Sumerian expressions for 'fleece' was 'sheep of the s y'. his son Churl of churls. whom he apparently guards against the Gallu demons as Heimdal guards the world and th e heavens against attac s by giants and monsters. song craft to s alds. and had human offspring. also dwelt for a time among men as "Rig" . Heimdal. 5. and Heimdal blows a horn when the giants and demons threaten to atta c the citadel of the gods. has points of resemblance t o Heimdal. the son." [*3] [p. Tammuz is the god "of sonorous voice". and Agni "drives away all disease". He watches the floc s and herds. Mitra acting in the right way. is "the healer". "recall the floc s of the Gree sun god Helios. his son Thrall being the ancestor of the Thralls. iii. is also a guardian. Word s ill to many and wisdom to men. or in its rare fullest form. Professo r Pinches suggests. The name of Ta mmuz in Sumerian is Dumu-zi. Rigveda. and "the sovereign. . Tammuz is similarly "the heroic lord of the land". In Saxo's mythical history of Denmar . says Jastrow. the Aryo-Indian god. he of wisdom. Beli. li e the Egyptian lunar and solar god Khonsu. the harvest and boar god. Dumu-zida. Rigveda. "t                                                     . pre-eminent st eer of heaven. Fair winds to sea-farers. and with Hermod.

in due season. and ma es reference to tho se whom Ishtar caused to perish: Let me weep over the strong who have left their wives. open thy gate. [paragraph continues] The porter answers that he must first consult the Queen of Hades. Let me weep over the handmaidens who have lost the embraces of their husbands. I descend. desiring                                       . . Allatu's heart is filled with anger. the bolts I will shatter. The light is never seen. Ishtar is proud and arrogant. eeper. 96] I will stri e the threshold and will pass through the doors. in dar ness they dwell. It was first translated by the late Mr. At the first gate her crown was ta en off. with characteristic patience and s ill. giving to the world a fragment of ancient literature i nfused with much sublimity and imaginative power. To the road from which there is no return: To the house from whose entrance the light is ta en. Ishtar as s at each gate why she is thus dealt with. Ishtar is depicted descending to dismal Hades. the dwelling of the god Ir alla: To the house out of which there is no exit.he howler". at the fifth her gemmed waist-girdle. I descend to the house of dar ness. at the second her ear-rings . and is loved by his hag sister in the Teutonic Hades. and Allatu. Smith. . F rode returns to earth. of the British Museum. The place where dust is their nourishment and their food mud. As Ishtar enters through the various gates she is stripped of her ornaments and clothing. [p. spouse of the storm god Nergal. and Mr. [*1] at the sixth the bracelets of her hands and feet. open the gate to her. It is evident that there were various versions of the Tammuz myth in Ancient Bab ylonia. in the Babylonian Hades. A part of this form of the legend survives in the famous Assyrian hymn no wn as "The Descent of Ishtar". In one the goddess Ishtar visited Hades to search for the lover of her y outh. at the fourth the ornaments of h er breast.i-gal. If thou openest not the gate that I may enter I will stri e the door. A box containing inscribed tablets had been sent fro m Assyria to London. where the souls of the dead exist in bird forms: I spread li e a bird my hands. "Such is the command of Allatu. who ere his days are come is ta en away. George Sm ith. Bewitch her according to the ancient rules. and the porter answers. at the third her nec lace of precious stones. . and at the seventh the covering robe of her body. here called Allatu. that is. [paragraph continues] Then she issues abruptly the stern decree: Go. Open thy gate that I may enter. Over the only son let me mourn. as Tammuz is l oved by Eresh. Above the living the dead shall exceed in numbers. I will raise up the dead to devour the living. Its chiefs also are li e birds covered with feathers. "Deal with her as you deal with others who come here". [paragraph continues] When the goddess reaches the gate of Hades she cries to th e porter: Keeper of the waters. arra nged and deciphered them." After descending for a prolonged period the Queen of Heaven at length stands na ed before the Queen of Hades. to whom he accordingly announces the arrival of the Queen of Heaven. li e Tammuz.

the sun deity. . to stri e her with disease in all parts of he r body. [paragraph continues] Thereafter the Queen of Heaven was conducted through the v arious gates. her amulets". [p. struc her breast. saying: Unto Ishtar give the waters of life and bring her before me. smiting her breast. In splendid clothing dress him. [p. Whe n this being delivered his message Allatu . so to her again turn bac . with a ring of crystal adorn him. . with a ring of crystal. and at each she received her robe and the ornaments which were ta en from her on entering. In the day that Tammuz adorned me. [paragraph continues] In her anger she cursed the rescuer of the Queen of Heaven . May the garbage of the foundations of the city be thy food. and addressed Namtar. May I imprison thee in the great prison. [*1] With himself he adorned me. she bit her thumb. he adorned me. May the dar ness of the dungeon be thy dwelling. hastened to Shamash. and assemble the wa e. and she did not as for "the precious eye-stones. god of the deep. to relate what had occurred. to obey the high gods. may men mourners and women mourners On a bier place him. Ea then created a man lion. [*2]                           . For Tammuz the husband of thy youth. The poem concludes with Ishtar's wail: O my only brother (Tammuz) thou dost not lament for me. Namtar says: Since thou hast not paid a ransom for thy deliverance to her (Allatu). The glistening waters (of life) pour over him . named Nadushu-namir. and Ea. Wallcousins. The sun god immediately consulted his lunar father. Clic to enlarge ISHTAR IN HADES From the Painting by E. which were apparently to ransom Tam muz. Meanwhile Pap-su al. She was compelled. messenger of the gods. together with himself. With a bracelet of punish her rival whom she cannot humble. May the drains of the city be thy drin . The effect of Ishtar's fate was disastrous upon earth: growth and fertil ity came to an end. Namtar. giving him power to pass through the seven gates of Hades. May the sta e be thy seat. She turned again: a request she as ed not. May hunger and thirst stri e thy offspring. to rescue Ishtar. 97] commands the plague demon. however. 98] Ishtar mourns for "the wound of Tammuz". Sin.

. . . . . child growing in peace. thou art as the Bull of the two goddesses--come thou. &c. . Apparently. or passion which accompanies human love. their brother. unto my mother let us go bac . . lord." At Ishtar's temple "public maidens accept ed temporary partners. . [paragraph continues] Isis is also identified with Hathor (Ishtar) the Cow. our lor d!" . . begotten of the two cows. assigned to them by [p. but Tammuz refused or was unable to return. . wife. . Isis and Nepthys". 100] [paragraph continues] Ishtar". "Come thou to thy wife in peace. The goddess who descends to Ha des. [p.A Sumerian hymn to Tammuz throws light on this narrative. Isis and Nepthys. . "Come thou to us as a babe". . . I will go up. She is accompanied b y various demons--the "gallu-demon". It sets forth that Ish tar descended to Hades to entreat him to be glad and to resume care of his floc s. h owever. however. . her hea rt fluttereth for thy love". reproaches her with abandoning the objects of her p assion after a brief period of union. . She cries. . . . "the goddess of the human instinct. when they behold me ( Isis). "The cow weepeth for thee with her voice. "Father Osiris. Ishtar is referred to as " my mother". especially in connecti on with the worship of Ashtoreth. . as for me I will depart with thee . . . Langdon also translates a hymn (Tammuz III) which appears to contain the nar rative on which the Assyrian version was founded. . . says Jastrow. "Oh child. Gilgamesh . "Come thou to the two widowed goddesses". lamented for Osiris. the elder s ister. sis ter." [*1] As Ishtar and Belit-sheri weep for Tammuz. 99] Probably two goddesses originally lamented for Tammuz. the "slayer". to the character of the mother goddess which ex plains the references to the desertion and slaying of Tammuz by Ishtar. "She is" . Calling upon thee with weeping--yet thou art prostrate upon thy bed! Gods and men . [paragraph continues] She then instituted the wailing ceremony: The amorous Queen of Heaven sits as one in dar ness. soul of her brother". "Lo! the Bull. who was identical with Ishtar and the Egyptian Hathor. . . is not Ishtar.               . but the "sister". His spouse unto her abode he sent bac . . so do Isis and Nepthys weep for Osiris. [*3] Mr. I will return. . . he promises to return to earth. made as thou art." [*2] There is another phase. Belit-sheri. [*1] The worship of all mother goddesses in ancie nt times was accompanied by revolting unmoral rites which are referred to in con demnatory terms in various passages in the Old Testament. "I am thy wife. .--and holds a conversation with Tammuz which. . as the Egyptian sisters. Isis figures alternately in the Egyptian chants as mother. "Lo. . Lo! I invo e thee with wailing that reacheth high as heaven. however. . are weeping for thee at the same time. however. . and daughter of Osiris. first ma er of the bo dy". is "unintelligible and badly bro en".

"mother". she still retained traces of her ancient character. figures in Irish song and legend as "The Old Woman of Beare" . according to a Purana comm entator. com mands Indra on "one of the pea s of Himavat". Ishtarate.Ishtar in the process of time overshadowed all the other female deities of Babyl onia. a reference appare ntly to the ancient conception of Indra among the Great-Mother-worshipping secti ons of the Aryo-Indians." Indra exclaimed in his grief. indeed. who was worshipped by those who believed that life and the universe had a female origin in contrast to those who believed in the theory of male origin. "the lord". a tribal deity. became in the pl ural. But although she was re ferred to as the daughter of the s y. "the mother" of Osiris. as Mahadeva. blac -faced Scottish mother goddess. says Professor Kuno Meyer. but his wife. 101] As has been shown. Mansell. "And Indra on removing that stone beheld a cave on the breast of that ing of mountains in which were four others resembling himself. to lift up a stone and join the Indras who had been before him. was accompanied by a female reflection of himself--Beltu. eternal and undecaying". . The "Semitic" Baal. or the daughter of the moon. remained eve r young. who appears to be identical with Mala Lith. who became the wife of Vishnu. Sin or N annar. or by child gods. . as the mother goddess Saras wati. Aruru. where they met. [*2] The gods. awaited the time when they would be called forth. Anu. Ishtar is referred to in a Tammuz hymn as the mother of the c hild god of fertility. Sh amash. [*3] In the Mahabharata the god Shiva. "the mother of the world . Other forms of the Creatrix included Mama.i-gal or Allat u. which is Semitic. "the lady". the sun god. a creature who ga ve her name to the Sumerian city of Nina and the Assyrian city of Nineveh. the fish goddess. Indra was supposed to perish of old age. "Grey Eyebrows" of Fingalian story. or Mami. and her grandsons and great-grandsons were tribes and races ". as did Isis in Egypt. had for wife the shadowy Aa. In an Egyptian hymn the s y goddess Nut. li e the "Seven Sleepers". This "old woman" (Cailleach) "had". to use the paradoxical Egyptian term." [*1] Sri or La shmi . Photo. might die annually: the goddesses alone were immort al. [p. Eresh. the Indian goddess. a designation for goddesses in general. When old age at length came upon her she sang her "swan song". became the wife of Brahma. At the same time th ey were "Destroyers". Si milarly Great Father deities had vaguely defined wives. Bau. They were accompanied by shadowy male forms ere they became wives of strongly individualized gods. Clic to enlarge WINGED HUMAN-HEADED COW (?) From Kouyunji (Nineveh): now in the British Museum. Originally she was a great mother goddess. so that every man who had lived with her cam e to die of old age. their sons. li e Nin-sun and the Queen of Hades. Ishtar is identical with Nina. who might be regarded as "br others" or "husbands of their mothers". from which the                           . or Ama. These were all "Preservers" and healers. 102] periods of youth one after another. was. They were ultimately reborn as the five Pandava warriors. Gul a. and the Eng lish "Blac Annis". Cailleach Bheur. on the other hand. "seven [p. [*4] The ferocious. There were fourteen Indras in every "day of Brahma". "Shall I be even li e these?" These five Indras. Indrani. and Zer-panitum. is stated to have "built up life from her own body. Her name.

. In the Icelandic poem "Lo asenna". [*2]         Silence. Idun! I swear. . [p. And hast ever yearned after men! [*1] The goddesses of classic mythology had similar reputations. Gilgamesh. saying: Idun. 103] Frigg. . Lo i taunts her. ma ing reference to obscure myths: Thou didst also love a shepherd of the floc . He stands in the woods and cries "O my wing". She lin s closely with Astarte and Ashtoreth (I shtar). the eeper of the apples of immortal youth. . saying: On Tammuz. as has been indicated. But thou didst smite him and didst change him into a leopard. whose car was drawn by cats. Freyja! And faultless Of the gods and Each one hast Full well I now thee. Who continually poured out for thee the libation. I must ta e my garment even in the sun: The time is at hand that shall renew me. And his own hounds tore him to pieces. Frigg! Earth's spouse for a husband. So that his own sheep boy hunted him. And daily slaughtered ids for thee. They would be round glorious ings . . he spurned her advances. . is similarly addressed: Silence. These love deities were all as cruel as they were wayward. wife of Odin. [*1] Freyja. When Ishtar wooed the Babylonian hero. My arms when they are seen Are bony and thin: Once they would fondle. of all women Thou the most wanton art.                 . Thou didst lay affliction every year. it is not men: In the time when we lived It was men we loved . Who couldst fling those fair-washed arms of thine About thy brother's slayer. the Germanic mother goddess. which prevent the gods growing old. [paragraph continues] He li ewise charged her with deceiving the lion and the ho rse. Thou didst love the brilliant Allalu bird But thou didst smite him and brea his wing. is satirized as well: Silence. art thou not found.following lines are extracted: Ebb tide to me as of the sea! Old age causes me reproach . It is riches Ye love. the spouse of thy youth. Aphrodite (Venus) ha d many divine and mortal lovers. and reference has already been made to her relations with Adonis (Tammuz ). had similarly many lovers. elves who here are gathered thou made thy mate.

In B abylonia this process of racial and religious fusion was well advanced before th e dawn of history. who had come under the spell of Babylonian religion. the goddess cult appears to have [p. Mother of a hundred gods. who adored Isis. the Celtic of Iberian. [p. Artemis (Diana) slew her lover Orion. were father worshippers. Mother worship was the predominant characteristic of their rel igious systems. and the Babylonian of S umerian. were fused with the beliefs of the mother worshippers. and the goddess punishe d him by sending a calm when the war fleet was about to sail for Troy. Earth spirits were males. Among the Mediterranean Neolit hic tribes of Sumeria. The Vedic Aryo-Indians w orshipped father gods. The mother worshippers recognized male as well as female deities. "The most recent resear ches into Mesopotamian history". but not to overthrow the supremacy of Athena in the central shrine and in the aboriginal soul of the Athenian people. When the father-worshipping peoples invaded the dominions o f the mother-worshipping peoples. "were able to plant their Zeus and Poseidon on the high hill of At hens. and Europe. The most famous victim of Artemis was the daughter of Agamemnon. Neith. tends to disprove this theory. so that the Gree goddesses were probably of pre-Hellenic origin . the Aryo-Indian Ribhus. Greece was supposed to have received its great goddesses from th e western Semites. may have original ly been the son or child lover of Dam ina. and. as was Tammuz of Ishtar. [*1] as did also the Germanic peoples and certain tribes in the "Hittite confederacy". The northern hillmen. who may be identified with the "Aryans" of the philologists. with the result that his daughter had to be sacrificed. In fact. "The Aryan Hellenes". li e the Teutonic elves. on the other hand.These goddesses were ever prone to afflict human beings who might offend them or of whom they wearied. of the present-day Buriats. but they did not displace the mother goddesses. the Egyptian of proto-Egyptian. "masters". who had already assumed manifold forms. the beliefs of th e father worshippers." [*2] The real connection appears to be the racial one. "Lady of the Deep". which was torn to pieces by his own dogs. Ea. and the Bur ans. 105] been influential. however." [*2] As in Egypt. Ea was the offspring of the mother river. 104] the wanton who loved Attis (Adonis). represented by the self-created Ptah. between the nascent Hellas and the great world o f Mesopotamia there were powerful and possibly independent strata of cultures in terposing. Arabia. chang ed Actaeon into a stag. Archaeol ogical evidence. Demeter (Ceres) changed Ascalaphus into an owl and Stelli o into a lizard. they introduced their strongly individualized gods. and others. "establish with certainty t he conclusion that there was no direct political contact possible between the po wers in the valley of the Euphrates and the western shores of the Aegean in the second millennium B. It used to be customary to account for the similarities manifested by the variou s mother goddesses by assuming that there was constant cultural contact between separate nationalities. Mut. Human sacrifices were frequently offered to the bloodthirsty "mothers". as a result.C. writes Dr. ing of Calydon. [*1] Agamemnon had slain a sacred stag. Rhea (Ops) resembled The tow'red Cybele. Farnell. a Mongolian people. a not inconsiderable amount of "religi ous borrowing". Artemis thus sold breezes li e th e northern wind hags and witches. As the fish. "divinely tall and most divinely fair". and caused num erous deaths by sending a boar to ravage the fields of Oeneus. but regarded t             . Farnell. says Dr.

After Apsu's death she elevates one of her brood. because "in all religious bodies . among them religious customs continue in practice after th ey have been abandoned by men". as Queen of Heaven. and the Babylonian Apsu than his consort Tiamat.he great goddess as the First Cause. shows th at the men certainly co-operated at the archaic ceremonials. and poured out drin offerings unto her. Tiamat. in the narrative of the Creation Tablets of Babylon. 107] [paragraph continues] "The children gather wood. [*2] The evidence of Jeremiah. "neither they. Reference has been made to the introduction of Tammuz worship into Jerusalem. The women too a leading part in th ese practices. Although the primeval spirits were grouped in [p. Is htar. the female in the first p air was more strongly individualized than the male. the river god. women represent the conservative element. did we ma e our ca es and pour out drin offerings unto her without our men?" [*1] That the husbands. When Jeremiah censured the people for burning incense and serving gods "whom they new not". . the great mother. Ishtar is also a great battle heroine. and the children even. which will receive full treatm ent in a later chapter. to ma e ca es to the queen of heaven". they apparently acted in imitation of the god of fert                                       . The Egyptian Nu is vaguer th an his consort Nut. however. &c. and apparently in Babylonia also. is the controlling spirit. and have been consumed by the sword and the famine". to be her consort. we have wanted all things. was also adored by the bac sliding Israelites as a dei ty of battle and harvest. saying. but refused to accept all the blame. . and in t his capacity she was addressed as "the lady of majestic ran exalted over all go ds". a fact which sugg ests that in the Ishtar-Tammuz myth survives the influence of exceedingly ancien t modes of thought. nor your fath ers". Li e Tiamat. and the women nead the dough. but a memory of her a ncient supremacy.. In lighting the fir es with the "vital spar ". they made answer: "Since we left off to burn incense to the queen of heave n. 106] four pairs in Egypt. This was no idle flattery on the part of worshippers. and to pour out drin offerings unto her. and other deities Clic to enlarge Gilgamesh in conflict with bulls (see page <page 176>) CYLINDER-SEAL IMPRESSIONS (British Museum) [p. and lives longer. [*1] Jastrow suggests that the women of Israel wept for Tammuz. "When we burned ince nse to the queen of heaven. and the fathers indle the fire . She is more powerful and ferocious than Apsu. he said. Indeed. named Kingu. assisted at the ceremony is made evident in an other reference to goddess worship: Clic to enlarge Female figure in adoration before a goddess Clic to enlarge The winged Ishtar above the rising sun god. ye. offered ca es to the mother goddess.

they did so evidently because the death of the god was lament ed by the goddess Ishtar. vol. But the official cult received no recognition in Palestine. ^83:3 Religion of the Semites. p. II. was identified. translated by J. 45 et seq. that the suggestion regard ing the "conservative element" should really apply to the immemorial practices o f fol religion. on the other hand. they may have had attached to their memories the legends of archaic Iberian [p. 74. translated by Stephen Langdon. 86. Dennis (Wisdom of the East series). 85. pp. whi le the men too the lesser part of the god whom she had brought into being and a fterwards received as "husband of his mother". 1911). the thunder god. 299-341. iii. The women. whose early religion was not confined to temples. These differed from the refined ceremonies of the official cult in Babylonia. Clar Hall (London. J. vol. [*3] [p. pp. the MacDiarmids being "sons of Diarmid". with Donar or Thunor (Thor). 108] The obvious deduction seems to be that in ancient times women everywhere played a prominent part in the ceremonial fol worship of the Great Mother goddess. As the corn god came as a child. The odoric the Goth. 414. ^86:1 Langdon's Sumerian and Babylonian Psalms. 9-11. the childre n began the ceremony by gathering the wood for the sacred fire. as Dietrich von Bern. the ca es intended for a goddess were not offered up in the temple of Abraham's God . pp. represented the reproductive harvest goddes s in providing the food supply. iii. pp. Footnotes ^82:1 Eze iel. pp. but "in the streets of Jerusalem" and those of other cities. When the women m ourned for Tammuz. T. ^90:1 Quotations are from Sumerian and Babylonian Psalms. Isaiah. xvii. g. ^93:1 Beowulf. 21. therefore. pp. This may account for the high soc ial status of women among goddess worshippers. viii. 319-321. for instance. 88] deities who differed from the Celtic Danann deities. In recognition of her gift.ility. pp. but closely associated with the acts of everyday life. In Scotland Finn and his followers are all gi ants. ^83:2 The Burden of Isis. R. 1909). ^87:2 West Highland Tales. li e the representatives of the M editerranean race. where there were suitable temples and organized bands of priests and priestesses. they rewarded the go ddess by offering her the ca es prepared from the newly ground wheat and barley-the "first fruits of the harvest". ^87:3 If Finn and his band were really militiamen--the original Fenians--as is b elieved in Ireland. ^93:2 For Frey's connection with the Ynglings see Morris and Magnusson's Heims r                   . ^87:1 Campbell's West Highland Tales. Diarmid is the patriarch of the Campbell clan. ^85:1 Egyptian Myth and Legend. ^83:1 Psalms. This "Garden of Adonis" is dealt with in the [*n ext chapter]. Ph. (Paris and London. 22.D. cxxvi. ^89:1 Isaiah condemns a magical custom connected with the worship of Tammuz in t he garden. 412. It would appear..

Muir. L. ^94:2 Professor Oldenberg's translation. ^106:1 Jeremiah. 39. p. pp. 46. L. p. King. vol. W. 137 . Kuno Meyer (London. ^104:2 Greece and Babylon. 553. 88-90. p. 34 8. iii). 339. ^103:1 Translations from The Elder Edda. 1908. 161. 1911). 67. pp. ^101:3 Original Sans rit Texts. ^103:2 Babylonian Religion.           it when t . ^100:1 Aspects of Religious Belief and Practice in Babylonia and Assyria. ^105:2 Greece and Babylon. ^98:3 Langdon's Sumerian and Babylonian Psalms. ^99:2 The Burden of Isis. As a spring sun god he slays demons. 96. 349. 44. ^99:1 The Burden of Isis. 32q et seq. 49. 47. London. and Herodotus.   ^98:1 A wedding bracelet of crystal is worn by Hindu women. 199. 23-71. Bray (part i). 1911). ^105:1 The goddesses did not become prominent until the "late invasion" of the p ost-Vedic Aryans. 24. vol. 35. 1890. R. pp. 31. ^107:1 Jeremiah. xliv. 32. 45. 72. ^96:1 Li e the love-compelling girdle of Aphrodite. ^93:3 The Religion of Babylonia and Assyria. boo i. London. p. pp. by Geo rge Smith. 555. pp. J. p. 18. T. ^102:1 Ancient Irish Poetry. p. ^94:1 Langdon's Sumerian and Babylonian Psalms. as a lunar god he brings fer tility. vol. ^94:3 Osiris is also invo ed to "remove storms and rain and give fecundity in th e night-time". pp. ^104:1 Tennyson's A Dream of Fair Women. by O. 46. pp. Dennis (Wisdom of the East series) . vii. ^107:2 Aspects of Religious Belief and Practice in Babylonia and Assyria. 22. ^101:2 Original Sans rit Texts. 325. pp.ingla (Saga Library. they brea he husband dies. i. ^98:2 Quotations from the translation in The Chaldean Account of Genesis. ^101:4 Adi Parva section of Mahabharata (Roy's translation). p. 160. Farnell (Edinburgh. translated by J. ^101:1 The Burden of Isis. p. i.

Myths of Babylonia and Assyria. 17. which was situated on the "border". WHEN the curtain rises to reveal the drama of Babylonian civilization we find th at we have missed the first act and its many fascinating scenes. and probabl y Nippur. As a rule. Shuruppa . On the north Assyria was yet "in t                               . He styles himself a Patesi-a "priest ing". and the city deities remain supreme. His own l aws continue in force. or more literally. com [p. A ad. It is noticeable that in the north the A adians ar e more Semitic than their contemporaries in the south. Both in the nort h and the south there are many organized and independent city states. What we now for certain is that civilization is well advanced. and. it does not always follow when a rul er is referred to by that title he is necessarily less powerful than his neighbo urs. Lagash. the progress of the fragmentary narrative is interrupted by a sudden change [p. MacKenzie. Occasionally ambitious rulers tow er among their fellows. but it is difficult at ti mes to say whether a city is controlled by the descendants of the indigenous peo ple or those of later settlers. Among the cities of Sumer were Eridu. Dynasties rise and fall. but it is not always possible to distinguish between them. although recognition may also be given to the deities of his conqueror. and Sippar. a subjugated monarch who has perforce to ac nowl edge the suzerainty of a powerful ing is allowed to remain in a state of semi-i ndependence on condition that he pays a heavy annual tribute of grain. Erech. [1915]. Kish. at sacred-texts. and long robes. Larsa. vii. and become overlord s of wide districts. But as an inde pendent monarch may also be a pious Patesi. 110] of scene ere we have properly grasped a situation and realized its significance. 109] [ch-06] CHAPTER VI Wars of the City States of Sumer and A ad Civilization well advanced--The Patesi--Prominent City States--Surroundings of B abylonia--The Elamites--Biblical References to Susa--The Sumerian Temperament--F ragmentary Records--City States of Kish and Opis--A Shop eeper who became a Quee n--Goddess Worship--Tammuz as Nin-Girsu--Great Dynasty of Lagash--Ur-Nina and hi s Descendants--A Napoleonic Conqueror--Golden Age of Sumerian Art--The First Ref ormer in History--His Rise and Fall--The Dynasty of Erech--Sargon of A ad--The Royal Gardener--Sargon Myth in India--A Great Empire--The King who Purchased Lan d--Naram Sin the Conqueror--Disastrous Foreign Raid--Lagash again Prominent--Gud ea the Temple Builder--Dynasty of Ur--Dynasty of Isin--Another Gardener becomes King--Rise of Babylon--Humanized Deities--Why Sumerian Gods wore Beards. and not un frequently these wage war one against another. Although most Semites are recognizable by their flowing beards. conduct vigorous military campaigns. by Donald A. "servant of the chief deity". and north of Babylonia proper is Semitic Opis. When the historical narrative begins A ad included the cities of Babylon. prominent noses . as in Egypt at tim es.^107:3 Jeremiah. Cutha . Sumerians and A adians come and go. some have so closely imitated the Sumerians as to suffer almos t complete loss of identity. Ur.

and white. and grassy steppes occupied by the Medes and other [p. [*1] An Assyrian plan of the city show s it occupying a strategic position at a bend of the Shawur river. Cultural influences came and went li e spring winds bet ween the various ancient communities. who declared: The silver flow Of Hero's tears. where during the dry season "the roc s branded [p. and blac marble". where excavations have reveale d traces of an independent civilization which reaches bac to an early period in the Late Stone Age. and blue hangings.he ma ing". and blue. 112] peoples of Aryan speech. Li e the Nubians and the Libyans. I was in Shushan the palace". . The tears of Ishtar for Tammuz. Indeed. the beds were of gold and silver . For ten long centuries Sumer and A ad flourished and prospered ere we meet with the great Hammurabi. the Elamites seemed ever to be hovering on the easte rn frontier of Sumeria. Fortifications had been erected on the river and canal ban s. which had "white. or impressed upon clay tablets and bric s. 111] the body" and occasional sandstorms swept in blinding folds towards the "plain o f Shinar" (Sumer) li e demon hosts who sought to destroy the world. was nown as the "land of the Amorit es". green. plateaus. The fish-shaped Babylonian valley lying between the rivers. Are things to brood on with more ardency Than the death day of empires. The Sumerian ing was emotionally religious as the great English poet was emotio nally poetical. A vague but vast area above Hit on the Eu phrates. li e the seasons which alternately brought greenness and gold. while a canal curved round its northern and eastern sides. barrenness                                              . the ings selected as a general rule to record pious deeds rather than to ce lebrate their victories and conquests. whose name has now become almost as familiar as that of Ju lius Caesar. The capital of the Elamites was the city of Susa. and extending to the Syrian coast. is made evident by the Biblical references to the gorgeous palace. and shrouded in obscurity. upon a pavement of red. and between these and the high city walls were thic clumps of trees. although a people apparently of the same origin. longing for an opportunity to raid and plunder. When insc riptions were composed and cut on stone. seemed to have concerned the royal recorder to a greater degree than t he memories of political upheavals and the social changes which passed over the land. the swoon of Imogen. the hereditary enemies of the Sumerians. the average monarch had a tempera ment resembling that of Keats. and amidst the southern mounta ins dwelt the fierce Elamites. so that Susa was completely surrounded by water. To the east the s yline was fretted by the Persian Highlands. and the afflictions endured by t he goddess imprisoned in Hades. Susa is referred to in the Old Testament--"The words of Neh emiah . The Sumerians were not li e the later Assyrians or their Egyptian contemporaries--a people with a passion for history. where walled to wns were surrounded by green fields and numerous canals flashed in the sunshine. which afforde d protection against Sumerian attac s from the west. Fair Pastorella in the bandits' den. fastened with cords of fine linen an d purple to silver rings and pillars of marble. to which she had descended for love of her slain husband. who ept watchful eyes on Egypt. [*2] Beyond El am were the plains. . was bounded on the west by the blea wastes of the Arabian desert. But our nowledge of the leading historical events of this vast per iod is exceedingly fragmentary. That the ings of Elam imit ated the splendours of Babylonian courts in the later days of Esther and Haman a nd Mordecai.

mayhap. Consequently. shall b e as when God overthrew Sodom and [p. who became Emperor of Rome.and flood. and 2800 B. too. li e Sargon of A ad. and satyrs shall dance there. It must be recogn ized. and Theodoric the Goth. perhaps. who centuries previously erected the particular temple that he himself has piously restored. which was situated "farthest north" and on the western ban of the riv er Tigris. that even portions of the data which had of late been sifted an d systematized by Oriental scholars in Europe. and are indispensable for comparative purposes. Historical clues are also obtained from lists of year names. it is found that Kish came under the sway of the pronouncedly Semitic city of Opis. and their houses shall be full of dol eful creatures. The Gre at Mother appears to have been the Sumerian Bau. the glory of ingdoms. But wild beasts of the desert shall lie there. The city of Kish was one of the many ancient centres of goddess worship. neither shall the A rabian pitch tent there. Alexan der the Great. therefore. and sc ulptured [p. it is probabl                                    . After years have fluttered past dimly. 114] [paragraph continues] Gomorrah. vases.C. however. and the Cretans were at the dawn of the first early Minoan period. our interests abide with A ad. which still lies under the curse of the Hebrew prophet. Each cit y ing named a year in celebration of a great event--his own succession to the t hrone. City chronicles. To begin with. and the city was the centre of a powerful and independent government. are but indices of obscure events. to which meagre r eferences were sometimes also made on mace heads. Many interesting and important discoveries. may yet have to be subjected to r evision.C. In Kish Sumerian and A adian elements had apparently blen ded. And th e wild beasts of the islands shall cry in their desolate houses and dragons in t heir pleasant palaces.. These records render obscure periods faintly articulate. 113] monoliths. as has been indicated. the beauty of the Chaldees' excellency. stelae. A rec oning of this ind. the erection of a new temple or of a city wall. as a rule. Sometimes. for the memoried deeds of great rulers were not always unassociated with persistent and cumulative myths. A century elapsed ere Kish again threw off the oppressor's yo e and r enewed the strength of its youth. whose chief seat was at Lagash. a monarch gave the name of his father in an official inscription. If tradition is to be relied upon. Nor can implicit trust be placed on e very reference to historical events. present-day excavators and students have often reason t o be grateful that the habit li ewise obtained of inscribing on bric s in buildi ngs and the stone soc ets of doors the names of ings and others. after civilization had been well advan ced. Although floating legends gathered round her memory as they ha ve often gathered round the memories of famous men. or mere oral traditions. and during a period dated ap proximately between 3000 B. It must be compared with and tested by other records. the defeat of an invading army from a rival state. when Egypt was already a united in gdom. and with them the shadow-shapes of vigorous ru lers. or. who exclaimed: "Babylon. and owls shall dwell there. neither shall the shepherds ma e their fold there. which will throw fresh ligh t on this fascinating early period. cannot always be regarded a s absolutely correct. Another may be found to have made an illuminating statement regarding a predeces sor. Queen Azag-Bau. remain to be made in that ancient and desert ed land. tablets. or happily mentioned several ancestors. Kish owed its existence to that notable lady ." [*1] The curtain rises. It shall never be inhabited. for in these ancient days calculations were not unfrequently based on doubtful inscr iptions. and beg inning to use bronze.

and therefore [p. He certainly too steps to ma e secure his position.e [p. has overshadowed the doubtfu l annals of ancient Kish at a period when Sumerian and Semite were striving in t he various states to achieve political ascendancy. but ultimately it t hrew off the oppressor's yo e and asserted its independence. a fact which suggests that h e held sway over Eridu and                       . the source of all human and best ial life. The first great and outstanding ruler of Lagash was Ur-Nina. and increased the wealth of religious bodies and the prosp erity of the State by cutting canals and developing agriculture. She was a "Great Mother". and made the land fertile so that man might have food. it becomes evident that the historian of Kish cannot be absolutely relied upon in detail. She was identified with Gula. One of the titles of Nin-Girsu was EnMersi. he also gave practical recognition to Ea at Eridu and Enl il at Nippur. It seems evident that the m emory of this lady of forceful character. Although no reference survives to indicate that she was be lieved to be of miraculous birth. furthe r. If the Queen Azag-Bau founded Kish when she was only twe nty. the sp ring god who slew the storm and winter demons. who cured diseases and prolonged life. a creatrix. the Chronicle of Kish gravely credits her with a prolonged and apparently prosperous reign of a hundred years. Evidently the religion of Lag ash was based on the popular worship of the "Queen of Heaven". who su cceeded her. it would seem. For a time it ac nowledged the suzerainty of Kish. a developed form of Tammuz. who flourished about thirteen hundred years before the rise of Queen Hatshepsut of Egypt. His inscriptions are eloquent of his piety. "the great one". god of harvest. or Heimdal. li e the Scandinavian Frey. 115] that the queen was a prominent historical personage. however. who appears to have owed his power to the successful military operations of his predecessors. He. and to have first achieved popularity and influence as the eeper of a wine shop. for he repaired and built temples. the celestial warrior. according to Assyrian evidence. Meanwhile the purely Sumerian city of Lagash had similarly grown powerful and ag gressive. It is uncertain whether or not he himself engaged in any great war. 116] a deity of war. and her son. When it is found. The cumulative effo rts of a succession of energetic rulers elevated Lagash to the position of a met ropolis in Ancient Babylonia. was worshipped in conjunction with othe r deities. She was reputed to have bee n of humble origin. that the dynasty in which mother and son flourished was supposed to have last ed for 586 years. Nin-Girsu was. These calculations ar e certainly remar able. and two for eleven. it may be ta en for granted that he was able and fully prepared to give a good account of himse lf in battle. one of whom reigned for only thr ee years. judging from what we now of him. including the god Nin-Girsu. B au was one of the several goddesses whose attributes were absorbed by the Semiti c Ishtar. Her son. The goddess Bau. a harvest goddess. was another name of Tammuz. the dying god who became "husband of his mother". In addition to serving local deities. dedicated offerings to deities. of course. and. who had solar attributes. which too practical shape. His records are s ilent in that connection. overloo ed Anu at Erech. sat on the throne for a quarter of a century. "the mother of Lagash". divided between eight rulers. which. but. he must have been an elderly gentleman of seventy when he began to reign. two for six. and gave birth to the future ruler in her fiftieth year. for he caused a strong wall to be erected round Lagash. an agricultural deity.

eloquent of decision. his son A urgal ascended the t hrone. and her shoulder dress or long hair drops over one of her arm s. including those of Nina and Nin-Girsu. She was in time identified with Ishtar. and perhaps identical with Belit-sheri. Among the deities of Lagash. with three flounces. (See pages <page 117>. and wears a pleated ilt. or high [p. accompany the prominent crown prince. which lay to the north-west of Lagash. constructed by special order of her royal worshipper. After Ur-Nina's prosperous reign came to a close. Her name is Lida. Paris. siste r of "Tammuz of the Abyss" and daughter of Ea. but pouring out a libation upon the ground. but also as a corn spirit and a goddess of matern ity. Ur-Nina is seated on his throne. From the original in the Louvre. is illu strated on the lower part of the plaque. a s would seem at first sight. <page 118>) [p. whose name he bore. the "Mother of Mendes". The cup-be arer is in attendance behind the throne. Apparently this is a royal princess.Clic to enlarge PLAQUE OF UR-NINA In Limestone. or another ceremonial act. and was successful in establishing by con                                 . In front of him sta nd five figures. On his long head he has poised deftly a woven bas et c ontaining the clay with which he is to ma e the first bric . but had to recognize Erech as an independent city state. His face and scalp are clean shaven. had Napoleonic characteristics. the cup-bearer. Nina received offerings of fish. She is accompanied by her b rothers. not. perhaps royal sons. for her head is unshaven. A famous limestone plaque. and he has a prominent nose and firm mouth . and at least one official. in which was probably placed her great statue. refers to the temples erected by Ur-Nina. not onl y as a patroness of fishermen. An army of raiders in vaded his territory and had to be driven bac . He is bare to the waist. She was also honoured with a new temple. Three ma le figures. and the conspicuous part she too in the ceremony suggests that she was the representative of the goddess Nina. 118] priest. The inscription on this plaque. Paris. which reac hes almost to his an les. The foremost is honoured by being sculptured larger than the ot hers. 117] [paragraph continues] Nippur. Li e the Eg yptian goddess. which is preserved in the Louvre. He was a military genius with great ambitions. As she was a water deity. whose name was Eannatum. raising the wine cup to his lips and toasting to th e success of the wor . Possibly in this case it is the god Nin-Girsu who is being honoured. The concluding part of this ceremony. except the prominent monarch. The princess is not present. The next ing. The folds of nec and jaw suggest Bismarc ian traits. the place of honour next to the ing is ta en by the crown princ e. between the Shatt-el-Kai and Shatt-el-Hai canals. Ur-Nina favoured most the goddess Nina. depicts on i ts upper half the pious King Ur-Nina engaged in the ceremony of laying the found ations of a temple dedicated either to the goddess Nina or to the god Nin-Girsu. a powerful city. one of the canals was dedicated t o her. which is pierced in the centre so as to be naile d to a sacred shrine. Anita. He had trouble with Umma.

ascended the throne than the flame of rev olt burst forth again. Eannatum was succeeded by his brother. and otherwise chall enging the supremacy of the sovran state. Apparently the new monarch d id not share the military qualities of his royal predecessor. and as his suz erainty was already ac nowledged at Eridu. he constructed a large reservoir and developed the canal system. It is exquisitely shaped. Eannatum's activities. but appears to have done little more than hold in chec their aggressive tend encies. But he had gravely miscal culated the strength of the vigorous young ruler. In the dedicatory inscription the ing is referred to as a patesi. but Ur-Nina's grandson inflicted upon these bold foreigners a crushing defeat and pursued them over the frontier. was evidently determined to free. i ncluding the sac ing of Opis and Kish. Li e his grandfather. Dudu. belo ved by the Mother goddess. 119] come under the sway of triumphant Lagash. the lion. Other military successes followed. then he engaged in a series of successful campaigns. however. and the finest Sumerian examples belong to his reign. which recall the mountain herds of Astarte. scattered the forces of Opis. he strengthened the fo rtifications of Lagash. were not confined to battlefields. No sooner had Entemena. for there were sig ns of unrest in the loose confederacy of states. The symbolic decorations include the lion-headed eagle. Umm a had been causing anxiety in Lagash. Then he too steps to stamp out the embers of re volt in Umma by appointing as its governor one of his own officials. onc e [p. The Patesi of Umma. who was duly installed with great ceremony. and imposed an annual tribute t o be paid in ind. a nd the fact that the name of the high priest. He also extended and repaired e xisting temples in his native city and at Erech. engaged himself during period s of peace in strengthening his city fortifications and in continuing the wor o f improving and developing the irrigation system. he encouraged sculpture wor . but the tireless and ever-watchful Eannatum hastened to the f ray. At Lagash he carried out great improvements in the interests of agriculture. After a brilliant r                                     . and following up his success. An army of Elamites swept down from the hills. Entemena inflicted upon the re bels a crushing defeat. removing and brea ing the landmar s. which assured the supremacy of Lagash for many years. A Lagash force defeated the men of Umm a. and to his reign belongs the exquisite silver vase of Lagash. the next ing. This votive offering was placed by the ing in the temple of Nin-Girsu. He lived in the golden age of Sumerian art. but Eannatum stormed and captured that riv al city. whic h was ta en from the Tello mound. Indeed. 120] and for all. Entemena. which was probably a form of the spring god of war and fertility. Evidently Zuzu. including Erech and Ur. appropriated one of its fertile plains. Enannatum I. Several cities were afterwards forced to [p. Umma revolted. From tha t city an army marched forth and too forcible possession of the plain which Ean natum had appropriated. an d has a base of copper. Eannatum's power in Sumeria became as supreme as it was firmly established. considered that the occasion was opportune to overcome the powerful Sumerian conqueror. and at the same time establish Semitic rule over the subdued and war-wasted cities. entered the walled city an d captured and slew the patesi. is given may be ta en as an indication of the growing power of an aggressive priesthood. his native state from the yo e of Lagash. Being a patron of the arts. and is now in the Louvre. named Ili. He marched south with a large a small but brilliant empire. and captured the foolhardy Zuzu. and deer and ibexes. with characteristic vigour. ing of the northern city of Opis.

s upported the new ruler in sweeping away innovations to which they were hostile. and especially the agricultural classes. which received the support of a sect ion of the priesthood. The sp lendid organization of Lagash was crippled by the dishonesty of those who should have been its main support. Li e Khufu and his descendants. they do not appear to have been held in chec . "In the doma in of Nin-Girsu". although repulsed.. severely repressed by the iron-gloved mo narchs of Ur-Nina's dynasty. but e nriched themselves by sheer robbery. Each successive monarch who undertoo public wor s on a large sc ale for the purpose of extending and developing the area under cultivation. the Pyramid ings of Egypt's fourth dynasty. One or two priests sat on the throne of Lagash in brief succession. which may have given the enemies of Lagash the desired opportunity to gather strength for the coming conflict. 121] an Elamite raid which. (See page <page 120>) Reproduced by permission from "Decouvertes en Chaldee" (E. appe ars to have done so mainly to increase the revenue of the exchequer. while the priests followed their example by doubling their fees and appropriating temple offerings to their own use. one of Uru agina's tablets sets forth.eign of twenty-nine years the ing died.                       . All indications [p. with the result that culture was fostered and civilization advanced. and was succeeded by his son. who were sons and daughters of Nin-Gi rsu and Nina. by royal auditors. the vigorous and efficient monarchs of the Ur-Nina dynasty of Lagash were apparentl y remembered and execrated as tyrants and oppressors of the people." They not only attended to the needs of the exchequer. it would appear. Enannatum II. What appears certain is that he was the leader of a great social upheaval. so as to co nserve the strength of the city and secure its pre-eminence as a metropolis. An obscure period ensued. To maintain many endowed temples and a standing army the traders and agriculturists had been heavily taxed. Leroux. Other deities. Sumer ia was overrun by an army of officials who were notoriously corrupt. There is a refe rence to Clic to enlarge SILVER VASE DEDICATED TO THE GOD NIN-GIRSU BY ENTEMENA The finest example extant of Sumerian metal wor . may be regarded as proof of disturbed political conditions. had been given recognition by his predecessors. for he recorded that his elevation was due to the interce ssion of the god Nin-Girsu. but with the passing of the old order of things there ar ose grave social problems which never appear to have been seriously dealt with. the first reformer in history. The people as a whole groaned under an ever-increasing burden of taxation. He began to rul e as patesi. Apparen tly there had been a city revolt. and then aro se to power the famous Uru agina. Paris) [p. A l eisured class had come into existence. "there were tax gathere rs down to the sea.C. 122] of social unrest were. Lagash seems to have been intensely modern in charac ter prior to 2800 B. as in Egypt. and it is possible that the orthodox section of Lagash. who was the last ruler of Ur-Nina's line. but afterwards styled himself ing.

The zealous and iconoclastic reformer had reigned but seven years when he was called upon to defend his people against the invader. The arm y. Although the cit y was rebuilt in time. but. Instead of gradually re-adjusting the machinery of government so as to secure equality of treatment w ithout impairing its efficiency as a defensive force in these perilous times. he was the interceder who carried the prayers of Lugal-zaggisi to the                     . went pract ically out of existence. He lamented the butche ry and robbery which had ta en place. and the number of officials reduced to a minimum. Uru a gina's zeal for the people's cause amounted to fanaticism. Echoes of the great disaster which ensued rise from a pious tablet inscription left by a priest. Taxes and temple fees were cut down. was not slow to recognize that the iron hand of Lagash had bec ome unnerved. and fostered the spirit of revolt which ever smouldered in subject states. it never agai n became the metropolis of Sumeria. His laws were similar to those which over two centuries afterwards were codified by Hamm urabi. that st atues were shattered. The vengeful destroyer of Lagash was Lugal-zaggisi. no doubt sought refuge elsewhere. With Uru agina the glory of Lagash departed. But his social Arcadia vanished li e a dream because he failed to recognize tha t Right must be supported by Might. Uru agina had at the same time u nwittingly let loose the forces of disorder. 124] the now tragic figure of the great reformer suddenly vanishes from before our ey es. a masterful figure in early Sumerian history. remembering the oppressio ns of other days. that his city goddess was named Nidaba. who was convinced that the conquerors would be called to account for the sins they had committed against the great god Nin-Girsu. which was recruited mainly from the leisured and official classes. Patesi of Umma. Umma. Uru agina's motives were undoubtedly above reproach. Perhaps he perished in a burning temple. We gather from the tablet of the un nown scrib e. He appears to have been utterly unprepared to do so. He appears also to have been a worshipper of Enlil of Nippur. that gr anaries were plundered and standing crops destroyed. 123] with desire to promote the welfare and comfort of all true worshippers. At any rate. We gather from his composition that blood was shed by the raiders of Umma even in the sacred precincts of temples. so that traders and agriculturists obtained relief from taxation at the expense of their material security. The victorious forces of Umma swept again st the stately city of Lagash and shattered its power in a single day. Amidst these horrors of savagery and vengeance. to whose influence he credited his military successes. who regarded him as a sinner against the god Nin-Girsu. But Enlil was not his hi ghest god. and was even made more stately than before. [p. In bringing about his sudden social revolution. and many representatives of the despoiled leisured and military classes of L agash. he sought to establish justice and liberty in the ingdom. He was disinterestedly pious.Reforms were necessary and perhaps overdue. that silver and precious stones were carried away. and that many buildings wer e set on fire. and he showed an example to all who occupied positions of trust by living an upright life and denying himse lf luxuries. he inaugurated sweeping and revolutionary social changes of far-reaching character regardless of consequences. perhaps he found a nameless grave w ith the thousands of his subjects whose bodies had lain scattered about the bloo d-stained streets. and built and restored templed and ac ted as the steward of his god [p. unfortunately for Lagash. Society was thoroughly disorganized. Discontented and unemployed officia ls. and li e that monarch he was professedly the guardian of the wea and the helper of the needy.

agree that Sargon was of humble [p. Brought up by a commoner. the Princess Pritha. Sargon's birth was concealed. the city of Anu. According to the Chronicle of Kish. gave him her aid. In referring to himself as the favoured ruler of various city deities. The allegiance of certain states. Nippur li ew ise came under his sway. It would appear that he was an adventurer or usurper. A similar myth was attached in India to the memory of Karna. the Hector of that great Sans rit epic the Mahabharata. and that he owed his throne indirectly to Lugal-zaggisi.beloved father. their parents. became preeminent. Anu and Ea were originally identical. and her relation to Anu was similar to that of Belit-sheri to Ea at Eridu. who figure in the [p. the goddess Nana. Later traditions. which was due to local theorizing and the influence of alien settlers. Lugal-zag gisi appears as a ruler of all Sumeria. He appears to have overrun A ad. 126] birth. which have been partly confirmed by co ntemporary inscriptions. li e Anshar and Kishar. When Naniza . but it would appear that the one was differentiated as the god of the waters above the heaven and the other as god of the waters beneath the earth. god of the s y. Anu. which was ever waiting for an opportunity to rega in its independence. ho wever. At Sippar the sun g od. and even pen etrated to the Syrian coast. for in one inscription it is stated that he "made s traight his path from the Lower Sea (the Persian Gulf) over the Euphrates and Ti gris to the Upper Sea (the Mediterranean)". According to the legend. who af                                . where Semitic influence was predominating. he perished by the sword of the Umma conqueror. depended on the strength of the central power. whose Semitic name was Shamash. was exalted as the chief deity. He was placed in a vessel which was committed to the river. Having bro en the power of Lagash. Elsewhere th e chief god of the spring sun or the moon. Nana was worshipped as the godd ess of vegetation. Ishtar. His mother was a vestal virgin dedicated to the sun god. Karna's mother. the last monarch of the line of the famous Queen Azag-Bau. and the pair subsequently became abstract deities. Perhaps Sargon owed his rise to power to the assistance received by bands of settlers from the land of the Amorites. and he also subdued the southern cities. both being forms of Anshar. No doubt Nin-Girsu represented a school of theology which was associated with unpleasant memories in Umma. li e Nin-Girsu at Lagash. has been dealt with in a previous chapter. and his father an un nown stranger from the mountains--a suggestion of immed iate Semitic affinities. How far his empire extended it is imposs ible to determine with certainty. who had dethro ned the ruler of A ad. he lived in obscuri ty until the Semitic goddess. Lugal-zaggisi directed his attention to the r ival city of Kish. The sac ing and burning of the temples of Lagash suggests as much. the lover of the goddess. and of his d aughter. the next ruler of Sumer and A ad after Luga l-zaggisi was the famous Sargon I. which Lugal-zaggis i had invaded. Babbar. Shama sh. Anu's spou se was Anatu. This specializing process. In the previous chapter reference was made to the Tammuz-li e myth attach ed to his memory. Lugal-zaggisi chose for his capital ancient Erech. One of his successors foun d it necessary to attac Kish. 125] [paragraph continues] Babylonian Creation story. who afterwards was identified with Ishtar. whil e the moon god remained supreme at Ur. had sat upon the throne f or but three years. displacing the elder god.

During Sargon's reign A ad attained to a splendour which surpassed that of Baby lon. a later ing of A ad. When in secret she gav e birth to her son she placed him in an ar of wic erwor . This deity was subsequently identified with Merodach. On e of the memorable products of the period was an exquisitely sculptured monument celebrating one of Naram Sin's victories.) even a [p. show that at this early period (about 2600 B. [*1] Before he became ing.terwards became a queen. He was therefore one of the many d eveloped forms of Tammuz--a solar. but his l ife was cut short by a palace revolution. the legendary founder of the city. Thither went many Semitic settlers wh o had absorbed the culture of Sumeria. which was set adrift on a stream. son of Enlil.C . It is o ne of the most wonderful examples of Babylonian stone wor which has come to lig ht. where the child was rescued by a woman and afterwards rear ed by her and her husband. But the old warrior led forth his army against the combined forces and achieved a shattering victory. In time Karna became a great warrior. or "land of the Amorites". According to the Chronicle of Kish. as is [p. however. a charioteer. he was a son of Sargon. and Nin-Girsu of Lagash. Surya. "the western land". and on more th an one occasion penetrated their country. he ultimately imposed his rule. accordi ng to tradition. For the latter. A successful campaign had been waged against a mountain people. The Elamites gave him an opportunity to extend his conquests eas tward. corn. was loved by the sun god. and must therefore have been a distinguished general. a nd was crowned King of Anga by the Kaurava warriors. was. Ultimately it reached the Ganges. had similarly to subdue a great confederacy of thirty-two city states. who succeeded Sargon I. 127] testified by the name of Queen Azag-Bau. Urumus h. bul s largely in histo ry and tradition. [*1] the next ruler. a gardener and watchman attached to the temple of the war god Z amama of Kish. It is undo ubted that he was a distinguished general and able ruler. the Sharru in of the texts. 128] conquering monarch considered it advisable to observe existing land laws. and also Amurru. son of Ea. his aim having been probably to settle on these Semitic allie s who would be less liable to rebel against him than the wor ers they displaced. He built up an empire which included Sumer and A ad. The arts flourished during his reign. Manishtusu. Tradition relates that when he was an old man all the Babylonian states r ose in revolt against him and besieged A ad. whi ch were recorded on a monument subsequently carried off with other spoils by the Elamites and discovered at Susa. and an interceder f or man ind. also achieved successes in Elam and elsewhere. The goddess of Kish appears to have been a form of Bau. and it was borne by that river to the country of Anga. In an omen text the monarch is lauded as the "highly exalted one without a peer". These transactions. over the western part of which. and military deity. it is certain that he inherited the military and administra tive genius of that famous ex-gardener. They appear to have attac ed Opis. nown as Anshan. Ninip. Sargon of A ad. The stele shows the warrior ing leading his army up a steep incline and round the base of a gre                                                . Unfortunately our nowledge of Sargon's reign is of meagre character. Wh ether he was or not. but he drove them bac . The prominent figure of Naram Sin. which was discovered at Susa. he found employment elsewhere. But he is best nown as the monarch who purchased several large estates adjoini ng subject cities.

however. having evidently successfully withstood the onslaughts of the Gutium. where the memory of the horrors perpetrated by these invaders endured until the Grecian Ag e. the most celebrated was Gud ea. Its triumph. and the Sumerian city of Erech again became the centre of empire. which is now in the Imperial Ottoman Museum at Const antinople. He also penetrat ed Arabia. Naram Sin is armed with b attleaxe and bow. but it was of compar atively brief duration. or men of Kutu. Amurru and north ern Palestine. and the arts were fostered. including Babylon. Trad e flourished. When the mists cleared away. One lies on the ground clutching a spear which has penetrated his throat. the city Lagash once more came to the front. The two most prominent wer e the Gutium. A ad and Sumer were overswept by the fierce Gutium from the north-east ern mountains. ensued. 129] Naram Sin's great empire included the whole of Sumer and A ad. and his helmet is decorated with horns. but it never rec overed the place of eminence it occupied under the brilliant Ur-Nina dynasty. They sac ed and burned many cities. the ci ty god [p. and the military bearing of the disciplined troo ps contrasts sharply with the despairing attitudes of the fleeing remnants of th e defending army. seated reverentl y with folded hands with a temple plan lying on his nees. and the district to the north. Soon after his death the power of A ad went to pieces. probably by way of the Persian Gulf. for its individuality remained u nimpaired. Of all its energetic and capable patesis. and part of Elam. Duri ng his lifetime he was deified--a clear indication of the introduction of foreig n ideas. Li e Solo                            . and caused diorite to be quarrie d there. The whole composition is spirited and finely grouped. who reigned sometime before 2400 B. two are falling over a cliff. Gudea had himself pea surmounted by stars. An obscure period. His favoured deity. Trees have been depicted t o show that part of the conquered territory is wooded. as an architect. in one of the most characteristic sculptures of his age. 130] [paragraph continues] Nin-Girsu. and the Lulubu. During this period the Semitized mountaineers to the north-east of Babylonia bec ame the most aggressive opponents of the city states. for the Sumerians were not worshippers of ings and ancestors. In contrast to the Semitic Naram Sin. during the i nterval. Naram Sin was the last great ing of his line. depicts him as a fully bearded man with Semitic characteristics. It is manifest that it must have enjoyed under the various overlords. again became prominent. a considerable degree of independence. Paris) [p. was shortlived. One of his steles. His enemies flee in confusion before him. li e the Egyptian Hy sos Age.C. After a quarter of a century had elapsed. and his head uplifted as if watching the builders engaged in materializing the dream of his life. while others apparently sue for mercy. having triumphed over h is jealous rivals after remaining in obscurity for three or four centuries. Clic to enlarge STELE OF NARAM SIN (Louvre. The temple in which his interests were centred was erected in honour of Nin-Girsu. Its ruins suggest that it was of elaborate structure and great beauty. he was beardless and pronouncedly Sumerian in aspect.

which received divine sanctio n from the moon god. had long been overshadowed. Abraham migrated from Ur to the northern city of Harran. Gudea procured material for his temple from many distant part s--cedar from Lebanon. The worship of Nannar (Sin) became officially recognized at Nippur. farther south. It is believed by certain Egyptologists that Abraham sojourned in Egypt during its Twelfth Dynasty.mon in later days. according to the Berlin system of minimum dat ing. the centre of moon worship. which. The Hebrew patriarch may there fore have been a contemporary of Hammurabi's. its l ast ing having been captured by an Elamite force. copper from Elam . associated with lunar worship. After Gudea's death. or "lord". Among his many ref orms was the introduction of standards of weights. was Ur. [*1] But after the decline of Ur's ascendancy. Among the royal names. where they have been recovered by French ex cavators. Until the very close of his reign. during the reign of King Dungi of Ur. the seat of Enlil.C. extended from about 2000 B. ing of Shinar (Sumer) in the Bible. Paris) Photo. In the latter half of his reign. Another city which also rose into prominence. who. 131] would thus appear that there was a renascence of early Sumerian religious ideas. but a few years before Dun gi's death a temple was erected to him at Nippur. till 1780 B. Apparently the King of Lagash was strong enough or wealthy enoug h to command respect over a wide area. and developed the natural resources of Sumer and A ad. the god of the deep. where [p. About half a century after Dungi's death the Dynasty of Ur came to an end. 132] sixteen ings flourished for two and a quarter centuries. the s y god. the hig h priest of Anu. and so forth.                    . It Clic to enlarge STATUE OF GUDEA (Louvre. who is identified with Amraphel. Its monarchs styled themselves as "Kings of the Fou r Regions". f or the ing appointed two of his daughters to be rulers of conquered states in E lam and Syria. Mansell [p. became the high priest of the moon god. where he was worshipped as Dag an. its ings exercised sway over Lagash and Nippur. over Erech and Larsa as well. again came into prominence. where the moon god was also the chief city deity--the Baal. and long before Babylon's great monarc h came to the throne. marble from Amurru. diorite from Arabia. this great monarch of tireless activity waged wars of conquest. which lasted for fifty-eight years. Ea. was instal led as high priest at Eridu.C. Apparently matriarchal ideas. amidst the shattered Sumerian stat es. built temples and pal aces. At some time subsequent to this period. which were ultimately carried off to Susa. the centre of power in Sumeria was shifted to Isin. To this age also belongs many of the Sumerian business and legal records. Dungi. and. the conqueror. was the measurer and regulator of human t ransactions and human life. during which Ur flou rished li e Thebes in Egypt. as in Egypt. while at Erech. This dynasty endured for nearly a hundred and twenty years.

Enlil was afterwards displaced by Merodach of Babylon. He placed the cr own on the head of this obscure individual. King of Babylon. Afterwards the old order of things passed away. so that he must have given recognition to Ea. who was succeeded by Dami -ilishu. having no d irect heir. Alth ough he too steps to secure his position by strengthening the fortifications of Isin. whose name he bore. Before 2200 B. King of Ur. Th en came Sin-magir. there occurred a brea in the supremacy of Isin. he was not succeeded by his heir. King Zambia. abdicated in his [p. and reigned for about a quarter of a century.recognition was given to Ea and Dagan. 133] favour. Erech. who appointed governors in all the cities which came under his sway to displace the patesis and ings. harvest. Sin. whose name signifies "Enlil is my creator ". Traces of him have also been found at Eridu. According to a Babylonian document. Perhaps he came from Nippur. Enlil. A rival named Sin-i isha. and he may have similarly circulated a my th regarding his miraculous origin to justify his sudden rise to power. the father of the great Hammurabi. Sin. and proclaimed himself ing. displaced the usurper. whose Semitic name was Shamash. 134] law which obtained in the different states were then codified by Hammurabi. But Isin again gathered strength under Ur-Ninip. whose ruler was Rim Sin. Rim Sin was an Elamit e. whose sun temple he restored. t he names of Sumer and A ad dropped out of use. and Nippur. The trut h appears to be that he came to the throne as the leader of a palace revolution at a time of great unrest. and Enlil. and then died a mysterious death within his palace. As Shamash was u ltimately developed as the god of justice and righteousness.C. Then Isin was captured by Sin-mub allit. however. was a usurper li e Sargon of A ad. followed him. Towards the close of Dami -ilishu's reign of twenty-four years he came under the suzerainty of Larsa. and the whole country between th e rivers was called Babylonia. The s un god was identical with Ninip and Nin-Girsu. the solar deity of A adian Sippar. where solar worship prevailed. who reigned for thir ty-two years. "the shining one". and declared himself r uler of Sumer and A ad. who wa s not related to his predecessor. by Enlil-bani. a royal grand-son of Ur-Ninip's. But he was not allowed to remain in undisputed posses sion. and it appears that his sway extended to the city of Sippar. it would appear tha t his ascendancy occurred during the period when well-governed communities syste matized their religious beliefs to reflect social conditions. where the god Nin ip was worshipped as the son of Bel Enlil. a god of fertility. The names of the next two ings are un nown. The first great monarch of the Isin dynasty was Ishbi-Urra. who piously credited his triumph over his enemy to the chief god of Nippur. In this perio d the early national pantheon may have ta en shape. and Ishtar. combined with Larsa. he called himself "King of Sumer and A ad". indicating that Sumerian religion in its Semitized corm was receiving general recognition. selected as his successor his gardener. Bel Enlil being the chief de ity. Babylon became the metropolis. After a brief rei gn of six months he was overthrown. Enlil-bani. evidently a moon worshipper and perhaps connecte d with Ur. and war. It is highly probable that Enlil-bani. the last King of Isin. if he had one. A new national pantheon of representative character was also                                        . Gungunu. but now more fully developed and resembling Babbar. Anu. Ur. Li e his successors. [*1] The various systems of [p. but his re ign lasted for only three years. who was no relation.

who represented gods. The earliest representations of Sumerian humanized deities appear on reliefs fro m Tello. As has been shown ([*Chapters II] and [*III]) all the chief gods and g oddesses had animal forms and composite monster forms before they became anthrop omorphic deities. At what period the Sumerian deities were given human shape it is impossible to d etermine. Suggestive data for comparative study is afforded in this connection by ancient Egypt. wore false chin-tuft bea rds. or Sin. 135] and totemic origin survived after the anthropomorphic period as mythical figures . Ea had evidently a fish shape ere he was clad in the s in of a fish. but also by the combined influence of the reorganized priesthoods at the various centres of administration. the city god of Babylon. has the legs and hoofs of a goat. li e Pan. however. It is found. thus forming lin s between the archaic d emoniac and the later anthropomorphic deities. A form of d ivine headdress was a cap enclosed in horns. The allegiance of future generations was thus se cured. of Ur. are not be arded in Semitic fashion. over which Merodach (Mardu ). and that the retention of the characteristic facial hair growth of the Mediter ranean Race is another example of the conservatism of the religious instinct. which were evidently representations of gods and demons in conflict . which symbolized Nin-Girsu. The explanation suggested is that the S umerians gave their deities human shape before they themselves were clean shaven . which is dealt with in the [*next chapter]. In Egypt the clean-shaven Pharaohs. The archaic Sumerian animal and composite monster gods of animistic [p. serpents. which were sometimes square and sometimes pointed. the primitive Memphite deity. This god had also lion and antelo pe forms. which should be referred to here. their lips and chee s are shaved. whi le an exaggerated chin tuft is retained. which probably figured in lost myths--perhaps they were li e the anima ls loved by Ishtar and referred to in the Gilgamesh epic. as an Egyptian god was simply a bull before he was depicted in human shap e wearing a bull's s in. the early Sumerians were not influenced by the practices of any alien people or peo                    . So ar. although the Sumerians shaved their scalps and f aces at the dawn of the historical age. 136] [paragraph continues] Hatshepsut considered it necessary to assume a beard on st ate occasions. even Queen [p. presided. who. not only by the strong arm of the law. divine sanction was given to the suprema cy achieved by Merodach's city. Other gods were depicted with human bodies and the he ads of birds.formed. [*1] In framing this myth from the fragments of older myths. Similarly the winged b ull was associated with the moon god Nannar. that they worshipped gods who had long h air and also beards. which were used for decorative or magical purposes and as symbols. retained until the end his animal an d composite monster forms. Ptah-Osiris retained his archaic beard until the Ptolemaic period . On the contrary. A Sumerian example is the deified Ea-bani. between which appeared the soaring lion-headed eagle. arises in connection w ith the sculptured representations of deities before and after the rise of A ad as a great Power. These examples of archaic gods. How thi s younger deity was supposed to rise to power is related in the Babylonian legen d of Creation. who was "a horned st eer". the site of Lagash. An interesting problem. On various cylinder seals appear groups of composite monsters and rearing wild beasts. and crocodiles. It seems highly probable that in similarly depicting their gods with beards.

too. At any rate. MacKenzie. Such a supposition. Possibly. which had produced the exquisite stele of victory for Naram-Sin. 1 ^111:2 Esther. they were more li ely to study and follow th e artistic triumphs of A ad than the crude productions of the archaic period. and. may well have influenced Sumerian religio us thought. and flowing beards of Semitic type. iii. at sacred-texts. it is unli ely that their inhabitants modelled their deities on those worshipped by groups of aliens. stone. ^126:1 Indian Myth and Legend. More probably they regarded them as "foreign devils". Other Semites. It is not li ely that the agricultural people regarded as models of gods the plund erers who descended from the hills. by Donald A. who came as traders. It may be. the sculptors of Lagash were wor ing under the inf luence of the A adian school of art. ^128:1 Or Rimush. and consequently adopted the conventional Semitic treatme nt of bearded figures. and especially cop per. the Patesi of Lagash.ples. Footnotes ^111:1 Nehemiah. 19-22. com [p. B esides. 173-175 and 192-194. after achieving successes. ^134:1 The narrative follows The Seven Tablets of Creation and other fragments. ^131:1 Genesis. i. was a god of hill fol s as far north as Asia Minor and throughout Syr ia. He may have been introduced by settlers who adopted Sumerian [p. pp. i. During the Kassite period the name was Karduniash. ^133:1 That is. they lived in an age when Semitic ings were deified and the Semitic ove rlords had attained to great distinction and influence. ^114:1 Isaiah. the equivalent of Babylonia. that by then they had completely forgotten the significance of an a ncient custom. 6. xiv. 138] [ch-07]                       . for instance. however. The Semitic fol s were not so highly thought of in the early Sumerian period. bringing wood. however. while the account given by Berosus is also drawn upon. at any rate. A severe strain is imposed on our credulity if we are expected to be lieve that it was due to the teachings and example of uncultured nomads that the highly civilized Sumerians developed their gods from composite monsters to anth ropomorphic deities. But although the old cities could neve r have existed in a complete state of isolation from the outer world. Myths of Babylonia and Assyria. 137] habits of life and shaved scalp and face. is not supported by the ev idence of Ancient Egypt. who was given recognition all through Babylonia. side whis ers. The god Ramman. did they give their g ods heavy moustaches. Not until the period of Gudea. returned hom e with their spoils. [1915]. and formed communities in cities.

When the days of these deities had increased and extended. and Tiamat snarled and raised tempests.CHAPTER VII Creation Legend: Merodach the Dragon Slayer Elder Spirits of the Primordial Deep--Apsu and the Tiamat Dragon--Plot to Destro y the Beneficent Gods--Ea overcomes Apsu and Mummu--The Vengeful Preparations of the Dragon--Anshar's Appeal to Merodach--The Festival of the High Gods--Merodac h exalted as Ruler of the Universe--Dragon slain and Host ta en captive--Merodac h rearranges the Pantheon-. "O Mummu. [*2] Apsu was still powerful and fierce. I cannot rest by day nor can I repose by night." So the two went forth and prostrated themselves before the Chaos Mother to consu lt with her as to what should be done to prevent the accomplishment of the purpo se of the high gods. the spirit of Chaos. Heaven on high had not been named . "O Tiamat. and their mother was Tiamat. his counsellor. Apsu opened his mouth and spa e. most wise and all-powerful. the high gods. the son who shared his desires. [*1] Thus were the high g ods established in power and in glory. thou gleaming one. "lord of earth". No plain was yet formed. who was wit hout an equal. the father of the primordial D eep. the gods had no existence. nor the earth beneath. thou who art pleasing unto me. (Nineveh): now in the British M                       . and said. Long ages we nt past.i. saying. was also En i. the purpo se of the gods troubles me. they were followed by Anu. nor had their fates been dete rmined. Then Apsu called upon Mummu. I will bring sorrow and mourning so th at we may lie down undisturbed by them. "lady of earth". and Ea. They were t roubled because their offspring. Then were created the god Anshar and the goddess Kishar. Now Apsu and Tiamat remained amidst confusion in the deeps of chaos. whose consort was Anatu. Creation of Man--Merodach as Asari--The Babylonian O siris--The Chief Purpose of Man ind--Tiamat as Source of Good and Evil--The Drag on as the Serpent or Worm--Fol Tale aspect of Creation Myth--British Neolithic Legends--German and Egyptian Contracts--Biblical references to Dragons--The Fath er and Son theme--Merodach and Tammuz--Monotheistic Tendency--Bi-sexual Deities. was Gashan. Their begetter was Apsu. Now Ea. no marsh could be seen. The son of Ea and D am ina was Bel. and the deities issued forth. Dam ina."       Clic to enlarge ''THE SEVEN TABLETS OF CREATION'' From the Library of Ashur-bani-pal at Kouyunji useum. T he first who had being were the god Lachmu and the goddess Lachamu. aspired to control the universe and set it in order. IN the beginning the whole universe was a sea. and [p. smiting herself. who in time created man ind. Then there was a movement in the waters. god of the deep. I wi ll thwart them and destroy their purpose. 139] his eternal spouse. the lord. god of t he s y. let us go forth together unto Ti amat and spea with her. Their purpose was to wor evil amidst ete rnal confusion.

to whom he was hostile. Thou shalt rule over them. Then Tiamat. and of such lofty stature that whoever saw t hem was overwhelmed with fear. "Apsu and Mummu have been overcome and we cannot repose. r aging hounds. they sorrowed and spa e with Mummu. the counsellor. yet he t rembled to thin of the purpose of the high gods. he beheld the evil ones conspiring and mutt ering together. snarling dragons. and made answer. nor could any escape their attac when they [p. Mother Chuber. hurricane monsters. drew near. O Tempestuous One. saying . 140] canst overcome them. She also brought into being eleven inds of fierce monsters--giant serpents. ma ing ready for battle. scorpion men. and mountain rams. "On my strength thou canst trust. saying. She raised angry and roaring tempests. tempest furies. in her furious grief she uttered a curse. [*2] the creator of all. and said. although their purpose is strong. she laid them in his bosom. spa e unto her words of counsel. He uttered a pure incantation and accomplished the downfall of A psu and Mummu. The n thou shalt have rest by day and peace by night to lie down. "Thy commands cannot be changed. "What sha ll we do so that their purpose may be thwarted and we may lie down undisturbed a gain?" Mummu. vipers and pythons. who were ta en captive. Then Ea. saying: "I have established thy command over all the gods. he was vested with the divine power of Anu to decree the                           . to go in front. [*1] Kingu. Robing Kingu in splendour. exalted Kingu. she made him the leader to direct the army in battle. whose bodies were filled with poison instead of blood." Unto Kingu did Tiamat deliver the tablets of fate." Then were the hosts of chaos and the deep gathered together. Thou shalt be their A venger. above all the evil gods. addressing Apsu." Tiamat heard the words of this bright and evil god. fish men. provided irresistible weapons. the plans of the gods filled their hearts with dread. plotting ev il. These s he armed with fierce weapons and they had no fear of war. and then spa e to Apsu.Tiamat heard these words and snarled. who had come to her aid. a nd said. who shared the desires of Tiamat. thou canst thwart it. thy words shall remain firm. saying. fuming and storming and ta ing no rest. and the Lachamu. to open the attac ." Thus was Kingu exalted. sharp of too th with unsparing fangs. So let war be waged. "Although the god s are powerful. Be mighty. and let thy name be exalted over all the spirit s of heaven and spirits of earth. whose commands are unchangeable and mighty. With T iamat he lamented because the gods had changed all things. raging furiously." The face of Apsu grew bright when he heard these words spo en by Mummu. made answer. clad with terror. By day and by night they plotted against the high gods. 141] lifted themselves up. who noweth all. thou [p. thou my chosen husband. s he seated him on high and spo e.

so that my words li e th ine may remain unchanged. then proclaim my greatness among the gods. and was ill at ease. how she had gathered her forces togeth er. [*               Anshar called his son. of my cho     Then Ea was sent forth. It is Tiamat. spea thou for me. go unto Lachmu and Lachamu and summon all the high gods to come before me to eat br ead and drin wine. Let all the high gods gath er together joyfully in Upshu ina u (the Council Hall). thou who dost understand the purpose of my heart." Then had Ea nowledge of Tiamat's doings. who hath resolved to wage war against us. "Let thy mouth open to thwart the fire god. Anshar. 143] The words of Anshar delighted the heart of Merodach. thou shalt overcome her with thy pure incantation. saying: "O lord of th e gods. and what I do may never be altered. Merodach spa e." [p. whose attac is irresistible. But if she will not hear en un may be reconciled. and spa e. saying. saying. But fear not and ma e merry. She hath gathered the gods about her. What man hath challenged thee to battle?" Anshar made answer and said: "No man hath challenged me. and addressing him. Anu. In sorrow and anger he spo e and said. 142] to battle." Then Anshar called unto his counsellor. "My son. hath turned against us in her wrath. for tho u shalt bruise the head of Tiamat. and those thou didst create are with her also. because that he banished fear. but he feared to approach her. so that she and spo e. Anshar then called upon Merodach. and descended by the pa th of Tiamat until he beheld her fuming and snarling. and turned bac . said: "O thou who dost share my desires. who turned bac . of my commands to Anu and Ea. O wise god. "Our mother. son of Ea. withdraw not thy words. He stood before Anshar. saying. thou shalt go forth to battle and none shall stand agai nst thee. am to subdue Tiamat and save all. Now Kingu is exalted. He departed. she cannot wound thee. Instead of thee I will decree the fates of the gods."                               . "Thou didst go forth aforetime [p. and addressed him. fearing the dragon. and how she had prepared to wor evil against the high gods with purpose to avenge Apsu. fear. let me go forth to do as is thy desire. the avenger. go anger may subside and her heart be made to thee. but he was stric en with terror and turned bac 2] also. the woman ." The heart of Merodach was made glad at these words. Thereafter he went and stood before his father. he smote his loins and clenched his teeth. The wise god was stric en with grief. Repeat to them all I tell you of Tiamat's preparations for w ar. be mighty in battle nor broo resistance. O fate of the high gods. who issed him.fate of the gods. and there is none who can oppose Tiamat." [*1] Anu was obedient to the commands of Anshar. before him. and he moaned for many days. thou shalt come bac again. saying: "O lord of the gods. Tiamat. Tarry not but hasten forth. Gaga. who spa e. who softeneth my heart. if I. saying: "O mighty one without now before Tiamat and spea so that her merciful." When Anshar heard all that Ea revealed regarding the preparations made by Tiamat . thou didst bind Mummu and smite Apsu.

144] [paragraph continues] Then they sat down to eat bread and drin sesame wine. O Merodach. and said: "What change hath happened that Tiamat hath become hostile to her own offspring? We ca nnot understand her deeds. and with flaming fire he filled his body. Permit h im to depart to meet your powerful foe." Then the gods laid down a garment before Merodach. He was exalted as a prince o ver them all. while the Igigi (heavenly spirits) sorrowed bitterly. He made ready for battle. they decreed the fa te for Merodach. saying : "Now. before him he set lightning. Smite down the gods who have raised revolt. All the gods rejoiced. so that the garment may be destroyed. and his desire to be equipped with my power t o decree fate. He went unto Lachmu and Lachamu and prostrat ed himself humbly before them. and they said: "Among the high gods thou art the highest. and also an irresistible weapon [*1] with which to overcome his enemies. 145]                   . "Merodach i s King!" Thereafter they gave him the sceptre and the throne and the insignia of royalty. w e give thee sovereignty over the entire Universe. Henceforth thou wilt have power to raise up and to ca st of Merodach to be our avenger. Anu gave unto him Clic to enlarge MERODACH SETS FORTH TO ATTACK TIAMAT From the Painting by E. And when they were made drun and were merry and at their ease. spea again and it will be brought bac . and he grasped a club in his right hand. saying: "Open thy mouth and s pea words of command." So was the fate of Merodach decreed by the gods. adding: "Hasten and speedily decide for Merodach your fate." As Anshar commanded so did Gaga do. and they prostrated themselves and cried out. thy comm and is the command of Anu. Then he rose and delivered the message of Anshar. Wallcousins. [p." Merodach spa e with his mouth and the garment vanished. None of the gods will dispute thy authority. Let the winds carry her blood to hid den places. he strung his bow and hung hi s quiver. [p." When Lachmu and Lachamu heard all that Gaga revealed unto them they uttered lame ntations. They filled his council chamb er and issed one another. O Merodach. In the chamber of Anshar they honoured the Avenger. hasten and slay Tiamat. he spa e again and the g arment was reproduced. so was a path of prosperity and peace prepared for him. so that he may be made strong to combat against our enemy." All the high gods then arose and went unto Anshar. their son. he slung a dart over his shoulder. Thy weapon will ever be irresi stible. our avenger. but spare the lives of those who repose their trust in thee.

and w hen the gods who followed him beheld this. Ga ther thy forces together. She uttered curses. and the whole world resounded with thei r wailing and lamentations. The gods seized their weapons. trained for battle. and she muttered a spell. because thou art hostile to what is good and loveth what is sinful. and they stumb led and fell uttering cries of distress. the fourfold wind. Merodach caught them in his great net. Then the lord of the high gods seized his dart and cast it through the lower part of her body. he caused the wind to eep her mouth agape so that she could not close it. So were the enemies of the high gods overthrown by the Avenger. placed them in his b osom. to overthrow enemies and trample them underfoot. the thun derstone. I fear not thy advance as chief of the gods. his fathers. and he was clad in a robe of terror. Merodach strengthened the bonds which he had laid upon the evil gods and then re turned to Tiamat. she gasped. He                       . and impressing upon them his own seal. Ansar's commands were fulfilled and the desires of Ea fully accomplished. and the whirlwind. He snared the dragon and she could not escape. Tiamat and Merodach advanced to combat against one another. her consort. the sandstor m. and with wrathful h eart hath prepared for war against the high gods and their fathers.a great net with which to snare his enemies and prevent their escape. A li ght burned on the head of Merodach. From this god great Merodach too the tablets of fate. But t hey were unable to escape. and Merodach called upon the evil wind to smite her. For a moment he faltered. and her heart grew wea . All the evil gods who had followed her were stric en with terror and bro e into flight. So was Tiamat slain. All the tempest s and the hurricanes entered in. the uncontrollable wind. and spa e unto Tia mat. filling her body. Unto Kingu thou hast given the power of Anu to dec ree fate. and the gods. and arm thyself and come forth to battle. Next he seized his mighty weapon. The lord of the high gods spread out the net which Anu had given him. to which were yo ed four rushing and destructive steeds of rapid flight. Tiamat opened her mouth which was s even miles wide. and leapt into his storm chariot. followed after him: the high gods clustered around and followed him. he subdued them. all her limbs [p. They made ready for battle. divested them of their powers. 146] shoo ." When Tiamat heard these mighty words she raved and cried aloud li e one who is p ossessed. saying: "Thou hast exalted thyself. and said: "O Merodach. Then Merod ach created seven winds--the wind of evil. and the wind that h as no equal--and they went after him. Merodach overturned the body of the dead dragon and stood upon it. Tiamat snarled nor turned her head. My allies are assembled here." Merodach uplifted his arm. hastening to battle. and ar e more powerful than thou art. the rebellious one. it tore her inward parts and severed her hea rt. The lord of the high gods bro e the weapons of the e vil gods and put them in bondage. and he beheld her muttering with Kingu. overpowered. Then he fell upon the monsters which Tiamat ha d created. grasping the dreaded thunderstone. He drov e forth. the sevenfold wind. and at length he drew nigh to the secret lair of Tiamat. and trampled them und er his feet. Merodach drove on. whom thou do st hate in thy heart of evil. Kingu he seized with the others. with foam-flec ed mouths and teeth full of venom. their eyes were troubled.

[*1] and devised a cunning plan. He measured the year and d ivided it into months. . and poured it out beside the re ed. so that none might err or go astray. . . . . With one half he enveloped the firmament. however. that Belus (Bel Merodach) severed his head from his shoulders. He divided the flesh of Ku-pu. and fixed them all. he formed man ind. After he had given starry images of the gods separate control of each day of the year. gazing upon the dead body of the dragon. clustered around.[p. The rest of the text is fragmentary. a deity of Sippar. and many lines are missing. He set the zenith in the centr e. and he commanded that on the evening of its fullest brilliancy it should stand opposite the sun. His blo od flowed forth. fixing bolts on the left and on the right. Berosus states. 147] leapt upon the dragon's body. He placed beside his own the stat ions of Enlil and Ea. he fou nded the station of Nibiru (Jupiter). The high gods. for twelve months he made three stars each. his fathers. Its various phases the great lord determined .". The abode of Enlil was in the air. it is related that Merodach "laid a r eed upon the face of the waters. "The beasts of the field and living creatures in the fi eld he formed. he fixed it th ere and set a watchman to prevent the waters falling down. 148] gates. a nd each month he was given a crown. Then the lord of the high gods split the body of the dragon li e that of a mashd e fish into two halves. to determine the limits of a ll stars. he clove her s ull with his great club. and the gods mixed it with earth and formed the first man and v arious animals." The goddess Aruru. the stars of the Zodiac. The lord of the gods read his thoughts and said: "I will s hed my blood and fashion bone . they rai sed shouts of triumph and made merry. and on each side he opened mighty [p. which begins with a reference to words spo en to Merodach by the gods. he formed dust. [*2] With the other h alf he made the earth. . I will change the p athways of the gods . Merodach set all the great gods in their several stations." [p. 149]             . he opened the channels of her blood which streamed forth. Merodach rested a while. We have now reached the sixth tablet. [*1] He placed his bow in heaven (as a constellation) and his net also. . Merodach decreed that the moon god should rule the night and measure the days. I will create man to dwell on the earth so t hat the gods may be worshipped and shrines erected for them. [*3] Then he made the abode of Ea in the deep. and the ab ode of Anu in high heaven. He also created their images. In another version of the creation of man. That he might cause the gods to dwell in the habitation of their heart 's desire. Then they brought gifts and offerings to t he great Avenger. and one of the forms of "the lady of the gods". is associated with Merodach as the creatrix of the seed of man ind. and caused the north to carry he r blood to hidden places. Apparently Ea had conceived in his heart that man i nd should be created. his own star.

the chaos dragon. and the goddesses Isis and Nepthys had also serpent forms. Those rebel angels (ili. but also to bring about the redemption of the fallen gods wh o followed Tiamat. 150] Tutu as Aga-azag may man ind fourthly magnify! "The Lord of the Pure Incantation". [*2] [p. grass. "the Quic ener of the Dead". Her beneficent form survived as the Sumerian goddess Bau. is Merodach of lordship and domination. As the origin of good she is the creatrix of the gods. May his word be established. He is therefore Tutu. the moon god. "he with whom is salvation". "Who removed the yo e from upon the gods his enemies". [*2] Tiamat. The se rpent was a symbol of fertility. henceforth each deity is a form of Merodach. The Egyptian goddesses Neheb. the creator of grain and plants. sleeps on the world-serpent's body. In their room he created man ind. herbs and trees. Another name of Bau was Ma. goats. he was greater than his "fathers". mother of the first man. was half a woman and half a serpent. King's Translation. and created all things anew. "a form of the g oddess Ma". "the creator". Bel Enlil. (And) to redeem(?) them created man ind. Vishnu. and was depicted with "a babe s uc ling her breast" ([*Chapter IV]). "The Merciful One. with whom it is to bestow life!" May his deeds endure. Serpent charms are protective and fertility charms. Bel. He who had mercy on the gods who had been overpowered. he is addressed by his fifty-one names. re eds. and Nintu. "Who had mercy upon the captive gods". "The merciful one". He also directs the decrees of Anu. Pinches' Translation. who was obviously identical with the Phoenician Baau. lands.                             . He removed them unto the gods (ili) who were His enem ies. and Ea. The tendency to monotheism appears to have been most mar ed among t he priestly theorists of Babylon. The following are renderings of lines 25 to 32: Tutu: Aga-azaga (the glorious crown) may he ma e the crowns glorious-The lord of the glorious incantation bringing the dead to life. [*1] In the seventh tablet Merodach is praised by the gods--the Igigi (spirits of hea ven). may they never be forgotten In the mouth of man ind whom his hands have and Uazit were serpents. As he has absorbed all their attributes. [*1] Apparently the Babylonian doctrine set forth that man ind was created not only t o worship the gods. and so on.[paragraph continues] He also created the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. a merciful and beneficent god. and not forgotten. Shamash is Merodach as god of law and holiness. the Pr eserver of the Hindu Trinity. In the mouth of the blac -headed ones whom his hands have made. marshes and swamps. Sin. the introducer of agriculture and hor ticulture. for instance. gods) He prohibited return. Made heavy the yo e which he had laid on the gods who were his enemies. is Merodach as ruler of night. She has a dual character. and as a mother was a protector. Merodach is hailed to begin with as Asari. but having rescued the gods from destruction at the hands of Kingu and Tiamat. "For their forgiveness did he create man ind". is the Great Mother. &c. He stopped their service. the elder gods. Nergal is Merodach of war . He set the Univer se in order. cows.

and therefore the serpent rd "dragon" is derived from the Gree "dra on". according to Ethiop ic legend. [*2 ] It lies in the ocean which surrounds the world in Egyptian. leaping into the sea. however. [*2] From China to Ireland rivers are dragons. or goddesses who flee from the well dragons. They loo ed upon it as did Sha espeare's Ferdinand." [*1] Tiamat's sea-brood is referred to in the Anglo-Saxon epic Beowulf as "pi c ers". "The worm shall eat them li e wool". There was a "dragon well" near Jerusalem. the ocean especially was the abode of monsters. [p. I have seen The ambitious ocean swell and rage and foam To be exalted with the threatening clouds. No doubt it enjoyed as great popularity as the immemorial legend of Perseus and Andromeda. was lowered in a glass cage to the depths of the ocean. Gree . . When Alexander the Great. he cried: "Hell is empty and all the devils are here". and sat for two days "watching for its tail and hinder par ts to appear". exclaimed Isaiah in symbolic language. clamouring.                                 . The hero "slew by night sea monsters on the waves" (line 422). 152] [paragraph continues] Argyllshire Highlander had a similar experience. and give it a mermaid form li e the Babylonian Nintu. In this characte r she was the enemy of order and good. which the sages of Greece attempted to rationalize.[p. The demon of the Rhone is called the "drac". slain by Hercules. 153]       Tiamat was the dragon of the sea. The a e" ("draca". "He was not long there when he saw the head of an eel pass. He wen t home. The wo nown as "the seeing Anglo-Saxon "fire dr dragon". and strove to destroy the world. assisted by h is warrior band. [*1] In various countries the serpent or worm is a destroyer which swallows the dead. Unfortunately. or wa ter serpent. who is slain by Finn-mac-Coul. whose glance was the lightning. Water was the source o f evil as well as good. and parts of which the poets made use of and d eveloped as these appealed to their imaginations. and about dus he saw her tail disappearing . Babylonian. Teutonic. He went t o fish one morning on a roc . and having returned to the same roc in the evening. Her face was blue blac of the lustre of coal. the eel was still passing. [*3] The serpent figures in fol tales. Latin "draco") is identical with the "flying or leviathan. no trace can be obtained of the pre-existing Sumerian oral version which the theor izing priests infused with such sublime symbolism. Indian. And her bone-tufted tooth was li e rusted bone. In a Scottish Gaelic poem Tiamat fi gures as "The Yellow Muilearteach". he saw a grea t monster going past. [*4] An [p. 151] As the origin of evil Tiamat personified the deep and tempests. shivering brave . wor ed in the field all day. belongs to this category. The Irish call it "moruach". and other mythologies. There was seen coming on the top of the waves The croo ed. The well dragon--the French "draco"--also recalls the Babylonian water monsters. the serpent one" or "loo ing one". . and the Hydra. [*3] There can be little doubt but that in this Babylonian story of Creation we have a glorified variation of the wide-spread Dragon myth. Floods are also referred to as dragons. To the Sumerians. when. He continued fishing for an hour and the eel was still passing.

But the most powerful demon remains to be dealt with. for she has great cunning. The narrative sets forth that she enters the Hall in the dar ness of night. Being strongly protected by her sc aly hide. "Qui                                         . . . and says something to induce the hag to open her mouth. in which Finn was almost overc ome. or the ocean. aided by his fairy dog. a family of monsters antagonistic to a group of warriors represented in the Creation legend by the gods.' she said. she is able to thwart him by wor ing counter spells. as did Finn to the "Kingdom of Big Men". "never was it drawn to man or to beast w hom it did not overcome". and he also was slain. After a prolonged struggle. exclaimed. Although Ea may wor spells against her. But the most powerful enemy had yet to be dealt with. the Hag fell and her head was cut off. and slays the monster father. To wage war against h er the hero ma es elaborate preparations. in which the mother monster is greater and more powerful tha n her husband or son. It will be no ted in this connection that Merodach achieved success by causing the winds which followed him to distend the monster's jaws. [*1] The story of "Finlay the Changeling" has similar features. came ashore. "The next night a B ig Hag came ashore. be cause the mother of Grendel has [p. is exceedingly common in Scottish fol lore.The lost Sumerian story may be summarized as follows: There existed in the savag e wilds. He wrestles with this man-eater and mortally wounds him. to slay Grendel." Finn ac nowledged that he did. and the tooth in the front of her mouth would ma e a distaff . In the legend which relates the adventures of "Finn in the Kingdom of Big Men". regarding which she says. [*3] the Anglo-Saxon epic." A fi erce wrestling match ensued on the bare roc . On ly a hand-to-hand combat can decide the fray. "Although with cunning and deceitfulness you illed my husband last night and my son on the night before last. 155] meanwhile resolved "to go a sorry journey and avenge the death of her son". The Hag was ultimately thrown down . A male water monster preys nightly upon the warriors who sleep in the great hall of King Hrothgar. and loo ing down below where he (F inn) was. 154] [paragraph continues] Finn. [*2] In other Scottish stories of li e character the h ero climbs a tree. so that he might be able to inflict the fatal blow and prevent her at the same time from uttering spells to wea en him. Standing on the beach. the hero goes forth at night to protect his allies against the attac s of devastating sea mons ters. Apsu. This is the mot her Tiamat. and equips himself with special weapon s. the heroic ing. The hero slew first a giant and then the giant's father. including "a gold sword in my cave". and they began to fight. sets forth to combat with the enemies of man. Thereafter the Hag came against him and excl aimed. so th at he may plunge his weapon down her throat. who burns to avenge the deaths of her indred. but they have to be brought to an abrupt conclusion. the seat of life. This type of story. slew the water monster. is of li e character. I shall certainly ill you to-night. Great rejoicings ensue. The Grendel story in Beowulf. . On t he following night a bigger monster. Ea. She then offered various treasures to ransom her life. Beowulf comes over the sea. and his s on. 'What little spec do I see here?' [p. The queen of monsters cannot be overcome by ordinary means. and is less vulnerable than were her husband and son. she must be wounded either on the under part of her body or through he r mouth by a weapon which will pierce her liver. "the father". A huge monster came up. Mummu. 'You illed my husband and son. "he saw the sea advancing in fiery ilns and as a d arting serpent.

[p. ball s of hard clay. Beowulf follows in due course. in which the giant is greater than the giantess. a stone ci rcle is referred to as "Long Meg and her Daughters". One is supposed to be mar ed by a huge stone in the south side of the cloisters of Westminster Abbey. This god. the famous giant. are of Neolithic and Iberian origin-immemorial relics of the intellectual life of the western branch of the Mediter ranean race. [*1] It is in accordance with Mediterranean modes of thought. in the narrative which follows the Amazon is proved to be th e stronger monster of the two. With a pair of heels As broad as two wheels. In the eighteenth dynasty. Li e Finn. therefore. was [p. all hags and giants having been famous in floating fol tales as throwers of granite boulders. to wards her submarine cave. that the British stories of female monsters who were more powerful than their husbands and sons. 156] As long as a crane. and. li e Fafner. and other gigantic missiles. It is probable. Apep. quoits. and Regin whom Siegfried overcomes. however. as if dealing with unf amiliar material. 157] apparently worshipped by a tribe which was overcome in the course of early triba l struggles in pre-dynastic times. and.c ly she grasped one of the nobles tight. his ancient glory was revived. is (measured) by fight ing men". The stories about Grendel's mother and Long Meg are similar to those still repea ted in the Scottish Highlands. it probably mar s the trench in which some plague victims--regarded. In Egypt the dragon survives in the highly developed mythology of the sun cult o f Heliopolis. referred to by Ben Jonson in his masque of the "Fortunate Isles": Westminster Meg. as sun worship is believed to have been imported. and the dragon is a male. as victims of Meg--were interred. Li e "Long Tom". near Penrith. " adorned with treasure". At Little Sal eld. Indeed. app ears to be doubtful about the mother monster's greatness. li e certain Gr ee and Irish giants and giantesses. for the Sute h of Rameses II figures as the "dragon slayer". [paragraph continues] Meg has various graves. woman's war terror. Being an old and discredited god. a Syrian and As ia Minor deity. and the sun deity is a male. [*1] Yet. whose poisonous blood afterwards melts the "damas ed blade". to find that in Egypt there is a great celestial battle heroine. This i                                 . the poet who included in his epic the fiery dragon story. it is not surprising to find that the night demon. he subsequently returns with the head of one of the monsters. With her long leg. for he says: "The terror (caused by Grendel's mother) was less by just so much as woman's strength. Meg was also reputed to have been petrified. An interesting point about this story is that it does not appear in any form in the North German cycle of Romance. In the combat t he "water wife" proves to be a more terrible opponent than was her son. fully armoured. which lin s the hero Beowulf with Sigurd and Siegfried. These contrast sharply with characteristic German ic legends. Indeed. he became b y a familiar process the demon of the conquerors. who is identical with Sute h. who is slain by Sigurd. With this magic weapon he slays the mother monster. perhaps. and then she went towards the fen". di ves through the waters and ultimately enters the monster's lair. Beowulf was unable to slay her until he possessed himself of a gigantic sword. how ever. Traces of the mother monster survive in English f ol lore. And feet li e a plane. which was hanging in the cave. "Mons Meg" gave her name to big guns in early times. especially in the traditions about the mythical "Long Meg of Westminste r". was a personification of Set.

With thee who ventureth to ma e war?                                 . . who would wrest the dominion of the world from the gods who held t heir conclave on the mountain. and he shall slay the dragon that is in the sea". As the deity of the spring sun. as creative and active p rinciples of the world". Similarly Ninip too the place of his father. lord of the grain fields. The gods offer him the Tablets of Fate. even leviathan that croo ed serpent. who acquires the attributes of the father. . and also with the Babylonian Ishtar. the hostile land thou dost humiliate . Durga. the postVedic goddess Kali is a destroyer. and become a world god. [*3] Were the Babylonian theorists guided by the fol -lore clue? Now Merodach. while as Durga she is a guardian of heroes. and becomes the god of war. "later theology evolved the not ion of the son of the earth god. the fierce old "Great Mother" of primitive Sumeria n fol religion. and gayest him to be meat to the people inh abiting the wilderness". Langdon. [*7] "In that day the [p.s the goddess Hathor-Se het. who so closely resembles Zeus. [*2] Similarly in India. "In other words. [*6] "Tho u hast bro en Rahab in pieces as one that is slain: thou hast scattered thine en emies with thy strong arm". [p. [ *3] Kali. [*5] "He divideth the sea with his power. It is he who stood forth against the rebellious monsters of dar ness. Andrew Lang has shown that this myth is of widespread character. "the Lord". . Merodach supplanted the older Bel--Enlil of Nippur. as the son of Ea whom he consulted and received spells from. was a brother of "Tammuz of the Abyss". retained the outstandi ng characteristics of Tiamat. the "Eye of Ra". Enlil. by the Babylonian conquer ors. As m uch may be inferred from the symbolic references in the Bible to Jah's victory o ver the monster of the deep: "Art thou not it that hath cut Rahab and wounded th e dragon?" [*4] "Thou bra est the heads of the dragons in the waters. It is possible that in the Babylonian dragon myth the original hero was Ea. Now Enlil. Tammuz slew the winter demons of rain and tempest. who had abso rbed all the attributes of rival deities. was the Lord of the harvest lands . the s y god. who. thou bra e st the heads of leviathan in pieces. [*1] In the Babylonian Creation legend Ea is supplanted as dragon slayer by his son M erodach. as has been shown. and Hathor-Se het lin with the classical goddesses of war. or "earth spirits". the right to utter decrees is given unto him. Merodach may have been a development of Tammuz in his character as a demon slayer. and by his un derstanding he smiteth through the proud (Rahab). being "lord of the anunna i". as the champion of the gods. Enlil was a god of war and was adored as such: The haughty. so that he was an appropriate spouse for the goddess of harvest and war. 158] [paragraph continues] Lord with his sore and great and strong sword shall punish leviathan the piercing (or stiff) serpent. . By his spirit he hath garnishe d the heavens: his hand hath formed (or pierced) the croo ed serpent". 159] When he was raised to the position of Bel. It seems that in the great god of Babylon we should recognize one of the many forms of the primeval corn spirit and patriarch --the shepherd youth who was beloved by Ishtar." This development is "of extreme importance for studying the growth of the idea of father and son. [*2] In Indian mythology Indra similarly ta es the plac e of his bolt-throwing father Dyaus. As agriculturists in early tim es went to war so as to secure prisoners who could be sacrificed to feed the cor n spirit." writes Dr. .

lin s him with Osiris. Sin was "Merodach as illuminator of night". appears to be "a copy". 160] when raised to supreme ran in the national pantheon. Merodach's spouse Zer-panitum was significantly called "the lady of the Abyss". to gether with references to ilu as the name for the one great god. it may be noted. Perseus. the Egyptian Tammuz. and carrying the thunder wea pon associated with Ramman. the Grecian hero. he illed his grandfather with a quoi t. and while an athletic contest was in progress. and he was depicted fighti ng the winged dragon. was enclosed in a chest which was cas t into the sea. . Zer-panitum was no pale reflection of her Celestial husband. creatrix of the seed of man ind. he recalls. so did all gods become forms of Merodac h. the god of fertility as well as of battle. and so on. apparently for political purposes. Nergal was Merodach of war". he thin s. who was associated with Merodach when the first man and the first woman were brought into being. is found. and in accordance with the tendency of the thought of the times. who. among others. Enlil the bull ". one of Merodach's names. "of an old inscription". The god of Babylon absorbed a ll other deities. who was supplanted by his son Horus. Dam ina was also a s y goddess li e Ishtar. There is no evidence. the mother. however. and is also. 'Jah is god'. Command the winding course Of the Euphrates. which. by a fisher-man on the island of Seripho s. In time. and so identical with Ishtar an d the other prominent goddesses. says Professo r Pinches. Perseus returned home. And the will of Merodach Shall arrest the floods. This is the period at which the name Yaum-ilu. to show that the displacement of Enlil by Mero dach had any legendary sanction of li e character. one of the three terrible sisters. Apparently she was identical wi th Aruru. Originally she was o ne of the mothers in the primitive spirit group. 161] Who shall escape from before thy power? Thy will is an eternal mystery! Thou ma est it plain in heaven And in the earth. li e Tammuz and Osiris. a title which connects her with Dam ina. Perseus. This hero afterwards slew Medusa. A colophon which contains a text in which these identifications are detailed. the sister of Tammuz. Command the sea And the sea obeyeth thee. but a goddess of sh arply defined character with independent powers. flapping his own storm wings. however." [*1] In one of the hymns Merodach is addressed as follows: [p. Command the tempest And the tempest becometh a calm. . ro ughly. and Belit-sheri. to be rescued. of whom it was prophesied that he would slay his gra ndfather. As the dragon slayer.[paragraph continues] He was also "the bull of goring horns . Addu (Ramman) was "Merodach of rain". "may go bac as far as 200 0 B. the date of Abraham. was a Babylonian of Ur of the Chaldees.                             . the Gorg ons--a demon group which lin s with Tiamat. [p.C. As all goddesses became forms of Ishtar. [*1] Asari.

^147:2 The waters above the firmament. who ba ed ca es to rewa rd the Queen of Heaven for an abundant harvest. ^142:2 This may refer to Ea's first visit when he overcame Kingu.                       . ^139:2 This is the inference drawn from fragmentary texts. who as En i sh ared his attributes. ch guttural. Ac cording to Damascius the elder Bel came into existence before Ea. ^147:3 According to Berosus. and Ishtar as a god as well as a goddess. Although it d id not affect the religion of the masses. thou art holy! Who is li e unto thee? Merodach thou art honoured Among the gods that bear a name. and direct the heroes what next they should do. if not to the fusion of fatherworshipping and mother-worshipping peoples. the moon god. was sometimes addressed as [p. The monotheistic tendency. censured so severely by Jeremiah. Appare ntly Merodach's "cunning plan" was inspired after he had eaten a part of the bod y of Tiamat. which was a mar ed feature of Merodach worship. Footnotes ^139:1 The elder Bel was Enlil of Nippur and the younger Merodach of Babylon. ^147:1 The authorities are not agreed as to the meaning of "Ku-pu". but did not at tac Tiamat. Perhaps it was due to the monotheistic tendency. ^144:1 The lightning trident or thunderstone. It is suggested that t hey new that the moon derived its light from the sun. or exercised over them a magical influence by the performance of seasonal ceremonies. risen far above the crude polytheism of those who bargained with their deities and propitiated them with offerings and extravagant flattery. Then they are inspired with the dragon's wisdo m and cunning. and wept with her for the slain Tammuz when he departed to Hades. In Egypt Isi s is referred to in a temple chant as "the woman who was made a male by her fath er Osiris". 162] father and mother in one. Sigurd and Siegfried immediately acquire the language of birds. pron. T he birds are the "Fates". ^140:1 A large portion of the narrative is awanting here. at an early period. it serves to show that among the ancie nt scholars and thin ers of Babylonia religious thought had. and the Nile god Hapi was depicted as a man with female breasts. ^148:1 This portion is fragmentary and seems to indicate that the Babylonians ha d made considerable progress in the science of astronomy. li e the bac sliders in Jerusalem. body". ^140:2 A title of Tiamat. had p reviously become pronounced in the worship of Bel Enlil of Nippur. Jensen sugge sts "trun . that bi-sexual deities were conceive d of. Nannar.Lord. ^142:1 There is another gap here which interrupts the narrative. In European dragon stories the heroes of the Siegfried order roast and eat the dragon's heart.

pp. pp. 10. G. ^152:2 Nehemiah. Arch. 13. 13.. pp. It will be noted that the Semitic dragon. ^159:1 Translation by Dr. 1911. ^157:7 Psalms. ^151:1 Sha espeare's Julius Caesar. 14. lines 1280-1287. iv. 18 et seq.^149:1 The Seven Tablets of Creation. lxxiv. W. G. at sacred-texts. London. ^157:4 Isaiah. pp. ^157:6 Job. by Donald A. 285. p. 204. ^154:1 Waifs and Strays of Celtic Tradition. p. King. pp. pp. W. T. 2. ^150:2 Trans. ^152:1 Campbell's West Highland Tales. 69. pp. ^157:2 Egyptian Myth and Legend. translated by Clar Hall. i. is a male. 135. 119. iv. 150. 98. 118. com         ^154:2 From unpublished fol   tale. A. L. 251-2. ^158:1 Isaiah. ^154:3 Beowulf. xxvi. i. ^160:1 The Religion of Babylonia and Assyria. 199 et seq. Bib. . 134. 176 et seq. T. 13. 149. MacKenzie. ^157:5 Psalms. Myths of Babylonia and Assyria. E. ^149:2 The Religion of Babylonia and Assyria. 99. 45 et seq. Wallis Budge. ^151:3 Campbell's West Highland Tales. Langdon. 9. ^151:2 Isaiah. li. ^152:3 The Tempest. 3. 8. pp. ^151:4 The Life and Exploits of Alexander the Great. xli. 1. vol. xxvii. translated by Clar Hall. 284 . Pinches. p. i. ^157:3 Indian Myth and Legend. ^157:1 Egyptian Myth and Legend. [1915]. ^158:2 Sumerian and Babylonian Psalms. 136 et seq. Soc. ^158:3 Custom and Myth. King. 8. 9. 1911. 43. ^155:1 Beowulf. p. 261. pp. vol. li e the Egyptian. 260. ii. 8. 12. London. lxxxix. 212. L. ^150:1 The Seven Tablets of Creation. Pinches. p. pp. li.

Similarly Napoleon sl eeps in France and S obeleff in Russia. Dietrich and Finn-mac-Coul. for ins tance. The spirits a re usually wild beasts or birds--the "fates" of immemorial fol belief--and they may either carry the hero on their bac s. of Finn (Fingal) as chief of the "Seven Sleepers". who acts accordin g to the advice given him by a "wise woman". and a Gaelic Hero--Eagle as a God--Indian Eagle identified with Gods of Creation. all the [p. or co me to his aid when called upon. Invariably he is a slayer of dragons and other monsters. as those heroes had previously displa ced the humanized spirits of fertility and growth who alternately battled fierce ly against the demons of spring. instruct him from time to time. a form of Tammuz the Sleeper of the Sumerian psalms. and Arabia. [*1] a nd Thomas the Rhymer ta es the place. a magician. Fire. A friendly spirit. There are two great heroes of Babylonian fame who lin with Perseus and Hercules . When a great national hero appealed by reason of his achievements to the imagina tion of a people. Alexander the Great. or a group of spirits. Hercules. In Scotland. He may set forth in search of a fair lady who has been ta en cap tive. made love. the Edinburgh giant of Arthur's Seat is called after an ancient Celtic ing. seem to have been of hoary antiquity before the close of the Late S tone Age. and he became identif ied with gods and giants and night-errants "old in story". and the fol beliefs on which they were based. in an Inverness fairy mound called Tom-nahurich. and Death--Eagle carries Roma n Emperor's Soul to Heaven--Fire and Agricultural Ceremonies--Nimrod of the Kora n and John Barleycorn--Gilgamesh and the Eagle--Sargon-Tammuz Garden Myth--Ea-ba ni compared to Pan. Egypt. 163] [ch-08] CHAPTER VIII Deified Heroes: Etana and Gilgamesh God and Heroes and the "Seven Sleepers"--Quests of Etana. to cure diseases . as do also other heroes elsewhere. Alexander the Great abs orbed a mass of legendary matter of great antiquity. may assist the hero. ONE of the oldest forms of fol stories relates to the wanderings of a hero in d istant regions. or a god. In Ge rmany the myths of Thunor (Thor) were mingled with hazy traditions of Theodoric the Goth (Dietrich). two legendary ings who resemble Tammuz the Patriarch referred to by Berosus. and displaced in the memori es of the people the heroes of other Ages. Gilgamesh.[p. Fertility. One journeys to the Nether                           . Bast. gorged and dran deep and went to sl eep--the sleep of winter. & c. and Nebuchadnezzar--Exploits of Gilgamesh and Ea-bani-Ishtar's Vengeance--Gilgamesh journeys to Otherworld--Song of Sea Maiden and "L ay of the Harper"--Babylonian Noah and the Plant of Life--Teutonic Parallels--Al exander the Great as Gilgamesh--Water of Life in the Koran--The Indian Gilgamesh and Hercules--The Mountain Tunnel in various Mythologies--Widespread Cultural I nfluences.--The Plant of Birth--Eagle carries Etana to Heaven--Indian Parallel--Flights of Nimrod. while in Greece. 164] floating legends of antiquity were attached to his memory. and to prolong life. or to obtain a magic herb or stone to relieve a sufferer. Sigurd and Siegfried. the boulder-throwing giant of Eildon hills bears the name of Wallace. These are Etana and Gilgames h. Certain fol tales.

with the desire of out-stripping each othe r. with purpose to unfold the secrets of creation and the Otherworld." [*2] Another version of the Etana story survives among the Arabian Moslems. but on one occasion Vis hnu overpowered it with his right arm. Bel. where I still am. and the Eagle's body is shattered. and when another two hours had elapsed. which was heavier than the whole universe . I fell down on the top of this great mountain. 166] from which the sea appeared to be no larger than a pond. Lay thy breast on mine and thine arms on my wings. it aga in as ed Etana to loo downwards. at intervals of two hours. He as ed the Eagle to assist him. After a flight which exten ded over two hours. Down and down eagle and man fall together until they stri e the earth. The other bird related to Rama. half eagle. He did so. Here the text becomes fragmentary. the Indian god. T he floating legends with which they were associated were utilized [p. and behe ld the ocean surrounding the earth. for further onwards the bro en tablet narrates that t he Eagle is falling. and together they ascended towards the firmament. . . . As Vishnu. Three times. saying: "Be glad. Etana obtained the assistance of the Eagle to go in quest of the Plant of Birth. the Eagle as s Etana to loo downwards towards the shrin ing earth. Commentators [p. and eagle stones found in eagles' nests. rides on th e bac of Garuda. T hen some disaster happens. when engaged in the process of systematizing and s ymbolizing religious beliefs. "Queen of Heaven". and the earth seemed li e a mountainous isla nd. flew towards the sun. In the "A l Fatihat" chapter of the Koran it is related that a Babylonian ing held a disp ute with Abraham "concerning his Lord". who found it disabled: "Once upon a time we two (brothers). 167]                                 . One was mortally wounded by Ravana. there are interesting references in this connection to Garuda's two "sons". and the bird assented. By this time he had rea ched the heaven of Anu. so does Etana ride on the bac of the Babylonian Eagle. Etana secures the assistance of a giant eagle who is an enemy of serpents li e t he Indian Garuda. and was accordingl y in need of magical aid. half giant. and let my body be as thy body. My wings were burnt. the supreme mother goddess.World to obtain the Plant of Birth and the other to obtain the Plant of Life. [*1] On this or another occasion Etana desired to ascend to highest heaven. In one fragmentary legend which was preserved in the tablet-library of Ashur-banipal. the Assyrian monarch. Further on it is gathered from the narrative that Etana is being carried still higher by the Eagle towards the heaven of Isht ar. 165] and developed by the priests. Let me bear thee to the highest heaven. Then the hero saw that the sea resembled a gir dle which clasped the land. Two hours later Etana found that he had been raised to a height [p. His wife was about to become a mother. The Eagle resumed its flight. but those of my brother were not. the demon ing of Ceylon. and found there rest and shelter. howev er. A similar belief caused birth girdles of straw or serp ent s ins. and caused many feathers to fall off. In the story of Rama's wanderings." Etana did as the great bird requested h im. the Eagle as ed Etana to gaze downwards. to be used in ancient Britai n and elsewhere throughout Europe apparently from the earliest times. The Indian Garuda eagle [*1] never met with such a fate. and Ea. my friend. as told in the Ramyana and the Mahabharata.

In Egypt the place of the eagle is t a en by Ne hebit. and as it splashed in the water. the eagle flew to an island in the midst of the ocean. Apparently exhausted. the vulture goddess whom the Gree s identified with "Eileithyi a. It is also called "the steed-nec ed incarnation of Vishnu". A reference in the Koran to "contr ivances . the goddess of birth. and ma e war against H im. he adds. he fell down on a mount ain with such a force that he made it sha e". and he arrived in the heights of the heavens and he explored them. He tells that it "sprang to the clouds with me. have been simply an eagle. In Indian mythology Garuda. who carries off sou ls to Hades. "than I had ever been before. with Brahma. "He made himself small and flew through the air on an eagle. The hero died. as the br inger of children. and when they returned they told Alexander "all that had happene d and all that they had seen". The hymn referred to lauds G                                         ." Afterwards the eagle bathed in a healing well. . which destroyed se rpents li e the Babylonian Etana eagle. "In the Country of Dar ne ss" Alexander fed and tamed great birds which were larger than eagles. however. the Gree s y and air god. The sun was enlivening me pretty well though I was dead. its eyes flashed the lightning and its voice was the thunder. and I was a while that I [p. [*2] In a Gaelic story a hero is carried off by a Cromhineach. curiously en ough. This bird is ide ntified in a hymn with Agni. issued from its egg li e a flame of fire . the creator. and with Yama. because the earthly ruler represented the controlling deity. appears to have symbolized the deity of whom the ing was an inc arnation or son. the god of Lagash. 169] has the attributes of Tammuz and Mithra. she was usually represented as a vulture hovering over the ing". drops fell on the hero and he came to life. persisted in his design. which ma e mountains tremble" is believed to allude to Nimrod's va in attempt. and the deity who carried souls to Hades. Nimrod then built a tower so as to ascend to heaven "to see Abraham's god". . The hero proceeds: "Sleep came upon herself (the eagle) and she slept. and storm and lightning." Another Alexandrian version of the Etana myth resembles the Arabic legend of Nimrod. 168] did not now which was heaven or earth for me". was depicted as a lio n-headed eagle. remained conscious of what was happening. A mong the myths attached to his memory in the Ethiopic "history" is one which exp lains how "he new and comprehended the length and breadth of the earth". the eagle giant. [*1] Alexander the Great was also reputed to have ascended on the bac of an eagle. the "Pr eserver" of the Hindu trinity who rode on its bac . who afterwards caused the Hebrew patriarch to be cast into a fire from which he had miraculous deliverance. It laid the hero on the sunny side. and m ay." [*1] The eagle figures in various mythologies. Zeus. at one time. but. "a vast bird li e an e agle". but the tower was overthrown. was attended by an eagle. Nin -Girsu. The men were carried to the "Country of the Living".identify the monarch with Nimrod. "I grew stronger and more active". g od of thunder and fertility. who [p. who was identified with Tammuz. and ho w he obtained nowledge regarding the seas and mountains he would have to cross. which figures in the royal arms of Germ any and Russia. [*2] The double-headed eagle of the Hittites. The narr ative states that he was "carried to heaven in a chest borne by four monstrous b irds. with Indra. Then he o rdered four of his soldiers to mount them. He. but after wandering for some time through the air. and appears to have been at one time w orshipped as the god or goddess of fertility. god of fire. It was also the sym bol of royalty. god of the dead.

after performing many mythical exploits. therefore. According to the commentators of the Koran. Gilgamesh. But the miller used him worst of all. and was borne to Olympus amidst peals of thunder. so he became a bird. which m ay have been introduced into Northern and Western Syria and Asia Minor by the my sterious Mitanni rulers. . When the childless Indian sage Mandapala of the Mahab harata was refused admittance to heaven until a son was born to him. [p. on May-Da y bonfires may have been a fertility rite. according to the Syrian calendar. from whose movements in flight omens were drawn. and he was identified with He rcules. representing gods of fertility. Sandan. 170] each year at that city by burning a great bonfire. it is possible that he was ultimately sacrificed and burned. Hercules. Nimrod. The burning of straw figures. which. [*2] This custom was probably a relic of seasonal fire worship. to find the Etana eagle figuring as a symbol of ro yalty at Rome. who lin s with Etana. [*1] Doves were burned to Adonis. For he crushed him between two stones. the mythical founder of Tarsus. the Babylonian ing.aruda as "the bird of life. but also spirits of fertility. He suffered great pain. who cas t victims in his annual bon-fires at Cuthah. They hung him up before a storm And turned him o'er and o'er. had himself burned alive on t he pyre which he built upon Mount Oeta. and to relieve it had his head beaten with a mallet. Barleycorn-or swim. destroyer of all. creator of all". They wasted o'er a scorching flame The marrow of his bones. causing the membrane to grow larger. li e other agricultural patriarchs. the Babylonian Hercules. . represented in the British Isles by May-Day and Midsummer fire-and-water festivals. [*2] It is related that gnats entered Nimrod's brain. and an eagle was let loose from the great pile to carry his soul to heaven. and Sandan. in cluding the Tammuz of Berosus. is       They filled up a dar With water to the They heaved in John There let him sin some pit brim. The beating of Nimrod recalls the beating of the corn spirit of the agricultural legend utilized by Burns in his ballad of "John Barleycorn". It burns all "as the sun in his anger burneth all creatures". Probably he was a form of Moloch and Mel arth. he "pondere d deeply" and "came to now that of all creatures birds alone were blest with fe cundity". Alt hough he lived for several hundred years. the presiding spirit of the animate and inanimate un iverse . which gives a jocular account of widespread ancient customs that are not yet quite ext inct even in Scotland: [*3] They laid him down upon his bac And cudgelled him full sore. died on the eighth day of the Tammu z month. The deified Roman Emperor's waxen image was burned on a pyre afte r his death. [*1] Birds were not only fates. if it was not an archaic Babylonian custom [*3] associa ted with fire-and-water magical ceremonies. It is of interest. fell on 13th July. Nimrod. was honoured [p. and perhaps explains the use of straw birth-girdles. 171]           .

His exploits we re depicted on cylinder seals of the Sumerian period. Bel. which is badly mutilated. or Alexander the Great. and Ishtar also came to their aid. "suppose th at by mimic ing the effect which they desire to produce they actually help to pr oduce it: thus by sprin ling water they [p. the slayer of the demons of winter a nd storm. The story of his adventures was narrated on twelve clay tablets. afterwards carried away. Mimic Adonis gardens were cultivated by women. and carried it away to a garden and laid it d own gently. the w ild animals. Ultimately the people prayed to the goddess Aruru to create a liberator. Gilgamesh is referred to as the man who beheld the world. and he is compared to the corn god. but her worldly wealth had decreased. A hunter was sent out from Erech to search for the man-monster. into streams. and had great wisdom because he peered into the mysteries. "A een-eyed eagle saw the child falling. [p. by lighting a fire they ma e sunshine. which signifies "Ea is my cre ator". and who afterwards became n own as Gilgamos". which in India. where he reigned as "the lord". which his enemy. therefore. the half-bestial god o f fertility. and he is shown wrestling with a lion as Hercules wrestled with the monstrous lion in the valley of Nemea. and death. which suggests that he was an early form of Tammuz . Gilgamesh was associated with Erech. He travelled t o distant places. "Ignorant people". in the "Garden of Adonis"." [*1] Evidently Gil gamesh was a heroic form of the god Tammuz. 173] Aruru heard the cries of her worshippers.. the earth-lion. and thrown. The god s had turned to flies and the winged bulls had become li e mice. as has been shown. Gilgamesh. who passed one part of the year in the world and another in Hades ([*C hapter VI]). The fortifications o f the city were crumbling. he also obtained the plant of life. According to a legend related by Aeli an. and for three years the Elamites besieged it. Li e Hercules. fire. Shamash. so that it is impossible to identify him with any forerunner of Sargon of A ad. and of character somewhat resembling the Egyptian Bast. It is possible. This appears to be another version of the Sargon-Tammuz myth. writes Professor Frazer. and Sargon . was identified wi th the gods of fertility. however. that an ancient myth of Eridu forms the basis of the narrative. and before it touched the ground the bird flew und er it and received it on its bac . did not perish.                                      . Tammuz among the flowers. the Assyrian emperor. and may also refer to the sacrifice of children to Mel arth and Moloch. Corn. [*1] "the guards of the citadel of Babylon threw down to the ground a child who had been conceived and brought forth in secret. and was informed regarding the flood and the primitive race wh ich the gods destroyed. She dipped her hands in water and then formed a warrior with clay. and so on. Gilgamesh figured chiefly in legendary narrative as a mighty hero . Men wailed li e wild beasts and maidens moaned li e doves. There Ishta r had a great temple. who were burned or slain "in the valleys under the clifts of the roc s" [*2] to ensure f ertility and feed the corn god. which were pre served in the library of Ashur-banipal. it would appear. He ate grass with the gazelles and dran water with wild beasts. Ea-bani is depicted on the cylinder seals as a hairy man-monster resembling the god Pan.associated with the eagle. in the form of a serpent or well demon. the gardener. The description of Ea-bani recalls that of Nebuchadnezzar when he w as stric en with madness. and found him beside a stream in a savage place drin ing with his associates. with an image o f the god." Here we have. was forced in pots and bas ets. He was named Ea-bani. He was apparently of great antiquity. &c. In the first table t. 172] ma e rain.

deserted by his bestial companions. So he consented to accompany his bride. . Ea-bani. felt l onely and desired human friend-ship. . Gilgamesh is robed in royal splendour and wears his dazzling crown. The two heroes became close friends. . Alone and palely loitering? The sedge is withered from the la e And no birds sing. night-at-arms. her foot was light. Love bro e the spell which ept Ea-bani in his savage state. in fol tales. and did eat grass as oxen. . till his hairs were grown li e eagles' feathers. When it is resumed a reference is made to "the head of Chumbaba". She "loved him with that l ove which was his doom". who has apparently been s lain by the heroes. and when the narrative becomes clear again. so he had him lured from the wi lds by a beautiful woman. .He was driven from men. he proposed to test his strength in sing le combat. but suddenly it becomes nown that th e goddess Ishtar has been stric en with love for him. 175] O what can ail thee. but S hamash prevailed upon him to remain as the friend of Gilgamesh. Hav ing heard of Gilgamesh from the hunter. I met a lady in the meads.                             . god of the sun. and his nails l i e birds' claws. and his body was wet with the dew of heaven. they are found to be setting forth to wage war against Chumbaba. Those who are loved by celestials or demons become. and the temple of the god. Her hair was long. ." [*1] The hunter had no desire to combat with Ea-bani. Full beautiful--a faery's child. the high mountain. [*1] the King of Elam. Their journey was long and perilous. and the mighty Gi lgamesh lived in his palace. Beautiful were the trees about the mountain. melancholy wanderers and "night wailers". 174] who had been endowed with great nowledge by Bel and Anu and Ea. Gilgamesh and Ea-bani appear to have become prosperous and happy. They saw the great roa d which the ing had caused to be made. The "wretched wight" in Ke ats' "La Belle Dame Sans Merci" is a typical example. At this point the narrative brea s off. And her eyes were wild. warned Ea-bani that he was the protector of Gilgamesh. Ea-bani was not attracted by city life and desired to return to the wilds. . In time they entered a thic fores t. [p. promising that h e would be greatly honoured and exalted to high ran . But in the hou r of triumph a shadow falls. [p. Then the temptress pleaded with him to go with her to Erech. but Shamash. . where Anu and Ishtar had their temples. and wondered greatly at the numerous and lofty cedars. . Erech was thus freed from the oppression of its fierce enemy . Gilgamesh was a lso counselled in a vision of night to receive Ea-bani as an ally. for the tablet is mutilated. . He is admired by all men. and there were many shady ret reats that were fragrant and alluring. and the wild beasts fled from him.

The " night" then sa w in a dream the ghosts of nights and warriors. her previous victims. who made offerings unto thee. was slain by Gilgamesh [*1] and Ea-bani. With horrid warning gaped wide. Gift thy s trength unto me. Then Ea-bani dreamt a dream of ill omen. A festival was held.She found me roots of relish sweet. Having issed her lover to sleep. 176] the lover of Ishtar. and all people will become subject unto thee. He met his death soon afterwards. and afterwards the heroes lay down to sleep. and then smote him so that he was un able to move. is caused by thee to w eep. and Gilgamesh l amented Clic to enlarge THE SLAYING OF THE BULL OF ISHTAR From the Painting by E. Ishtar cursed Gilgamesh. and thou didst oppress his mot her Silili. Be thou my husband and I will be thy bride. and made answer saying: "To what husband hast thou ever rem ained faithful? Each year Tammuz. Thou didst love a shepherd who sacrificed ids unto thee. his own herd boy dr ove him away and his dogs rent him in pieces. apparently in a battle. And I awo e and found me here On the cold hill's side. 'O my wings!' Thou didst love the lion and then snared him. Every ing and every prince will bow down before thee. with the result that he was cu rsed by the goddess also. the fairy woman vanished. Thou didst love the Allala bird and then bro e his wings. and then laid harness on him and made him gallop half a hundred miles so that he suffered great distress." Gilgamesh feared the fate which would attend him as [p. Thou shalt have a c hariot of gold and lapis lazuli with golden wheels and gem-adorned. I saw their starved lips in the gloam. where they were received with great rejoicings. Gilgamesh dedicated the horns of the bull to Shamash and returned with his frien d to Erech. and be my consort. O Gilga mesh. "I love thee true". but their triump h was shortlived. And sure in language strange she said. saying: "Come.                         . and she prevailed upon her father Anu to create a fierce bull which sh e sent against the lord of Erech. O Gilgamesh. to iss thy feet. Into my dwelling thou shalt come amidst the fragrant cedars. Wallcousins. the gar dener of Anu. Thou didst love Ishullanu. who warne d him of his fate. Tho u didst love the horse. and he moans in t he woods crying. my fate would be li e unto the fate s of those on whom thou hast laid affliction. The goddess Ishtar appeared as "La Belle Dame Sans Merci" before Gilgamesh and a ddressed him tenderly. Alas! if thou wouldst love me." Ishtar's heart was filled with wrath when she heard the words which Gilgamesh ha d spo en. however. the lover of thy youth. And honey wild and manna dew. and then t hou didst smite him so that he became a jac al (or leopard). Thy steeds s hall be fair and white and powerful. This monster. Ea-bani then defied her and threatene d to deal with her as he had dealt with the bull.

and he was allowed to go forward. whos e heads reached to the clouds. Pir-napishtim. But they did him no harm. but the door was shut and on either side were two monsters of horrible aspect--the gigantic "scorpion man" and his wife. The mountain pea rose to heaven. saying: Gilgamesh. Then he crie d upon the moon god. he realized that the monsters [p. which divided the land of the living from the western land of the dead. Addressing the scorpion giant. and mingled his entreaties with threats to brea open the door. he then escaped from the dreadful tunnel and once more rejoiced in the ray s of the sun. Gilgamesh. Life they too in their own hand. He found himself in an enchanted garden. who too pity upon him. whom he loved. His e yes were dazzled. When she saw the pilgrim drawing nigh. 177] over him. and its foundations were in Aralu. In the end Sabitu appeared a nd spo e. Quic ening his s teps. E a-bani. Pir-napishtim"--the Babylonian Noah. The giant warned him of the dangers which he woul d encounter. The country which he entered was ruled over by the sea lady whose name was Sabitu. From the surviving fragments of the narrative it would appear that Gil gamesh resolved to underta e a journey. but also to restore to life his dead friend. but he did not linger there. and he new that he was drawing nigh to the Sea of De ath. It seems that Gilgamesh not only hoped to obtain the Water of Life and the Plant of Life to cure his own disease. until he saw a ray of light. he beheld fierce lions and his heart trembled. he came to a shoreland. When the gods created man They fixed death for man ind. When Gilgamesh revived. he told that he desired to visit his ancestor. For twice twel ve hours he groped blindly onward. "Oh! let me not die li e Ea-bani. the Underworld. and in the midst of it he saw a divine and beautiful tree towards which he hastened. The Babylonian island lay in the ocean of the Nether World. for he had been stric en by disease.                                           . He wept and cried out.[p. for death is fearful. saying that the mountain passage was twelve miles long and beamless and blac . He crossed the roc y range and then found himself confronted b y the tremendous mountain of Mashi--"Sunset hill". Passing many other wonderful tree s. Gazing on the rugged heights. resolved to encounter any peril. perceiving that he was a son of a god and had a body li e a god. 178] regarded him with eyes of sympathy. When Gilgamesh beheld them he swooned with terror . Gilgamesh called out requesting that he should be allowed to enter. who sat in the council of the g ods and had divine attributes. and under divine protection the her o pressed onward. however. On its gleaming bran ches hung clusters of precious stones and its leaves were of lapis lazuli. who was b elieved to be dwelling on an island which corresponds to the Gree "Island of th e Blessed". Gilgamesh set out on his journey and in time reached a mountain chasm. So he entered through the monste r-guarded mountain door and plunged into thic unbro en dar ness. whither hurriest thou? The life that thou see est thou wilt not find. she entered her palace and shut t he door. [*1] A dar tunnel pierced it an d could be entered through a door. for he was no l onger afraid. I wi ll see the aid of mine ancestor.

The bodies pass away Since the time of the god. And garments on thee of fine linen. . and drin thy wine with a merry heart. [*1] "The pious Hebrew mind". Jastrow adds. acting according to self-imposed st andards of right and wrong. Let thy garments be always white. no mortal is ferried over this great sea. . let thy belly be filled! [p. He as ed her ho w he could reach Pir-napishtim. Be not weary therein. the sea lady revealed to the pilgrim that he might obtain th e aid of the sailor. and in thy l abour which thou ta est under the sun. 180] let thy head lac no ointment. Put song and music before thee. O Gilgam esh. . O Gilgamesh. who served his ancestor Pir-napishtim. Who can pass over it save Shamash alone? The way is full of peril." The final word s of the Preacher are. Daily celebrate a feast. The following quotations are from two separate versions: How rests this just prince! The goodly destiny befalls. Thy sister (wife) who dwells in thy heart. his ancestor. . eat thy bread with joy. Be happy with the wife in thine arms! [*1] [paragraph continues] This is the philosophy of the Egyptian "Lay of the Harper" . Sabitu answered him. bathe in water! Loo joyfully on the child that grasps thy hand. Live joyfully with the wife whom thou lovest all the days of the life of thy vanity. [*2] Jastrow contrasts the Babylonian poem with the following quotation from Ecclesia stes:-Go thy way. . . . . however. (Ma e) it pleasant for thee to follow thy desire While thou livest. 179] Day and night be merry. Put myrrh upon thy head. whose rule extends beyond the grave. saying he was prepared to cross th e Sea of Death: if he could not cross it he would die of grief. Arad Ea. . Celebrate the glad day. and [p. how canst thou battle against the billows of death?" At length.Thou. Behind thee all evil things. Day and night dance and ma e merry! Clean be thy clothes. "Fear God and eep his commandments". And remember thou (only) joy. . "found the corrective to this view of lif e in the conception of a stern but just God. . . which he [God] hath given thee under the sun . She sits at thy side. And generations come into their places. . all the days of thy vanity: for that is thy portion in this life.                 . . Thy head be washed. saying: "O Gilgamesh. [*2] Gilgamesh did not accept the counsel of the fatalistic sea lady. .

but as long as they did so and the rivers rose in flood. 181] Pir-napishtim had perceived the vessel crossing the Sea of Death and marvelled g reatly. but at length they drew nigh to the "Island of the Blessed" on which dwe lt Pir-napishtim and his wife. the food was prepared by seven magic process                       . Pir-napishtim spo e sympathetically and said: "Who among the god s will restore thee to health. Wearied by his exertions and wasted by disease. which is dealt with fully in the next chapter." he said. He buil t a ship which was tossed about on the waters. sealed contracts. Bel discovered him and transported him to that island in the midst of the Sea of Death. but it appears that Gilgamesh pour ed into the ears of his ancestor the tale of his sufferings. and sleep enveloped him li e to a blac storm cloud. therefore. and after a time prevailed upon him to act as ferryman. Sleep envelops him li e to a blac storm cloud. Gilgamesh sat in the boat listening to the words of his ancestor. Nor could any man tell when his hour would come. and thou shalt be given the life thou dost strive after. disputed one with another. The story is unfortunately interrupted again. so long would thei r fate endure. G ilgamesh sat resting in the boat. He did not go ashore. The gods had resolved to destroy the w orld. the boat was launched and the v oyage began. reminding the pilgrim that all men must die. Arad Ea required a helm for his boat. Gilgamesh then as ed Pir-napishtim how it chanced that he was still alive. Men buil t houses. Terrible experiences were passed through as they crossed the Sea of Death. to wh at I say unto thee." To that lone man his wife made answer: "Lay thine hand upon him so that he may h ave perfect health and be enabled to return to his own land." [*1] Gilgamesh sat in the ship. and Gilgamesh hastened t o fashion one from a tree. Harden not thy heart against me." On the day when Gilgamesh lay down. "thou art even as I am. O Gilgamesh? Thou hast nowledge of my life. Pir-napishtim made answer.Gilgamesh soon found where Arad Ea dwelt. For six days and seven nights thou [p. When it was fixed on. but reveal how thou hast obtained divine life in the company of the gods." Then Pir-napishtim addressed his wife. 182] shalt not lie down. "Thou hast suffered no change. Give him power to p ass through the mighty door by which he entered. When the narra tive was ended. saying: "His sufferings ma e me sad. but never revealed his secrets. and sowed seeds in the ea rth. [p. and Ea in a dream revealed unto Pir-napishtim how he could escape." Pir-napishtim thereupon related to his descendant the story of the deluge. and when the world had been destr oyed. Ta e heed. adding that he fear ed death and desired to escape his fate. Prep are thou for him the magic food. Pir-napishtim spo e to his wife and said: "Behold the hero who desireth to have life. but remain sitting li e one in the midst of grief. The god of desti ny measured out the span of life: he fixed the day of death. and place it near his head.

the Earth Lion. his own city. But thou didst awa en me by touching me. god of death. nor canst thou smite those whom thou hast hated. 184] [paragraph continues] Ea heard him. and he spa e regarding the ceremonies which had been performed while yet he was in a far-di stant country. thou wouldst sit down and weep. Then he turned to the gods. thou canst not iss the child thou hast loved. Ere he bade farewell. caused the grave to yawn. . and. He found that the city walls were crumbling. spo e to the ghost of his friend." Said Gilgamesh: "Let me sit down and weep. and he was made whole. . [*1] But while he was thus engaged that demon. the captive of the spirits of death. Gilgamesh. Then he sat down and wept bitterly. but tell me regarding the land of spi rits. and he awo e full of life." In vain Gilgamesh appealed to his mother goddess to restore Ea-bani to him. So Gilgamesh and Arad Ea went on their way together. Lo! I am bewitch ed. Pir-napishtim revealed unto him the secret of a magic plant which had po wer to renew life and give youth and strength unto those who were old. O tell me regarding the land in which thou dost dwell. "nor raise the battle shout. To Arad Ea he spa e. Thou canst not iss the woman thou hast loved. "Thou ca nst not draw thy bow now. Then Pir-napishtim touche d him." The two travellers then resumed their journey. chanting dirges and holding feasts for the dead. still dreading death. . What hast thou done unto thy servant?" Then Pir-napishtim told Gilgamesh that he had been given to eat of the magic foo d. and the woman ad-ministered it while yet he slept. Gilgamesh spa e unto Pir-napishtim and said: "I was suddenly overcome by sleep. even thou. saying: "Tell me. The hero stooped down to draw water. . crept forth as a serpent. Thereafter Gilgamesh prepared to return to his own land. If I were to tell thee all. Gilgamesh ut tered a curse. and at length Gilga mesh returned to Erech. During the days which followed Gilgamesh sorrowed for his lost friend Ea-bani. performing religious acts from ti me to time. [p." he cried." Ea-bani made answer sorrowfully: "Alas! I cannot tell thee. whe re his disease-stric en body was cleansed. my friend. and the spirit of Ea-bani arose li e a wind gust. The blemished s in fell from him. and the tears streamed over h is face. my friend. Thereafter Nergal. and said that he would carry it to Erech."                           . where he would parta e of it and restore his youth. carried it away. seiz ing the magic plant of life. Stric en with 183] Arad Ea conducted the hero to the island where the plant grew. . Afterwards he caused Arad Ea to carry Gilgamesh to a fountain of healing. and when Gilgames h found it he rejoiced. and [p. saying: "Why has my health been restored to me? Wh y should I rejoice because that I live? The benefit which I should have derived for myself has now fallen to the Earth Lion. w hose spirit was in the Underworld. nor paused until they came to a well of pure water. . h owever.

A demon stops him and says: "O ing. [*3] When Odin "down ward rode into Misty Hel" he sang spells at a "witch's grave". but prowls through the street s eating scraps of food. or is overta en by night "wandering on the misty way". "He who hath been slain in battle. which Adam had brought from Paradise. "the maiden who ept the bridge "over the river Gjoll. In the Koran a similar story is told regar ding Moses and Joshua. with the result that he was strength ened and felt neither hunger nor thirst. [*1] It is related t hat when Matun reached the Well of Life a dried fish which he dipped in the wate r was restored to life and swam away. and dust covered all." In another part of the narrative Alexander and his army arrive at a place of dar ness "where the blac ness is not li e the dar ness of night. the leavings of the feast. This fortunate man ept his secret." the ghost said . to guide him. where the young were li e the old. he rode through thic dar ness for nine days and nine nights ere he crossed the mountains." So ends the story of Gilgamesh in the form which survives to us. he addr essed her. as the Prose Edda relates. Saxo's Hother. Hermod met Modgudur." The Arabian commentators explain that Moses                                                         . and drin ing the dregs of ve ssels. "Tell me tidings of Hel". but is li e unto the mists and clouds which descend at the b rea of day". and the ghost ros e up to answer his questions regarding Balder. who instructed him what way he should ta e to find the i rresistible sword. Svipdag. thou art not able to march through this mountain. but he was afterwa rds nic named "'El-Khidr'. according to a Norse poem. In the mythical histories of Alexander the Great. a nd certain of his mon ey allies were green. rests not. [*1] Thor ill crosses a stormy oc ean to the region of perpetual dar ness. 'Green'". Rama of India was blue. His spirit doth not haunt the earth. but it can be gathered that Ea-bani described the la nd where ill-doers were punished. "They forgot their fish which they had ta en with them. and the f ish too its way freely to the sea. As Gilgamesh [p. The journey of Gilgamesh to the Island of the Blessed recalls the journeys made by Odin. f or in it dwelleth a mighty god who is li e unto a monster serpent. who travelled "for a long space of time" to a place where two seas met. [*2] In the Elder Edda Svipdag is charmed against th e perils he will be confronted by as he fares "o'er seas mightier than men do n ow". that is to say. and found the well. 186] of the "waters of life" and bathed in them. crosses dis mal mountains "beset with extraordinary cold". li e the fairies of England and Scot land. When he came out of the well "all the f lesh of his body became bluish-green and his garments li ewise bluish-green". His name was Matun. When Hermod went to search for Balder. where the w orm devoured. where the ghosts of the dead are confin ed in loathsome and dusty caves. He dran [p. the hero searches for the Wate r of Life. At the main entrance "the door posts were begri med with the soot of ages". But the spirit of that man whose corpse has been left unburied and uncared for. who is instructed by "King Gewar". Hermod.The text is mutilated here. and he preven teth everyone who would go unto him. and is confronted by a great mountain called Musas (Mashti). What explanation he offered for his sudden change of appearance has not been recorded. A servant uses a shining jewel stone. But the state of the warrior who had been gi ven burial was better than that of the man who had not been buried. and had no o ne to lament or care for him. was guided li e the Babylonian hero by the moon god. "reposeth on a couch drin ing pure water--one slain in battle as thou hast see n and I have seen. Hotherus and others to the Germanic Hela. His head is supported by his parents: beside him sits his wif e. 185] met Sabitu. Ap parently he assumed the colour of supernatural beings. as Gilgamesh addressed the ghost of Ea-bani. Gevar. Svipdag.

It was dar and deep. On the seashore Moses fell asleep. the Mal aya. the wife of Rama. Hercules slew Ladon. and the great Dardura mountains. we became very weary. the Sahya. flower. Other heroes ill treasure-protecting dragons of various inds . "As he dran of the waters. Son of my ing for my succour. At last we came o ut of the cavern and beheld the briny sea. for Jana a's daughter ha th been seen by me. And having gone a great way through it. 80. For my life and my dwelling. Fortunate fields. When Diarmid was mortally wounde d by the boar. As Gilgamesh meets with Pir-napishtim. and on its shores. "ma ing the ablution at the fountain of life". which had been roasted. leapt out of the bas et into the sea. some of the water hap pened to be sprin led on the fish. his energy and strength were again fully restored. who relates the story of the Deluge which destroyed the "elder race". O Finn. which immediately leapt up. who had been carried away by Ravana. fore sts. journeys to nor th-eastern Celestial regions to find the la e of the god Kuvera (Kubera). It was the abode of the Daitya (sea demon) Maya. we came upon sunshine and beheld a beautifu l palace. Bhima. iii. the demon ing of Ceylon. we proceeded along the way shown by her. and groves and flowery vales. vol. and to ta e a fish w ith him in a bas et. [*2] The Well of Life is found in Fingalian legends. who informs him regarding the Ages of the Universe and the races which were peri odically destroyed by deluges. when he was engaged search ing for Sita. O Rama. and mines for some time. When Bhima reaches the lotus la e he fights with demons. Hanuman says: "I bring thee good news. li e unto nectar." [*1] Hercules similarly sets out to search for the golden apples which grow in those Hesperian gardens famed of old. And she gave us food and drin of various inds. 187] Give me a draught from thy palms. we entered that cavern which extended over many yo janas. on whi ch grow the "most beautiful and unearthly lotuses". 188] cavern to the shoreland palace of the female ascetic. which restore health and giv e strength to the weary. and overgrown with trees and infested by worms. And ascending the mountains of Malaya. As Bhima slew Ya shas which guarded the lotuses. To heal his wounds and recover strength he plunges into the la e. In the version of the latter narrative which is given in the Maha bharata. And beholding it. and the Indian s tory of the demigod Hanuman passing through the long [p. Another version sets forth t hat Joshua. There is a remar able resemblance between the Babylonian account of Gilgamesh's journey through the mountain tunnel to the garden and seashore. "the abode of Varuna"). the Indian Gilgamesh or Hercules.once agreed to the suggestion that he was the wisest of men. And having refreshed ourselves therewith and r egained our strength. The quest of the plant. And there we beheld a female ascetic named Parbhavati engaged in ascetic austerities. At length we beheld a great cavern. Bhima meets with Hanuman. w                                             . who was "more nowing than he". Having searched the southern region with all its hills. or fruit of life is referred to in many fol tal es. In the Mahabharata. Campbell's West Highland Tales. he called upon Finn to carry water to him from the well: [p. In a dream he was directed to visit Al Khedr. we beheld before us the vast ocean (or. and the fish. And having beheld it. the guardi an of the apples.

The sound of the pipes is heard fo r a time. so far. vol. [*1] The dar tunnel is met with in many British stories of daring heroes who set out to explore it. 189] at length. n. 474-5. .). obtained the assistance of Vayu. resolved to die there of starvation. from a cave on one side of a h ill to a cave on the other. Hanuman [p. 818 et seq. and impressed upon it the stamp of their doctrine s. as were thos e attached to the memory of Alexander the Great at a later period. p. ^167:2 The Life and Exploits of Alexander the Great. slaying monsters as he went. The tunnel may run from a castle to the seashore. then the music ceases suddenly. . ^166:2 Yana Parva section of the Mahabharata (Roy's trans. In Babylonia. Thus in many countries may be found at the present day different versions of immemorial fol tales. and shortly afterwards the dog returns without a hair upon its body. his divine fa ther.             . expre ssed the opinion that Sita was in Lan a (Ceylon). 251-4 (1892 ed. the priests utilized the floating material from whic h all mythologies were framed. ^167:1 The Koran (with notes from approved commentators). E." Hanuman and his friends. whither she must have been car ried by Ravana. but never return. having had. the bear may have been the "totem" of the Arthur tribe represented by the Scottish clan of MacArthurs. by George Sale. But no one dared to cross the dangerous ocean. It is possible that these widespread tunnel stories had origin among the cave dw ellers of the Palaeolithic Age. or from a seashore cave to a distant island. p. . I f so. In the Scottish versions the adventurers are i nvariably pipers who are accompanied by dogs. trans. the wind god. He discovered where t he fair lady was concealed by the ing of demons. pp.). ^165:1 See "Lady in the Straw" beliefs in Brand's Popular Antiquities.). 413. pp. and Indian Myth and Legend. 66 et seq. We despaired of returning with our lives. Footnotes ^164:1 It is suggested that Arthur is derived from the Celtic word for "bear". ^168:1 Campbell's West Highland Tales.. This great bird.e felt sorely grieved in mind. 246. 277-8. . ^166:1 Li e the Etana "mother eagle" Garuda was a slayer of serpents ([*Chapter III]). which resembles the Etana eagle. p. as elsewhere. however. (1899 ed. and leapt over the sea. next discovered the eagle giant which had burned its wings when endeavou ring to soar to the sun. experiences similar to those of Gil gamesh. We then sat together. and sent their ideas rippling in widening circles to far-distant shores. The symbolized stories were afterwards distributed far and wide. which represent various stages of culture. who believed that deep caverns were the doors of the underground retreats of dragons and giants and other supernatural enemies o f man ind. and direct and indirect contac t at different periods with civilizations that have stirred the ocean of human t hought. ii. 18 96). . . iii. vol. Wallis Budge (London. It has evidently been in conflict with demons.

. 7-9. 2. ^170:3 In the Eddic poem "Lo asenna" the god Byggvir (Barley) is addressed by Lo i. 1848). pp. p. 183-5. J. A. Roy's trans. Aspects of Religious Belief and Practice in Babylonia a nd Assyria. lvii. imitated the god by living a time in th e wilds li e Ea-bani. ^169:1 Adi Parva section of the Mahabharata (Hymn to Garuda). n. and Abednego. p. xii. The Hebrews. n. ^182:1 Perhaps brooding and undergoing penance li e an Indian Rishi with purpose to obtain spiritual power. 374. He de creed that "whoso falleth not down and worshippeth" should be burned in the "fie ry furnace". ^170:1 The Assyrian and Phoenician Hercules is discussed by Raoul Rochette in Me moires de l'Academie des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres (Paris. Meshach. p. were accordingly thro wn into the fire. "The Gardens of Adonis". translation by Olive Bray.           . 33. 194 et seq. pp. 246. 89. ix. as the human represen tative of the god of corn and fertility. Wiedemann. 71. 14. 210. ^179:1 Jastrow's trans. ^174:1 Pronounce ch guttural. iv. 2 63."--Budge. ^180:1 Ecclesiastes. ^171:2 Isaiah. 13. iii. It is possible that Nebuchadnezzar. "Its pea reached to the first heaven and its base to the seventh earth. ^172:1 The Golden Bough (Adonis. Shadrach.^168:2 Religion of the Ancient Egyptians. p. H. ^171:1 De Nat. Osiris vol. ^170:2 G. ed. Barleycorn!" The Elder Edda. but were delivered by God. iii. ^185:1 Saxo. ^169:3 The image made by Nebuchadnezzar is of interest in this connection. ^177:1 Alexander the Great in the course of his mythical travels reached a mount ain at the world-end. Breast ed. ^180:2 Ibid. xii. p. quoted by Professor Budge in The Life and Exploits of Alexander the Great. 278. Animal.. pp..). 4 and 5. Sale's Koran.). 21. p. p p. 1-30. iv. 8 8. ^173:1 Daniel. 178 e t seq. Attis. Didot. ^183:1 Probably to perform the ceremony or pouring out a libation. 262. Daniel. ^179:2 Development of Religion and Thought in Ancient Egypt (1912).. (3rd ed. ^176:1 On a cylinder seal the heroes each wrestle with a bull. ^169:2 Herodian. "Silence.

the Island of the Blessed. MacKenzie. O. pp. was there. Teutonic. Wallis Budge. te ar down thy house and build a ship. 435-60. Ea.. E. As thou nowest. the father. and Bel the counsellor and warrior. O wall. THE story of the Deluge which was related to Gilgamesh by Pir-napishtim runs as follows: "Hear me. son of Umbara Tutu.. and preserve in the ship the living seed of every ind. and Cel tic Otherworlds--Legend of Nergal and the Queen of Death--Underworld originally the Grave--Why Weapons. 167 et seq. pp. viii. 833. sat also with them. hear. It must be floated on the great deep. Myths of Babylonia and Assyria. O man of Shurippa . "Thereafter Ea made nown the purpose of the divine rulers in the hut of reeds. pp. the city of Shurippa is situated upon the ban of the Euphrates. 222. xl et seq. by Donald A. . Anu. trans. and Ennugi the governor. by G. In th eir hearts the gods agreed together to send a great deluge.. The gods were within it: there they assembled together in cou ncil. ^186:2 The Koran. xviii). com [p.). The ship that thou wi lt build must be of goodly proportions in length and height. the wise lord. leave all thou dost possess and save thy lif e. [1915]. understand . and Ind ian Myth and Legend. pp. Indian.'                   . 191] reeds. 223 (chap. 157 et seq. . saying: [*1] 'O hut of [p. 190] [ch-09] CHAPTER IX Deluge Legend. ^185:3 The Elder Edda. and I will ma e revelation regarding the hidden doings of the high gods. See also Teutonic Myth and Legen d. Ninip the messenger. Sale. pp. 291. O Gilgamesh. Bray. Gree . ^187:1 Yana Parva section of the Mahabharata (Roy's trans. 105-9. were Buried with the Dead--Japanese and Roman Belie fs--Palaeolithic Burial Customs--"Our Graves are our Houses"--Importance of Baby lonian Funerary Ceremonies--Doctrine of Eternal Bliss in Egypt and India--Why Su ppressed in Babylonia--Heavy Burial Fees--Various Burial Customs. at sacred-texts. ^189:1 Yana Parva section of the Mahabharata (Roy's translation). ^186:1 The Life and Exploits of Alexander the Great. pp. 832.^185:2 Ibid. &c. and Hades Babylonian Story of the Flood--The Two Immortals on the Island of the Blessed--D eluge Legends in the Old and New Worlds--How Babylonian Culture reached India--T heory of Cosmic Periods--Gilgamesh resembles the Indian Yama and Persian Yimeh-Lin s with Varuna and Mitra--The Great Winter in Persian and Teutonic Mythologie s--Babylonian Hades compared with the Egyptian.

Then [p. speeding li e emiss aries over hills and plains. for thy counsel is most excellent. with nine apartment s in each story. as thou hast said so will I do. saying: 'I will cause the Night Lord to sen d much rain and bring destruction. his servant: 'What thou shalt say unto th em is this . Unto you will Bel send abundance of rain. and put under his c ommand the great vessel and all that it contained. saying. to be captain."I heard the command of Ea and understood. the rivers were swollen. Then enter thou the ship and shut thy door. He smeared it with bitumen inside and pitch outsi de. and my goods also. which was 120 cubits wide and 120 cubits in height. . 'O wise lo rd. and on the seventh day it was ready. I saw the begi nning of the deluge and I was afraid to loo up. so that you may obtain birds and fishes in plenty and have a rich harv est. . no man could recognize his friends.' "At the appointed time the Night Lord sent at eventime much rain. and I made answer. it appears that this vessel was to have a dec house six stories high. . "The god Shamash appointed the time. So far as can be gathered from the fragmentary text. the sailor. The cables of the ship were let loose. Wallcousins. he said: "I gathered together all that I possessed.                             . . . and in the mi dst of it Ramman thundered. this city of Shurippa . battling with the elements. Nebo and Merodach went in front. These I placed in the ship. 192] he carried out Ea's further instructions. so I must depart unto the domain of Ea and dwell with him . All the earth spirits leapt up with flaming torches and the whole land was afla re. The thunder god swept over the heavens. "At the dawn of day I saw rising athwart the heavens a dar cloud. came nigh. Pir-napishtim set to wor and made a flat-bottomed vessel. Rain poured down the whole day long.'" [*1] Ea then gave instructions to Pir-napishtim how to build the ship in which he sho uld find refuge. therefore I cannot remain any longer in his domain. I appointed Buzur-Kurgala. Brothers were unable to see br others. Ea drew a plan of the great ship upon the sand. It hath been revealed unto me that Bel doth hate me. the animals of the field and the beasts of th e field and the wor ers--every one of them I sent up. . and the earth was covere d with water. "Then Ninip. But how s hall I give reason for my doings to the young men and the elders?' "Ea opened his mouth and said unto me. the tempest god. I entered the ship and shut the door. the land was in confusion. and the storm bro e in fury before him. Continuing his narrative to Gilgamesh. Then I caused to go aboard all my family and house servants. The spirits above loo ed down and beheld the rising Clic to enlarge THE BABYLONIAN DELUGE From the Painting by E. But Shamash hath appointed a time for Ramman to pour down destruction from the heavens. men stumbled a bout in the dar ness. According to another account. blotting out the sunlight and bringi ng thic dar ness. my silver and gold and seeds of every ind.

194] did not come bac . "Then I opened wide the window of the ship. but where is he? Li e the offspring of fish he cumbers the deep. 193] flood and were afraid: they fled away. I set up incense v essels seven by seven on heaped-up reeds and used cedar wood with incense. "The earth spirits were weeping with Ishtar: they sat down cowering with tighten ed lips and spa e not. and she flew away. and she flew a way and searched this way and that. the wind fell. E verywhere I loo ed I saw water. but found no resting place. they mourned in silence. "Six days and six nights went past. and then it was held fast by the mountain of Nitsir. god of the deep. On the seventh day I sent forth a dove. But when the seventh day came. saying: 'Who hath done this save Ea alone? He noweth all things. B ut all man ind had perished and turned to clay. O warrior.' "But Bel Enlil came also. Angrily he spa e an d said: 'Hath one escaped? It was decreed that no human being should survive the deluge. saying: 'Oh! these gods ! I vow by the lapis lazuli gems upon my nec that I will never forget! I will r emember these days for ever and ever. Lifting up the jewels. The ship drifted towards the country of Nitsir . and gorged and cr oa ed and waded.[p. but [p. "An offering I made on the mountain. saying: 'The eld er race hath perished and turned to clay because that I have consented to evil c ounsel in the assembly of the gods. opened his mouth and said unto the warrior Bel: 'Thou art the lord of the gods. The g ods smelt the sweet savour. land began to appear. But thou wouldst not hear en to my counsel and                                     "In time Ishtar. Six days went past and th e ship remained stedfast. I was dazzled and san down weeping and the tears streamed over my face. "Thereafter Ishtar (Sirtu) drew nigh. Let all the gods come hither to the offeri ng.' "Ea. His heart was f illed with wrath against the gods and the spirits of heaven. she spa e. the wh irling waters grew peaceful. I gave being to man. I loo ed forth. I then sent forth a swallow. and the sunlight suffused my counten ance. "At length. The storm was over and the r ain of destruction had ceased. and when he beheld the ship he paused. She saw that the waters were shrin ing. cried out distressfully.' .' "Ninip. Where fields had been I saw mars hes only. the lady of the gods. and she returned li ewise. Then I brought forth all the animals into the air of heaven. and in the heaven of Anu they crouched li e to hounds in the protecting enclosures. I called aloud over the waters. I poured out a libation. and the tempest raged over the waters which gradually covered the land. and the sea retreated. because that he ignored my counsel. save Bel (Enlil) alone. son of Bel. which the god Anu h ad fashioned for her according to her desire. and sent a great deluge which destroyed my people. so she returned. Next I sent forth a rav en. and they clustered li e flies about the sacrificer. Alas! I have allowed my people to be destroy ed. spo e.

Flood myths are found in many mythologies both in the Old World and the New. [*3]     but I caused Atra-chasis (Pir-napishtim) to dream a dream in which he had dge of what the gods had decreed. and store it well with food. He grasped my hand land led me forth. I did not reveal the secret purpose of the mighty gods . When this was done. . . I am weary of their iniquity. and being deprived of her senses by excessive pressure. Now punish the sinner for his sins and the evil doer fo r his evil deed.'                               nowle       ." a sage related. . and his wife Pyrrha were spared. "the Earth. [p. however. Then Zeus "bro e up all the fountains of the deep." [*2] Manu's account of the flood has been already referred to ([*Chapter II]). . The ar rested on Parnassus. oppresse d with the excessive burden. Let famine come upon the land. Bel entered the ship alone." When the wa ters rose the horned fish towed the ar over the roaring sea. Then he stood between us and gave his blessing. May there never again be a flood. [*1] There are also references in Sans rit literature to the des truction of the world because too many human beings lived upon it. and caused h er to neel down beside me. a n old man. . and the Kali or Wic ed Age." .caused the deluge to be. the Treta Age. san down for a hundred Yojanas. Deucalion. There are four ages: the Krita or Perfect Age. Henceforth Pir-napishtim an d his wife will be li e unto deities. Bui ld a strong and massive ar . and furnish it with a long rope. . god of pestilence. [* 1] [p. and opened the well springs of heaven. It is related that Zeus said on one occasion to Hermes: "I will se nd a great rain. and when the waters e bbed the old couple descended the mountain and too up their abode in a cave. come and snatch off man ind. These correspond closely to the Gree a nd Celtic ages. let Ura. and it rained for forty days a nd forty nights continually". 196] In Indian mythology the world is destroyed by a flood at the end of each Age of the Universe. such as hath not been since the ma ing of the world. Suffering pain in all her limbs. Let the leopard come and men will decrease." For receiving with hospitable warmth these two gods in human guise. The violent and deceitful men of the mythical Bronze Age of Greece were destroye d by a flood. the foremost of the gods. Zeus instructed his host to build an ar of oa . the Dwapara Age. and he led forth my wife also. which is still called Naubandha (the harbour ). saying: 'In time past Pir-napishtim was a man. even me. . He s po e. the Earth in distress sought the protection of Narayana. . Manu was accompanied by seven rishis. . until it grounded on the highest pea of the Himavat. but be merciful and do not destroy all man ind. even us. . Let them dwell apart beyond the r iver mouths. 195] "Having pondered a time over these words. The Bronze fol perished: not even those who fled to the hilltops could escape. the coupl e entered the vessel and shut the door. . May there never again be a flood. . . "When the inc rease of population had been so frightful. Let the lion come and men will decrease. .' "Thereafter Bel carried me hither beyond the mouths of rivers. May there never agai n be a flood. and the wh ole race of men shall perish. The go d in fish shape informed him: "The time is ripe for purging the world.

then went forth and slew man ind on th e hills. They offered up a fish sacrifice in the boat and enraged the deity who visited them. was refused a chamber for herself in the ar ." Nu. which was flourishing about the time of the battle of Hastings. sent a great fire to burn up the world and its wic ed inhabitants. This pair escaped destruction. Cessair. his father. her father Bith. The Californian Indians had a flood legend. although the possibility that t hey were of Asiatic origin.In the Celtic (Irish) account of the flood. so as to escape the coming deluge with hi s wife Nena. her heart was rejoiced. In Brazil. and fled to the western borders of the world as advised by her idol. All of these perished on the hills except Fintan. Nata and Nena had been instructed to ta e with them one ear of maize only. the "human blood" in the "beer" being the blood of the slain corn god. she dr an thereof. she found the fields inundated. and the Athapascan Indians of the north-west professed to be descen                             . Thereafter Ra. Monan. It is probable that the flood legends of North and So uth America similarly reflected local phenomena. The Mexican deluge was caused by the "water sun". the giant. their heart is full of fear because of that which they said." The goddess Hathor-Se het. When Ra. and believed that the early race was diminutive. or of h is earthly representative. The god Titlacahuan instructed a man named Nata to ma e a boat by hollowing out a cypress tree. whi ch suggests that they were harvest spirits. caused a gr eat offering to be made to the goddess. grew old as an earthly ing. A flood legend among the Nahua tribes resembles closely the Babylonian story as told by Pir-napishtim. The survivors in addition to Cessair were. she rejoiced thereat. men began to mutter words against him. but two foundered before Ireland was reached. who was the god of primeval waters. and lived to see Partholon. and fifty women. owing to the meagre character of the available data." [*1] It is obvious that the Egyptian myth refers to the annual inundation of the Nile . "And the goddess c ame in the morning. which suddenly discharged the moisture it had been [p. the sun god. This drin was poured out during the night. she went about drun en and too no more cog nizance of men. Whether or not Mexican civilization. cannot be overlo o ed. 197] There is a deluge also in Egyptian mythology. All life was des troyed. arriving from Greece. the Eye of Ra. received any cultural stimulus from Asia is a questio n regarding which it would be unsafe to dogmatize. desiring to protect the remnant of humanity. Said Ra: "Behold men flee unto the hills. Fintan and Ladru. consisting of corn beer mixed with herbs and human blood. two other men. who slept on the crest of a great billow. granddaughter of Noah. 198] drawing from the earth in the form of vapour through long ages. [p. displaying as much indignation as did Bel when he discovered that Pir-napishtim had survived the great disaster . advised the wholesale destruction of man ind. [*4] Her fleet consisted of three ships. li e the American Mongoloid tribes. To extinguish the flames a magician caused so much rain to f all that the earth was flooded. the chief god. He called the gods toget her and said: "I will not slay them (his subjects) until I have heard what ye sa y concerning them.

for instance. and Shiva. including the doctrines of t he Transmigration of Souls and of the Ages of the Universe. the Babylonian Noah. for instance. which reache d its highest development in Indian. Certa in of the Aryan tribes. buried their dead in Varuna's "house of cl ay". and the "late comers" introduced new beliefs. and Mitra. but also eastward through Elam to the Iranian plateau and India. god of the dead. who lin s with Shamash. [*1] The various alien peoples. gatherer of the people." [* 1] The drift of Babylonian culture was not only directed westward towards the coast of Palestine. with which it agrees so closely in all t he main points. Thought was stimu lated rather than arrested by religious borrowing.             . Mr. Goddesses also rose into prominence. the fir e god.. Y ama was "the first man".dants of a family who escaped the deluge. however. and Celtic (Irish) mythologies. Other cultural influences were at wor . we re already declining in splendour. who resembles Ea-Oannes. According to Berosus the first creation w as a failure. As much may be inferred from the contrasting conceptions of the Patriarchs of Vedic and Sumerian mythologies. Yama never lost his o riginal character. where apparently the theory of cosmic periods had origin. In their Doctrine of the World's Ages or Yugas. Son of Vivasvat. Pir-napishtim. The American belief that the first beings who were created were unable to live o n earth was shared by the Babylonians. The Biblical account of the flood is familiar to readers. and subject to Brahma. junr. Him who searched and spied the path for many. 200] astronomical system which obtained in Babylonia. says Profe ssor Pinches. he set out on a journey over mount ains and across water to discover Paradise. Indeed. the s y and o cean god. who is an authority in this connection. who came under the spell of Babylonian modes of thought did not remain in a state of intellectual bondage. At the close of the Vedic period there were fresh invasions into middle I ndia. 199] comparison with the Babylonian account. deluge myths were widespread i n the "New World". and. He is a traveller in the Epics as in the Vedas. the Pa radise to which the Indian uncremated dead wal ed on foot. and the Vedic gods became minor deities. "a good subject for [p. Reference has already be en made to the resemblances between early Vedic and Sumerian mythologies. [* 1] Here we meet with the germs of the Doctrine of the World's Ages. When t he "new songs" of the Aryan invaders of India were being composed. These "late comers" had undoubtedly been influenced by Babyl onian ideas before they entered India. while a growing proportion cremated their dead and worshipped Agni. li e Gilgamesh. Gree . and from thence to Greece during the Phoenician period. Varuna. and the development of ideas regarding the mysteries of life and death proceeded apace in areas over which th e ritualistic and restraining priesthood of Babylonia exercised no sway. [*2] Him who along the mighty heights departed. "It forms". because the animals could not bear the light and they all died. and the semi-divine G ilgamesh appear to be represented in Vedic mythology by Yama. and from which it differs so much in many essential details. Robert Brown. we are forcibly reminded of the Euphratean ideas regarding space and time. He is lauded in the Vedic hymns as t he explorer of "the path" or "way" to the "Land of the Pitris" (Fathers). shows that the system by which the "Day of Brahma" was calculated in India rese mbles closely an [p. Vishnu.

li e the Babylonian Pir-napishtim. "reigns over a community wh ich may well have been composed of his own descendants. When the descendants of Yama reached Paradise they assumed shi ning forms "refined and from all taint set free". [*3] To Yama. To render them immortal. He sits below a tree. Yima then built a refuge in which man ind and the domesticated animals might find she lter during a terrible winter. instead of waiting Ahura's good time".Yama. being d eceived by the Daevas (demons). 202] Then the earth became abounding. he gives them to eat forbidden food. Yima resembles Mitra (Mithra). Three hundred years went past [p. the supreme god. [*2] In Persian mythology "Yima". Nor did men. Longer find them places in it. 14. Watcher over my Creation" by Ahura. Professor Moulton wonders if this story. for he lived yet longer than Adam. Varuna. "strongly tempts us to recognize the influence of the Babylonian Flood Legend. the first to brave Death's rapid rushing stream. ta es Mit ra's place in the Paradise of Ancestors beside Varuna. "The picture". who was also called Pitripati. Sir M. What was this forbidden food? May we connect it with another legend whereby. man ind was first cre ated?" Yima is punished for "presumptuously grasping at immortality for himself and man ind. floc s. Full of men. x. Mithra is to ma e men immortal by giving them to eat the fat of the Ur-Kuh. Full of floc s and full of cattle." [*1] The " Fimbul winter" of Germanic mythology is also recalled. the twin brother of Mitra. the first to point the road To heaven. 201] [paragraph continues] They are identical with the Persian Celestial twins. playing on a flute and drin ing the Soma drin which g ives immortality. [paragraph continues] The earth was thereafter cloven with a golden arrow. [*1] The Indian Yama. "o wed anything to Babylon?" Yima. He was appointed to be "Guardian. says Professor Moulton. 1. according to the Aryan legends adopted by Mithraism. Rigveda. be gifts and homage paid. "lord of the fathers". is also a revealer of the secrets of cr eation. herds of cattle. [*4] Yama and his sister Yami were the first human pair. with sacrifices worship. carries the noose associated with the god of death. Overseer. the primeval cow from whose slain body. on the suggestion of an evil power. mighty King. at the Regeneration. god of the s y and the de ep. Yima and Yimeh. which he endeavours to reconstruct. Monier Williams' Translation. [p. and welcome others to that bright abode. of birds. says Professor Moulton. in fact. dogs li ewise. Jac son's Translation. He was the first of men that died. Full of fires all bright and blazing. the King. Odin as s in one of the I celandic Eddic poems: What beings shall live when the long dread winter Comes o'er the people of earth? [*2]                             .

fair with orchard lawns And bowery hollows crowned with summer sea. of "the great world serpent" (Tiamat). and a Wolf Age which is to come "ere the world sin s". or any snow. but it lies Deep meadow'd. among other th ings. plunged them in pools of fire. earth sin s in the sea. which resembles the Gree "Islands of the Blessed". Pir-napishtim. There was no Heaven for the Babylonian dead. and the Indian "Put". he was a harvest spirit. [*4] [p. After the batt le of the gods and demons. Leaving. the attention of readers may be directed to the Babylonian conception of the Otherworld. they will tal . Apparently Gilgamesh could not join them there. or rain. All man ind were doomed to enter t he gloomy Hades of the Underworld. li e Nata of the Nahua tribes. a new world appears. green anew. or into places of horror swa rming with poisonous reptiles. on high the eagle Flies o'er the fell and catches fish. a land of dar ness. in the "Descent of Ishtar" and the Gilgamesh epic suggest that it resembled the hidden regions of the Egyptians. Nor ever wind blows loudly. His gods did not transport heroes and other favoured individua ls to a happy isle or isles li e those of the Gree s and Celts and Aryo-Indians. The fields will be sown and "Balder will [p. [*3] Only two human beings were permitted to reside on the Babylonian island paradise . without an y order. according to the Vala (prophetess). however. lamenting his fate. Ishtar was similarly tortured by the plague demon. however. The waters fall. and thrust them into cold outer dar ness where they gnashed their teeth. the many problems which arise from consideration of the Delug e legends and their connection with primitive agricultural myths.In another Eddic poem. The ref erences. situated in the western ocean. [paragraph continues] In time. and identical with the British [*2] island-valley of Avilion. These were Pir-napishtim and his wife. No detailed description of it has been found. who escaped destruction at the Flood. meantime. and where the light is dar ness". in which souls were tortured by demons who stabbed them. a Wind Age. and of the shadow of death. Namtar. the Voluspa. happy. the Teutonic Nifel hel. when she boldly enter                               . The sun is dar ened. 203] come" [*1]--apparently as Tammuz came. 204] This gloomy habitation of the dead resembles the Gree Hades. The association of Balder with corn sugge sts that. however. as dar ness itself. "the land of dar ness and the shadow of death . [paragraph continues] When the surviving gods return. the Vala tells of a Sword Age. as Job exclaimed in the hour of despa ir. I see uprising a second time Earth from the Ocean. and the Irish "Tir nan o g" or "Land of the Young". resides in an Island Paradi se. an Axe Age. Where falls not hail.

to obtain her share.i-gal. he was a gloomy. which was found among the Egyptian Tel-el-Amarna "Letters". . who m he placed as guardians at the various doors so as to prevent the escape of Ere sh. an d dragged her from her throne. And sore burden bear with tears. bondage and yearning Burden thee with bondage and tears. and was propitiated because he was dreaded. Nergal promises to honour her as she desired. and sent he r messenger. attended by the spirits of tempest. except Eresh. After a brief struggle. May madness and shrie ing." In other words. where many pious and orthodox wors hippers sought sepulture. . [*2] The Persephone of the Babylonian Underworld was Eresh." Nergal accepted these terms by issing the goddess. he spo e. weariness. Nergal made ready to cut off her head. 206] sand storm. .i-gal. the god of fertility and harvest: Trolls shall torment thee from morn till eve In the realms of the Jotun race. In the "Descent of Ishtar" the Babylonian Underworld is called Cuthah. Each day to the dwellings of Frost giants must thou Creep helpless. who was also calle d Allatu. Other sufferings were. giving thee the tablet of wisdom. This city had a famous cemetery. accompanied by his own group of fierce demons.ed the Babylonian Underworld to search for Tammuz. All the deities attended it. Then he went boldly towards the goddess. Tho u shalt be my lord and I will be thy lady. in store for her. after becoming her husband and equal. Affectionately drying her te ars. my brother! Let me spea to thee. too. who symbolized the destructi ve power of the sun and the [p. A myth. and disease. resembling those. pestilence. When Eresh. On thee I confer sovereignty over the wide earth." This appeal indicated that she desired to ransom her life--li e the hags in the European fol tales--so Nergal unloosed his hold. 205] [paragraph continues] She was unable to leave her gloomy Underworld. by standing up to receive him. se ts forth that on one occasion the Babylonian gods held a feast. and demanded that Nergal shou ld be delivered up to her so that he might be put to death. the inhabitants of the Indian Hell suffered endless and com plicated tortures.                               . [*1] In li e manner. The various deities h onoured Namtar.i-gal. saying: "Thou shalt now have from me what thou hast demanded duri ng these past months. she found herself over-po wered. The local god was Nergal. with which the giant maid in th e Eddic poem "S irnismal" was threatened when she refused to marry Frey. Thou shalt weeping have in the stead of joy. except Nergal. clutched her by the hair. vengeful deity. The storm god at onc e hastened to the Underworld. [p. creep hopeless of love. the plague demon Namtar.i-gal continued: "Be thou my husband and I will be thy wife.i-gal was informed of this slight she became very angry. perhaps. but she cried for mercy and said: "Do not ill me. li e Abydos in Egypt. no dou bt. Then Eresh.

digging down thr ough older layers. and invited the ghosts to share in the repast. In early times men believed that the spirits of the dead hovered in or about the place of sepultur e.In Nether Cuthah. Souls reach it by "the p ass of Yomi". These were then deserted and became the haunts of wild animals. &c. The enemies of the human ghosts were the earth spirits. in the same manne r as the living were protected in their houses above the ground. The primitive house-burial rite is referred to in the Ethiopic version of the li fe of Alexander the Great. ear-rings. 208]                       . the dead were interred in the houses in which they had lived--a custom which has made it possible for present-day sci entists to accumulate much valuable data regarding primitive races and their hab its of life. Prior to the period of ceremonial burials. it w ould appear. So long as corpses were left in their graves. Among the ancient Romans the primitive belief survived that the spirit of the de ad "just san into the earth where it rested. the dead who were not properly buried roamed thr ough the streets searching for food. Moslem s and Coptic Christians ali e hold annual all-night feasts in their cemeteries. the spirits of the dead were. The Japanese "Land of Yomi" is similarly an underworld. This custom was observed in Babylonia. he utilized some of these caves. against attac . and the dead were given food offerings at regular intervals. he has provided us with a lin between an old custom and a new. by the magical and protecting ornaments which were worn by the living--nec laces. The corpse was also charmed. armlets. as Ea-bani informed Gilgamesh. and returned from time to time to the upper world through certain openings in the ground (mundi). Food v essels and drin ing urns were therefore included in the funerary furniture. where gh osts mingle with the demons of disease and destruction. and constructed in them well-built graves for his dead. the worm devoured the dead amid st the dust and thic dar ness. But they required food and refreshment. believed to be safe. [*1] According to Babylonian belief. probably as a charm against the evil eye and other sub tle influences. Once a year the living held feasts in the burial ground. 207] privileged to ascend to heaven and join the gods in the "Eternal Land". In certain characteristic cav es the various layers containing human remains represent distinct periods of the vast Pleistocene Age. When Mediterranean man moved northward through Europe. Apparently he was influenced by lo cal practices and beliefs. eating refuse and drin ing impure water. It is evident that this Underworld was modelled on the grave. After a long i nterval a deserted cave was occupied by strangers. Even face paint was provided. may be [p. Weapons were laid beside the dead in their graves so that they might wage war against demons when necess ary. In thus ma ing a "house" within a "house". however. They were therefore provided with "houses" to protect them. for he met and mingled in certain localities with the men of the Late Palaeolithic Age. The [p. whose solemn unc overing was one of the regular observances of the festal calendar". The Palaeolithic cave-dwellers of Europe were buried in their caves . The Mi ado. or great grave. and is not yet obsolete in Egypt.

The souls of the dead found rest and enjoyment in the Paradise of Yama. which recalls the Valhal of Odin. whil e "those ings that yield up their lives. It contains. the priests secured great power over the people. In Egypt. 209] By disseminating the belief that the dead must be buried with much ceremony. may be compared to the Egyptian heaven of Osiris. [*1] In the Gilgamesh epic the only ray of hope which relieves the gloomy closing pas sages is Ea-bani's suggestion that the sufferings endured by the dead may be all eviated by the performance of strict burial rites." [*2] Gilgamesh Epic. over which Yama presided. as I have seen and you will see. remains of rood That are thrown in the street. 210] [paragraph continues] Paradise was not unconnected with the Tammuz-li e deity wh o too up his abode in the spirit land during the barren season. without turning their bac s on the fie ld of battle.'" When Alexander desired to ma e a gift to these Brahmans. In the sacred boo s of India a number of Paradises are referred to. and trees that yield fruits that are desired of them".                             . It will thus be seen that belief in immortality was a tenet of the Indian cults of Indra and Yama. . conversed with Brahm ans when he reached India. But he whose shade has no rest in the earth. "to the mansion of Indra". on the other hand. the teachers of the sun cult sold charms and receiv ed rewards to perform ceremonies so that chosen worshippers might enter the sunbarque of Ra. entered the Paradise of Varuna. their answer was.[paragraph continues] "Two-horned". His shade has no rest in the earth Whose shade no one cares for . and when any one of them dieth we bury him in the place wherein he lived. Thither go "all sinners amon g human beings. and also "sweet. "all inds of enjoyable articles". but receive a greater return for their labour. he eats. He spo e to one of them. The Indian "Land of the Pitris" (Ancestors). while the Osirian priests promised the just and righteous that the y would reach an agricultural Paradise where they could live and wor as on eart h. li e the Indian Yama who "searched and s pied the path for many". who resembles the Sumerian Ea-Oann es. w e are told. . floral wreaths of the most delicious fragrance. "saying: 'Have ye no tombs w herein to bury any man among ye who may die?' And an interpreter made answer to him. It is possible that the Gilgamesh epic in one of its forms concluded when the he ro reached the island of Pir-napishtim. and extracted large fees. attain". as the hero was called. however. [p. and arrive at maturity. . as also (those) that have died during the winter solstice" [*1]-a suggestion that this [p. agreeable and delicious edibles . Commenting on this point Prof essor Jastrow says: "A proper burial with an affectionate care of the corpse ens ures at least a quiet repose. and as ed them what they desired most. thus our graves are our houses. . No human bei ngs. the harvests of the Otherworld being of unequalled abundance. And our God noweth that we desire this more th an the lust for food and meat which all men have: this is our life and manner of living in the dar ness of our tombs. juicy. Such a one rests on a couch and drin s pure water. saying: 'Man and woman and child grow up. and becom e old. as the sage told a hero. What is left over in the pot. "Give us immortality".

genera lly blac and yellow. writes Mr. a garment.                                         . and sometimes standing on four feet. a bed. "when a corpse was laid in a g rave. when he lay asleep. [*2] To Jacob. "In [p. a bed. Other vessels were placed near the head. while the fee of his (the priest's) assistant was cut do wn from sixty to thirty measures of corn". On one occasion Jacob commanded his hous ehold to "put away the strange gods which were in their hand. These did not change greatly after the Neolithic period. Li e Ishtar. when she descended to Hades. li e one of the Seven Sleepers. and not awa e again un til he arrived as a child in his crescent moon boat--"the sun en boat" of the hy mns--li e Scef. made of al abaster. The bodies of the dead we re laid on their sides in crouching posture. was also placed near his head. their teachings mus t have been suppressed by the mercenary priests." writes Mr. no doubt. these were worn by the living as charms. with a "bea er". [*1] The conservative element in Babylonian religion is reflected by the burial custo ms. Perhaps the great thin ers. where the degree of suffering which they endured depended on the manner in which their bodies were disposed or upon earth. often of graceful shape. Of course. personal ornaments had quite evidently an idolatrous sig nificance. a id. 212] [paragraph continues] King. As has been indicated. The re is no doubt as to their use. who came over the waves to the land of the Scyldings? It seems remar able that the doctrine of Eternal Bliss. . eighty loaves of b read. and armlets. . believed in a Heaven for the just and good. If they did. [p. No doubt. an incident of this character occurred also in the original Ta mmuz legend. This charm-wearing custo m was condemned by the Hebrew teachers. The corpse was always dec ed with various ornaments. it had been the custom for the presiding priest to demand as a fee for him self seven urns of wine or strong drin . the Ki ng of Erech could not return to earth until he had been sprin led by the water o f life. and a seat. Prehistoric Sumeria n graves resemble closely those of pre-Dynastic Egypt. the ill-fated patesi of Lagash. but sometimes a light rose and light green. including rings. 211] the case of an ordinary burial. .The view may be urged that in the Gilgamesh epic we have a development of the Ta mmuz legend in its heroic form. or colour dishes." The reformer reduced the perquisites to "three urns of wine. An orthodox fu neral ceremony was costly at all times. Did h e slumber. our nowledge in this connection is derived from t he orthodox religious texts. they served the same purpose for the dead. and a id." Palettes for face paint have also been found in many early Egyptian graves. which obtained in Egypt on the one hand and in India on the other. or "drin ing cup" urn. four hundred and twenty loaves of bread . beside the right hand. in Ea's house. one hundred and twenty measures of corn. whose influence can be traced in the tendencies towards monotheism which became mar ed at various perio ds. It was extremely profitable for these priests to perpetuate the belief that the spirits of the dead were consig ned to a gloomy Hades. W hen he came to the throne he cut down the burial fees by more than a half. an d. nec laces. and all the ear-ri ngs which were in their ears. This is made evident by the inscriptions which record the social reforms of Uru agina. should never have been developed amon g the Babylonians. "consisted of palettes. King. and Jacob buried them under the oa which was by S hechem". "A very typical class of grave furniture". The life of the god had to be renewed before he could return. In this con nection it may be noted that the magic food prepared for Gilgamesh by Pir-napish tim's wife. for colour still remains in many of them.

Weapons and implements were also laid in the Sumerian graves. Magical ceremonies were performed in Babylonian reed huts. [*1] As priests and gods were clad in the s ins of animals from which their powers were derived. round and flat-bottomed. In the course of the daily service in the Egyptian temples an important ceremony was "dressing the god with white. perched alone On a chilly old grey stone. which is referred to by Scott in his "Lady of the La e". green. [*2] Apparently the "paste". nibbling at a bone That we'll maybe throw away. and tombs as e arly as the First Dynasty. being guarded against bad luc . which was ornamented with charm s. ins tead [p.The gods had their faces painted li e the living and the dead and were similarly adorned with charms. have direct analogies in Babylonia. As we have see n. and dar -red sashes. Certain designs on wooden coffins. [*3]                                           . [*1] Elisha b ecame a prophet when he received Elijah's mantle. appear "adorned with celesti al garlands and perfumed with celestial scents and besmeared with paste of celes tial fragrance". Some bodies which were laid in Sumerian graves were wrapped up in reed matting. This was a form of the Taghairm ceremony. "Bring hither the epho d". [*2] Sometimes the bodies of the Sumerians were placed in sarcophagi of clay. the Adityas. Ea revealed the "purpose" of the gods. A painted man was probably regarded as one who was li ely to have good luc . [*2] The belief in the magical influence of sacred clothing gave origin to the priestly robes. bright-red. [*1] In the word-picture of the Aryo-Indian Varuna's heaven in the Mahabhar ata the deity is depicted "attired in celestial robes and dec ed with celestial ornaments and jewels". In Syria it was customa ry to wrap the dead in a sheep s in. [p. while the later was the "slipper-shaped coffin". The H ighland seer was wrapped in a bull's s in and left all night beside a stream so as to obtain nowledge of the future. a custom which suggests that the reeds afforded protection or imparted magical p owers. 213] of returning to disturb the living as they searched for the remnants of the feas t. by addressing the reed hut in which Pir-napishtim lay asleep. When Dav id desired to ascertain what Saul intended to do he said. li e the Scottish Gunna. had protective qualities. it is probable that the de ad were similarly supposed to receive inspiration in their s in coverings. 214] Then he came to now that his enemy had resolved to attac Keilah. and supplying two inds of ointment and blac and green eye pai nt". His attendants. The Picts of Scotland may have sim ilarly painted themselves to charm their bodies against magical influences and t he weapons of their enemies. There is a close resemblance between the "bath-tub" coffins of Sumeria and th e Egyptian pottery coffins of oval shape found in Third and Fourth Dynasty tombs in roc chambers near Nuerat. li e the face paint of the Babylon ians and Egyptians. indicating a belie f that the spirits of the dead could not only protect themselves against their e nemies but also provide themselves with food. when they resolved to send a flood. Nibbling. Possibly it was beli eved that the dead might also have visions in their dreams which would reveal th e "purpose" of demons who were preparing to attac them. The funerary gifts of fish-hoo s s uggests that spirits were expected to catch fish and thus obtain clean food. with a rounded lid. The ear lier type was of "bath-tub" shape.

[*2] deals with a war waged by an ancient ing agai nst a horde of evil spirits. or below temples. for he routed the supernatural army. W. Blest be the man that spares these stones. it was a common custom to brea open the tombs and scatter th e bones they contained. This archaic belief was widespread. So he prepared for the conflict. and too [p. but "none r eturned alive". or in trenches outside the city walls. and earth is being heaped over them. and had fune ral lamentations li e the Egyptians". King to have no connection with the struggle betw een Merodach and the dragon. and all had been "suc led by Tiamat". and finds an echo in the quaint lines over Sha espeare's grave in Stratford church: Clic to enlarge SLIPPER-SHAPED COFFIN MADE OF GLAZED EARTHENWARE (British Museum) Photo. led by "the lord of heights. 216] the precaution of performing elaborate and therefore costly religious rites so a s to secure the co-operation of the gods. they will then eat and live. the dead bodies on the battlefield are piled up in pairs quite na ed. So lo ng as the bones were undisturbed. he recorded his great victory on tablets which were placed in the shrine of Nergal at Cuthah. lord of the Anuna i (e arth spirits)". Ishtar o nce uttered the terrible threat: "I will cause the dead to rise. On the "stele of victory". The demons that plagued the dead might also attac the living. others had "raven faces"." When a foreign co untry was invaded.                                   . but mutilated and left for birds and be asts of prey to devour. Probably it was believed. for Jesus' sa e forbeare To dig the dust enclosed heare. It is significant to find in this connection that the bodies of enemies who were slain in battle were not given decent burial. The coffins were usually laid in bric v aults below dwellings. And curst be he that moves my bones. 215] Good friend. when such acts of vandalism we re committed. L. which used to be referred to as the "Cuthean Legend of Creation". Mansell [p. that the offended spirits would plague their insfol . which belongs to the period of Eannatum. [*1] a nd has been shown by Mr. [*4] The custom of preserving the body in this manner does not appear to have been an ancient one. In Babylonia the return of the spirits of the dead was greatly dreaded. and were as malignant as demons. His expedition was successful. the spirit was supposed to be assured of rest in the Underworld.No great tombs were erected in Sumeria. On his return home. For three years the ing sent out great armies to attac the demons. patesi of La gash. Some of the supernatural warriors had bodies li e birds. According to Herodotus the Babylonians "buried their dead in honey. and may have resulted f rom cultural contact with the Nile valley during the late Assyrian period. A fragmentary nar rative. this is a specimen of mound burial. The dead will be more numerous than the living. Ghosts alwa ys haunted the homes they once lived in. Then he decided to go forth himself to save his country from des truction.

141. ^203:2 Celtic Myth and Legend. pp.). ^200:3 Professor Macdonell's translation. 150 (1811 ed.i-gal. Profes sor Pinches in The Old Testament in the Light of the Historical Records and Lege nds of Assyria and Babylonia. Pir-napishtim. p. ^196:4 Boo of Leinster. ^196:3 Indian Myth and Legend. O. 38-42. 150-1. pp. O. 42. and other vols. W. 334-5. iv). H. pp. ^202:1 Early Religious Poetry of Persia. chap. 291 et seq. p. ^198:1 Pinches' The Religion of Babylonia and Assyria.This myth may be an echo of Nergal's raid against Eresh. p. Hutchinson. L. Bray. Bray. ^203:1 The Elder Edda. H. it may have been composed to encourage burial in that city's s acred cemetery. ^195:1 The Muses' Pageant. pp. as the lines are mutil ated. 29. pp. ^196:2 Vana Parva section of the Mahabharata (Roy's trans. Moulton. His message was conveyed to this man in a dream. M. vol. x.). W. i. Wiedemann. L. Footnotes ^190:1 Ea addresses the hut in which his human favourite. ^203:3 Tennyson's The Passing of Arthur. ^199:1 The problems involved are discussed from different points of view by Mr. ^200:1 Primitive Constellations. ^201:1 "Varuna. 55. and Keating's History of Ireland. being associ ated with Cuthah. 41 et seq. 425. p. pp. Or. Bray. ^202:2 The Elder Edda.). Sabha Parva section of the Mahabharata (Roy's trans. 133 et seq. slept. King in Babylonian Religion (Boo s on Egypt and Chaldaea. the deity bearing the noose as his weapon". J. ^200:2 Indian Myth and Legend. ^203:4 Job.           . ^204:1 The Elder Edda. 5 et seq. p. ^191:1 The second sentence of Ea's speech is conjectural. pp. which had been cleared by the famous old ing of the evil demons which tormented the dead and made seasonal attac s against the living. 1-22. pp. vol. iii. ^201:2 Indian Myth and Legend. O. p. ^196:1 Indian Myth and Legend. ^200:4 Indian Wisdom. 107 et seq. pp. 58 et seq. ^197:1 Religion of the Ancient Egyptians. and 154 e t seq.

^214:3 The Burial Customs of Ancient Egypt. The Taghairm called. ^212:2 Sabha Parva section of the Mahabharata (Roy's trans. 28. 198. by Donald A. ^213:1 Egyptian Myth and Legend. The conversation possibly never too place. ^215:2 L. 50. W. ii. pp. ^207:1 The Religion of Ancient Rome. 13-15. His Brahmans evidently believed that immortality was de nied to ordinary men. 2-4. Roy 's translation. pp. . 1 907). ^208:2 Aspects of Religious Belief and Practice in Babylonia and Assyria. and reserved only for the ing. W.. of course. King's The Seven Tablets of Creation. 72. at sacred-texts. xxiii. p. 214. 217] [ch-10] CHAPTER X              . 29. M. ^211:2 Genesis. p. pp. p. Morris Jastrow. L. . King. 109 et seq. [1915]. Flinders Petrie. ^214:1 1 Samuel. pp. i. boo i. 326. but it is of interest in so far as it reflects beliefs which were familiar to the auth or of this ancient wor . who was the representative of the deity. pp. p. pp. xix. vol. p. ^208:1 The Life and Exploits of Alexander the Great (Ethiopic version of the Pse udo Callisthenes). W.^204:2 Indian Myth and Legend. by which afar Our sires foresaw the events of war. ^211:1 A History of Sumer and A ad. 358-9. 149 et seq. 19 and 2 Kings. and (new series). Cyril Bailey. 29 (London. ^209:1 The Mahabharata (Sabha Parva section). John Garstang. 181-2. Myths of Babylonia and Assyria. 9-11. ^214:4 Herod. ^212:1 The Religion of Ancient Egypt. . ^214:2 1 Kings. MacKenzie. Duncraggan's mil -white bull they slew. ^213:2 Canto iv:-Last eventide Brian an augury hath tried. . . xxxv.). xi.. 133-4. 25-7. ^215:1 Records of the Past (old series). pp. com [p.

"While such is its size. who. and may have been little better than a great village when A ad rose into prominence. it was invaria bly found to be the most effective centre of administration for the lower TigroEuphrates valley. Once Babylon became the metropolis it retained its pre-eminence until the end. and for a time it appeared as if the intrud ers from the East were to establish themselves permanently as a military aristoc racy over Sumer and A ad. showed a preference for Nippur. but no r ival city in the south ever attained to its splendour and greatness. so as to secure treasure for Ea's temple at Eridu. His vandalistic raid. 218] the "driving power" which secured the ascendancy of the Hammurabi Dynasty at Bab ylon. Warad-Sin and his brother Rim-Sin. It had been paraly sed by the Elamites. Streets. Sargon I. appears to have inter ested himself in its development. Gates. successfully overran the southern district and endeavoured to extend their sway over the who le valley. and the city god was invo ed at the time t o cut short his days. and had a circumference of sixty of our miles. Some of the Kassite monarchs. The city occupied a strategic position. the ruling family which came into prominence there is believed to have been of Canaanitic origin. Considerable wealth had accumulated at Babylon when the Dynasty of U r reached the zenith of its power. it occupied an exact square on the broad plain. Of its early history little is nown. while it supplied [p. E-sagila. THE rise of Babylon inaugurated a new era in the history of Western Asia. Whether its throne was occupied by Amorite or Kassite. li e that of the Gutium. although it was probably not of such great dimensions. It is recorded that King Dungi plundered its famous "Temple of the High Head".Buildings and Laws and Customs of Babylon Decline and Fall of Sumerian Kingdoms--Elamites and Semites strive for Supremacy --Babylon's Walls. It was over-shadowed in turn by Kish and U mma." the historian wrote. with the result that ethnic disturbances were constant and widespread. struggled with the rulers of Babylon for supremacy. 219] [paragraph continues] According to Herodotus. which he specially f avoured. This migration is termed the Canaanitic or Amorite: it flowed into Mesopotamia and across Assy ria. was reme mbered for long centuries afterwards. which some identify with the Tower o f Babel. Coinci dentally the political power of the Sumerians came to an end. for it was recorded that he cleared its trench es and strengthened its fortifications. M any political changes too place during its long and chequered history. Two Elamite ings. or men of Kutu. "in magnificence there is no other city that approac                         . [p. Lagash and Erech. however. towards the close of the Dynasty of Isin. No doubt. Indeed. and Canals--The Hanging Gardens--Merodach's G reat Temple--The Legal Code of Hammurabi--The Marriage Mar et--Position of Women --Marriage brought Freedom--Vestal Virgins--Breach of Promise and Divorce--Right s of Children--Female Publicans--The Land Laws--Doctors legislated out of Existe nce--Fol Cures--Spirits of Disease expelled by Magical Charms--The Legend of th e Worm--"Touch Iron"--Curative Water--Magical Origin of Poetry and Music. But the Semites were strongly reinforced by new settl ers of the same blended stoc who swarmed from the land of the Arno-rites. Once again Arabia was pouring into Syria vast hordes of its surplus population. and probably assumed importance on that account as well as a trading and industr ial centre. Hammurabi's Babylon closely resembled the later city so vividly descri bed by Gree writers. Assyrian or Chaldean. the royal gardener.

As fast as they dug the moat the soil which they got from the cutting was ma de into bric s. As there were twenty-five gates on each side of th e outer wall. So deep were the layers of mould on each terra ce that fruit trees were grown amidst the plants of luxuriant foliage and the br illiant Asian flowers. Wallcousins. which had to be ferried. and it was prevented from lea ing out of the soil by layers of reeds and bitum en and sheets of lead. rose up li e a giant stairway to a height of about three hund red and fifty feet. On the top. each over two miles in circumference. to open before him the two leaved gates." Its walls were eighty-seven feet thic and three hundred and fifty f eet high. Curtius. nearly half o f the area occupied by the city was ta en up by gardens within the squares. The ing's palace and the temple of Bel Merodach were surrounded by walls.hes to it. and according to Q. Then they set to building. Great stone terraces. resting on arches. along the edges of the wall. 220] inferior in strength. [*2] The outer wall was the main defence of the city. were constructed in the spaces between the arches and were festooned by floweri ng creepers. they constructed buildings of a single chamber facing one another. I will brea in pieces the gates of brass. the great thoroughfares numbered fifty in all. and ma e the croo ed places st raight." [*1] These were the gates referred to by Isaiah when God called Cyrus: I will loose the loins of ings. broad canal or moat. after which they proceeded to construct the wall itself. and the whole structure was strengthened by a surrounding wa ll over twenty feet in thic ness. In the circuit of the wall are a hundr ed gates. and there were six hundred and seventy-six squares. Clic to enlarge NEBUCHADNEZZAR IN THE HANGING GARDENS From the Painting by E. suggesting that the tenement system was not un nown. using throughou t for their cement hot bitumen. Spacious apartments. leaving between th em room for a four-horse chariot to turn. The whole cit y was surrounded by a deep. continued Herodotus. and th e gates shall not be shut: I will go before thee. and cut in sunder the bars of iron. and interposing a layer of wattled reeds at ever y thirtieth course of the bric s. These occupied a square which was more than a quarter of a mile in circumference. a distance of fifteen miles. "I may not omit to tell the use to which the mould dug out of the great moat was turned. "Here". all of brass. From Hero dotus we gather that the houses were three or four stories high. A broad stairway ascended from terrace to terrace. In Gree times Babylon was famous for the hanging or terraced gardens of the "ne w palace". and each side of the square was fifteen miles in length. luxuriously furnished and decorated. In addition. All the main streets were perfectly straight. with brazen lintels and side posts. which had been erected by Nebuchadnezzar II. half of them being interrupted by the ri ver. and each crossed the city from gat e to gate. nor the manner in which the wall was wroug ht. a fortress stood in each division of the city .                                         . Water for irrigating the gardens was raised from the rive r by a mechanical contrivance to a great cistern situated on the highest terrace . and began with bric ing the borders of th e moat. and the river Euphrates ran thr ough it. but there was also an inner wal l less thic but not much [p. and when a sufficient number were completed they ba ed the bric s in ilns.

of which an almost complete copy was discovered at Susa. who. and the throne whereon it sits. which is offered to the amount of a thousand talents' weight. on which it is only lawful to offer suc lings. In Hammurabi's time the river was crossed by ferry boats. [p. and at the top of 5 ft. "there w as a tower of solid masonry. The laws were inscribed on a stele of blac diorite 7 ft. . richly adorne d. and inside the temple stands a couch of unusual size. Outside the temple are two alta rs. that most of the existing ruins date from the period of Nebuchadnezzar II. So completely did the fi erce Sennacherib destroy the city." A woman who was the "wife of Amon" also slept in that god's temple at Thebes in Egypt. In the time of Cyrus there was li ewise in this tem ple a figure of a man. "there is a second temple. one of solid gold. 221] The old palace stood in a square nearly four miles in circumference. 4 in. the priests of this god. This impo rtant relic of an ancient law-abiding people had been bro en in three pieces. and was str ongly protected by three walls. upon which was rai sed a second tower. 3 in. there are a large number of private offer ings in this holy precinct. . It is also on the great altar that the Chaldaeans burn the fran in cense. There is no statue of any ind set up in the place. with a circumference at the base of 6 ft.[p. A great dam had been formed above the town to store the surplus water during inu ndation and increase the supply when the river san to its lowest. are li ewise of pure gold. Another architectural feature of the city was E-sagila. On the topmost tower there is a spac ious temple. "In the middle of the precinct". 222] the other. the temple of Bel Meroda ch. by the De Morgan expeditio n." continued Herodotus. at the festival of the god. where persons are wont t o sit some time on their way to the summit. and when Babylon was besi eged the people were able to feed themselves. and the base on which the th rone is placed. A similar custom was observed in Lycia. with a golden table by its side. The ascent to th e top is on the outside. nor is the chamber occupied of nights by anyone but a single native woma n. in the same precinct. Before the figure stands a large golden table. Besides the ornaments which I have mentioned. and canals also controlled the flow of the river Euphrates. [*2] Our nowledge of the social life of Babylon and the territory under its control is derived chiefly from the Hammurabi Code of laws. on which the full-grown animals ar e sacrificed. one finds a resting-place and seats. The high wall which enclosed it had gates of solid brass. towards the end of 1901. is chosen for himsel f by the deity out of all the women of the land. . nown to the Gree s as "Jupiter-Belus". by a path which winds round all the towers. all of gold." [*1] The city wall and river gates were closed every night. and so on up to eight. high. a furlong in length and breadth. every year. representing battle scenes and scenes of the chase and royal ceremonies. When one is about halfway up. i n which is a sitting figure of Jupiter. . wrote Herodotus. entirely of solid gold. The gardens and small farms were i rrigated by canals. but long ere the Gree s visited the city a great bridge had been constructed. as the Chaldaeans. . affirm. bu t when these                         . twelve cubits high. 2 in. and on that a third. but of great size. Winge d bulls with human heads guarded the main entrance. which were decorated by sculptures in low relief . a common altar. "Below. .

at the summit of E-sagila. Sometimes the accused was given t he alternative of paying a fine. and the heirs of a man slain by a brigand within the city had to be compe nsated by the local authority. high officials and administrators. Thieves included those who made purchases from minors or slav es without the sanction of elders or trustees. a man who gave false evidence in connection with a capital cha rge was put to death.Clic to enlarge STELE OF HAMMURABI. evidence was ta en in court. Theft was regarded as a heinous crime. Witnesses were required to t ell the truth. which Herodotus described as follows: "Once a year in each village the maidens of age to marry were collected all together into one place. and offered the             . while the men stood round t hem in a circle. but have shaven lips and chins. Originally there were in a ll nearly 4000 lines of inscriptions. and the slaves. "affirming before the god what they new". the free men. by whom he is bei ng presented with the stylus with which to inscribe the legal code. Giraudon [p. but five columns. the sun god Shamash. which included land-owners. which is now one of the treasures of the Louvre. The god wears a conical he address and a flounced robe suspended from his left shoulder. while the ing has assumed a round dome-shaped hat and a flowing garment which almost sweeps the g round. Lawsuits were heard in courts. It was imperative that lo st property should be restored. and was invariably [p. When it happened that the s eller was proved to have been the thief. It is gathered from the Code that there were three chief social grades--the aris tocracy. If the owner of an article of which he had been wrongfully deprived found it in possession of a man who declared that he had pur chased it from another. it is conjectured. the capital penalty was imposed. The fi nes imposed for a given offence upon wealthy men were much heavier than those im posed upon the poor. A strict watch was also ept over the judges. had been erased to give space. comprising about 300 lin es. Then a herald called up the damsels one by one. 224] punished by death. On the other hand. Compensation for property stolen by a brigand was paid by the t emple. with his right hand reverently upraised. for the name of the invade r who carried the stele away. 223] were joined together it was found that the text was not much impaired. King Hammurabi salutes. and if one w as found to have willingly convicted a prisoner on insufficient evidence he was fined and degraded. In this connection reference may first he made to the marriage-by-auction custom. On one si de are twenty-eight columns and on the other sixteen. Paris) Photo. On the upper part of the stele. who might be wealthy merchants or small landholders. Of special interest are the laws which relate to the position of women. Both figures are heavily bearded. WITH ''CODE OF LAWS'' (Louvre. but unfortunately the record was never made. which might exceed by ten or even thirty fold t he value of the article or animal he had appropriated. and perjurers were sev erely dealt with. the alleged purchaser was dealt with in li e manner if he failed to prove his case. Paris. seated on his throne.

If. The amount of the "bride price" might. and he also provided a dowry. whi ch was reputed to have entered Italy with Antenor after the fall of Troy. however. 225] damsels. aft er marriage she was nown as the daughter of so and so rather than the wife of s o and so. in the Royal Holloway College. But marriage brought her freedom and the rights of citizenship. part of whose estate in the event of his wife's death could be claimed by his master.A. and she could not marry without his consent. it turned out that they did not agre e. be refunded to the young couple to give them a start in life. Hero dotus understood that it obtained also in "the Illyrian tribe of the Eneti". which reveals a curious blending of the principles of "Father rig ht" and "Mother right". who were indifferent about beauty. and thus the fairer maidens portioned out the uglier. And the man who offered to ta e the smallest sum had her as signed to him. as ing who would agree to ta e her with the smalle st marriage portion. but it is impossible to ascertain at what period it became prevalent in Babylonia and by whom it was introduced. if there chanced to be o ne--and offer her to the men. There is no direct reference to the custom in the H ammurabi Code. No one w as allowed to give his daughter in marriage to the man of his choice. and she always remained a member of his family. 226] his daughter. A girl was subject to her father's will. the man "loo ed upon another woman". R. When she was sold for no small sum of money. A girl might also obtain a limited degree of freedom by ta ing vows of celibacy                         . he should then call up the ugliest--a cripple. he forfeited the "bride price" for breach of promise of marriage. and said to his father-in-law. He began with the most beautiful. That this law did not prevent "love matches" is made evident by the fact that provision was made in t he Code for the marriage of a free woman with a male slave. even from distant vil lages. and ha s been identified with the Venetians of later times. the b eautiful damsels. however.m for sale. But the ethnic clue thus af forded is exceedingly vague. the money might be paid bac .. the father fixed the "bride price". he could dispos e of her as he thought best. All of th em were sold to be wives. nor might anyone carry away the damsel whom he had purchased without finding bail really a nd truly to ma e her his wife. during the interval between betrothal and marriag e. For the custom was that when the herald had gone through the whole number o f the beautiful Clic to enlarge THE BABYLONIAN MARRIAGE MARKET From The Painting by Edwin Long. [p. The richest of the Babylonians who wished to wed bid a gainst each other for the loveliest maidens. The marriage portions were furnished by the money paid for. A father had the right to select a suitable spouse for [p. too the more homely damsels with marriage porti ons. while the humbler wife-see ers. The po wer vested in her father was never transferred to her husband. he offered for sale the one who came next to her in beauty. and bid for the women." [*1] This custom is mentioned by other writers. All who li ed might come. if. When a betrothal was arranged. which was pai d over before the contract could be concluded. "I will n ot marry your daughter".

as she might do to obtain the legal status of a married woman and enjoy the privileges of that position. however. "If". 227] legal limitations. the children could have no claim. Children were the heirs of their parents. but if a man during his lifetime gifte d his property to his wife. The freedom secured by a married woman had its [p. Punishments for breaches of the marriage law were s evere. In cases where no plea of poverty c ould be urged the erring women were drowned. she is liable to be p ut to death.               . she denied her husband conjugal rites. The husband could enter into possession of all his property again if he happened to return home. she was acquitted and allowed to return to her husband after his release. In ordinary cases the children of a first marriage shared equally the esta te of a father with those of a second marriage. but provided him with a concubine who might bear him children. but she could not will any portion of it to her brot hers. and the widow was entitled to leave her estate to those of her children she preferred. b ut "the concubine". If a slave bore children to her employer. the guilty parties were bound together and thrown into the river. Incompatibility of temperament was also recognized as sufficient reason for separation. live a life of entire seclusion. she divorced her husband. she was entitled to have her dowry refunded and to return to he r father's house. Divorce was easily obtained. She was not. If she became a widow. If it happened. for instance. But if she is found to h ave another lover. Apparently she could claim maintenance from her father. as Sarah did to Abraham. A married woman possessed her own property. These nuns must not be confused with the unmoral women who were associated with the temples of Ishtar and other love goddesses of shady repute. If she r eceived her due proportion of her father's estate. for instance. and confirmed it on "a sealed tablet". who were attached to the temple of the sun god. Indeed. to whom she was expected to show good cause for th e step she proposed to ta e. or nuns. but a man could have more than one wife. and is neglected by her husband who has deserted her".and becoming one of the vestal virgins. the Code lays down. she could ma e business inves tments within certain limits. therefore. their right to inheritance depended on whether or not the father had r ecognized them as his offspring during his lifetime. A father might legally diso wn his son if the young man was guilty of criminal practices. allowed to own a winesh op. He might marry a secondary wife. In su ch circumstances a man could not divorce his sic ly wife. and is guilty of neglecting her duties. The wife of a soldier who had been ta en prisoner by an enemy was entitled to a third part of her husband's estate if her son was a minor. she can claim release from the marriage contract. If she married. however. because he was without offspring. and if she even entered one she was burned at the sta e. the Code sets forth. the value of her marriage do wry was always vested in her. [p. She did not. that the wife of a prisoner went to reside with another man on account of poverty. or concubine. the remainder was held in trust. or was divorced by him. Another reason for second marriage recognized by law was a wife's state of health. 228] A woman could have only one husband. A woman might hate her husband and wish to leave him. "she is careful and is without blame. When. Adultery was a capital crime. A husband might send his wife away either because s he was childless or because he fell in love with another woman. "shall not ran with the wife". He had to support her in his house as long as she lived. Once she too these vows she had to observe them until the end of her days. she could not remarry wi thout the consent of a judge.

She could will her estate to anyon e she favoured.                   . when the value of the silver by "grand weight" was below the price of corn . Men who were negligent abou t controlling the water supply. but to other causes. A te nant who allowed his sheep to stray on to a neighbour's pasture had to pay a hea vy fine in corn at the harvest season. 230] shortage was not due to the neglect of the tenant. The rent paid was a proportion of the crop. there is no ref erence to male wine sellers. and i n every case it was necessary that a proper record should be made on clay tablet s. Women appear to have monopolized the drin traffic. but if she died intestate her brothers were her heirs. The fields or gardens might be wor ed d uring her lifetime by her brothers if they paid rent. and no i nterest was paid for borrowed money even if the farm suffered from the depredati ons of the tempest god. If she had receive d no dowry from her father when she too vows of celibacy. however. and caused floods by opening irrigation ditches which damaged the crops of their neighbours. Any man who "pointed the finger" against them unjustifiab ly was charged with the offence before a judge. Gardeners were similarly subject to strict laws. As a rule a dishonest tenant or trader had to pay sixfold the value of the su m under dispute if the judge decided in court against his claim. or she might employ a mana ger on the "share system". Allowance was also mad e for poor harvests. As much may be inferred from the fact that when she was found g uilty of allowing rebels to meet in her house. 229] against the slanderer. but if it occurred before the corn was reaped the landlord's share was calculated in p roportion to the amount of the yield which was recovered. therefore. When. had to pay for the losses sustained . At any rate. The land laws were strict and exacting. It was not difficult. Damage done to fields by floods after the rent was paid was borne by the cultivator. she could claim after his death one-third of the portion of a son. so tha t a careless or inefficient tenant had to bear the brunt of his neglect or want of s ill. A female publican had to conduct her business hones tly. much in excess of the value of the grass cropped by his sheep. even sla ves were protected.The legal rights of a vestal virgin were set forth in detail. the damages being estimated according to the average yield of a district. but th e proportion could be fixed according to the average yield of a district. were not exempted from their legal liabil ities. A tenant could be penalized for not cult ivating his holding properly. and was bound to accept a legal tender. and their whole estates could be sold to reimburse their creditors. she was put to death. The industrious were protected against the careless. who could sentence him to have h is forehead branded. she was prosecuted and punished by being thrown into the water. and this applied even to a m an who leased unreclaimed land which he had contracted to cultivate. how ever. The punishment for allowing a field to lie fallow was to ma e a man ho e and sow it and then hand it over to his landlord. All busin ess contracts had to be conducted according to the provisions of the Code. her estate consisted of fields or gardens allotted to her by her father. s he could not disinherit her legal heirs. in ancient Babylonia to di scover the men who made malicious and unfounded statements regarding an innocent woman. Vestal virgins and married women were protected [p. the moneylender had to share ris s with borrowers. If she refused corn and demanded si lver. Tenan ts who neglected their dy es. Perhaps she wa s simply duc ed. when the [p. Assaults on women were punished according to the victim's ran .

and juniper berries. For d ropsy and heart troubles. was ta en with the organic substances found in farmyards. A medical man who has investigated this interesting subject in the Scottis h Highlands has shown that "the simple observation of the people was the startin g-point of our fuller nowledge. Ancient cures for indigestion are still in use. or have nown anyone wh o has suffered from it. and if a slave lost his eye. No doubt patients received some benefit from exposure in the streets in the sunl ight and fresh air. A doctor's hands were cut off if he opened a wound with a metal nife and his patient afterwards died. however. to find H erodotus stating bluntly that the Babylonians had no physicians. It is not surprising. a commoner received sixty lashes. however complete we may esteem it to be". the doctor had to pay half the man's mar et value to t he owner.The law of an eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth was strictly observed in Ba bylonia. A shrewd farmer who was threatened with the loss of an animal must hav e been extremely anxious to engage the services of a surgeon. These discoveries of the ancient fol s have been "merely elaborated in later days". No allowance was made for what is nowadays nown as a "professional e rror". who have received them interwoven in their immemorial tradit ions. commoners three she els. quite effective treatment was occasionally given . which was a remedy for chest troubles. Gentlemen had to pay five she els of silver to a doctor who set a bone or restored disease d flesh. recommending him to do whatever th ey found good in their own case. ammonia. "When a man is ill". he had a bone bro en. or in the case nown to them. 232] that they were numerous. [p. A slave who died under a doctor's hands had to be replaced by a slave. broom tops. and the passers-by come up t o him. A slave might have his e ars cut off for assaulting his master's son. are "the most reliable medicines in our scien tific armoury at the present time". It is improbable. too. and it was not ove rgenerous. The ris s they ran in Babylonia may account for their u ltimate disappearance in that country. "they lay him in the public square. especially for those of a consumptive nature. which have reputations "as old as the hills". for in stance. For stri ing a gentleman. although the "medicines" were exceedingly repugnant as a rule. after reviewing this part of the Hammurabi Code. "Tar water. and masters for their slaves two she els. Professional fees were fixed according to a patient's ran ." On e might imagine that Hammurabi had legislated the medical profession out of exis tence. 231] ris y one. it was also "the fa                                               . when a slave was injured. they give him advice. has endless imitations in our day". he wrote. from some of the old wives' remedies which were gratuitously prescribed by passers-by. Doctors must have found their profession an extremely [p. and no one is all owed to pass the sic man in silence without as ing him what his ailment is. Fines were imposed. In Egypt. and perhaps. especially amon g isolated peoples. A freeman who destroyed an eye of a freeman had one of his own destroye d. were it not that letters have been found in the Assyrian library of Ashur -banipal which indicate that s illed physicians were held in high repute. and the son who smote his father had his hands cut off. or if a man lost his eye as the result of an opera tion. foxglove. however. where certain of the fol cures were recorded on papyri. Ther e was also a scale of fees for treating domesticated animals. Elsewhere some wonderful instances of excellent fol cures have come to light. and if they have ever had his disease themselves. An unfortunate surgeon who undertoo to treat an ox or ass suffering from a severe wound had to pay a quarter of its price to its owner if it happene d to die. if he bro e a bone.

growing thinner an d wea er and more bloodless day by day. and "the layer of the spell" was given pos session of the victim's house. the wor er of spells was held in high reput e. and last of all the marshes created "the worm". who utilize bitumen as a germicide. the heavens created the earth. A magician had to decide in the first place what particular demon was wor ing ev il. and his operations were in most cases allowed free play. it was believed that a merciless vampire was suc ing his veins and devouring his flesh. as a result of the se vere restrictions which hampered progress in an honourable profession. First of all the magician identifi ed the toothache demon as "the worm". the canals created the marshe s. If surgery declined. the perp etrator of it must suffer the death penalty. commenting on the custom of patients ta ing a census of fol cures in the streets. 233] great affair of health than we owe to all the later science. [p. or by offering up a sacrifice which it received for nourishment and as compensation. faith cures were not un nown. He then compelled its attention and obedience by detailing its attributes an d methods of attac .vourite remedy for s in diseases". said it was one of the wisest institutions of the Babylonian peopl e. His data would have been useful for comparative purposes. h e claimed the residence of "the layer of the spell". Occasionally a quite effective cure was included in the ceremony. magic flo urished li e tropical fungi. This medical man who is being quoted adds: "The whole matter may be summed up. The demon was either driven or enticed away. so that it might soar towards the clouds li e that bird. Then he recited its history. t hat we owe infinitely more to the simple nature study of our people in the [p. who derived nourishment from the human body. If the river carried him away it was held as pr oved that he deserved his punishment. The victim was expected to plunge himself in a holy river. Provision was also made for discove ring whether a spell had been legally imposed or not. the rivers created the canals. a nd there was a good deal of quac ery. There are only two p aragraphs in the Hammurabi Code which deal with magical practices. the earth created the rivers. As much is sug gested by the magical treatment of toothache. So far as can be gathered from the clay tablets. When a patient was wasted with disease. which is as f ollows: After Anu created the heavens." [*1] Herodotus. Indeed. are perpetuating an ancient fol custom. No doubt the present inhabitants of Babylonia . and then stri es a modern note by detailing the punishments for perjury and the unjust administration of law in the courts. 234] The poor sufferers who gathered at street corners in Babylon to ma e mute appeal for cures believed that they were possessed by evil spirits. It had therefore to be expelled by performing a magical ceremony and repeating a magical formula. Another popular method was to fashion a waxen figure of the pa tient and prevail upon the disease demon to enter it. The figure was then carrie d away to be thrown in the river or burned in a fire. A man who could swim was deemed to be innocent. Thereafter he suggested how it sh ould next act by releasing a raven. It is set for th that if one man cursed another and the curse could not be justified. Germs of disease w ere depicted by lively imaginations as invisible demons. who was promptly put to dea th. With this interesting glimpse of ancient superstition the famous Code opens.                               . and perhaps by naming it. It is to be regretted that he did not enter into details regarding the remedi es which were in greatest favour in his day.

235] what degree it gave evidence of its agitated mind. pe rhaps. No house could be protected against them. as the drops tric led from th e patient's face. the plant sa. and no doubt the patient was able to indicate to [p. who still [p. which was the "metal of heaven"--relief could be obtained. in whom s o much faith was reposed. The numerous incantations which were inscribed on clay tablets and treasured in libraries. When a pig was offered up in sacrifice as a substitute for a patient. but the hungry worm protested: "Nay. do not throw much light on the progress of medical nowledge. . O Worm! May Ea smite thee with the might of his fist. woo d". Or. and the sufferer must have s miled gladly when the magician finished his incantation by exclaiming: "So must thou say this.This display of nowledge compelled the worm to listen. the sacred water would dispel the evil one." No doubt this mixture soothed the pain. Magicians baffled the demons by providing a charm. believed that they were guarded by spirits who brought good luc . Before Ea came her tears: "What wilt thou give me for my food. If a patient "touched iron"-meteoric iron. In li e manner the evil-eye curers. And set me on the gums That I may devour the blood of the teeth." [*1] Headaches were no doubt much relieved when damp cloths were wrapped round a pati ent's head and scented wood was burned beside him. so would the fever spirit tric le draw water from under bridges "o ver which the dead and the living pass". and oil together. And of their gums destroy their strength-Then shall I hold the bolt of the door. What wilt thou give me to devour?" One of the deities answered: "I will give thee dried bones and scented . They were usually the first symp toms of fevers. these invisible enemies of ma n were of the brood of Nergal. The curative water was drawn from the confluence of two streams and was sprin led with much ceremon y. li e the Germanic peoples. the wic ed spirit was commanded to depart and allow a indly spirit to ta e its place--an indication that the Ba bylonians. put it on the tooth and repeat In cantation. they had lolling tongues li e hungry dogs. . and the following is his recipe: "Mix beer. they crept li e serpents and stan li e mice. droned out a mystical incantation. for the                                       . Headaches were much dreaded by the Babylonians. They en tered through eyholes and chin s of doors and windows. 236] operate in isolated districts in these islands. The magician continued: Came the worm and wept before Shamash. [*1] and mutter charms and lustrate vic tims. while the magician." The magician provided food for "the worm". and the demons who caused them were supposed to be blood-thirsty and exceedingly awesome. what are these dried bones of thine to me? Let me drin among the teeth. According to the charms.

237] and women who were supposed to be inspired in the literal sense. beside a whispering stream. Adown some trottin' burn's meander. The world was inhabited by countless hordes of spirits. an' pensive ponder A heart-felt sang! [paragraph continues] Or. which was the " air of life". if the ocean was compared to a dragon. it was because it was supposed to be inhabited by a storm-causing d ragon. The ancient poet did not sing for the mere love of singing: he new nothing abou t "Art for Art's sa e". and Angus. Till by himsel' he learn'd to wander. and identical with wind. the bard received inspiration by drin ing mag ic water from the fountain called Hippocrene. which were belie ved to be ever exercising themselves to influence man ind. Poetic imagery had originally a magical significance. Thor used his hammer li e a drumstic . Indra blew his thunder horn. of the bellowing sea. they slew victims. so that he might award the mighty dead by transporting him to the Va lhal of Odin or Swarga of Indra. So the god Pan piped on his reed bird-li e notes. Similarly. music had magical origin as an imitation of the voices of spirits--of the piping birds who were "Fates". and thus received inspiration. echoing the tuneful birds. of the wind high and low. who voice their moods and cast the spell of their moods over readers and audiences. An' no thin lang: O sweet to stray. But these metrical compositions are of special interest. they brought misfortune. perhaps. [p. they were also the source o f good or "luc ". or on the sounding shore. His object in singing appears to have been intensely pra ctical. in so fa r as they indicate how poetry originated and achieved wide-spread popularity amo ng ancient peoples. nae poet ever fand her. They were composed in the first place by men [p. and the rustling of sc ented fir and blossoming thorn. the Celtic oa god Dagda twanged h is windy wooden harp.genuine fol cures were regarded as of secondary importance. As Burns has sung: The muse. The poetical magician drew in a "spirit". the purling streams. are the representatives of ancient magicians w                             . he conjured them with emotio n. the earliest poems were used for m agical purposes. amidst forest solitudes. Li e the religious dance. satires conjured up evil spirits to injure a victim. Modern-day poets and singers. he warded off their attac s with emotion. the wind whispered because a spirit whispered in it. came through budding forest ways with a silvern harp which had strings of gold. and heroic narratives chanted at graves were statements made to the god of battle. the Celtic god of spring and love. or the s aldic mead which dripped from the moon. as an Indian charm sets forth. the whispering winds. that is. posses sed by spirits. and his emotions were given rhythmi cal expression by means of metrical magical charms. Man regarded spirits emotionally. and were not as a rule recorded. Primitive man associated "spirit" with "breath". of the thunder rol l. Neptune imitated on his "wreathed horn" the voice of the deep. with "the yearning of the Apsaras (fairies)". The spirits caused su ffering. 238] [paragraph continues] Love lyrics were charms to compel the love god to wound or possess a maiden's heart--to fill it. as he stood on some sacred spot on the mountain summit.

p. boo i. Even the "minors" were influential members of society. ^225:1 Herodotus. Cameron Gillies on Medical Knowledge). Many singers had to sing and die ere a critic could find much to say. Thompson's translations of Babylonian ch arms will serve to illustrate their poetic qualities: Fever li e frost hath come upon the land. boo i. King. I. 2. blowing li e the wind. 1911. These early poets had no canons of Art.                                 . xlv. 37. . C. Myths of Babylonia and Assyria. com [p. vol. Whose shape is as the whirlwind. brea ing the fingers as a rope of wind . Thompson in The Devils and Spirits of Babylon. [p. . Granting no rest. It hath smitten the man and humbled his pride. 85 et seq. at sacred-texts. . . i. 196 (Rawlinson's translation). . MacKenzie. ^222:2 History of Sumer and A ad. 179 (Rawlinson's translation). a rushing hag-demon. pp. R. C. ^222:1 Herodotus. those harpers of the forest and songsters of ocean. Its appearance is as the dar ening heavens. ^233:1 Home Life of the Highlanders (Dr. The following quotations from Mr. it cometh li e the dew. lxiii et seq. . 239] Headache lieth li e the stars of heaven in the desert and hath no praise. And its face as the deep shadow of the forest.ho believed that moods were caused by the spirits which possessed them--the rhyt hmical wind spirits. li e a reed . Headache . who feareth not his god. pp. . L. 181-3 (Rawlinson's translation). . it is loosed above and below. poets had their Golden Age--they were a law u nto themselves. It cutteth off him. ^236:1 Bridges which lead to graveyards. Flashing li e a heavenly star. Headache whose course li e the dread windstorm none noweth. . Glasgow. nor giving indly sleep . . 240] [ch-11]      ^219:1 Herodotus. ^235:1 Translations by R. therefore. Pain in the head and shivering li e a scudding cloud turn unto the form of man. W. and there were no critics to disturb the ir meditations. [1915]. Headache roareth over the desert. In ancient times. boo i. Flashing li e lightning. by Donald A. Sic ness . Fever hath blown upon the man as the wind blast. From amid mountains it hath descended upon the land. Footnotes ^219:2 Isaiah.

Sumu-la-ilu was evidently a great general and conqueror of the type of Thothmes III of Egypt. Except Sumu-abum. Babbar. wh o. SUN worship came into prominence in its most fully developed form during the obs cure period which followed the decline of the Dynasty of Isin. Arioch.CHAPTER XI The Golden Age of Babylonia Rise of the Sun God--Amorites and Elamites struggle for Ascendancy--The Conqueri ng Ancestors of Hammurabi--Sumerian Cities Destroyed--Widespread Race Movements-Phoenician Migration from Persian Gulf--Wanderings of Abraham and Lot--Biblical References to Hittites and Amorites--Battles of Four Kings with Five--Amraphel. who became his vassal. and Shamash received devout recognition [p. li e Nin-Girsu of Lagash. which endured for three centuries . That city had become the stronghold of a rival family of Amoritic ings. while their rivals. Larsa was selected as the capital of the Elamite conqueror s. to whom a temple had be en erected. and extended southward as far as ancient Lagash. and it was possibly on that account that the ruling family subsequently de voted so much attention to his worship in Merodach's city of Babylon. the seat of t he A adian sun cult. Under the overlordship of Sumu-la-ilu. who became domiciled under his care. This was probably due to the changed political conditions which brought about the ascendancy for a time of Larsa. He was succeeded by Sumu-la-ilu. a fact which suggests that sun worship was not more pronounced among the Semites than the Arabians. a deified monarch. its in g. and of Sippar. where a su n temple was erected. the great wall of which he either repaired or e ntirely reconstructed in his fifth year. the Tammuz-li e deity. some of whom were powerful enough to assert their independence. the sun god of Sippar. it is believed. Agriculture. and son succeeded father in unbro en succession. They forme d the Third Dynasty of Kish. but did not slay Bunuta htunila. appear to have first established their powe r at Sippar. The first Amoritic ing was Sumu-abum. Perhaps the lunar temple was a relic of the influential Dynasty of Ur. was subsequently identified with Merodach of Babylo n. and Educ ation--An Ancient School--Business and Private Correspondence--A Love Letter--Po stal System--Hammurabi's Successors--The Earliest Kassites--The Sealand Dynasty-Hittite Raid on Babylon and Hy sos Invasion of Egypt. who reflected the ideals of well organized and firmly governed communities. and Tidal--Hammurabi's Brilliant Reign--Elamite Power Stamped Out--Baby lon's Great General and Statesman--The Growth of Commerce. indeed. who seems to stand alone. or First Dynasty of Babylonia. have been of Semitic origin at all. The local god was Zamama. the next ruler                          . Sumu-la-ilu attac ed and captured Kish. and may not. the seat of the Sumerian sun cult. With these two monarchs began the brill iant Hammurabi. must have been cr edited with the early successes of the Amorites. 241] as an abstract deity of righteousness and law. w ho moved from Sippar to Babylon. all its ings belonged to the same family. whose Semitic name was Shamash. His empire. the Amorites. but little is nown regarding him except that he reigned at Sippar. Of special interest on religious as well as political grounds was his associatio n with Kish. But prominence was also given to the moon god Nannar. included the rising city states of Ass yria.

and dug canals. had established an empire which extended from Kish to Larsa. He was not successful. Zabium. He was undoubtedly one of the forceful personalities of his dynasty. renewed Nergal's temple at Cuthah. The first monarc h with an Elamite name who became connected with Larsa was Kudur-Mabug. most of the relics of ancient Sumerian civilization have been recovered. From its mound at Tello. For a brief period a great conqueror. and p robably the Elamites were also the leaders of the army of Ur which he had routed before that event too place. because the ings were not i n the habit of commemorating battles which proved disastrous to them. Li e Sumu-la-ilu. when. and presented a throne of gold and silver to Shamash in th at city. [p. and appears to have continued the p olicy of his father in consolidating the power of Babylon and securing the alleg iance of subject cities. a tremendous and di sastrous struggle was waged at intervals. erecte d a temple to Ishtar. restored the wall and temple of Cuthah. while he also strengthened Borsippa. as is testified by the evidence a ccumulated by excavators. he was a great battle lord. during the Seleucid Period. and was specially conc erned in challenging the supremacy of Elam in Sumeria and in the western land of the Amorites. however. and the buried ruins of the other cities. He e ngaged himself in extending and strengthening the area controlled by Babylon by building city fortifications and improving the irrigation system. His so n. and placed a golden image of himself in the temple of the sun god at Sippar. fell soon after the rise of Larsa. Much controversy has been waged over the historical problems connected with this disturbed age.. Politics and religion went evidently hand in hand. Then sever al ings flourished at Larsa who claimed to have ruled over Ur. Apil-Sin. and Adab . the father of Warad-Sin and Rim-Sin. gave prominence to the publi c worship of Shamash. it was again occupied for a time . had a short but successful reign. his son. extending perhaps over a century. It is recorded that he honoured Shamash with the gift of a shrine and a golden altar adorned w ith jewels. son of Apil-Sin and father of Hammurabi. Shurruppa . whose name was Immerum. It was probably during one of the intervals of this stormy period that the rival ings in Babylonia joined forces against a common enemy and invaded the Western Land. Kisurra. surrounded Babylon with a new wall. Umma. named Rim-Anum. whose glory had been revived by Gudea and hi s insmen. 243] son of Shimti-Shil ha . and lay in ruins until the second century B. The next monarch was Sin-muballit. E-sagila. Sumu-la-ilu strengthened the defences of Sippar. At l east five great cities were destroyed by fire. and promoted the worship of Merodach and his consort Zerpanitum at Baby lon.C. 242] [paragraph continues] Kish. It was from one of these Elamite monarchs that Sin-muballit captured Isin. The records are exceedingly scanty. in driving the El amites from the land. These were Lagash.of [p. All we now for certain is that for a considerable period. Great ethnic disturbances were in p                       . but little is nown regarding him. restored the K ish temple of Zamama. and their fragmentary references to successes are not sufficient to indicate what permanen t results accrued from their various campaigns. Probably there was much unrest there. and possibly he arranged with them a treaty of peace or pe rhaps of alliance. which desolated middle Babylonia. He enlarged Merodach's temple. The ancient metropolis of Lagash.

At length "there was a famine in the land"--an interesting reference to the "Dry Cycle"--and the wande rers found it necessary to ta e refuge for a time in Egypt. from the Sumerian city of Ur northwards to Haran "and dwelt there". and his brothers. for instance. and Lot. 245] [paragraph continues] Gulf. So far as we now.. the A morite. it woul d seem. and Abraham then moved towards the plain of Mamre. although the conditions had improved somewhat during the interval. which propelled other tribes to invade Mes opotamia. Northern Babylonia and Assyria probably attracted the tillers of the soil. must have shown preference for those areas which were capa ble of agricultural development. Agricult urists. [*1] With Mamre. Indeed. and ever gropi ng for an inlet through which to flow with irresistible force. and seafarers the shores of alien seas. and servants. There they appear to have prospered. the                     . "There was". to settle permanently in any particular district. while pastoral fol s sought grassy steppes and valleys. and acc ompanied by wives. "strife between the herdmen of Abram's cattle and the herdmen of Lo t's cattle. it is stated. Abraham. Innumerable currents and cross currents were set in motion once these race movements swept towards settled districts eit her to flood them with human waves. a prolonged "Dry Cycle" having caused a shortage of herbage. Lot elected to go towards Sodom in the plain of Jordan. northern Babylonia. Eshcol and An er. fretting the frontiers with restless fury. they first made their appearance on the Mediterranean coast about 2000 B. and Assyria. with the r esult that pastoral peoples were compelled to go farther and farther afield in q uest of "fresh woods and pastures new". to part company. unable. After Terah's de ath the tribe wandered through Canaan and ept moving southward. But t he movements of seafarers must have followed a different route.rogress which were changing [p. The Elamite occupation of Southern Babylonia appears to have propelled migration s of not inconsiderable numbers of its inhabitants. The two insmen found it necessary. No doubt the various section s moved towards districts which were suitable for their habits of life. they migrated. 244] the political complexion of Western Asia. as a result. In addition to the outpourings of Arab ian peoples into Palestine and Syria. Ac cording to their own traditions their racial cradle was on the northern shore of the Persian [p. Indeed. for more than once it is stated significan tly that "the Canaanite and the Perizzite dwelled in the land". in the Hebron district. It is possible t hat about this time the Phoenicians began to migrate towards the "Upper Sea". and families. so greatly did their floc s and herds increase that whe n they returned to Canaan they found that "the land was not able to bear them". where they subsequently entered into competition as sea traders with the mariners of ancient Crete.C. Apparently the p astoral nomads pressed northward through Mesopotamia and towards Canaan. As much is suggested by the Biblical narrative which deals with the wanderings of Terah . Ta ing with them their "floc s and herds and tents". It is believed that these migrations were primarily due to changing climatic con ditions. or surround them li e islands in the midst o f tempest-lashed seas. there was also much unrest all over t he wide area to north and west of Elam. the Elamite migration into south ern Babylonia may not have been unconnected with the southward drift of roving b ands from Media and the Iranian plateau." It is evident that the area which these pastoral floc s were allowed to occupy m ust have been strictly circumscribed. therefore.

247] [paragraph continues] (Hammurabi) ing of Shinar (Sumer). and thy mother an Hittite. the Hittite. and conquerors. Arioch (Eri-a u or War ad-Sin) ing of Ellasar (Larsa). and traders who int ermarried with the indigenous peoples and the Arabian invaders. Abraham "smote" the enemy and "pursued them unto Hobah. the Re phaims. and the Emims. When Abraham purchased the buri al cave at Hebron. 246] [paragraph continues] Hebrew patriarch formed a confederacy for mutual protectio n. and in t he thirteenth year they rebelled. the Zuzims. The Biblical narrative whi ch deals with this episode is of particular interest and has long engaged the at tention of European scholars: "And it came to pass in the days of Amraphel [p. the Emims. Li e the Amorites. but in time the form "Ammurapi" which appears on a tablet be came nown. son of Zohar. The "Hatti" or "Khatti" had constitut ed military aristocracies throughout Syria and extended their influence by formi ng alliances. At firs t the guttural "h". and also broug ht again his brother Lot. the Zamzummims.C. and the ing of Bela. Of special interest in this connection is Eze iel's declara tion regarding the ethnics of Jerusalem: "Thy birth and thy nativity"." [*1] Apparently the Elamites had conquered pa rt of Syria after entering southern Babylonia. As has been indi cated ([*Chapter 1]). All these joined together in the vale of Siddim. " [*3] It was during Abraham's residence in Hebron that the Western Land was raided by a confederacy of Babylonian and Elamite battle lords. presented a serious difficulty. thy father was an Amorite. all of whom were no doubt accustomed to guerrilla warfare. he said. and his goods. and T idal (Tudhula) ing of nations. Shinab ing of Admah. and the conclusion was reached that the softer "h" sound was used an d not the guttural. which is the salt sea. and having sac ed Sodom and Gomorrah. which is on the left hand of Damascus. carried away Lot and "his goods". the large-nosed Armenoid section of the Hittite confederac y appear to have contributed to the racial blend nown vaguely as the Semitic. These were probably represent atives of the older stoc s. and the women also. "is of the land of Canaan. the Hor ites and others. On hearing of this disaster. Twelve years they served Chedor-laomer. The "l" in the Biblical Amraphel                                       . and the people. and Shemeber ing of Zeboii m. Chedor-laomer (Kudur-Mabug) ing of Elam. Abraham collected a force of three hundred and eighteen men." [* 2] The identification of Hammurabi with Amraphel is now generally accepted. the Zuzims. And he brought bac all the goods. which is Zoar. [*1] Other tribes which were in Palestine at this period included the Horites. and with Birsha ing of Gomorrah. P robably the particular group of Amorites with whom Abraham became associated had those pronounced Armenoid traits which can still be traced in representatives o f the Hebrew people. the landowner with whom he had to deal was one Ephron. that these made war with Bera ing of Sodom. the Hittites or "children of Heth " were evidently "late corners". Chedor-laomer and his allies routed the Rephaims.[p. Many of their settlers were owners of estates. The surpris e was complete. which gives the English rendering "Khammurabi". [*2] This illuminating statement agrees with what we now r egarding Hittite expansion about 2000 B. an d delivered a night attac on the tail of the victorious army which was withdraw ing through the area afterwards allotted to the Hebrew tribe of Dan.

may have had several local names. Any r elics which these and other eastern conquerors may have left were possibly destr oyed by the Egyptians and Hittites. Princes and other subject rulers who governed under an overlord might be and. and Isin. probably after the death of the Babylonian war-lord. Attac s had been delivered on Babylon. Erech. were referred to as ings.[p. "I am a ing. "Hammurabi. had his name Semitized as Eri-A u. 248] has suggested "Ammurapi-ilu". w hose power he reduced almost to vanishing point. in the course of his campaign. ing of nations". Two late tablets have fragmentary inscriptions whic h read li e legends with some historical basis. or perhaps the slight alteration of an alphabetical sign. It is asserted that the Elamites "exercised sovereignty in Baby lon" for a period. the god". Giraudon [p. 249] No traces have yet been found in Palestine of its conquest by the Elamites. When Hammurabi came to the throne he had apparently to recognize the overlordshi p of the Elamite ing or his royal son at Larsa. but it has been argued. that the change may have been due to western habitual phonetic co nditions. The fact that the four leaders of the expedition to Canaan are all referred to a s " ings" in the Biblical narrative need not present any difficulty. an unidentified monarch recorded on one of the two tablets just referred to. It is of interest to note. Chedor-laome r. has not been identified. Although Sin-muballit had captu red Isin. Kudur-Mabug. Clic to enlarge HAMMURABI RECEIVING THE ''CODE OF LAWS'' FROM THE SUN GOD (Louvre. and for a time held sway in Laga sh. King of Elam. For about twenty years afterwar ds that subdued monarch lived in comparative obscurity. that he styled himself "overs eer of the Amurru (Amorites)". as well as Larsa. which was proba bly intended to destroy the growing power of Babylon. during his lifetime called his son Warad-Sin (Eri-A u = Arioch) "King o f Larsa". Having repulsed an Elamite raid. The suggestion that he was "King of the Gutium" remains in the realm of suggestion. and Erech. on t he other hand. then he led a force of a llies against Hammurabi's son and successor. who succeeded his brother Warad-Sin. who defeated him and p ut him to death. son of a ing". too. as a matter o f fact. and calls him "King of the land of Elam". One of his son s. One mentions Kudur-lahmal (?Ched or-laomer) and the other gives the form "Kudur-lahgumal". Paris) Photo. and this variant appears in inscriptions. So was the last smouldering ember of Elamite powe r stamped out in Babylonia. It was not until the thirty-first year of his reign that Hammurabi achieved asce ndancy over his powerful rival. either Warad-Sin or Rim-Sin. Eri-Ea u (?Eri-a u) and Tudhula (?Tidal) are also mentioned. nor have the excavators been able to substantiate the claim of Lugal-zaggizi of a pr evious age to have extended his empire to the shores of the Mediterranean. the revolting cities of Emutbalum.                             . but probably the former. These interesting tablets have been published by Professor Pi nches. "Tidal. and the city and its great temple E-sagi la were flooded. capturing. Samsu-iluna. Nippur. in connection with the Biblical narrat ive regarding the invasion of Syria and Palestine. b y Rim-Sin. it was reta en. identified with Kudur-Mabug. he "smote down Rim-Sin".

and declares that he "cut off the enemy" and "lorded it over the co nquered" so that his subjects might have security. Excavator s have discovered at Sippar traces of a school which dates from the Hammurabi Dy nasty. a not inconsiderable proportion o f the people of both sexes were able to write private and business letters. . One s on indited a long complaint regarding the quality of the food he was given in hi s lodgings. "I went up to Babylon so that I might meet thee. a father of his people. By so doing he not only [p. and w ith the same air of undeserved martyrdom and subdued but confident appeal. H e must also have endeared himself to them as an exemplary exponent of religious tolerance. having protested his innocence. showing great concern regarding their health." Even begging-lette r writers were not un nown. They copied historical tablets. and "the shepherd that gives peac e". He punished corrupt judges. practised the art of compositio n. he declared in his epilogue. Indeed. Pupils learned to read and write. his anxiety for their welfare was the most pronounced feature of his character. adding that the last consignment which had been forw arded had never reached him. protected citizens against unjust governors. And d o come hither. . remembering me. "By my protec tion. In the epilogue to his code of laws he refers to "the burden [p. The humblest man was assured that justice would be done if his grievance were laid before the ing.                    . Ever have care of thy health. but preferred to be remembered as a servant of t he gods. for the temples w ere centres of culture and the priests were the teachers of the young. 250] of royalty". No more celebrated monarch ever held sway in Western Asia. and reendowed them with charac teristic generosity. and his subjects could appeal to him as the Romans could to Caesar. By my wisdom I provided for them. exalted am I. and was much depressed. is one of the great personalities of the ancie nt world. An ancient representative of this class once wrote t o his employer from prison. He a cted as supreme judge. a just ruler. Nor was any case too trivial for his attention. 251] afforded the pious full freedom and opportunity to perform their religious ordin ances. I guided in peace its brothers. "Inform me how it fares with thee. who enjoye d the blessings of just administration under a well-ordained political system. statesman and general. Lovers appealed to forgetful ladies. "I carried all the pe ople of Sumer and A ad in my bosom"." one wrote four thousand years ago. He respected the various deities in whom the various groups of people reposed their faith. H ammurabi was no respecter of persons. but did not. and ept a watchful eye on the operations of taxgatherers. and. He was prou d of his military achievements. on which the legal code was inscribed. The ing that is gentle." He set up his stele. Sons wrote from a distance to their fathers when in need of money then as now." [*1] Hammurabi was no mere framer of laws but a practical administrator as well. Let me now why thou didst go away so that I may be made glad. he made touching appeal for little luxurie s which were denied to him. Although there were many professional scribes. ing of the city. restored despoiled temples.Hammurabi. and received instruction in arithmetic and mensuration. and studied geography. He expressed astonishment that he had been arrested. but also promoted the material welfare of his subjects. There can be little doubt but that he won the hearts of his subjects. and "to succour the injured . so "that the great should n ot oppress the wea " and "to counsel the widow and orphan". reviewed the transactions of moneylenders with determination to curb extortionat e demands. and treated ali e all his subjects high an d low.

Door to door deliveries would certainly have presented difficulties. and set before his subje cts the ideals of right thin ing and right living. feeling "the burden of royalty". legal documents containing appe als. It had been too firmly established during the Hammurabi Age. For two thousand years. but there also appears to have been some sort of postal system. to suspend its activiti es. It was a wor of genius on his part to weld together that great empire of misce llaneous states extending from southern Babylonia to Assyria. and some houses were entered by stairways leading to the flat and partly open roofs. He paid minute attent ion to details. jealous of its glory and influence. 254]                                 . as the heartli e distributor and controller of business life through a vast networ of veins and arteries. bristlin g with thorn-li e projections. and the inauguration o f practical measures to secure the domestic. gave audiences to officials. and private communications from relatives and others. promoted business. for they were utilized for travelling by boat and for the d istribution of commodities. Every day while at home. He loo s a typic al man of affairs in sculptured representations--shrewd. after worshipping Merodach at E-sagila. Hammurabi recognized that conquest was of little avail unless followed by the es tablishment of a just and well-arranged political system. As a result of his activities Babylon became not onl y the administrative. Babylonian letters were shapely little bric s resembling cushions.Letters were often sent by messengers who were named. sealed and addressed. Nor was in required. and commercial welfare of the people as a whole. King Hammurabi had to deal daily with a voluminous correspondence. or wrapped in pie ces of sac ing transfixed by seals. fro m the time of Hammurabi until the dawn of the [p. Papyri w ere not used as in Egypt. to be displaced by any other Mesopotamian city to pleasure even a mighty monarch. Letter carriers. Then the lett ers were placed in ba ed clay envelopes. The angular alphabetical characters. and was probably one of the busiest men in Babylonia. He engaged himself greatly. the B abylonian streets and highways must have been greatly congested by the postal tr affic. in developing t he natural resources of each particular district. were impressed with a wedge-shaped stylus on tabl ets of soft clay which were afterwards carefully ba ed in an oven. The networ of irrigating cana ls was extended in the homeland so that agriculture might prosper: these canals also promoted trade. and unassumin g. Wood being dear. therefore. heard legal appeals and issued interlocu tors. li e the European Yuletide or the Indian Durga fortnight. and from the borde rs of Elam to the Mediterranean coast. He received r eports from governors in all parts of his realm. everyone could not afford doors. as an occasion suitable for the general exchange of expressions of good-will. which was the G olden Age of Babylonia. he dictated letters to hi s scribes. 253] his duties with thoroughness and insight. by a universal legal Code which secured t ranquillity and equal rights to all. industrial. His grasp of detail was equalled only by his power to conceive of great enterprises which appealed to his imagination. but also the commercial centre of his Empire--the London o f Western Asia--and it enjoyed a spell of prosperity which was never surpassed i n subsequent times. however. Yet it never lost its pre-eminent position despite the attem pts of rival states. resolute. while muscular postmen wor ed overtime distributing the contents of heavy and bul y letter sac s. If the ancient people had a festive season w hich was regarded. but ever ready and well qualified to dischar ge [p. and dealt with the reports regarding his private estates. 252] have performed their duties without the assistance of beasts of burden. could not [p.

so that these cultural organizations might cont ribute to the welfare of the localities over which they held sway. He was the sort of benevolent despot whom Carlyle on one occasion cla moured vainly for--not an Oriental despot in the commonly accepted sense of the term. 255] quarters". whom the Gree s found settled between Babylon and Media. Some writers connect them with the Hittites. he restored there the temple of the sun god. at Lagash the god Nin-Girsu. a people of uncertain racial affinities. east of the Tigris and north of Elam. As a German writer puts it. the seat of Rim-Sin. Apparently Lagash and Adab had not been completely deserted during his reign. but." [*1] That was the eynote of h is long life. The next ing. Ethnologists as a rule regard them as identical with the Cossaei. his despotism was a form of Patriarchal Absolu tism. After settled conditions were secured many of them remained in Babylonia. the s y god of Destiny.. Other temples were buil t up at various ancient centres. "When Mardu (Merodach)". It is related that when he "avenged Larsa". "brought me to direc t all people. at Kish the god Zamama and the goddess Ma-ma. and commissioned me to give judgment.C. In Assyria he restored the colossus of Ashur. I made all flesh to prosper. " celebrated for its wide squares". vaguely termed as Indo-European or Indo-Germanic fol . at Erech the god An u and the goddess Nana (Ishtar). At Nippur he thus honoured Enlil. at Eridu the god Ea. During his reign a Kassite invasion was repulsed. where they engaged li e [p. the city of Babylon remained amidst many po litical changes the metropolis of Western Asiatic commerce and culture. and none was more eloquent in its praises than the scholarly pilgrim from Greece who won dered at its magnificence and reverenced its antiquities. The Hittites came south as raiders about a century later. which had evidently been carried away by a conqueror. at Ur the god Sin. a t Cuthah the god Nergal. There are interesting references to the military successes of his reign in the p rologue to the legal Code. who carried out the decrees of Anu. Hammurabi referred to himself in the Prologue as "a ing who commanded obedience in all the four [p. reigned nearly as long as his illustrious father. The e arliest Kassites. who had gathered tog ether an army of allies. "the lord god of right". while at Adab and A ad. I laid down justice and righ t in the provinces. al though their ruins have not yielded evidence that they flourished after their fa ll during the long struggle with the aggressive and plundering Elamites. began to settle in th e land during Hammurabi's lifetime. an d similarly lived a strenuous and pious life. and other centres he carried out religious and public wor s. he crushed and sl ew his most formidable opponent. as has been stated. Samsu-iluna. There is no general agreement a s to when he ascended the throne--some say in 2123 B. Hammurabi's reign was long as it was prosperous. and others with the Iranians. as the great ing recorded. Rim-Sin. No doubt they were welcomed in that cap                          . the Elamite ing.C. and he developed the canal system of Nineveh.[paragraph continues] Christian era.--but it is certain that he presided over the destinies of Babyl on for the long period of forty-three years. Soon after he came to the throne t he forces of disorder were let loose. It is possible that the invading Kassites had overrun Elam and composed part of Rim-Sin's army. others hold that it was after 2000 B. he regarded himself as the earthly representative of the Ruler of all--Merodach. 256] their pioneers in agricultural pursuits.

but without much success. and made it possible for himself to stri e at them by damming up the Tigri s canal. . 258] associated with the famous silver vase decorated with the lion-headed eagle form of Nin-Girsu. there wa s". During Abeshu's reign of twenty-eight years. to ancestor worship. He achieved a victory. but its power was strictly circumscribed so long as Hammurabi's descendants held swa y. the next Babylonian ing. where a rival monarch e ndeavoured to establish himself. and cutting and clearing c anals. But there are many examples in which the term of service was diff erent--one month. apparently inherited a prosperous and we ll-organized Empire. Entemena. the s ill and exertion d emanded. whose memory is [p. and the fact that so many were see ing for it at once. Harvest labour was probabl y far dearer than any other. and displayed traits which suggest that he inclined. Johns. was threatened by a new ingdom whic h had been formed in [p. however. he appears to have proved an able statesman and general. the pious pat esi of Lagash. he was in the end compelled to retreat wit h considerable loss owing to the difficult character of that marshy country. After the fall of Rim-Sin it became powerful under a ing called Ilu-ma-ilu. Abeshu. for during the first fifteen years of his reign he attended chiefly to the adornment of temples and other pious underta ings. who succeeded him. [*1] "Despite the existence of slaves. As a rule. had been raised to the dignity of a god. and was penal ized for non-appearance or late arrival. but the wily Ilu-ma-ilu eluded him.acity. but the labourers are few". endeavoured to shatter the cause of the Sealan ders. Among o ther cities which had to be chastised was ancient A ad. of which little is nown. 257] [paragraph continues] Bit-Ja in. the man was hired for the harvest and was free d irectly after. This is clear from the large number of contracts relating to hire which have co me down to us. and certain o f its later monarchs were able to extend their sway over part of Babylonia. Farmers had a long-standing compl aint. The Sealand Dynasty. of which but scanty records survive . He founded a new city called Lu haia. because of its importance. li e Sumu-la-ilu. Ammiditana. for owing to the continuous spread of culture and the development of comm erce. a part of Sealand which was afterwards controll ed by the mysterious Chaldeans. who were for the most part domestic servants. . Here may have collected evicted and rebel bands of Elamites and Sumerians and various "gentlemen of fortune" who were opposed to the Hammurabi regime. and appears to have repulsed a Kassite raid. or a whole year. He was a patr on of the arts with archaeological leanings. [*2] So great was the political upheaval caused by Rim-Sin and his allies and imitato rs in southern Babylonia. Kiannib. and Ammiditana caused hi                              . . half a year. "considerable demand for free labour in ancient Babylonia. . . Indeed. The greatest danger to the Empire. and after a reign of sixty years was succeeded by his son." When a farm wor er was engaged he received a she el for "earnest money" or arles. On more than one occasion during the latter part of his reign he had to d eal with aggressive bands of Amorites. lasted for over three and a half centuries. Samsu-iluna conducted at least two campaigns against his riv al. "The harvest truly is plenteous. that it was not until the seventeenth year of his reig n that Samsu-iluna had recaptured Erech and Ur and restored their walls. . Several years were afterwards spent in building new fortifications. rural labour had become scarce and dear. setting up memorials in temples. His son. writes Mr.

Myths of Babylonia and Assyria. They also promoted the interests of agriculture and commerce. ^256:1 Matthew. and towards its close had to capture a city which is believed to be Is in. 13. howev er. 259] frontier of Egypt. and in Babylonia during the Hammurabi Dynasty.C. at sacred-texts. xiv. 392 et seq. ix. He set up several images of himself also. no doubt. W. in 1788 B. ^256:2 Johns's Babylonian and Assyrian Laws. pp. "the warrior lord". About the middle of his reign he put down a Sumeria n rising. xiv.C. But the days of the brilliant Hammurabi Dynasty were drawing to a close. Johns. which came to an end. ^246:1 Genesis. xvi. 371-2. 37. and inciden tally increased the revenue from taxation by paying much attention to the canals and extending the cultivatable areas. it had for a long period previously conducted a bris trade. 390 et seq. xxiii. ^247:1 Genesis. ^247:2 Ibid. Contracts. Li e Ammiditana. 5-24. a Hittite raid resulted in overthrow of the last ing of the Hammurabi family at Babylon. but there is no evidence th at they came into direct touch with one another.. com                 . The Hy sos invasion of Egypt too place after 1788 B.s statue to be erected so that offerings might be made to it. ^250:1 Babylonian and Assyrian Laws. It was not until at about two c enturies after Hammurabi's day that Egypt first invaded Syria. Contracts. ^246:2 Ibid. pp.C. but the reference is too obscure to indicate what political significance att ached to this incident. H. 1-4. About 1800 B. MacKenzie.. ^255:1 Translation by Johns in Babylonian and Assyrian Laws.C. C. by Donald A. with which. Footnotes ^245:1 Genesis. It endu red for about a century longer than the Twelfth Dynasty of Egypt. pp. and celebrated the centenary of the accession to the thr one of his grandfather. these two monarchs set up im ages of themselves as well as of the gods. Evidently the i nfluence of the Hittites and their Amoritic allies predominated between Mesopota mia and the Delta [p. by unveiling his statue with much ceremony at Kish. Samsu-iluna.. and was succeeded by Samsuditana. Apparently some of th e Hammurabi and Amenemhet ings were contemporaries. so that they might be worshipped. according to the Berlin calculations. 3. [1915]. and Lett ers. His son. reigned for over twenty years quite peacefully so far as is nown. &c. xii and xiii. Ammizaduga. and it is significant to find in this connection that the "Kh atti" or "Hatti" were referred to for the first time in Egypt during the Twelfth Dynasty. and Letters. whose rule ext ended over a quarter of a century. ^246:3 Eze iel. sometime shortly before or after 2000 B.

. He passed into southern Europe as Zeus. the Hercules of Cilicia. the Mitannians. a flashing trident. 261] northern Amorites. and Ramman. In another locality he is the bringer of grapes and barley shea ves. and Assyrians The War God of Mountaineers--Antiquity of Hittite Civilization--Prehistoric Move ments of "Broad Heads"--Evidence of Babylon and Egypt--Hittites and Mongolians-Biblical References to Hittites in Canaan--Jacob's Mother and her Daughters-in-l aw--Great Father and Great Mother Cults--History in Mythology--The Kingdom of Mi tanni--Its Aryan Aristocracy--The Hy sos Problem--The Horse in Warfare--Hittites and Mitannians--Kassites and Mitannians--Hy sos Empire in Asia--Kassites overth row Sealand Dynasty--Egyptian Campaigns in Syria--Assyria in the Ma ing--Ethnics of Genesis--Nimrod as Merodach--Early Conquerors of Assyria--Mitannian Overlord s--Tell-el-Amarna Letters--Fall of Mitanni--Rise of Hittite and Assyrian Empires --Egypt in Eclipse--Assyrian and Babylonian Rivalries. and a long two-edged sword with a hemispherical nob on the hilt. Mitannians. Kassites. whi ch endured for a period of uncertain duration. His worshippers engraved his image with grateful hands on the beetling cliffs of Cappadocian cha sms in Asia Minor. while he grasps in one hand the lightning symbol. bringing tempests and blac r ainclouds to issue in a new season of growth and fresh activity. and upturned shoes. Indra of the Himalayas. and he led the Aryans from the Iranian steppes towards the verdurous valley of the Punjab. li e the Twelfth Dynasty of Egypt. This deity is identica l with bluff. consolidated power. and in the other a triangular bow resting on his right shoulder. whose hammer beating resounds among the northe rn mountains. li e the European Gaul s of a later age. impetuous Thor of northern Europe. so he descended from the hills in the second millennium before the Christian era as the battle lord of invaders and the stormy herald of a new age which was to dawn upon the a ncient world. and the Kassites. but in the time of Rameses II he was identified with Sute h (Set). which dangles from his belt. who at an early period penetrated A ad and Sumer in various forms. Hy sos. He was the war god of the Hittites as well as of the [p. WHEN the Hammurabi Dynasty. But his most familiar form is the bearded and thic -set mountaineer. is found to be su ffering languid decline.[p. or a well-organized force of a strong. fo                            . His Hittite name is u ncertain. armed with a ponderous thunder hammer. 260] [ch-12] CHAPTER XII Rise of the Hittites. The Hittites who entered Babylon about 1800 B.C. and overthrew the last ing of the Hammurabi Dynasty. As this deity comes each year in Western Asia when vegetation has withered and after fruits have dropped from trees. where his sway was steadfast and pre-eminent for long centuri es. a conical helmet. They were probably the latter. while an ant elope or goat wearing a pointed tiara prances beside him. Tar u o f Phrygia. and Teshup or Teshub of Armenia and northern Mesopotamia. Sandan. In one locality he appears mounted on a bull wearing a fringed and belted tu nic with short sleeves. and became "the lord" of the deities of the Aegean and Crete. Adad or Hadad of Amurru and Assyria. the gaps in the dulled historical records are filled wi th the echoes of the thunder god. may have been plundering raiders.

Excavations which have been conduct ed at an undisturbed artificial [p. surrounded by high mountains. w hich resembles other specimens of painted fabrics found in Tur estan by the Pump elly expedition. and i s similarly associated with dwarfish artisans. and its vicinity. Thunderstorms were of too rare occurrence in Egypt to be connected with the food supply. the capital of Elam. It is referred to as the Giza type. in a First Dynasty tomb at Abydos in Egypt by Petrie. these [p. they lapsed bac again into a state of political insignifican ce in the affairs of the ancient world. in Susa.C. with blac geometric designs. he hammers out the copper s y. Their ancient capital was at Boghaz-Kai. and ma e their presence felt in Western Asia.C. by Croesus. It is not improbable that the Memphite god Ptah may have been introduced into Eg ypt by the invading broad heads. A mesocephalic s ull then became common. More than once in ancient histo ry casual reference is made to them. w hich in winter were bloc ed with snow. according to the Gree s. the tribe of that name was the dominating power in Asia Minor and north Syria.C. Adad. It was strongly s ituated in an excellent pastoral district on the high. breezy plateau of Cappado cia. and has been traced by Professor Elliot Smit h from Egypt to the Punjab. [*1] In one of the lower layers occurred that part icular type of Neolithic yellow-painted pottery. 262] idols were not thrust into the melting pot.                                   . Teshup. There they blended with the indigenous trib es of the Mediterranean or Brown Race. the Hittite confederacy was controlled by an ambitious ing who had dreams of a grea t empire. the site of Pteria. and approached through narrow river gorges. T he Hatti are usually identified with the broad-headed mountaineers of Alpine or Armenoid type--the ancestors of the modern Armenians. and was accordingly pursuing a career of conquest. These early Hittites are "a people of the mist". either on account of internal rivalries or the influence of an outside power. by De Morgan. It is possible that about 1800 B. which was destroyed. Judging from what we now of the northern worshippers of the hammer god in later times. but not farther into India. of the Asian mountaineers. But when once the orga nization bro e down. and in the late Neolithic and early Bronze Age (Minoan) strata of Cr ete by Evans. Hittite civilization was of great antiquity. According to Professor Elliot Smith. the last King of Lydia. it would appear that when they were referred to as the Hatti or Khatti. It may be that these interesting relics were connected with the pr ehistoric drift westward of the broad-headed pastoral peoples who ultimately for med the Hittite military aristocracy. [*2] During the early dynasties this s ull with alien traits was confined chiefly to the Delta region and the vicinity of Memphis. the city of the pyramid builders. but on most of these occasions they soon va nish suddenly behind their northern mountains. This deity is a world artisan li e Indra. an d therefore lin s with the various thunder gods--Tar u..r although they carried off Merodach and Zerpanitum. in the sixth century B. Ramman. but retained apparently for politica l reasons. &c . The explanation appears to be tha t at various periods great leaders arose who were able to weld together the vari ous tribes. broad-headed aliens from Asia Minor first r eached Egypt at the dawn of history. 263] mound at Sa je-Geuzi have revealed evidences of a continuous culture which began to flourish before 3000 B. i n the Bal an peninsula by Schliemann.

as the Hittites were called. Other tribes in the Hittite confederacy included the [p. It is s uggestive. and Egypt through the Delta. identified wit h Tud hul or Tudhula. to find that on the stele of Naram-Sin of A ad. including Maspero. they may have been the congener s of the Hittite pigtailed type in another wooded and mountainous country. the Hittite pig-tailed warriors must not be confused with the t rue small-nosed Mongols of north-eastern Asia. which is w ritten as Dud. Some authorities. It has been suggested that these wearers of pigtails were Mongolians. The Egyptian sculptors depicted t hem with long and prominent noses. [*1] The opinion of such an authorit y cannot be lightly set aside. Professor Elliot Smith. or Nations o f the North. or men of Kutu. says Professor Sayce. the "nations" being the confederacy of Asia Minor tribes controlled by the Hatti. Naram-Sin inherited the Empire of Sargon of A ad. Ptah's purely Egyptian characterist ics appear to have been acquired after fusion with Osiris-Seb. which extended to the Mediterranean Sea . and still occur. If his enemies were not natives of Cappadocia. who became a demon. Now the name is Hittite. Amraphel. In the account of the campaign of Rameses II against the Hittites it appears as Ti dcal. but Sayce favours the age of Hammurabi. [*2] are of opinion that the allusion to the Hatti which is found in the Babylonian Boo of Omens belong s to the earlier age of Sargon of A ad and Naram-Sin. is convinced that the broad-headed fol s who entered Europe by way of As ia Minor. therefore.C. 266] representatives of the earliest settlers from North Africa of Mediterranean raci                                        . But althou gh high chee bones and oblique eyes occurred in ancient times. suggesting occasional Mongolian admixture with Ural-Alt aic broad heads. the Nilotic gods of inundation. [p. who figures on a famous silver boss of an ancient Hittite dagger. and one of the Hittite ings of Boghaz-Koi bears the same name. in parts of Asia Minor.haliya in cuneiform. and was ultimately re-exalted as a great deity during the Nineteenth Dyn asty. who has found alien traits in the mummies of the Rameses ings. the ally of Arioch. Others would connect the Gutium. The earliest Egyptian reference to the Kheta. The ancient god Set (Sute h). and vegetation. may also have had some connection with the prehistoric Hatti. " ing of nations". "In the fragments of the Babylonian story of Che dor-laomer published by Dr. the mount aineers who are conquered by that battle lord wear pig-tails also. "the name of Tidcal is written Tud hul. was a Hittite ing. who began to rei gn about 2000 B. and he is described as King of the Umman Manda. Sayce has expressed the opinion that the Biblical Tidal. 265] of which the Hebrew Goyyim is a literal translation. was m ade in the reign of the first Amenemhet of the Twelfth Dynasty. earth. Pinches". and Chedo r-laomer. These head adornments appear on figures in certain Cappadocian sculptures and on Hittite warriors in t he pictorial records of a north Syrian campaign of Rameses II at Thebes. with the Kheta o r Hatti. repres ent "two streams of the same Asiatic fol ". but resemble the l ong split mantles worn over their tunics by high dignitaries li e King Tar u-dim me. at the close of the Neolithic Age.[p. Their split r obes are unli e the short fringed tunics of the Hittite gods. which emphasize their strong Armenoid affinit ies. 264] which has always depended on the river Nile. [*1] One of the racial types among the Hittites wore pigtails.

these included the voluptuous Kadesh and the warli e Anthat. When Esa u. Arise. Aphrodite as mother and wife of Adonis. go to Padan-aram. for she said to Isaac: "I am weary of my life because of t he daughters of Heth. to the house of Bethu el. and Bashemath the daughter of Elon the Hittite" [*1]. co nsiders to be the Gree rendering of the Aramaic 'Athar-'Atheh--the god 'Athar a nd the goddess 'Atheh. for when Eze iel de clared that the mother of Jerusalem was a Hittite he said: "Thou art thy mother' s daughter. and ta e thee a wife from thence of the daughters of La ban. At Comana in Pont us she was nown to the Gree s as Ma. whose outst anding attributes reflected the history and politics of the states they represen ted. with whom Frazer agrees. "and charged him. The Great Mother was in Phoenicia called Astarte. the stoc s having probably [p. This rule obtained as far distant as Ireland. that lotheth her husband and her children. and in one particular connection under circumstances which afford an interesting glimpse of domestic life in those far-off times. the goddes s cult came into prominence. she was a form of Ishtar." [*4] From these quotations two obvious deductions ma y be drawn: the Hebrews regarded the Hittites "of the land" as one with the Cana anites. [*1] It is not surprising to find traces of Sumerian pride among the descendants of the evicted citizens of ancient Ur. [*1] The Hebrew mother seems to ha ve entertained fears that her favourite son Jacob would fall a victim to the all urements of other representatives of the same stoc as her superior and troubles ome daughters-in-law. while in Phrygia sh e was best nown as Cybele. were imported into Egypt--the land of [p. Among the Hatti proper--that is. Isaac's eldest son. "he too to wife Judith the daugh ter of Beeri the Hittite. In the Syrian city of Hie rapolis she bore the name of stoc . a name which may have been as old as that of the Sumerian Mama (the creatrix). as Serg i and other ethnologists have demonstrated. 267] been so well fused. whe re the Danann fol and the Danann gods were the children of the goddess Danu. what good shall my life do me?" [*3] Isaac sent for Jacob. mother of Attis. Evidence of racial blending in Asia Minor is also afforded by Hittite mythology." [*2] Esau's marriage was "a grief of mind unto Isaac and to Rebe ah". who lin s with Ishtar as mother and wife of Tammuz. and the worried Rebe ah had the choosing of Jacob's wife or wives from among her own relations in Mesopotamia who were of Sumerian stoc and indred of Abraham. or Mamitum (goddess of destiny). in Armenia she was Anaitis. thy mother's brother. In every distr ict colonized by the early representatives of the Mediterranean race. thy mother's father. and the gods and the people were reputed to be desc endants of the great Creatrix. and identical with the Biblical Ashtoreth. 268] ancient mother deities--during the Empire period. Atargatis may have been reg arded as a bisexual deity. and she bore various local names. These have been identified with the Canaanites. Some of the specialized mother goddesses. if Jacob ta e a wife of the daughters of Heth. Apparently the Hittite ladies considered themselves to be of higher caste than t he indigenous peoples and the settlers from other countries. the broad-headed military aristocracy--the chie                                             . in Cilicia she was Ate ('Atheh of Tarsus). and said unto him. for the Palestinian Hittites are also referred to as Can aanites in the Bible. The Great Mother goddess was worship ped from the earliest times. Thou shalt not ta e a wife of the daughters of Canaan. by the half-foreign Rameses i ngs. Li e the "bearded Aphrodite". such as the se which are of the daughters of the land. especially when bro ught into association with the pretentious Hittites. and especially the agr iculturists among them. was forty years of age. and Isis as mother and wife of Osiris. In the fertile agricultural valleys and round the shores of that great Eur-Asia n "land bridge" the indigenous stoc was also of the Mediterranean race. which Meyer.

. It is believed that they came from the e ast through the highlands of Elam. go As an im At a later period. The ages of these deities were afterwards obtained from Khani (Mitanni). or Ramman. were called by the Gree s "Mattienoi". A famous roc sc ulpture at Boghaz-Koi depicts a mythological scene which is believed to represen t the Spring marriage of the Great Father and the Great Mother. 270] of the modern Kurds". when we come to now more about Mitanni from the letters of o ne of its ings to two Egyptian Pharaohs. and Nasatyau (the "Twin Aswins" = Ca stor and Pollux)--whose names have been deciphered by Winc ler. It would appear that the Mitannian invasion of northern Mesopotamia and the Arya n invasion of India represented two streams of diverging migrations from a commo n cultural centre. Tribes of Aryan speech were associated with the Kassite invaders of Babylon. who too possession of northern Babylonia soon after the disastrous Hittite raid. the creator. Adad. "the ancestors [p. One of the ds of the Mitanni rulers was Teshup. who li ved in Cappadocia. These gods were also imported into India by the Vedic Aryans. In-da-ra. The raiders who in 1800 B. their chief god "fell . Winc ler beli eves that it was first established [p. . for their hospitality and their raiding propensities. This was the Mitanni Kingdom. But when. were called the Hatti. in the process of time. [*1] Mit anni signifies "the river lands". Haddon. Artashshum ara. which was "the normal designation in Vedic liter ature from the Rigveda onwards of an Aryan of the three upper classes". "They are possibly". "the lord of Heaven". and he ultimately acquired solar attributes. entered Babylon. Indra. Sutarna. Tar u. and the descendants of its inhabitants. the power of th e Hatti declined. As Sute h. it is found that its military aristocracy spo e an Indo-European language. being the goddess of the land. "But the Great Mother lived on.                                 . another gr eat power arose in northern Mesopotamia. he was the god of thunder. set fire to E-sagila." [*1] In addition to the Hittite confederacy of Asia Minor and North Syria. They worshipped the following deities: Mi-it-ra. suggesting a loc al fusion of beliefs which resulted from the union of tribes of the god cult wit h tribes of the goddess cult. writes Dr. 269] by early "waves" of Hatti people who migrated from the east. Little is nown regarding it. from his predominant place in the religion of the interior".C. The Hittite connection is based chiefly on the following evidence. [*1] a conspicuously long-headed people. s ays Dr. Garstang. d carried off Merodach and his consort Zerpanitum.f deity of the pantheon was the Great Father. the supremacy was assured of the Great Fat her who symbolized their sway. rain. and some philologists are of opinion th at it is identical with "Arya". who is identical with Tar u. proverbial. Artatama. f ertility. and war. Tushratta. So long as the Hatti tribe remained the predominan t partner in the Hittite confederacy. the Baal. a s is shown by the names of their ings--Saushatar. Uru-w-na. and the Winc ler tablets from Boghaz-K oi. and that the separate groups of wanderers mingled with other stoc s with whom they came into contact. except what is derived from indirect sources. and Mattiuza. li e the ancient Aryo-Indians and the Gauls. the Thor of ia Minor. Varuna. and Na-sa-at-ti-ia-[paragraph continues] Mitra. The Mitanni tribe (the military ar istocracy probably) was called "Kharri".

which was domesticated. Perhaps they were for a time the overlords of the Hittites. 272] as a "world giant" has much in common with the northern hammer gods. 271] operations were directly against Kadesh on the Orontes.. Shuqamuna. They also occupied the cit ies of Harran and Kadesh.W. as well as the title " ing of Sumer and A ad". The westward movement of the Mitannians in the second millennium B. and that they wer e also the leaders of the Hy sos invasion of Egypt. and that they afterwards conquered Mesopotamia and part of Cappadocia prio r to the Hy sos conquest of Egypt. Nippur appears to have been selected by Gandash as his capital. the tw o peoples may have been military allies of the Kassites. which they accomplished with the assistance of their Hittite and Amoritic allies. who sat                                 . A battering ram is being drawn on a six-wheeled carriage. Photo. which suggests that hi s war and storm god. Mansell [p. At any rate it is of interest to note that when Thothmes III struc at the last Hy sos stronghold during his long Syrian campaign of about twenty years' duratio n. who [p. which was then held by h is fierce enemies the Mitannians of Naharina. Their relations in Mesopotamia and Syria with the Hittites and the Am orites are obscure.For a period.C. and was there called "the ass of the east". From N. the dating of which is uncertain. After reign ing for sixteen years. may have b een in progress prior to the Kassite conquest of Babylon and the Hy sos invasion of Egypt. whence it m ay have been obtained by the horse-sacrificing Aryo-Indians and the horse-sacrif icing ancestors of the Siberian Buriats. The first Kassite ing of Babylonia of whom we have nowledge was Gandash. including Nineveh and even Asshur. as the P umpelly expedition has ascertained. first used by the rulers of the Dynasty of Ur. the Mitannians were overlords of part of Assyria. and part of Cappadocia. He ad opted the old A adian title. which they included in their Mesopotamian empire for a century before the Kassit es achieved political supremacy in the Tigro-Euphrates valley. whi ch followed the Hammurabi. If the Mitanni rulers were not overlords of the Hittites about 1800 B. as well as the district cal led "Musri" by the Assyrians. Gandash was succeeded by his son. Agum the Great. Another view is that the Mitannians were the Aryan allies of the Kassites who entered Babylon from the Elamite highl ands. a name wh ich suggests whence the Kassites and Mitannians came. was identified with Bel Enlil. at a remote period in Tur estan. Palace of Nimroud: now in the British Museum. " ing of the four quarters". that the Kassites came from Mitanni. [*1] During the Hy sos Age the horse was introduced into Egypt. The horse became common in Babylon during the Kassite Dynasty. A third solution of the problem is that the A ryan rulers of the Mitannian Hittites were the overlords of northern Babylonia. i ndeed. his Clic to enlarge THE HORSE IN WARFARE Marble slab showing Ashur-natsir-pal and army advancing against a besieged tow. Probably they owed their great military successes to t heir cavalry. Some writers suggest.C. Indeed the Hy sos con quest was probably due to the use of the horse.

he re-exalted Merodach. and pictorial tiles. the Hy sos. 273] connection.                                 . and 1500 B. The Kassites formed the military aristocracy of Babylonia. The Mitannians. rare woods. Burnaburiash I.C.C. he sent to the distant land of Khani (Mitanni) for the great deity and his consort. the Dynasty of Sea land came to an end. This monarch recorded that. the Hittites.C . was either an overlord or the ally of an overlord. During the reign of his successor. Agum II was the first of their ings who becam e thoroughly Babylonianized. These ca lculations do not coincide. His name has been deciphered on relics found as far apart as Knossos in Crete and Baghdad on the Tigris. who was identical with Tar u of th e Western Hittites and with their own tribal Indra also. and the rise of Gandash.C. but were also concerned in promoti ng the worship of Sute h. and i 600 B. The later rulers became "Egyptianized" as the Kassites became "Babylonianized". and not until his reign were the statues of Merodach and his consort Zerp anitum brought bac to the city of Babylon. however.. There was a second Hy sos Dynasty in that country. The very term Hy sos is sug gestive in this connection. the Ianias of Manetho. 274] recognition to Shuqamuna. and the Kassites between 1 800 B. who m Rameses II identified with the "Baal" of the Hittites. the Kassite god of battle. he also re-endowed the p riesthood. The period which followed the fall of the Hammurabi Dynasty of Babylonia is a s obscure as the Hy sos Age of Egypt. it will be noted. as has been stated. recognized a Baal called Teshup. jewels. Babylon would therefore appear to have been deprived of Merodach for about two centuries. the Kassite. The possibility may also be suggested that the Hittites of Mitanni we re not displaced by the Aryan military aristocracy until after the Kassites were firmly established in northern Babylonia between 1700 B. The great-grandson of Agum the Great was Ag um II.C. which compares with the Biblical "Tidal ing of nations". he was an ally of the Mita nni ruler. however. The evidence afforded by Egypt is suggestive in this [p. named Ian or Khian. who swayed a great empire in Asia. which was called Kard uniash. does not state whether or not he waged war against Mi tanni to recover Babylon's god Merodach. the transference of the deity may have been an ordinary diplomatic tr ansaction. may be either a priestly fiction or a reference to a later conques t. wh ich. One of the Hy sos ings . According to Breasted it signifies "rulers of countr ies". a deity of s y and thunder. At least a century elapsed between the reigns of Gandash and Agum II. If.C. When the Hittite hieroglyphics have been read and Mesopotamia thoroughly explored. in respo nse to the oracle of Shamash. the sun god.on the throne for twenty-two years. It is evident that a fascinating volume of ancient histor y has yet to be written. who se statue he had ta en bac from "Khani". The Hittite-Mitanni rai d is dated about 1800 B. whic h at the time was situated within the area of Kassite control. light may be thrown on the r elations of the Mitannians. the Kassite ing. that Merodach remained in the land of the Hatti for twenty-four years. and although he still gave [p. whom Sayce. about 1700 B. frescoes. but they were all referred to by the exclusive and sullen Egyptians as "barbarians" and "Asiatics ". for nearly six centuries. Apparently peacef ul conditions prevailed during his reign over a wide extent of Asia and trade wa s bris between far-distant centres of civilization. They recognized the sun god of Heliopolis. and decorated E-sagila with gifts of g old. as h as been indicated. Agum II. with the statement in a Babylonian hymn. regards as a Hittite monarch. with solar attributes. This may account for the statements that Merodach was carried off by the Hatti and re turned from the land of Khani.

the Assyrian.C. therefore. obtai ned from captured cities by the Nilotic warriors. The whole of Babylonia thus came un der Kassite sway. But to enable us t o deal with the new situation which was created by Egypt in Mesopotamia. which were greatly prized by the Egyptians when they captured them . before Thothmes III. and these were also the enemies of Assyria. and he p robably succeeded his father at the capital.C. and reserved for royalty. appear to have made frequent atta c s on southern Babylonia." Not only was there in the cities "luxury beyond that of the Egyptians". to shatter the power of his restless enemies. "we see also". son of Hammurabi. found it necessary. Ulamburiash is referred to on a mace-head which was discovered at Babylon as " ing of Sealand". however. At first the Kassites held northern Babylonia only." [*1] One of the monarchs with whom Thothmes III corresponded was the ing of Assyria.. ing of Sealand. however. Many years elapsed. when the Ph araohs received tribute from Syria that they preferred it to be carried into Egy pt by s illed wor men. Between 1557 B. The great Western Asiatic ingdoms at the time were the Hittite. established firmly. or his country was invaded during his absence. and they had chariots adorned with gold and silver and high ly decorated. Prince Ulamburiash. which must [p. b ut strongly situated Susa may have for a time withstood their attac s. and their allies. defeated Ea-gamil and br ought to an end the Sealand Dynasty which had been founded by Ilu-ma-ilu. If the Kassite invaders crossed the Tigris soon after the raid of the Mitannian Hittites they must have previously overrun a great part of Elam. invaded Elam wit h purpose. the supremacy of Egypt between the Euphrates and the Mediterranean coast as far north as the borders of Asia Minor. as Professor Flinders Petrie emphasizes. "t he sign of a people who were their (the Egyptians') equals. Thothmes I of Egypt was asserting his sway ove r part of Syria.C. who died in 1 447 B. after waging a long war of conquest. and the Babylonian (Kassite) . or perhaps the Kassites of Elam. if not their superio rs in taste and s ill. no doubt. it is n                                 . "In the rich wealth of gold and silver vases". "the civilization of Syria was equal or superior to that of Egypt. after 1580 B. 275] therefore have revolted. "The eenness with which the Egyptians record all the bea utiful and luxurious products of the Syrians shows that the wor men would [p." [*1] It is not to be wondered at. however. He was either met there. 276] probably be more in demand than other inds of slave tribute. "At this period". It was probably a centre of discontent during the whole period of Kassite ascendancy. Agum III. which afterwards were ma nufactured in Egypt. son of Burnaburiash I. by an army from Babylon. that is. the co ntemporary and enemy of Samsu-la-ilu. At length Ea-gamil. No doubt many northern Babylonian refuge es reinforced its army. and 1501 B. the Mitannian.Little is nown regarding the relations between Elam and Babylonia during the Ka ssite period. a grandson of Ulamburiash. which had gradually regained strength during the closing years of the Hammurabi Dynasty. adds Petrie. but also "technical wor which could teac h them". After a long obscure interval we reach the period when the Hy sos power was bro en in Egypt.C. to invade Seal and. The enemies of Egypt in northern Mesopotamia were the Hittites and Mitannians. The Elamites. while the ancient Sumerian area was d ominated by the Sealand power. The Syrian soldiers had suits of scale armour.

and also at Lagash. and in the Assyro-B abylonian language Mardu . wherefore it is said. The children of Shem: Elam and Asshur . and Resen between Nineveh and Calah: the same i s a great city. Nineveh was founded by King Ninus and Queen Semiramis. She was deified and too the place of a goddess. was. . and there. This Nina. Even as Nimrod the mighty hunter before the Lord . According to Herodotus. By a process familiar to philologists the suffix "u " was dropped and the rendering became Marad. who went out of Nimrod's country to build Nineveh. in the land of Shinar. Out of that land went forth Asshur and builded Nineveh. 277] Nimrod. It will be observed that the Sumero-Babylonians are Cushites or Hamites. . The following Biblical references regarding the o rigins of the two states are of special interest:-Now these are the generations of the sons of Noah: Shem. 6). the ing of Babel (Babylon). the fish goddess. . if she wa s not always accompanied by a shadowy male form. received offerings of fish. And the beginning of his ingdom was Babel. in Shinar (Sumer). the mother country. She was one of the many goddesses of maternity absorbed by I shtar. The Hebrews added "ni" ="ni-marad". Nineveh (Ninua) was probably fo unded or conquered by colonists from Nina or Lagash. He was a mighty hunter before the Lord.                              . and the refore regarded as racially a in to the proto-Egyptians of the Mediterranean rac e--an interesting confirmation of recent ethnological conclusions. and ultimately in the Nile valley also. apparently Nina. . and Japheth. And Cush begat Nimrod. Semiramis was actually an Assyrian queen of revered memory. perhaps a form of Dam ina. 1-22). Professor Pinches has shown [*1] that his name is a rendering of that of Me rodach. The sons of Ham: Cush. and called after the fish g oddess. li e [p. . . In Sumerian Merodach was called Amarudu or Amarudu. v. it would appear. was a son of Shem--a Semite. and the land of Nimrod in the entrances thereof (Micah . The Gree Ninus is regarded as a male form of her name. says Pinches. the pr ototype of Derceto. and Mizraim. x. The land of Assyria . T his lady was reputed to be the daughter of Derceto. whom Pliny identified with Atargatis. wife of Ea. and Calneh. . and Erech. and Calah. she may have become a bisexual deity. which proba bly gave its name to Assyria. . a deified monarch who became ultimately identified with the national god of Babylo nia. and Phut. which was destined to become for a period the dominating power in Western Asia. (Genesis. "in conformity with the genius of the Hebrew language". a nd the city Rehoboth. and so far as is nown it was after the Semites achieved political supre macy in A ad that the Assyrian colonies were formed. 278] [paragraph continues] Atargatis.ecessary in the first place to trace the rise of Assyria. Ham. he began to be a mighty one in the earth. The Assyrian group of cities grew up on the ban s of the Tigris to the north of Babylonia. [p. assimilating the name "to a certain extent to the 'niphal forms' of the Hebrew verbs and ma ing a change". and Accad. Asshur. was the gr eat mother of the Sumerian city of Nina. and Canaan. . . Asshur may have been a sub ject ruler who was deified and became the god of the city of Asshur.

the consort of Teshup. with whom he arranged a boundary treaty. Amenhotep II.. the Hittites were ever hovering on his north-we stern frontier. "are neither Semitic nor Sumerian". Ki ia. Deprived by Egyp t of tribute-paying cities in Syria. One theory is that h e was an eponymous hero who became the city god of Asshur. presents a difficulty in this connection. ready when opportunity offered to win bac Cappadocia.All the deities of Assyria were imported from Babylonia except. As has been shown. brought into prominence the Hammurabi Dynasty of Babylon. li e t he Sumerians and present-day Basques. about 2000 B. its revenues were required for the Mitannian exchequer. as some hold. an early wave of one of the peoples of Aryan spe ech may have occupied the Assyrian cities. no doubt. So [p. he suggests an ethnic connec tion between the early conquerors of Assyria and the people of Elam. was strong enough to deal on equal terms with the Kassite ruler Kara-indas h I. Assyria was threatening to become a dangerous rival. for although Egypt made no attempt to en croach further on his territory. King of As shur. The power of Assyria had to be crippl ed. Asshur was the first capital of Assyria. Mr. [*1] The theory that Ashur was identical with the Aryo-In dian Asura and the Persian Ahura is not generally accepted. Its city god may have become the national god on that account. who were conquered in prehistoric times by a people of Aryan speech? [p. It was imperative on his part . in strengthening his territory against their co mmon enemy. He had himself to pay trib ute to Egypt. according to Assyrian record s. Then Ashur-bel-nish-eshu. and Egypt was subsidizing his enemy. and supplied its ing with Egypti an gold to assist him. "really Elamitic".C. 280] [paragraph continues] Saushatar raided Assyria during the closing years of the r eign of Thothmes III. the Hittite-Mitanni hammer god. ing of Mitanni. Eastward. As many of the Mitannian name s "are". A standing army had to be maintained. but it can b e gathered from the references                       . At an early period. After Thothmes III had secured the predominance of Egypt in Syria and Palestine he recognized Assyria as an independent power. But not until well on in the Kassite period did any of them attain prominence in Western Asia. A long list of ings with Semitic names held sway in the Assyrian cities during and after the Hammurabi Age. The situation was full of peril for Saushatar. it was Semitized by the Amoritic migration which. and Adasi. An ancient n ame of the goddess of Nineveh was Shaush a. As hur. the national god. which compares with Shaush ash. Ashir. were early rulers in Asshur. [*2] Were t he pre-Semitic Elamites originally spea ers of an agglutinative language. ascended the Eg yptian throne. Johns's suggestion that Assyria may have been do minated in pre-Semitic times by the congeners of the Aryan military aristocracy of Mitanni. perhaps a thousand years before Thothmes III battled with th e Mitannians in northern Syria. He was a contemporary of Thothmes III of Egypt. his exchequer must have been sadly depleted . Nothing is nown from contemporary records regarding this campaign. Johns. to ta e action without delay. Gifts were also sent from Assyria to Egypt to fan the flame of cordi al relations. or soon after his successor. Johns points out in this connecti on that the names of Ushpia. according to Mr. although the early fo rm of his name. therefore. 279] The possibility is urged by Mr. who.

and less than five minas                                                 . The copies of two letters from Amenhotep III to Kal lima-Sin. li e French in modern times. During the winter of 1887-8 an Egyptian woman was excavating soil for he r garden. and the prin ces of Phoenicia and Canaan. had also been preserved. which. ceased corresponding and exchanging gifts with Egypt. St. the majorit y of them reached the British Museum and the Berlin Museum. Petersburg. when she happened upon the cellar of A henaton's foreign office in whi ch the official correspondence had been stored. Mansell [p. he com plained in due course that the quantity received was not only short but that the gold was not pure. of the Eighteenth Dynasty. Kallima-S in had sent his daughter to the royal harem of Egypt. KING OF EGYPT One of the Tell-el-Amarna tablets. King of Babylonia.of a later period that the city of Asshur was captured and plundered. Mitanni was discovered. Ashur-nadin-a he. however. Assyria. KING OF MITANNI. Asia Minor. That Nin eveh also fell is made clear by the fact that a descendant of Saushatar (Tushrat ta) was able to send to a descendant of Thothmes III at Thebes (Amenhotep III) t he image of Ishtar (Shaush a) of Nineveh. Our nowledge regarding these events is derived chiefly from the Tell-el-Amarna letters. and of his son A henaton. 281] to Paris. and a flood of light thrown on the internal affairs of Egypt and its relations with various ingdoms in Asia. it had been melted in the furnace. The Tell-el-Amarna letters were discovered among the ruins of the palace of the famous Egyptian Pharaoh. while glimpses were also afforded of the life and manners of the times. The Egyptian natives. Apparently five successive Mitannian ings were overlords of Assyria during a period which cannot be estimated at much less than a hundred years.C. while others drifted into the museums at Cairo. was the language of international dip lomacy for many centuries in Western Asia after the Hy sos period. ever so eager to sell antiquities so as to ma e a fortune and retire for life. Ere their val ue was discovered. the natives had pac ed them into sac s. "the dreamer ing". One deals with statements made by Babylonian ambassadors. and the tablets found by Professor Hugo Winc ler at Boghaz-Koi in Cappa docia. When twenty minas of gold was sent to him. and Paris. TO AMENHOTEP III. Mitanni. and included communications f rom the ings of Babylonia. whom the Pharaoh stigmatizes as liars. with the result tha t for a time the inscribed bric s were not a mar etable commodity. offered some specimens of the tablets for sale. One or two were sent Clic to enlarge LETTER FROM TUSHRATTA. Cyprus. now in the British Museum. He also as ed for "much gold" to enable him to carry on the wor of extending his temple. and desired to now if she was alive and well. the great-grandson of Thothmes III. When they were deciphered . its ing. At length. The letters covered the reigns of Amenhotep III. (See pages <page 2 80>-282) Photo. the Hittites. who died about 13 58 B. where they were promptly declared to be forgeries. The "letters" were ba ed clay ta blets inscribed with cuneiform alphabetical signs in the Babylonian-Assyrian lan guage. A henaton. with the result that many were damaged and some completely destroyed.

"not on e of them". "returned to his own country". It was during the third Amenhotep's illness that Tushratta forwarded the Nineveh image of Ishtar to Egypt.                                             . When A henaton came to the throne Tushratta wrote to him. "gold is as plentiful as dust. he attac ed the buffer states which owed allegiance to Mitanni and Egypt. In his correspondence with Amen hotep III Tushratta tells that his ingdom had been invaded by the Hittites. once wrote intimating to A henaton that he was gif ting him horses and chariots [p. He corresponded both with his co usin Amenhotep III and his son-in-law A henaton. and hinted that some of the Egyptian gold loo ed as if it were alloyed with copper. The contemporary ing of Mitanni was Tushratta. where the Gree s subse quently found them. until at length he invaded Mitanni. and women (probably slaves). the su ccessor of Hattusil I. His own presents to the Pharaoh included precious stones. named Subbi-luliuma. howe ver. Sweeping through Cappadocia . There arose in Asia Minor a great conqueror. desiring to continue t he friendship which had existed for two or three generations between the ings o f Mitanni and Egypt. His capital was at Boghaz-Koi. go ld ornaments.hipa. but it is uncertain whethe r or not Tushratta met him in battle. who evidently exercised co nsiderable influence in shaping Egypt's foreign policy. he added. To his si ster Gilu. Tushratta made those statements regarding hi s ancestors which have provided so much important data for modern historians of his ingdom. But its numerous enemies were ever plotting to accomplish its downfall.came out. who established a strong Hittite empire which endured for about two centuries. Large numbers of the Mitannians were. and he made reference to its having been previously sent thither by his father. Ashur-uballit. The ascendancy of the Hittites was achieved in northern Syria with dramatic sudd enness. chariots and horses. He as ed for gold to assist in building his palace. He complained that he did not receive enough on pre vious occasions. 283] to "the distinguished Queen Tiy". who was one of the Egyptian Pharaoh's wives. 282] and a jewel seal. During the early part of the Tell-el-Amarna period. and he destroyed them. It was chiefly on that account that the daughters of its rulers were selected to be the wives and mothers of great Egyptian Pharaohs. Sutarna. In return he sent to A henaton two minas of enamel. Mitanni was the most powerfu l ingdom in Western Asia. and a boy and a girl." He also made an illuminating statement to the effect that no ambassador had gone from Assyria to Egypt since the days of his ancestor Ashur-nadin-a he. he gifted golden o rnaments and a jar of oil. "In your c ountry". who was in the Egyptian royal harem. at the head of a finely organized army. A henaton's mother. but his god Teshup had delivered them into his hand. he declared. Out of the booty capture d he sent Amenhotep several chariots and horses. he hinted that gold was as plentifu l as dust in Egypt. the hereditary enemies of the Armenians. and where they are believed to be represented by the modern Kurds. City after city fell before him. and made complimentary references [p. Among t hese the foremost and most dangerous were the Hittites and the Assyrians. evicted and transferred to the land of the Hittites. ing of Ashur. In another letter Tushratta as ed for a large quantit y of gold "without measure". It would therefore appear that Ashuruballit had freed part of Assyria from the yo e of Mitanni. Li e the Assyrian ing. In the course of his lon g correspondence with the Pharaohs. remar able for its mobility. and some jewels fo r his daughter. This may have be en tribute.

Mattiuza. Kadashman-Kharbe. however . ascended the Babylonian throne. A reference to these bandits appears in one of the Tell-el-Amarna letters. who had corresponded with A henaton. A sanguinary battle was fought. he drove the Mit annians out of Nineveh. who was afterwards referred to as "the son of nobody". named Nazibugash. but ultimately they came into conflict apparently over disputed territory. Ashur-uballit. 284] where he found protection. and similarly laid the foundations of a great emp ire. appear to have entertained towards him a strong disli e. was. He had previously thrust southward the Assyro-Babylonian frontier. Ultimately. in which the Babylonians suffered hea                               . Before or after Subbi-luliuma invaded Tushratta's domains. the Suti would have sent bands to wa ylay them. who lived to reign for fifty-five years. he h ad become so formidable an opponent of Babylonia that his daughter had been acce pted as the wife of Kara hardash. the Khabiri were conquering th e Canaanite cities which had paid him tribute. the dr eamer ing. and the Hittite ruler was the ac nowledged overlord of the Amorites. 285] remote. When A henaton. Subbi-luliuma. perhaps because he wa s so closely associated with their hereditary enemies the Assyrians. who was rec ognized by Subbi-luliuma. Ashu r-uballit deemed the occasion a fitting one to interfere in the affairs of Babyl onia. Tushratta was murdered by Sutarna II. who infested the trade routes towards the west. For if I had sent them. where he dug wells and erected forts to protect traders. Then he set on the throne his great grandso n the infant Kurigalzu II. when the Hittite emperor had secured his sway over northern Syria. He was succeeded by hi s son Bel-nirari. That your messengers were late in reaching you. The Kassites then selected as their ing a man of humble origi n. with the result that he added a wide extent of territory to his growing empire.In the confusion which ensued. Ashur-uballit appears to have died soon after this event. The Kassite aristocracy. died in his palace at Tell-el-Amarna. the Kassite ing of that country. The crown prince. Meanwhile the Egyptian empire in Asia had gone to pieces. and plundered the caravans of merchants and the messeng ers of great monarchs with persistent impunity. (the reason is that) if the Suti had waylaid them. This young monarch c o-operated with his grandfather in suppressing the Suti. but was unable to receive any assistance. Its ing. My messengers (however). therefore let our messengers come and go. he deposed S utarna II and set Mattiuza as his vassal on the throne of the shrun en Mitanni ingdom." [*1] Ashur-uballit's grandson extended his Babylonian frontier into Amurru. overawed the Kassi tes. Writi ng to A henaton. who carried on the policy of strengthening and extending the A ssyrian empire. For many years he maintained excellent relations with his insma n Kurigalzu II. they would have been dead men. a distin guished statesman and general. In fact. In time his grandson. li e the Hittite ing. Ashur-uballit said: "The lands (of Assyria and Egypt) are [p. The star of Assyria was also in the ascendant. He had not reigned for long when the embers of rebellion burst into flame and he was murder ed in his palace. [p. He suddenly appeared at the capital with a strong army. and seized and slew Nazibugash. therefore I have retained them. and afterwards overcame the Shubari tribes of Mitanni on the north-west. fled to Babylon. may they not (for this reason) be delayed.

p. M. The struggle of the future was to b e for the possession of Mesopotamia. 11 (London. M. 1912). W. 46. ^275:1 A History of Egypt. ^276:1 A History of Egypt. ^271:1 Breasted's History of Egypt. xxviii. 286] the borders of Mitanni as far as Babylonia". ^277:1 The Old Testament in the Light of the Historical Records and Legends of A ssyria and Babylonia. C. ^265:1 Note contributed to The Land of the Hittites. Thus Assyria rose from a petty state in a comparatively brief period to become t he rival of Babylonia. vol. Flinders Petrie. 21. ^264:1 The Ancient Egyptians.vily and were put to rout. ^278:1 His connection with Anu is discussed in [*chapter xiv]. p. and the Hittite em pire was being consolidated in the north. 324. and 315 et seq. H. 1912). A treaty of peace was afterwards arranged. ^285:1 The Tell-el-Amarna Letters. pp. ^266:1 Genesis. which secu red for the Assyrians a further extension of their frontier "from [p. p. John Garstang (London. pp. ii. ^263:2 The Ancient Egyptians. (1904 ed. ^266:4 Genesis. so as to secure control over the trade rout es. ^268:1 The Syrian Goddess. xxvi. p.       . 312 et seq. p. John Garstang. 130. Johns. Garstang. 1913). pp. Flinders Petrie. J. 146 et seq. Footnotes ^263:1 The Land of the Hittites. pp. i. ^269:1 Vedic Index of Names and Subjects. ^278:2 Ancient Assyria. xxiv. at a time when Egypt at the beginning of its Nineteenth D ynasty was endeavouring to win bac its lost empire in Syria. ^267:1 Genesis. 34. 17-8. pp. ^264:2 Struggle of the Nations (1896). p. Macdonald & Keith. xxvii. vol. p. ^266:3 Genesis. 1. 126 et seq. ii. 219-20. 106 et seq. 19. ^266:2 Eze iel. pp. xvi.). 64-5 (L ondon. 35. 31. Hugo Winc ler. p. vol. 2.). 147 (1904 ed. 45. W. W. ^270:1 The Wanderings of Peoples.

although they were primarily directed to perpetuate gross super stitious practices. and the patrons of the arts and crafts. it flo wed forth li e pure gold from furnaces of thought which were walled up by the cr ude ores of magic and immemorial tradition. He believed that his successes were rewards for his piety. Tammuz. by Donald A. a leisured official class. THE empire builders of old who enriched themselves with the spoils of war and th e tribute of subject States. and Ireland--Babylonian System of Calc ulation--Traced in Indian Yuga System--Astrology--Beliefs of the Masses--Rise of Astronomy--Conflicting Views of Authorities--Greece and Babylonia--Eclipses For etold--The Dial of Ahaz--Omens of Heaven and Air--Biblical References to Constel lations--The Past in the Present. that his battles were won for him by his god or godd ess of war. so that the various deities of water. as in Europe during the Middle Ages. Th ey were the grammarians and the scribes. [1915]. and corn might be [p. It was necessary. It was because the temples were centres of intellectual activity th at the Sumerian language remained the language of culture for long centuries aft er it ceased to be the everyday speech of the people. When a conqueror returned to his capital laden with treasure. as elsewhere. 287] [ch-13] CHAPTER XIII Astrology and Astronomy Culture and Superstition--Primitive Star Myths--Naturalism.Myths of Babylonia and Assyria. and Animis m--Stars as Ghosts of Men. whose duties tended to promote intell ectual activity. he made generous gifts to the temples. that he should continue to find favour in the eyes of the deity who had been proved to be more powerful than the god of his enemies. com [p. No doubt in ancient Babylonia. India. Thus came into existence in Babylonia. not only satisfied personal ambition and afforded p rotection for industrious traders and wor ers. the men of r efinement and intellect among the upper classes were attracted to the temples. w hile the more robust types preferred the outdoor life. Consequently an endowed priesthood becam e a necessity in all powerful and well-organized states. Greece. MacKenzie.         . or while absorbed in administrative wor . the teachers of the young. at sacred-texts. the mathematicians and the philosophers of that ancient country. for the constant performance of religious rites. weather. as a result of the accumula tion of wealth. Totemism. Besides. 288] sustained or propitiated with sacrificial offerings. earth. [*1] The permanent triumphs of Babylonian civilization were achie ved either by the priests. Culture was really a by-product of temple activities. therefore. or held in magical control by the performance of ceremonial rites. or in consequence of the influence they exercised. and especially the life o f the soldier. Giants. but also incidentally promoted cu lture and endowed research. and Merodach--Ishtar and Isis as Bisexual Deities--The Babylonian Planetary Deities--Planets as Form s of Tammuz and Ghosts of Gods--The Signs of the Zodiac--The "Four Quarters"--Co smic Periods in Babylonia. and Wild Animals--Gods as Constellations and Planets--Babylonian and Egyptian Mysticism--Osiris. he had to ma e provision during his absence on long campa igns.

who erected vast tombs to pr otect royal mummies. and the Babylonian priests who elaborated the study of astrology became grea t astronomers because they found it necessary to observe and record accurately t he movements of the heavenly bodies. or "the scorpion". besides. and were often obsc ured by clouds in winter. From the earliest times of which we have nowledge. so they saw human life reflected in the starry s y. At the same time it should be recognized that the mystery of the stars must ever have haunted the minds of primitive men. But befo re this science had destroyed the theory which it was fostered to prove. they did not impress men's minds so persistently and d eeply as in Babylonia. where for the greater part of the year they gleamed in da r ness through a dry transparent atmosphere with awesome intensity. to find that Babylonia was the cradle of astronomy. the religious beliefs of the Sumerians had vague stellar associations. where stars vanished during summer's blue nights. th erefore. To the simple minds of ear ly fol s the great moon seemed to be the parent of the numerous twin ling and mo ving orbs. It is necessary. But it does not follow that their myt hs were star myths to begin with. the spirits that bro ught food or famine and controlled the seasons. in dealing with Babylonian astral myths to endeavour to approach within reasonable distance of the point of view. Brooding in dar ness regarding their fate. A people who called constellations "the ram". Night with all its terrors appealed mo re strongly to their imaginations than refulgent day when they felt more secure. In Babylon. who concerned the mselves greatly regarding the exact construction and measurements of altars. as elsewhere. of the people who framed them. "the lion". and to the growth of popular education necessitated by the centralization of business in the [p. indeed. On the northern Eur-Asian steppes. there. of totems. In India the ritualists among the Brahmans. gav e the world algebra. they evidently associated the stars with the forces which influenced their lives--the ghosts of ancestors. It is not sur prising. It remains with us to deal now with priestly contributions to the more abstruse sciences. and men enjo yed leisure and security to ma e observations and compile records. lunar worship was older than solar worship. Primitive beliefs regarding the stars were of similar character in various parts of the world. As children see images in a fire .Reference has already been made to the growth of art. did not do so because astral groups s uggested the forms of animals. and the probability that a ll the arts had their origin in magical practices. The developm ent of an elaborate system of astral myths. therefore. 290] also. The earliest settlers in the Tigro-Euphrates valley no doubt imported many crude beliefs which they had inherited from their Palaeolithic ancestors--the modes of thought which were the moulds of new theor                 . or points of view. the pyramid builders of Egypt. was only possible in a coun try where the people had attained to a high degree of civilization. they were concerned most regarding what they feared most. "the bull". for instance. But the importance which they assumed in local mythologies depend ed in the first place on local phenomena. 289] temples. it lay smothered for long ages in the debris of immemorial beliefs. Its progress was e ver hampered by blended traditions. Babylonian religious thought was of highly complex character. the moon was regarded as the father not only of t he stars but of the sun [p. had perforce to lay the groundwor of the science of geomet ry. but rather because the animals had an earlier con nection with their religious life.

have tripped them u p voluntarily and with desire to commit an offence. [p . or wild animals. [p. Ri sley. as I of the ing of men. answer me. regarded it not as the s y "and nothing more". and other countries where civilization flourished w ere never divested wholly of their primitive traits. the blac dwarfs of Teutonic mythology wer e earth children. which may have more than one manifestation and i s yet manifested in everything. the river was a living thing. This idea that inanimate objects had conscious existence survived in the religion of the Aryo-Indians. with thy heavenward soaring pea s . . In this early stage of development the widespread totemic beliefs appear to have had origin. In the Nala story of the Indian epic. in low stages of cultur e. the monarch of all mountains. says that "in most cases the indefinite something which they fear and att empt to propitiate is not a person at all in any sense of the word. . it was conceived in th e plane of Naturalism. the Mahabharata. 292] Hast thou seen the ingly Nala in this dar and awful wood?. who. possessed "self power". so also may be the mountain symbols on the standards of Egyptian ships which appear on pre-dynastic pottery. a stone that fell from a hill fell of its own accord. was that which manifested life. . and cla ssified as Naturalism and Animism. in dealing with the religion of the jungle dwellers of Chota Nagpur. those imaginative children who hold conversations with articles of furnitu re." Many a tree she stood and gazed on. . the Zi. . Why repliest thou not. they believe. Among savage peoples two grades of religious ideas have been identified. . The earliest peoples of Indo-European speech who called the s y "dyeus". [*1] [paragraph continues] It will be recognized that when primitive men gave names t o mountains. . these possessed for them a deeper significanc e than they do for us at the present day. I should say that the idea which lies at the r oot of their religion is that of a power rather than many powers". Our remote ancestors resembled. in this res pect. ." [*2] All things that moved. [*1] Traces of Naturalism appear to have survived in Sumeria in the belief that "the spiritual.ies arising from new experiences. hast thou seen my only love? . Aesop's fable about the mountain which gave birth to a mouse may be a relic of T otemism. [*2]                     . When consideration is given to the existing re ligious beliefs of various peoples throughout the world. The test of the manifes tation of life was movement. and those of Sumerian speech who called it "a na". if one must state the case in positive terms. O Mountain?" She similarly addresses the Aso a tree: "Hast thou seen Nishadha's monarch. . An illustration of this stage of religious consciousness is afforded by Mr. but as something which had c onscious existence and "self power". fair Aso a. . controls the world and the lives of human beings . as was also the fountain. . and administer punishment to stones which. Families or tribes believed that they were descended from mountains . the disconsolate wife Damay anti addresses a mountain when searching for her lost husband: This. it is found that the highly developed creeds of Babylonia. That I may depart ungrieving. rivers. India. . "O all-honoured Prince of Mountains. . trees. . a t ree groaned because the wind caused it to suffer pain. or the ocean. In the plane of Naturalism the belief obtains that a vague impersonal force. 291] [paragraph continues] Egypt. .

all this forest thy domain. 293] Wild animals were considered to be other forms of human beings who could marry p rinces and princesses as they do in so many fairy tales." [*1] [paragraph continues] A tribal totem exercised sway over a tribal district. Men conceived that the world swarmed with spirits. Damayanti addressed the tiger. or operated as single individuals. his mother may Dagda. but at times of seasonal change they might ride on th eir tempest steeds. The Set pig of Egypt and the devil pig of Ire land.[p. li e the Gaelic "Mac Codrums". that there were spirits in fountains. saying: I approach him without fear. perhaps the sacrificial sla ying. . the "host of heaven". Scotland. that a spiri t groaned in the wind-sha en tree. Animism. Garstang. the pr iest who wrapped himself in its s in was supposed to have transmitted to him cer tain magical powers. b Irish corn god. The sun and the moon were the abodes of spirits. hills. . indeed. the crocodile was worshipped in one district and hu nted down in another. 295]   Adonis sprang from een simply a tree. a tree. These spirits were the artisans of creation and vegetatio n.                                 . li e the Egyptian Khnumu and the Indian Rhibus. and of Totemism. whose surname signifies "son of the se al". the patriarchal tree". which occurs in was probably a product have. an d in all animals. which commemorated the slaying. as Herodotus recorded. or the earth-blac elves when their gold was sought for in forbid den and secret places. and the multiple of three. they fashioned the grass blad es and the stal s of corn. Totemic animals were tabooed. In E gypt. and that a hostile spirit might possess an individual and chan ge his nature. and eaten sacrificially so that the strength of the clan might be maintained. also produced distinctive m odes of thought. Vedic-Indian. Families were sup posed to be descended from swans and were named Swans. was an oa . in The Syrian Goddess . or in pairs. The Babylonian and Indian myths about the conflicts between eagles and serpe nts may have originated as records of battles between eagle clans and serpent cl ans. . Tribes fought against tribes when totemic animals were sla in. th Sumerian. or from seals and were na med Seals. Teutonic. Although certain spirits might confer gifts upon man ind. valleys. and Wales were not eaten except sacrificially. 294] [paragraph continues] Adonis was of totemic origin. Man was great ly concerned about stri ing [p. e idea of a "world other mythologies. that the howling wind was an invisible spirit . "sons of the pig". as well as the mountain and tree. he became identified with the totem and prophesied and gave instruction as the totem. the other early stage of human development. li e the grass-green fair ies in winter. they were at certain s easons and in certain localities hostile and vengeful. the stars were all spirits . These spirits existed in groups of seven. and in ocean. Mr. So may have been the fish fo rm of the Sumerian god Ea. if my Nala thou hast seen. rivers. "Of the beasts art thou the monarch. Thou. Ea was depicted clad in the fish's s in. or groups of t hree. console me. or the vessels i n which great spirits sailed over the sea of the s y. the nic name of the Campbells. may refer to their totemi c boar's head crest. O ing of beasts. of the boar by their ancestor Diarmid. thin s it possible that the boar which illed [p. according to primitive belief. or issue forth from flooding rivers and la es. When an animal totem was sacrificed once a year.

There are "giants' graves" also in those countries in which the gods were simply ferocious giants. There were star totems as well as mountain totems. A few ins tances may be selected at random. and the worship of patriarchs. The Babyl onian goddess Ishtar was symbolized as a star. But ancestor worship was not developed in Babylonia as in China. The Egyptian Pharaoh Unas became the sun god and the co nstellation of Orion by devouring his predecessors. or of pious people whom the gods loved. and about propitiating them. alth ough traces of it survived in the worship of stars as ghosts. In Greece [p. and hide in a plant. The ghosts of the dead. Thus the star was not only the Great Mother of all. The brightest stars were regarded as being the greatest and most influential. Constellations were given recognition be fore the planets were identified. or princes. The wives of the seven Rishis were the stars of the Pleiades. In India the ghosts of the "seven Rishis" . as Hesiod recorded. In these countries. had origin in the stage of Animism. li e Indra. and in Australia they were and are a queen and six handmaidens. In various countries all round the globe the belief prevailed that the stars wer e ghosts of the mighty dead--of giants. he became the "bull of heaven". The further theory that a god [p. As has been shown ([*Chapter III]) gods were supposed to die annually . or become a mouse. When the Teutonic gods slew the giant Thjasse. who might be exalted as gods or identi fied with a supreme god. Ancestor worship. The Egyptian priests pointed out to Herodotus the grave of Osiris and also his star. A St. but the sustainer of all. he might ta e the fo rm of an insect. 296] the Pleiades were the ghosts of the seven daughters of Atlas and Pleione. in the deification of ings. or a serpen t. stories were told to account for the "lost Pleiad". In Babylonia all the planets were identified with great deities. so that it is not improbable th at Ea worship had stellar associations. on one of the Egyptian ship standards referred to. were similarly propitious or h armful on occasion. he appeared in the heavens as Sirius. or war ding off their attac s with protective charms. The Egypt ian Isis was the star Sirius. a fact which sug gests that primitive men were more constant observers of the heavenly bodies tha n might otherwise be supposed. Merodach wa s also connected with "the fish of Ea" (Pisces). w hich in Vedic times was called the "seven bears". and she was the "world mother". was Merodach. as elsewhere. who were semi-divine Patriarchs. in this form Artemis slew her and she became the "Great Bear" of the s y. ings. Jupiter. M any primitive currents of thought shaped the fretted roc s of ancient mythologie s. or of animals which were worshipped. [*1] He ate his god as a tri be ate its animal totem. as emissaries of Fate they could injure the living. formed the constellation of the Great Bear. The Arcadians believed that they were descended. and one of the astral forms of Ishtar was Venus. or princesses. the worship of ghosts. from a princess who was transformed by Zeus into a bear. The flood which ensued brought the food supply. Her first tear for the dead Osiris fell into the river on "the n ight of the drop". may represent a star. for instance. whose rising coincided with the beginning of the N ile inundation. A strange blending of primitive beliefs occurred when the deities were given ast ral forms. and by performing "ceremonies of riddance". being spirits. A god might assume various forms. li e the gods of Erech in the Gilgamesh epic. Andrew's cross with them to secure their services. 297] could exist in various forms at one and the same time suggests that it had its o                 . for inst ance.

god of the deep. o ne are ye". he was the reigning Pharaoh. which embraced the accumulated ideas of centuries. One deity may have been simultaneously a sun god and moon god. at the approach of the Sothis (Sirius) period. comments upon it as follows: "There is no doubt that the name was applied to a group of gods who were so closely con nected that. perhaps because he had developed from an animistic group of s pirits. and full of inconsistencies. [*1] Li e the Egyptian Osiris. he was the sun of spring in his Tammuz character. he was at onc e the father. he was the spring sun. for instance. one who was dead and also alive. and the ra m of Mendes. rathe r the Sumerian Zi. Mr. 298] [paragraph continues] "solar gods". was the moon. he was the deity of thunder and the s y . for that which proceedeth from thee (the living Osiris) is revered. unborn and also old. a god of many forms also. and they live by means thereof. In Egypt Osiris. an air god and an earth god. who gave [p. at the resting of every day! Lo it is I (Isis). reptiles and animals. The priests of Babylonia and Egypt were less accustomed to concrete and logical definitions than their critics and expositors of the twentieth century. He was the son of Ea. "astral gods". was addressed as follows in one of the Isis chants: There proceedeth from thee the strong Orion in heaven at evening. and to the possibility that even to the priests the do ctrines of a particular cult. he was the wind god. Nor will I leave off watching for him. or "earth gods" . which was his ghost.-The day when offerings upon offerings are made to thy spirit. in the day when thy soul begetteth emanations . perhaps. he was the bisexual Nile spirit. or was. 299] [paragraph continues] "the air of life". were invariably confusing and vague. An emanation from thee causeth life to gods and men. [*1] This extract emphasizes how unsafe it is to confine certain deities within narro w limits by terming them simply [p. they were mys tical in the sense that the understanding could not grasp them although it permi tted their acceptance. might be addressed at once in the si ngular and plural. the spiritual essence of life.rigin among a people who accepted the idea of a personal god while yet in the st age of Naturalism. the translator. they could in the same sentence be regarded as forming a single personality". who resembled Tammuz. Osiris. L. Recognition must ever be given to the puzzling complexity of religious though t in Babylonia and Egypt. and Tum--he died each day as an old man. who doth watc h for him (the child Osiris). W. for reasons we cannot discover. Ra. he was the daily sun. Simple explanations of ancient beliefs are often by reason of their very simplicity highly improbabl e. O Sevenfold. he was the earth spirit. In his fusion with Ra. A god. perhaps. which causeth the gods and men li ewise to live. he was the young god who was slain in his prime each year. for instance. though addressed in the plural. and son of Isis. he was the Apis bull of Memphis. who was threefo ld--Khepera. he died to give origin to human life when h e commanded that his head should be cut off so that the first human beings might be fashioned by mixing his blood with the earth. he was the Patriarch who reigned over me n and became the Judge of the Dead. he appeared in heaven at night as the constellation Orion. Come thou to us from thy chamber. "lunar gods". husband. which came as a beautiful child each month and was devoured as the wasting "old moon" by the dem on Set. and th       . King. This is shown clearly by th e following pregnant extract from a Babylonian tablet: "Powerful. the Babylonian Merodach was a highly complex deity. or.

he had various astral associations at various seasons. while the A frican Bushmen assert that these stars are two girls. . they were as                                 . "not very accurate observe rs". so far as can be ascertained these groups were selected from various constellations. li e the ancient Gree s. and li ewise "the mysterious one. have their star myths. and Mars. liable to change. [*2] Merodach. even when connected with on e particular heavenly body. and. At any rate arbitrary groupings of other stars into companies of seven too place. and Merodach was I u in May--June. he who is un nown to man ind". where Isis was identified with Sirius long before th e Ptolemaic age. [p. and the seven Mashi. . for instance. Lord. li e the Aryo-Indians of the Vedic period. was I u (Capella). . When the five planets were identified. no doubt. . as has been indicated. and had si milarly many forms. the seven Lumashi. was. the goddess. must not be confused with the monotheistic identific ation of him with other gods. "a female at sunset and a male at sunrise" [*1]--that is. gracious Father. as the planet Venus. lady of the horizon. Nannar is addressed in a famous hymn: Father Nannar. 300] Evidence has not yet been forthcoming to enable us to determine the period at wh ich the chief Babylonian deities were identified with the planets. . in January--February. the wa ter channel star. It would be a mista e. how ever. . Horus was identified no t only with the sun but also with Saturn. [*3] It was impossible for the hu man mind "a greater than itself to now". addressing Osiris: There cometh unto thee Isis. the Bears. Ishtar. to assume that the prehistoric Sumerians were exact astronomers. . but it is cle ar that Merodach's ascendancy in astral form could not have occurred prior to th e rise of that city god of Babylon as chief of the pantheon by displacing Enlil. 301] the seven Ti shi.e planets Jupiter and Mercury as well as Sharru (Regulus). ruler among the gods. Merciful. Perhaps the sanctity of Seven was suggested by Orion . [*1] Even the primi tive Australians. they connected them with se asonal changes as in Egypt. Mother body which produceth all things. one of which constellations may have been the "Seve nfold" deity addressed as "one". Jupiter. and the Pleiad. God Sin. One of the Isis chants of Egypt sets forth. This goddess. they refer to th e stars Castor and Pollux as two young men. Merodach changed his forms with Ishtar. who hath begotten herself alon e in the image of the gods . in whose hand the life of the whole land is containe d. . for references are made to [p. the woman who was made a male by her fat her Osiris. a nd Isis of Egypt. According to a tablet fragment she was. The importance of this magical nu mber is emphasized by the group of seven demons which rose from the deep to rage over the land (<page 71>). li e Osiris-So ar. which are older than t he signs of the Zodiac. She hath ta en vengeance before Horus. a bisexual deity li e Nannar of Ur. the father and mother deity combined. At the same time it must be recognized that long before the Hammurabi age the s tar-gazers of the Tigro-Euphrates valley must have been acquainted with the move ments of the chief planets and stars. when Babylonian astronomy was imported. Probably they were. This strange system of identifying the chief deity with different stars at different periods. [*2] It is of special interest to find that the stars were grouped by the Babylonians at the earliest period in companies of seven. was a "lord of many existences". or simultaneously.

was a god of Borsippa. and were terrible slayers of their enemies. which recall s the Egyptian Aah or Ah. His story has not been reco vered. Ishtar. or Ai. Nergal. The astrologers re garded the bright Venus as luc y and the rayless Venus as unluc y. Merodach. [p. an animal associated with Rimmon. who in his lunar character as a Fate measured out the lives of men. and scribes. and as the son of Bel he was the solar war god of spring. who was identified with Mercury. or female. was identified with both Orion and Jupiter. As the divine sower of seed. he was also the shepherd of the stars. Each were at once the father and the son. Mercury. A bilingual list in the British Museum arranges the sevenfold planet ary group in the following order:-The moon. [* 1] Nebo (Nabu). The elder god was disp laced by the son (spring). 302] Saturn was Nirig. "Horus the Bull". Both deities were also connected with the sp ring sun. Ninip may have developed from Tam muz as Horus did from Osiris.sociated with the sun and moon and connected with the chief gods of the Hammurab i pantheon. The moon was the parent of the sun or its spouse. Ninip was the ghost of the elder god. "Horus the opener of that which is secret". a title shared by Tammuz as Orion. an d was a god of architects. the great wild bull. or both as a bi-sexual d eity. When that planet was at its brightest phase. A s the planet Saturn. but from the references made to it there is little doubt that it was a ve rsion of the widespread myth about the elder deity who was slain by his son. differen t forms of the same deity at various seasons of the year. the posthumous son of Osiris. [*2] Neb o's original character is obscure.                 . and Horus swept down the Nile. At any rate. Clic to enlarge THE GOD NINIP AND ANOTHER DEITY Marble slab from Kenyan jib (Nineveh): now in the British Museum. slaying the followers of Set. a developed form of Tammuz. the god of fertility. Jupiter. the elder Bel. It may have resembled the lost Egyptia n myth which explained the existence of the two Horuses--Horus the elder. Ishtar's identification with Venus is of special interest. The sun. [paragraph continues] An ancient name of the moon was Aa. as the Egyptian Horus in his connection wit h Jupiter was Her-ap-sheta. Ninip raged t hrough Babylonia li e a storm flood. it is of interest to find in thi s connection that in Egypt the planet Saturn was Her-Ka. Venus. she was the "bearded Aphrodite"--a bisexual deity evidently. and might be male. and when the son grew old his son slew him in turn. As the "bull of light" Jupiter had solar associations. The Sumerian moon was A u. A. Sin. who is best nown as Ninip. Saturn. as Saturn was by Jupiter and Dyaus by Indra. He was a me ssenger and "announcer" of the gods. li e Thoth of Egypt. Nebo. and Ho rus. He was also as Ber "lord of the wild boar". Shamash. Nin-Girsu. "the measurer". li e Tammuz. Ninip was also identified with the bull. a deity who was displaced by Enlil . mathematicians. Mars. and afterwards regarded as his son. its rays were referred to as "the beard" of the goddess. Ninip (Nirig).

Merodach was also ident ified with the planet Mercury. If so. Mermer. the patron deity of Cuthah. as Bel Enlil displaced the elder Ninip at Nippur. His "name". and death. and to have become. At a still earlier period the stars were ma nifestations of the Power whom the jungle dwellers of Chota Nagpur attempt to pr opitiate--the "world soul" of the cultured Brahmans of the post-Vedic Indian Age . The art of wri ting--and therefore of all literature--is more particularly associated with him. or of the twin deities Ea and Anu. who assumed his boar form to slay Adonis (Tammuz). Eresh. he was subsequently invo ed with Merodach . But before this de velopment too place certain of the prominent heavenly bodies. as has been shown. who was a form of Ea. and was accompanied by the demons of pestilence. Mars was a planet of evi l. and in Greece it was associated with Ares (th e Roman Mars). Tammuz may have be en the "sevenfold one" of the hymns. says Professor Pinches. Li e the Gree Hermes. The influence of animistic modes of thought may be traced in the idea that the p lanets and stars were the ghosts of gods who were superseded by their sons. Jupiter. As much is suggested by the resemblances which the conventionalized planetary deities bear to Tammuz.i-gal". and had probably much in common with Merodach. A common form of his name designates him as the 'god of the stylus'. as [p. who was an incarnation of E a. Saturn. which would be a parallel to that of his s pouse. who. It would seem that Merodach as Jupiter displaced at Babylon Nebo as Satur n. [*4] At Erech he symbolized the destroying influence of th e sun. they became. [*3] who descended into the Underworld and forced into submission Eresh. the primeval Tam muz. its animal form was the wolf." [*1] He a ppears also to have been a developed form of Tammuz. the elder god. "the Red Horus". and by the Egyptian co nception that the sun. was also a non-Semitic name of Ramman. perhaps all the p lanets. in a version of the myth. "is supposed to mean 'lord of the great habitation'. Jastrow regards him as "a counterpart of Ea ". Thes e sons were identical with their fathers. It may be that Nergal was a specialized form of Tammuz. In Egypt it was [p. The various Babylonian deities who were identified with the planets had their ch aracters sharply defined as members of an organized pantheon.Photo Mansell [p. li e Osiris. whose attributes they symbolized. with whom h e was afterwards associated. he is the embodiment and source of wisdom. Although Hammurabi ignored him.i-gal. T ammuz and Horus may have been personifications of the Power or World Soul vaguel y recognized in the stage of Naturalism. and Mars were manifestations of Horus.i-gal (Persephone). the war god. Nebo was a messenger of th e gods and an instructor of man ind. 304] called Herdesher. who. li n s with Tammuz as a demon slayer and a god of fertility. Professor Pinches shows that one of his names. [*2] Tammuz resembled Ramman in his character as a spring god o f war. The god of Mars was Nergal. 303] [paragraph continues] He appears to have been a highly developed deity of a peop le well advanced in civilization when he was exalted as the divine patron of Bor sippa. and says: "Li e Ea. Nergal was also a fire god li e the Aryo-Indian Agni. Indeed. Nergal was at once the sl ayer and the slain. the lord of the dead. plague. was reputed to have entered the Underworld as a conqueror when claimed by Eresh. were evidently regarded as manifestations of one deity. 305]                         .

The floc was the group of heavenly spirits i nvisible by day. The middle Clic to enlarge SYMBOLS OF DEITIES AS ASTRONOMICAL SIGNS Sculptured on a stone recording privileges granted to Ritti-Mardu by Nebuchadn ezzar I (British Museum)                         . but death was simply change." [*2] The early Babylonian astronomers did not now. Ishtar (Venus) with the sixth. Horus was r emembered as various planets--as the falcon. in which it is set forth that "the husband. that the earth revolve d round the sun. were derived from Egypt and Phoenicia. They were passed on to the Gre e s by the Phoenicians and Hittites. And the culture of Asia Minor was Hittit e. and there handed them over to the West in t he grey dawn of European history. and the lord of death (Orion-Nergal). . says Professor Sayce. of course. bringing with them the civilization and treasu res of Asia Minor. the deity of fertility. Our signs of the Zodiac are of Babylonian origin. This idea was perpetuated in the Aryo-Ind ian Laws of Manu. " when the Hittites were profoundly affected by Babylonian civilization. as the elder sun god. Sin (the moon) was associa ted with the third month. Shamash (the sun) with the seventh. [*3] In studying its movements they observed that it always travelled from west to east along a broad path. Nergal (Mars) with the ni nth. becomes an embryo and is born again of her". Yet they remained in the separate forms they assumed in their progress round "the wide circle of necessity". [*1] The deities died e very year. it also controlled the calendar. . Jupiter. and as the so n of Osiris. and Attis in Asia Minor. . They believed that the sun travelled across the heavens flying li e a bird or sailing li e a boat. and. or went out and in am ong the stars as the shepherd of the floc . the "host of heaven"--manifestations or ghosts of the emissarie s of the controlling power or powers. as has been suggested. . [*1] and fixed them all" (<page 147>). Each month was also controlled by a zodiacal constellation. Ninip (Saturn) was as sociated with the fourth month. "There was a time". probably Nebo (Mercury). swinging from si de to side of it in the course of the year. The planets presided over various months of the year. When the sun perished as an old man at evening. there are others whi ch point to Asia Minor as their source. the planet of Merodach in B abylonia. Gree traditions affirmed that the ruler s of My enae had come from Lydia. The tradition has been confirmed by modern research. In the Creation myth of Babylon it is stated that when Merodach engaged in the wor of setting the U niverse in order he "set all the great gods in their [p. 306] several stations". While ce rtain elements belonging to the prehistoric culture of Greece. and Tammuz was the spring sun. religion. with the tenth. . . it rose in the heavens as Orion. warrior. This path is the Zodiac--the celesti al "circle of necessity". all the planets. and "also created their images. Merodach (Jupiter) with the Egypt. youth." They "carried the time-worn civilizations of Babylonia and Egyp t to the furthest boundary of Egypt. and a messenger of the gods. the child. "husbands of their mothers". the stars of the Zodiac. after conception b y his wife. and art. The stars were also the ghosts of deities who died daily. as revealed at My enae and elsewhere.

the heavenly Twins. and Bel's central "field" was associated with the land of A a d. Was Gutium associated with demons. and Sea goat. The table on <page 308> shows that our signs are derived from ancient Babylonia. and was asso ciated with Elam. When the rulers of A ad called themselves " ings of the four quarters". The Virgin and the Scales. Aries (the Ram). 20th April (Iyyar = April-May). The Scorpion. The Babylonian scientists divided the Ec liptic into twelve equal parts. and was associated w ith Amurru. The names borne at the present day by the signs of the Zodiac are easily remembe red even by children. Ea's field was in the west. having fixed the stars of the Zodiac. Date of Sun's Entry (Babylonian Month in brac ets). 307] line of the sun's path is the Ecliptic. Each month ha d thus its sign or constellation. A divine figure and the "bull of heaven". as in Scan dinavia the north-east was associated with the giants against whom Thor waged wa r? The Babylonian Creation myth states that Merodach. And Fish with glitt'ring [*1] tails. and Bel. 20th March (Nisan = March-April). Bull). made three stars for [p. 308] Constellations. Babylonian Equivalent. The zodiacal "pa th" ran through these "fields". The celestial regions were also divided into three or more parts. The man that holds the water pot. And next the Crab. Three "fields" were allotted to the ancient triad formed by Ea. and grouped in each part the stars which formed their constellations. the land of the Amorites.[p. Anu's field was in the south. the Lion shines. the reference was to the countries associated with the three divine fields and to Gu tium [*2] (east = our north-east). who are encouraged to repeat the following familiar lines: The Ram. the Bull. The Labourer or Taurus (the Messenger. these are also called "Signs of the Zodiac". Archer.           . Anu.

Balance). 23rd September (Tisri = Sept.). 23rd August (Elul = August-Sept.Gemini (the Twins).). The Faithful to feet. 21st May (Sivan = May-June).-Nov. 22nd July (Ab = July-August). (the Goat). 22nd November (Chisleu = Nov.). Scorpio (the Scorpion). 23rd October (Marcheswan = Oct. The Balance.). or an arrow symbol. Sagittarius (the Archer). 21st June (Tammuz = June-July). Man or man-horse with bow. the Libra (the Virgin's ear of corn. Leo (the Lion).-Oct. Capricornus   Scorpion of dar ness. The big dog Virgo (the (Lion).-Dec. or head to head and feet Crab). Cancer (the Shepherd and Twins side by side. Ishtar. . Crab or Scorpion. Virgin).

-Feb. [p.21st December (Tebet = Dec. Aquarius (the Water Carrier). the northern constellation "Fish o f the Canal"." Through these twelve signs sun. Fish tails in canal. namely. and in subjection to these were marshalled 'Thirty Stars' . and planets run th eir courses.-March). Mr. Arab. .). Khorasmian. God with water Pisces (the urn." [*1] Mr. moon. . (2) the northern constella tions. the Ce lestial Euphrates. to each of whom they assign a month and one of the twelv e signs of the Zodiac. is of opinion that the leading stars of three constellations are referred [p. who gave a resume of Babylonian astronomico-astrology. The "Great Bear" was the "chario t" = "Charles's Wain". half of which they say are arranged in the north and half in the south. 309] to. and the "Mil y Way" the "river of the high cloud".. and Co ptic schemes". in this connection. The months of growth. 310] Of special interest among the many problems presented by Babylonian astronomical         . as in Egypt it was the Celestial Nile. Sogdian.: (1) the central or zodiacal constellations.-Jan. the thunder god. The three constellations associated with each month had each a symbolic signific ance: they reflected the characters of their months. Indian. Brown quotes Diodorus. and scorching sun heat were in turn symbolized. Fishes). the month of Ramman. pestilence. Br own shows that the thirty stars referred to "constituted the original Euphratean Lunar Zodiac. and (3) the southern constellations. The "twelve zodiacal stars were flan ed on either side by twelve non-zodiacal stars". Robert Brown. who has dealt as exhaustively w ith the astronomical problems of Babylonia as the available data permitted him. the Persian. viz. He said that "the five planets were called 'Interpreters'. Chinese. jun. Mr. 19th January (Sebat = Jan. In India the blac horse was sacrifi ced at rain-getting and fertility ceremonies. each month (<page 147>). 18th February (Adar = Feb. The chiefs of the Divinitie s are twelve in number. At the height of the rainy season. "And with the zodiacal circle they mar out twenty-four stars. for instance. was presided over by the zodiacal constellation of the water urn. the parent of the seven ancient lunar zodiacs which have come dow n to us.). and the southern "the Horse". which were styled 'Divinities of the Council'. We have thus a scheme of thirty-six constellations. Ea's goat-fish.

and hand brea dths as did the ancient fol s who called an arm length a cubit. shows that "the Indian system of Yugas.000 years. His first zodiac was the Sumerian lunar zodiac. while those who engage in th e immemorial art of nitting. p resents many features which forcibly remind us of the Euphratean scheme".320. Hewitt has shown that the chief annual [p. his 2 ears. multiplied by his la fingers. In ma ing measureme nts his hands. The hours of the day and night each numbered twelve. The chiefs of the Thirty numbered twelve. arms. and. 312] festival of the Indian Dravidians begins with the first full moon after the wint er festival. Brown. the head. for in stance. finger lengths. that his fingers were divided into three parts and his thumb into two pa rts only. Mr. The basal 6. g ave him 60. and from ten h e progressed to twenty. and 60 x 2 (for his 2 hands) gave him 120. and each minute into sixty seconds. the space from the end of the thumb to the end of the little finger when the hand is extended m ust have been an important measurement from the earliest times. and Mr.. These figur es at once recall the Indian Maha-yuga of 4. In both countries the measurements of time and space were arrived at by utilizing t he numerals 10 and 6. 2 legs. In fixing the length of a mythical period his first great calculation of 120 cam e naturally to the Babylonian. "seems everywhere to have preceded s olar chronology. and Irish mythologies there are four Ages--the Silvern (white). [*1] "Lun ar chronology". Golden (yel low). and referred to by Diodorus as "Divinities of the Council ". and feet were at his service. continue to measure in finger breadths. Gr ee . When primitive man began to count he adopted a method which comes naturally to e very schoolboy. In this system the year began in th e winter solstice. especially by boys in their games with marbles. or 432. Brown emphasizes the fact that the list of Tamil (Dravidian ) lunar and solar months are named li e the Babylonian constellations. a nd mouth. Multiplying 6 by 10 (pur). the primitive [p. jun." [*2] The later Semitic Babylonian system had twelve solar cham bers and the thirty-six constellations. Appare ntly the Babylonian and Indian systems of calculation were of common origin. and the Iron (blac ). and then on to a hundred and beyond.000 X 10.lore is the theory of Cosmic periods or Ages of the Universe. R. or ages of the world. and multiplying 12 by 3 he reached 36. His body was divi ded into 6 parts--2 arms. The Ba bylonians had ten antediluvian ings. which contained thirty moon chambers associated with the "Thirty Stars" of the tablets. and when he undertoo to measure the Zodiac he eq uated time and space by fixing on 120 degrees. In Babylonian arithmetic 6 and 60 are important numbers. He observed. and it is not surprising to find that in the sys tem of numerals the signs for 1 and 10 combined represent 60. Twice five gave him ten. and the trun . [*1] four fingers multiplied by three gave him twelve. repeat designs found on neolithi c pottery. In the Indian. he utilized his fingers. and nose also gave him 6. 60 x 10 gave him                     . the Bronze (red). Each degree was divided into sixty minutes. Apparently the figure 6 attracted him. Mr. Nor has the span been forgotten. who were reputed to have reigned for vast periods. the total of which amounted to 120 saroi. As he made progress in calculations. 311] [paragraph continues] Babylonian appears to have been struc by other details in his anatomy besides his sets of five fingers and five toes. the Babylonian arrived at 60 (soss). We are still measuring by fee t and yards (standardized strides) in this country. wrote Professor Max Muller. in doing so.000 years = 432. 2 eyes. As has been already indicated.

This suggests a primitive record of the first round of finger counting. [*1] It was after the arrival of t he "late corners". and (4) Blac or Iron. The influence of Babylonia is apparent in these calculations. and (4) Iron.000. it was explained by the [p. Each day of the gods.000 human years. In India this Babylonian system of calculation was developed during the Brahmani cal period. multiplied by 1000. the su n. Venus. [*2] In Indian Myth and Legend [*3] it is shown that the Indian and Irish Ages have t he same colour sequence: (1) White or Silvern. or 120 saroi. Multiplied by 360 days. "Dvapara". The names "Kali". During the Vedic p eriod "Yuga" usually signified a "generation".000 human years. was a year to mortals. 432. The Gree order is: (1) Golden. The four Yugas or Ages. their long reigns corresponding "with the distances separating certain of th e principal stars in or near the ecliptic". This Maha-yuga. representing the four fingers used by the pr imitive mathematicians. red. and both Jupiter and Mercury were called "Face voices of light". which is equal to the "sar" multiplied by th e "soss" x 2. The Babylonian sign for 10 resembl es the impression of two feet with heels closed and toes apart. then the Treta Yuga is 2400 + 1200 = 3600 divine years. 1 2. Mr. blue. as "Dilbat".320. the lapis lazuli planet. (3) Yellow or Golden.000. and "Krita" " occur as the designations of throws of dice". twice that number gives the Dvapara Yuga of 2400 di vine years. was th e "Proclaimer". Three of the planets may have been heralds of change. totalled 12. it equalled the Babylonian 120 saroi. while Mars was "Ka ub Aban Khaurud". yellow. The Babylonians coloured the seven planets as follows: the moon. "Treta". the post-Vedic Aryans.600 (ner).000 divine years equalled 4.000 x 12. 3600 (sar). that the Yuga system was developed in India. and 600 x 6. a period which was called a Maha-yuga. multiplied by 100.320. ma               . (2) Red or Bronze. with the result that 600 w as afterwards associated with the feet (ner).000 years. while 3600 x 10 gave him 36. blac . "Pur" signifies "heap"--the ten fingers closed after being counted . (3) Bronze. and there are no certain referenc es to the four Ages as such. (2) Silvern. Jupiter. George Bertin suggests that when 6 x 10 finger s gave 60 this number was multiplied by the ten toes. Mars. [*4] it seems highly [p. as "Ka ub Urud". 313] [paragraph continues] Brahmans. golden. 314] probable that the planets were similarly connected with mythical ages which were equated with the "four quarters" of the celestial regions and the four regions of the earth. which in Gaelic story are called "the four red divisions of the wo rld". "the star of the bronze fish stone". Jupiter may have been the her ald of the "Golden Age" as a morning star. and Mercury . and "ner" signifies "foot". Mercury. orange. Ten times a hundred of these periods gave a "Day of Brahma". "the star of bronze". gave the "Day of Brahma" as 4. This planet was also associated with bronze. and 36. The shortest Indian Yuga is the Babylonian 120 saroi multiplied by 10 = 1200 div ine years for the Kali Yuga. and "Heroes of the rising sun" among other names. and Krita Yu ga 3600 + 1200=4800 divine years. silvern. As the ten antediluvian ings who reigned for 120 saroi had an astral significan ce. Saturn.000 divine years. Venus.

The five planets Ninip. was the destroying boar. The Bronze Age of Greece was t he age of notorious fighters and ta ers of life. and Hermes. came unde r the influence of Babylon at a much later period. Ireland appear s to have been the refuge of Gaulish scholars. she was propitious as a bearded deity and interchanged with Merodach as a seas onal herald. nor has sufficient evidence been fort hcoming to connect them with the cremating invaders of the Bronze Age. [p. Ninip. Ap hrodite. including the Gree s. It must be recognized. and its god. and with Mars as a destr oying planet. As the Babylonian lunar zodiac was imported into India before solar worship and the solar zodiac were developed.y have been connected with the blac Saturn. and by the Romans Saturnus. we have left four co lour schemes which suggest the Golden. is blac . that these equations were somewhat arbitra ry. which appears to have a long history. Thus the first ages in both cases were "Perfect" Ages. Ares. 316] their beliefs and traditions and laid the foundations of that brilliant culture which shed lustre on the Green Isle in late Pagan and early Christian times. Is htar. Ven us as an evening star might be regarded as the herald of the lunar or silver age . beginning as it does with the "golden" period. Silvern. but we now little or nothin g regarding their movements and influence. was an antediluvian ing. and practised "suttee". and Iron Ages. On the other hand it is certa in that the Hittites adopted the planetary system of Babylonia and passed it on to Europeans. [*1] The rare and regular appearances of Mercury may have suggested the planet's connection with a recurring Age. In Egypt Ra. The Gree order of mythical ages may have had a solar significance. for instance. which recalls the blac boar of t he Egyptian demon (or elder god) Set. In India the Blac Age is the age of wic edness. however. the demo niac elder god. w ho was depicted sometimes red and sometimes blac . All the elder gods had demoniac traits li e the ghosts of human beings. Ninip resembled Kronos and Saturnus as a father. Zeus. Mars. Merodach. There was also a Horus Age. and in Greece the Golden Age was the age of men who lived li e gods. while J upiter was also a destroyer as Merodach. Venus with the moon. so too may have been the germs of the Yuga doct rine. believed in the doctrine of Transmigration of S ouls. Connecting Jupiter with the sun as a propitious planet. The Gree Cronos was a destroyer even of h is own children. the ghost of the dead sun. but he was also at the same                                 . Greece. Nergal. After the Roman occupation of Gaul. and Egyptologists translate it as blac . 315] [paragraph continues] In India the White Age (Treta Yuga) was the age of perfect men. and Mercury with Saturn. On the other hand the Indian and Irish systems begin w ith the Silvern or white lunar period. the sun god. who penet rated as far as northern Scotland and Scandinavia. Jupiter. Bronze. The Irish system of ages suggests an early cultural drift into Europe. both the Gauls and the post-Vedic Aryans. and Nebo were called by the Gree s after their gods Kronos. as we have seen. and along the uplands occupied by the representatives of the Alpine o r Armenoid peoples who have been traced from Hindu Kush to Brittany. through A sia Minor. on the other hand. god of war and pestilence. Osiris was slain by Set. The part played by the Mitanni people of Aryan speech in distributing Asiatic cu lture throughout Europe may have been considerable. Venus. in Babylonia the bronze planet Mars was the symbol of the destroying Nergal. The culture of Gaul resembles that of India in certain particulars. in Egypt lapis lazuli was the hair colour of Ra when he grew old . and Mercu rius. and he was followed by Osiris. the slayer of Tiamat. The Babylonian Saturn. who imported [p.

who acquired. although constellations are named. 318] In the Babylonian astral hymns.time a son. Indeed. may have been a constell ation consisting of seven stars. were identified before the planets.C. "Ye brilliant stars . reference is made to a man who was "born under the Na shatra Rohini". The basal idea in Babylonian astrology appears to be the recognition of the astr al bodies as spirits or fates. the attr ibutes of the thunder god Adad-Ramman in the form of Amurru. "The Pelasgians. . . in Vedic literature there is no certain reference to a single planet. to Nebo." [*4] This reference may be dated before 6 00 B. he was the Egyptian Horus the elder and Horus the younger in one. 317] [paragraph continues] "Mercury". . 'ruddy'. the star spirits are associated with the gods. Similarly the differences between "Jupiter-Am on" of Egypt and "Jupiter-Merodach" of Babylon were more pronounced than the res emblances. li e the pre-Hellenic inhabitants of Greece. "lord of the mounta ins". "be yond the learned classes. as I was informe d at Dodona. the wor ld. but it was only as a wh ole and not individually. "formerly offered all things indiscriminately to the gods. the belief obtained that the stars exercised an influence over human l ives. The mass of the people worshipped the stars as a whole. as it is also from the Gaulish Moccus. a Tauri or Aldebaran. [*2] "Na shatras" are stars in th e Rigveda and later. for they were hitherto unacquainted with either. a nd are revealers of the decrees of Fate. Mulla." [*3] The oldest deities are those which bore no indi vidual names. It seem s highly probable that before the Babylonian gods were associated with the astra l bodies. O sevenfold. Enlil.C." wrote Herodotus. may have resembled Mars somewhat. and denotes the group of the Hyades. ma e my decision!" [*1] The Indian evidence shows that the constellations. They were simply "Fates" or groups called "Sevenfold". [p. which we re identified and named. called [p. M erodach was similarly of complex character--a combination of Ea. They distinguished them by no name or surname. and Tammuz. Aim. In one of the Indian "Forest Boo s". of the Gree and Roman id entifications of alien deities with their own. and do not have individual n ames as in Ireland.               . but it is a "far cry" from Mars-Mulla to Mars-Nerg al. He also lin s with Hercules. [*1] The worship of stars and planets. the boar. Too much must not be made. one are ye". from observing the orderly disposition and distribution of the vari ous parts of the universe. ye bright one s . says Professor Sayce. the god of culture. for instance. During the Hammurabi Age Amurru was significantly popular in personal name s. ." [*2] The masses perpetuated ancient animistic beliefs . [*3] "Roh ini. when exalted by the Amoritic Dynasty of Babylon.         which might appear as beasts or birds. The crude g iant gods of Scotland are "Fomhairean" (Fomorians). who exercised an influence over the gods. At thy command man ind was nam ed (created)! Give thou the Word. is the name of a conspicuously reddish star. and especially the bright sta rs. and "lunar mansions" in Brahmanical compositions. but they called them gods. and to have remained to the last an artificial system. It is as Amurru-Ramman that Merodach bears comparison with Zeus. who was the "Mercu ry" of the Tigro-Euphrates valley. Families and tribes were controlled by the Fates or nameless gods. to destroy evil did Anu create you. . which by its etymology mean s disposers. and man ind. "Powerful. "seems never to have spread". perhaps 800 B. therefore. . the Gaulish mule god. and with thee let the great gods stand! Give t hou my judgment. . or be heard noc ing or screaming. These were worshipped in groups when they were yet nameless. Th e group addressed..

which they call the birth-ruling divinitie s. The late Mr. "In return for improved methods of astronomical calculation which." Jastrow says . Persians. New Zealanders. and two (Mars and Saturn) malign. [*1] Jastrow goes on to say that the Gree s "imparted their scientific view of the Un iverse to the East. and three (Sun. wer e accomplished borrowers from other civilizations. "Respecting the planets. 319] [paragraph continues] "an astrologer would say." [*2] Undoubtedly the Gree s co ntributed to the advancement of the science of astronomy. and Mercury) of a mi ddle nature. He holds that Baby lonian astrology dealt simply with national affairs. contact with Gree science gave to the Babylonian astronomers. Jastrow's hypothesis is certainly interesting. to overrate t he "scientific spirit" of the Gree s." It is possible. [p. Andrew Lang wrot e in this connection: "The very oddest example of the survival of the notion tha t the stars are men and women is found in the Pax of Aristophanes. The sudden advance mad e by the Tigro-Euphratean astronomers when Assyria was at the height of its glor y. that we become stars when we die?' The answer i s. not for purposes of divination. and as s hi m: 'Is not the story true. and Trygaeus points out the star into which Ion of Chios has jus t been metamorphosed. may have been due to the discoveries made by great native scientists. and one common. and that they were the first to give astrology a personal significa nce. the Gree s accepted from the Babylonians the names o f the constellations of the ecliptic. who announc ed this important theory about the year 130 B. "the Gree s had beg un to cultivate the study of the heavens. That astronomy had humble beg innings in Greece as elsewhere is highly probable. "Several centuries before the days of Alexander the Great. the Gree astronomer. [p." Mr. however. and may be malign with the bad. and others had a similar supersti tion. they e vidently accepted more than the mere names. 'Certainly'. "it may be assumed (the italics are ours). but pr ompted by a scientific spirit as an intellectual discipline that might help them to solve the mysteries of the universe. Brown comments. the Chaldeans". who. Lang added: "Aristophanes is ma ing fun of some popul ar Gree superstition". The Es imos. who had studied the data accumulated by gen                             . especially as he is an Oriental l inguist of high repute. A slave meets him. the New tons and the Herschels of past ages. He believes that the Gree s transformed Babylonian astrology and infused it with the spirit of individualism which is a characteristic of the ir religion." he says. and had no concern with "th e conditions under which the individual was born". "lay down that two (Venus and Jupiter) are propitio us. as other a uthorities believe. then. 320] [paragraph continues] Germans." "That is." [*1] Jastrow's views in this connection seem highly controversial. Moon." Mr. it did not predict "the fate in store for him". They became the teachers of the East in astronomy as in medi cine and other sciences. Trygaeus in t hat comedy has just made an expedition to heaven.C. he wrote. Aryo-Indians. and the credit of having discovered the law of the prec ession of the equinoxes belongs to Hipparchus." [*3] This is a grudging admission. with which.From Greece comes the evidence of Plutarch regarding the principles of Babylonia n astrology. li e the Japanese in our own day. these three are propitious with the good. Jastrow also perpetuates the idea that astronomy began with the Gree s. they became acquainted after it had become well developed as a science by the Assyrians and Babylonians. But it is not generally accepted.

321] as scientists before they had identified the planets. has been arrived at. and the shadow fell on the land of the Amorites. with the result that the pole does not always eep pointing at the same spot in the heavens. the earliest recorders of the movements of the heavenly bodies. junior. [p. In March. it was natural that one of the three observatories should be established there. to send in reports of forthcoming eclipses.C. [*2] These star groups d o not now occupy the positions in which they were observed by the early astronom ers. . when eclipses would ta e place.erations of astrologers. but does not reach th e constellation till the 20th. "though the common year was rec oned according to twelve months of thirty                                                . In time--ages hence--the pole will ci rcle round to the point it spun at when the constellations were named by the Bab ylonians. the Assyrian ings had in their pa laces official astronomers who were able to foretell. and the courses of the heavenly bodies traced to determine the bearing of their movements upon human destinies. . It is by calculating the period occupied by this world-curve that the date 2084 B. Instructions were sent to various observ atories. th ey had achieved considerable progress as scientists. as the comparative table shows on <page 308>. "the year of three hundred sixty-five and one-fourth day s was nown". I watched to see whether it to o place or not. The data at their disposal probably covered nearly two thousand years. We observed it ourselves in the city of A ad. Brown. a watch was ept for it in the cities of A ad. . When "the ecliptic was mar ed off into the twelve regions" and the signs of the Zodiac were designated. It was an eclipse of the moon that too place. And whereas the ing my lord o rdered me to observe also the eclipse of the sun. "were employed for p urposes of augury. It was total over Syria. During the Sumerian period "the forms and relations of geometry"." [*1] Several centuries before Hipparchus was born. within sight of Ba bylon. says Professor Goodspeed. Each year t he meeting-place of the imaginary lines of the ecliptic and equator is moving we stward at the rate of about fifty seconds. says Goodspeed. Mr. for instance." [*1] It is evident that before the astronomers at Nineveh could foretell eclipses. and i n part on the land of the Chaldees. and become familiar with t he Babylonian constellations through the medium of the Hittites or the Phoenicia ns. and Nippur. with varying degrees of ac curacy. What is nown for certain is that long centuries before the Gree science wa s heard of. ." Professor Sayce comments: "We gather from t his letter that there were no less than three observatories in Northern Babyloni a: one at A ad. one at Nippur. The heavens were mapped out. now Niffer. when the sun crosses the equator it enters the sign of the Ram (Aries). 322] near Sippara.C. It is hard to believe that the Gree s made much progress [p. the land of the Hittites. the present-day "signs of the Zodiac" do not correspond with the constellations. . has been published by Professor Harper. there were scientists in Babylonia. . and what passed before my eyes I now report to the ing my lord . A trans lation of one of these official documents sent from the observatory of Babylon t o Nineveh. As a result of the world-roc ing process. and one at Borsippa. The following are extracts fr om it: "As for the eclipse of the moon about which the ing my lord has written to me. because the revolving earth is roc ing li e a top. Borsippa. calculates that t he signs of the Zodiac were fixed in the year 2084 B. in the ing's name. As Borsippa possessed a university.

9. no ing would venture forth on an expedit ion under a "yo e of inauspicious stars". ix. or loose the bands of Orion? C anst thou bring forth Mazzaroth (?the Zodiac) in his season? or canst thou guide Arcturus with his sons? Knowest thou the ordinances of heaven? canst thou set t he dominion thereof in the earth? Job. with the result that the ancient astronomers were ultimately en abled to forecast them. rose brightly in the field of Anu. 11) ambassadors were sent from Babylon "to enqu ire of the wonder that was done in the land" (2 Chron. and too their official documents were more concerned regar those which affected individuals. xx. the eastern part for Elam. Much impor tance was also attached to the positions occupied by the constellations when the planets were propitious or otherwise. Job. ne of their planets. 323] days each.m. Biblical references to the stars ma e mention of well. is not yet extinct. it was believed that the fortunes of that region were in decline.. 689 B. As portions of the heavens were assigned to various countries. It was belie ved that the ing's illness was connected with the incident. certain days and certain months were connected with the dif ferent regions. The so-called science of astrology. [*1] and equated with the solar year by intercalating a month at the proper times. the shadow on the dial was strangely affected. 31). The month was divided into wee s of seven days. A ad or Babylonia. about 11. When Venus. They made observ but also the moon. The crescent was also divided in li e manner. was o note of the clouds and the wind li ewise. the lower for the south. and the chambers of the south. . which had origin in ancient Babylonia and sp read eastward and west. which. Gu tium. According to astron omical calculation there was a partial eclipse of the sun which was visible at J erusalem on 11th January. The destinies of the various states in the four quarters were similarly influenc ed by the planets. and has its believers even in our ow n country at the present day.[p. 31-33. and turneth the shadow of death into the morning. . When the upper part of the solar disc was obscured. . it was a "prosperor" for Elam. In addition. for instance. Orion. The cl epsydra and the sundial were Babylonian inventions for measuring time. v. an d the western for Amurru. When [p. . Lunar astrology was therefore of complicated character. as has been shown.C. so was the moon d ivided into four quarters for the same purpose--the upper part for the north. loo ing southward the astrologers assigned the right horn to the west and the left to th e east. and Pleiades. and ma eth the day dar with night. Great importance was attached to eclipses. 324] the moon was dim at the particular phase which was connected with Amurru. When the shadow went "ten degrees bac ward" (2 Kings." [*2] The sundial of Ahaz was probably of Babylonian design. 8. See him that ma eth the seven stars and Orion. and if it happened t o shine brightly in the Babylonian phase the time was considered auspicious to w age war in the west.. Which ma eth Arcturus. xxxviii. The Babylonian astrologers in ding international omens than ations not only of the stars. . which were fortu nately recorded. xxxii. . Amos. although they are not nearly so numerous as when S                                    . if it were dim it foretold misfortune.nown Babylonian constella tions: Canst thou bind the sweet influences of Pleiades.30 a.

some achieve greatness. 100. T. p. 117. part i. [*1] or when Byron wrote: Ye stars! which are the poetry of heaven! If in your bright leaves we would read the fate Of men and empires--'t is to be forgiven That in our aspirations to be great. . 68-9 and 77. J. i. . 67. ^291:1 Census of India. Pinches. [*2] Our grave astronomers are no longer astrologers. ^295:1 Egyptian Myth and Legend. . but be not afraid of greatness: some are born great . ^292:2 "In Ymer's flesh (the earth) the dwarfs were engendered and began to move and live. stanza 9). and divided the day and t he night into twelve hours by multiplying six by the two leaden feet of Time. pp. pp. Dennis. 352 et seq. . Footnotes ^288:1 "It may be worth while to note again". vol. . p. 293] Ymer's blood (the sea) and his swarthy limbs (the earth). 325] In my stars I am above thee. Our destinies o'erleap their mortal state And claim a indred with you. pp." The Elder Edda (Voluspa. . ^298:1 Babylonian Magic and Sorcery. p. ^292:1 The Story of Nala. . says Beddoe. . The dwarfs had been bred in the mould of the earth. p. ^293:1 The Story of Nala. "The gods . ^299:2 The Burden of Isis. .. "how often finely dev eloped s ulls are discovered in the graveyards of old monasteries. 328. ^297:1 The Burden of Isis. . and how li el y seems Galton's conjecture. 49. Professor Sayce. 52. ^299:1 Babylonian and Assyrian Religion. p. Th e past lives in the present. G. 168 et seq. p. Every time we loo at our watc hes we are reminded of the ancient mathematicians who counted on their fingers a nd multiplied 10 by 6. 161 (1912)." The Anthropological History of Europe. beca use the celibacy of the clergy brought about the extinction of the best strains of blood. Thy Fates ope n their hands. Monier Williams. 24.               . ^299:3 Ibid. too counsel whom they should ma e the lord of dwarfs out of [p. Dennis. p. and some have greatness thrust upon 'em. to give us minutes and seconds. Monier Williams. but they still call certain con stellations by the names given them in Babylonia. that progress was arrested in the Middle Ages. p. ^291:2 Hibbert Lectures. . T.ha espeare made Malvolio read: [p." The Prose Edda. just as wor ms are in a dead body.

119. jun. when the han d is drawn up. vol. then the two upper "chambers" of the little finger. ii. 13. 192 et seq. The Vedic gods ran a race and Indra and Agni we re the winners. Sayce. The counting is performed by the thumb. the Dawn. and Early Histo ry of Northern India. When Hindus sit cross-legged at pr ayers. . pp. the left hand lies pa lm upward on the left nee.. Hewitt. jun. F. Wiedemann. . 120. p. A. 116. the lower (adhama) chambers are not utilized in the prayer-counting process. p. ^302:2 Religion of the Ancient Egyptians. vol. with closed eyes. 95. p.   ^307:2 The later reference is to Assyria.   ingdom when the   . pp. ^306:2 The Hittites. to Samaria "th e men of Cuth made Nergal". J. ^311:1 In India "finger counting" (Kaur guna) is associated with prayer or the r epeating of mantras. i. 14. 272. The two upper "chambe rs" of the third finger are counted. &c. The upper "chambers" of t he fingers are the "best" or "highest" (uttama). n. 37. an animal. et seq.^300:1 Religion of the Ancient Egyptians. pp. pp. ^306:3 "The sun . and rejoicet h as a strong man to run a race. Brown. 423 et seq. and the thumb moves each time nine mantras have been counted. ^303:4 Babylonian and Assyrian Religion. ^306:1 Derived from the Gree zoon. Indian Myth and Legend. 12 X 9 = 108 repetitions of a mantra. 80. is as a bridegroom coming out of his chamber. 30. p. p. ^313:1 Vedic Index. ii. 6. By a similar process each round of 9 on the right hand is recorded by th e left up to 12." (Psalm xix. vol. Macdonell & Keith. 153. when it comes down into the upper chamber of the first finger 9 is c ounted. The sun was "of the nature of Agni". ^303:3 When the King of Assyria transported the Babylonians. In Aryo-I ndian Vedic mythology the bride of the sun (Surya) is Ushas. p. the thumb then touches the tip of each finger from the little finger to the first. Brown. the right hand is raised from the elbow in front of the body. p. p. ^312:1 Primitive Constellations. 1 et seq. R. R.) The marriage of the sun bridegroom with the moon bride appears to occur in Hittite mythology. 2 Kings. 67. iv (1892). pp. p. ^305:1 Indian Myth and Legend. pp. Macdonell & Keith. xvii. ^300:2 Vedic Index. The sun m aiden also married the moon god. 63 and 83. which. ^302:1 Religion of the Ancient Babylonians. ^307:1 Or golden.. 36. . 551-2. 30. ii. A. touches the upper part of the third finger. ^312:2 Rigveda-Samhita. 30. and the thumb moves each time a mantra is repeated.. There was no Assyrian se early beliefs were developed. ^309:1 Primitive Constellations. vol. vol. ^303:2 Babylonian and Assyrian Religion. ^303:1 Aspects of Religious Belief and Practice in Babylonia and Assyria. Wiedemann. 61.

i. ^320:1 Custom and Myth. 43 and 115. 1. 220. ^314:1 "Behold. ^318:4 Ibid. R. pp. pp. ^318:1 Babylonian Magic and Sorcery.. A table is give n showing how 120 saroi equals 360 degrees. by Donald A. ^321:1 A History of the Babylonians and Assyrians. p. Alfred Jeremias gives very forcible reasons for believing that the an cient Babylonians were acquainted with the precession of the equinoxes. vol. [1915]. vol. ^322:1 Babylonians and Assyrians: Life and Customs. ^322:2 Primitive Constellations. 58. 229. ii. ^319:1 Primitive Constellations. vol. 88. ^325:1 Twelfth Night. p.^313:2 Indian Myth and Legend. L. Wiedemann. i. ^323:2 A History of the Babylonians and Assyrians. 158). 415. 62. his limbs gold. his majesty the god Ra is grown old. 343. Macdonell & Keith. pp. i." Religion of the Ancient Egypt ians. Myths of Babylonia and Assyria. ^320:2 Dr. ^313:4 Primitive Constellations. 107 et seq. 1886). Leipzig. vol.. pp. pp. A. Ra became a destroyer after completing his reign as a n earthly ing. 47 et seq. ii. ^313:3 Pp. vol. ^317:3 Herodotus (ii. 326] [ch-14]     . 49. 52) as quoted in Egypt and Scythia (London. 93. and his hair pure lapis lazuli. Das Alte r der Babylonischen Astronomie (Hinrichs. v. ^318:2 Vedic Index. ^323:1 The Aryo-Indians had a lunar year of 360 days (Vedic Index. ^317:1 As Nin-Girsu. his bones are become silver . p. pp. canto iii. act ii. 61. jun. 1908). each ing being identified with a st ar.. ^320:3 Aspects of Religious Belief and Practice in Babylonia and Assyria. ii. 94. 410. 133 et seq. 219. 409. 1896). p. ^317:2 Babylonian and Assyrian Life. p. vol. King (London. ^325:2 Childe Harold. pp. Tammuz was associated with "sevenfold" Orion. 147 et seq. 20 7 et seq. com [p. MacKenzie. W. p. at sacred-texts. 333. ^318:3 Ibid. pp. Brown. scene 5. p. i.

in the Assyrian version. We cannot assume that his strictly local character wa s produced by modes of thought which did not obtain elsewhere. it would appear that in ancient times deities had a tribal rather than a geographical significance. according to the Biblical referenc e. or group of gods. sun. or Gilgamesh. Fire. Ea. before they undertoo the wor of draining and cult ivating the "water field" and erecting permanent homes. or regarded the trees. urging that its original form was Aushar. When first met with. believed that they were protected by the goddess Nina. THE rise of Assyria brings into prominence the national god Ashur. If the view is accepted that Ashur is Anshar. who was regarded as an incarnation of an ancient god. and builded Nineveh. and the fath er of Anu. moon. rivers. [*2] may have been an eponymous hero-a deified ing li e Etana. rooted in Naturalism or Animism. and the animals as manifestations of the " self power" of the Universe. for instance. the god who. he is found to be a complex and mystical deity. the Sumerian city of origin may have been Erech. Those who settled at Nin eveh. while not a few regard Ashur as simply a dial ectic form of the name of Anshar. [p. and Star Gods--The Osirian Clue--Hittit e and Persian Influences." [*1] Asshur. As this goddess was also worshipped at Lagash. the ancient capital. and Enlil. and stars. li e Anu or Ea. or Ashur (identical. "Out of that land (Shinar)". the p atron deity of the Sumerian city of Nina. "water field".CHAPTER XIV Ashur the National God of Assyria Derivation of Ashur--Ashur as Anshar and Anu--Animal forms of S y God--Anshar as Star God on the Celestial Mount--Isaiah's Parable--Symbols of World God and Wor ld Hill--Dance of the Constellations and Dance of Satyrs--Goat Gods and Bull God s--Symbols of Gods as "High Heads"--The Winged Disc--Human Figure as Soul of the Sun--Ashur as Hercules and Gilgamesh--Gods differentiated by Cults--Fertility G ods as War Gods--Ashur's Tree and Animal forms--Ashur as Nisroch--Lightning Symb ol in Disc--Eze iel's Reference to Life Wheel--Indian Wheel and Discus--Wheels o f Shamash and Ahura-Mazda--Hittite Winged Disc--Solar Wheel causes Seasonal Chan ges--Bonfires to stimulate Solar Deity--Burning of Gods and Kings--Magical Ring and other Symbols of Scotland--Ashur's Wheel of Life and Eagle Wings--King and A shur--Ashur associated with Lunar. it can be urged that he was import ed from Sumeria. who was developed from a descriptive place name. with Ashir). hills. The colonists who settled at Asshur no doubt imported beliefs from some cultural area. 328] where the worship of the mother goddess was also given prominence. others prefer the renderings "Holy". As Anshar was an astral or early form of Anu. they must have either given recognition to a god. or copy. a fact usually cited to establish               . and was one of the many forms of the Great Mother. Some give Ashur a geographical significance. D elitzsch and Jastrow believe. who had been the city god of Asshur. "the Benef icent One". it follows that he had a history. is chief of the "host of heaven". and the problem of his origin is consequently rendered exceedingly difficult. [p. Damascius rendered Anshar's name as "Assoros". or "the Merciful One". Philologists are not agreed as to the derivation of his name. of the Babylonian Creation myth. "went forth Asshur. and present as varied views as they do when dealing with the name of Osiris. 327] If Ashur is to be regarded as an abstract solar deity.

Wh en Amon was fused with the specialized sun god Ra. "We have traces". indeed. The earliest germ of the Creation myth was the idea that night was the parent of                       . These were followed by the progeny Kissare and Assoros (Kishar and A nshar). was a cow. w hose essence was in the fig. or the fir cone. his early mystical character may be accounted for. And of Aos and Dau e (Daw ina or Dam ina) was born Belos (Bel Merodach). moon. rivers. a tribe wor shipped an animal or natural object which dominated its environment. Li e the Indian Brahma. Th e animals associated with the god Ashur were the bull. The Egyp tian god Amon of Thebes. or that the sun. and the lion. in the Pyramid Texts he and his consort are the fourth pair. a god of the grove. Anshar wa s apparently an impersonation of the night s y. Ra. and made t wo--Apason (Apsu). firmam ent. he may have been in his highest f orm an impersonation. the ass. was developed from one of the e lder eight gods. From these another progeny came forth--Lache and Lachos (Lachmu an d Lachamu). fire and lightning.Ashur's connection with that deity. and mysterio us Phoenix in Egypt. of the "self power" or "world soul" of develope d Naturalism--the "creator". sun and moon. or in a star. the earth mother. "from which were produced Anos (Anu). It may have been believed that the soul of Anshar was in the moon as Nannar ( Sin). or might have to be propitiated to ensur e the food supply. Lachmu and Lachamu. Consequently they identified the self power of the Universe w ith the particular animal with which they were most concerned. [*1] the mother. or animals. and lightning. and stars. the cat. the bull. a nd that the soul of Anu was in the sun or the firmament. and other goddesses were identified with t he hippopotamus. earth. and the vulture. the eagle. As indicated in the previous chapter. had a ram form. the early peoples rec ognized the eternity of matter. a god of water . and "destroyer" in one. the ram. however. [p. The eagle in [p. was iden tified in turn with the cat. or that the moon and the stars were manifestations of him. In Indi a Dyaus was a bull. Illillos (Enlil) and Aos (Ea). whom they say is the Demiurge" [*2] (the world artisan who carried out the decrees of a hi gher being). as it was in all animals. and the wind were forms of this "self power". and was "the hidden one". earth. and s y. If Ashur combined the attributes of Anshar and Anu. He either absorbed the attributes of other gods. air. and Tauthe (Tiawath or Tiamat). falcon. whose son was Mo ymis (Mummu). This writer stated that the Babylonians pas sed over "Sige. These were too vague. the husband. the serpent. probably symbolized dar ness as a reproducing and sustaining power. The forms of the "self power" which were propitiated were tre es. which was permeated by the "self power" of which the elder deities were vague phases. li e the second pair of the ancient group of Egyptian deitie s. or symbol. "preserver". who was associated with water. hills. that has begotten heaven and earth". One section ident ified the spirit of the heavens with the bull and another with the goat. the various animal forms of the local deities he had absorbed." [*1] Before a single act of creation was conceived of. or the vulture. fire. "of an Assyrian myth of Creation in which the sphere of creator is given to Ashur. and the crocodile. of sun. 330] [paragraph continues] Babylonia and India. s y. or symbolized the "Self Power" of which the animals were manifestations. the sun god. as his son Anu was of the day s y. 329] air. Prithivi. and his spouse. were identified with the sun. to be worshi pped individually. says Jastrow. wind. he was placed at the head of the Ennead as the Creator. The animal might be the source of the food supply. The E gyptian s y goddess Hathor was a cow.

called by the Babylonian astronomers. and in Assyria by Ashur. When the Babylonian astrologers assisted in developing the Creation myth. they appear to have identified with the stable an d controlling spirit of the night heaven that steadfast orb the Polar Star. which didst wea en the nations! For th ou hast said in thine heart. 332] mountain throne of his father. in th e sides of the north. How art thou fallen from heaven. the pla net of day. Lif e was also motion. and with the idea that the summit of t he Celestial mountain was crowned by the "north star". the god Shar--the Polar or North Star. [*1] [paragraph continues] Associated with the Polar Star was the constellation Ursa Minor. I will exalt my throne a bove the stars of God. or Ansh ar. Out of dar ness and death came light and life. and the succession of i a group of deities-passive deities and active deities. O Lucifer. "Th ou shalt ta e up this parable". It is possible that the Babylonian idea of a Celestial mountain gave origin to t he belief that the earth was a mountain surrounded by the outer ocean. This process involved the ide a of a stable and controlling power. or Regulus. seemed to say: I am constant as the northern star. Out of the confusion came order and organization. 331] or "Shar the most high". Isaiah appears to have been familiar with the Tigro-Euphratean myths about the d ivinity of ings and the displacement of the elder god by the younger god. "against the ing of Babylon and say. life began to be. [p. . A patesi of Lagash had a chariot which was drawn by asses. "the god Shar". I will sit also upon the mount of the congregation. They were phases of the One. He was the ghost of the elder god. as the sun. Of whose true-fixed and resting quality There is no fellow in the firmament. The eponymous hero Asshur may have similarly merged in the universal Ashur. li e Horus. the symbol of Anshar. the morning star. the Babyloni an Olympus. the "self po wer". The s ies are painted with unnumbered spar s. therefore. ma ing use of Babylonian symbolism . The god Shar. or Arcturus. They are all fire. Ansh ar. But there's but one in all doth hold his place. he exclaimed. I will ascend unto heaven. as Mercury. When the primordial waters became troubled. "the Lesser Char iot". I will be l i e the most High. who. In India this hill is Mo                               . who in Babylonia was displaced by the younger god. The seemingly steadfast Polar Star was called "Ilu Sar". after death he merged in the god. and every one doth shine. A deified reigning ing was an incarnation of the god. stood upon the Celestial mountain. had ma ny phases or forms. I will ascend above the heights of the clouds. It seemed to be situated at the summit of the vault of heaven. . "the Little Bear". son of the morn ing! how art thou cut down to the ground. or as the sun. an incarnation of Osiris. of wh om the ruling monarch was an incarnation. Merodach. Yet father and son were identical. and water of the earth. beheld by Etana when he flew towards heaven on the eagle's bac . "star of the height ". There were chariots before horses were introduced. he is the younger god who aspired to occupy the [ as did the Egyptian Unas. li e Sha espeare's Caesar." [*1] The ing is identified with Lucifer as the deity of fir e and the morning star. or Ori on. How hath the oppressor ceased! the golde n city ceased! .

the Sume rian lord of water. [*2] In other words. "heaven".unt Meru. 334] [paragraph continues] Teutonic fertility and thunder god. and satyrs shall dance there". Nergal. was the temple of Bel Enlil at Nippur. At Erech. the moon god of Ur. the temple of t he goddess Ishtar was E-anna. it was slain at funeral c eremonies to inform the gods that a soul was about to enter heaven. "on a small sandhill intended to represent the Mountain of the West--the r ealm of the dead". E. having prayed to that god to ta e away their dis eases or their sins. was identified wi th the sacred goat. was Merodach's temple E-sagila. "holy mound". li e Anshar. The pres ent Polar Star. released a goat. of course. the ruling animal of the heavens. Other deities who were similarly exalted as "high heads" at various centres and at various periods. was symbolized as a column. [*1] The six astral goats or goat-men were suppo sed to be dancing round the chief goat-man or Satyr (Anshar). Tammuz. or altar. "establi shed". "a white id of Tammuz". Now Polaris. but a "bull of heaven". Dancing began as a magical or religious practice. which may have represented the "world mountain". and Shama sh. the Du-azaga. A Sumerian reference to "a white id of En Mersi (Nin-Girsu)" was translated into Semitic. and th e earliest astronomers saw their dancing customs reflected in the heavens by the constellations. Even in the dialog ues of Plato the immemorial belief was perpetuated that the constellations were "moving as in a dance". there would be no people left to perform religious dances beside the "desolate houses". is called in Arabic Al-Jedy. which connects her. li e Anshar. and Ea. had a chariot drawn by goats. he was. included Anu. whose movements were rhythmical. it is surmounted by Ind ra's Valhal. which was driven into the desert. which is called "Veraldar nagli".ur. [*4] Ursa Minor (the "L ittle Bear" constellation) may have been "the goat with six heads". was a goat. A symbol of the first three was a turban on a seat. Ea. th e [p. which was not. de rived from "ana". Babylonians. was symbolized as a "goat fish". Ashur was not a "goat of heaven". earth. with ram's head. and Bel Enlil. At Babylon. Merodach. [p. As the bull. the "world spine". "the Temple of the High Head". and li e Anshar he ha d associated with him "six divinities of council". the sta rs only would be seen dancing round Polaris. 333] referred to by Professor Sayce. Ea. howev er. No doubt. In India. or "the great city of Brahma". In Teutonic mythology the heavens re volve round the Polar Star. It is of interest to note that the sacred Sumerian goat bore on its fore head the same triangular symbol as the Apis bull of Egypt. as Nina or Ninni. [*3] The Babylonian temple towers were apparently symbols of the "world hill". "the id". li e the Sumerian Nann ar (Sin). which "sustains the earth". beside which crouched a "goat fi                           . Thor. [*1] the "world sp i e". "the highest of the floc of night". the Polar star of the earliest astrono mers. situated at the summit of the celestial mountain. Ishtar was "Queen of heaven". [*2] while at burial ceremonies the coffin was set up on end. Isaiah had in mind t he belief of the Babylonians regarding the dance of their goat-gods when he fore told: "Their houses shall be full of doleful creatures. The goat was also associa ted with Merodach. the goat was connected with Agni and Varuna. as was also Ni n-Girsu of Lagash. The "ded" amulet of Egyp t symbolized the bac bone of Osiris as a world god: "ded" means "firm". standing on a throne. Ninip of Saturn. as sentinel of the night heaven. with Anu. the world having roc ed westward. as "the world spine". and owls (ghosts) shall dwell there. inside the tomb. while the earth is sustained by the "world tree". Bel Enlil. and heaven. rendered "the house or temple of the Mountain".

The symbols of Ashur must be studied. 336] away. These symbols are ta en from seal". has the dis c mounted on a bull's head with horns." [*1] Th e human figure did not indicate a process of "despiritualization" either in Egyp t or in India. There are also two heads--a lion' s and a man's--with gaping mouths. which wa s apparently regarded as the soul of the sun: the life of the god was in the "su n egg". part of his bow. These include (1) a winged disc with horns. Mansell [p. li e the rays of the Egyptian sun god Ra. <page 416>. These columns were probably connected with pillar worship. Jastrow regards the winged disc as "the purer and more genuine symbol of Ashur a s a solar deity". His feet have stuc fast in the heart. the destroying power of the sun. the Egyptian falcon god. The upper part of the disc is occupied by a warrior. suspended from wings. while the right hand is uplifted as if to bless his worshippers. [*1] The sun symbol on the sun boat of Ra encloses similarly a human figure. (2) a circle or wheel. He calls it "a sun disc with protruding rays". and the point of his arrow protrude fro m the circle. and therefore with tree worship. and (3) the same circle. is carried in his left hand. which may symbolize tempests. was symbolized as the winged solar disc. the pillar being the trun of the "world tree". are described on page <page 335>. (See pages <page 415>. and the head of a lion crowne d that of Nergal. Th e symbol of the sun god Shamash was a disc. The winged dis on the right appears on a Babylonian "boundary stone" which dates from the reign of Mardu -balatsu-i bi. and two bulls. and having pulled them out he comes fo rth. The rippling water rays are V-shaped. rippling rays fall down from either Clic to enlarge ASHUR SYMBOLS [paragraph continues] The two symbols with feather-robed archers. enclosing four circles revolvi ng round a middle circle. or the sources of the Tigris and Euphrates. which probably represented the "world column". as well as of light and fertility. whose head. whence they say of him who has passed [p. and enclosing a w arrior drawing his bow to discharge an arrow. occupy the divisions thus formed. treading rive r-li e rays. and when he comes forth then that man dies. and says: "To t his symbol the warrior with the bow and arrow was added--a despiritualization th at reflects the martial spirit of the Assyrian empire". 335] side of the disc. The Horus "winged disc" was besides a symbol of destruction and b attle. the warri or's bow. Horus. Merodach's column terminated in a lance head. from which flowed streams of water. 'he has been cut off (his life or life string has been severed)'. because t hey are one of the sources of our nowledge regarding the god's origin and chara cter. An Assyrian standard. It is necessary to accumulate these details regarding other deities and their sy mbols before dealing with Ashur. In an Indian prose treatise it is set forth: "Now that man in yonder orb (the sun) and that man in the right eye truly are no other than Death (the soul ).) Photos. his rays apparently were "fertilizing tears". however. shown on the l eft. Horus assumed that form in one legend                     .

and the atmospheric deities. and Ea. . a breastplate made of the s in of a goat. Ash ur appears to have differed from them just as one local Babylonian deity differe d from another. [*2] But. 337] was pointed against the constellations of the "Eagle". of course. and when they achieved political power they gave a distinctive ch aracter to the religion of their city states. The ast ral "Arrow" (constellation of Sagitta) [p.                                  . "Vulture". Nergal . w ho was armed with a lance. by whom the early Assyrians were influenced. to find that Ashur. [*3] In the Gree Hipparcho-Ptolem y star list Hercules was the constellation of the "Kneeler". a weapon with which Hercu les (identified with Mel arth) slew Linos. carries in one hand two arrows and a bow. it might be held that she was simply a goddess of war. What seems certain. may have yet extended their influen ce far and wide. and fertility. as we do of Ashur. therefore. The archer in the sun disc of the Assyrian standard probably represented As hur as the god of the people--a deity closely a in to Merodach. and death. . with pronounced Tammuz traits. which he received from Apollo. [paragraph continues] Indeed. but it is dif ficult to decide whether the sublime spiritual aspect of his character was due t o the beliefs of alien peoples. It is not surprising. An instance of an advanced cult suddenl y achieving prominence as a result of political influence is afforded by Egypt. and parta ing also li e these of the attributes of the elder gods Anu. war. and another thing to a man not gifted with what Bla e c alled "double vision". compared by the Gree s to Minerva. 't is an old Man grey. a nd helmet. All the other deities worshipped by the Assyrians were of Babylonian origin. a Thistle across my way. In the homeland it was submerged by the revival of Brahmanism. a destroy er from the earliest destroy Set and his followers. is that the archer was as truly solar as the "wings " or "rays". but now flourishes in other countries. the musician. and is a symbol of ligh tning. The g reen-faced goddess Neith of Libya. . Hercules used a solar a rrow. hunted out of Stymphalus. li e Merodach. and which it was intended permanently to displace. With my outward. and in Babylonian-A ssyrian astronomy he was (as Gilgamesh or Merodach) "Sarru". in performin g his sixth labour. or to the teachings of advanced Babylonian thin ers. 338] of ancient Sumerian and A adian cities. rain. He reflected Assyrian experiences and aspirations. among other things. One of Gilgamesh's mythical feats was the slaying of three demon b irds. the moon. In various mythologies the arrow is associa ted with the sun. As Bla e put it: What to others a trifle appears Fills me full of smiles and tears. In Babylonia and Assyria the sun was. "the ing". With my inward Eye. New cults were formed from time to time in Babylonia. resembled. to which it was introduced by missionaries. it is possible that the winged disc meant one thin g to an Assyrian priest. however. for instance. originated in India. from which it sprung. Buddhism. Others which did not find politica l support and remained in obscurity at home. or rather his prototy pe Gilgamesh. and therefore lin ing with other local deities li e Ninip. and "Swan". and Shamash. whose doctrines found readier acceptance in a "new country" than among the conservative ritualists [p. in one of his phases. the same symbols may not have conveyed the same ideas to all peoples. disease. Hercules. a shield. as well as of famine. These may be identical with the birds of prey which Hercules. Bel Enlil. [*1] If we new as little of Athena (Minerva). In Phoenician astronomy the Vulture was "Zither" (Lyra).

Mitra. B el Enlil of Nippur was a "world god" and war god. i n blue [p. From this centre we nt forth missionaries. Therefore his height was ex alted above all the trees of the field.where the fully developed Aton religion was embraced and established as a nation al religion by A henaton. and under his branches did a ll the beasts of the field bring forth their young. therefore. Even as a nation al god he must have made wider appeal than to the cultured and ruling classes. nor any tree in the garden of God was li e unto him in his beauty. but he also reflected the origin and growth of that greatness. the Assyrian was a cedar in Lebanon with fair branches. and in chests of rich apparel. It began with the development of the natural resources of Assyr ia. and the staff i n their hand is mine indignation. and under his shadow dwelt a ll great nations. and against the people of my wrath will I give him a charge. [*1] It may be. Assyria's name was dreaded. when foretelling how Isr ael would suffer. culture. which sought new areas in which to exercise religious free dom and propagate their beliefs. . "the Middle Country". who was also a god of fertility. in the length of his branch es. Assyria's greatness was reflected by Ashur. commerce. Thus was he fair in his greatness. the dee p set him up on high with her rivers running round about his plants. and to ta e the prey. and to tread them down li e the mire of the streets. that the cult of Ashur was influenced in its development b y the doctrines of advanced teachers from Babylonia. They established themselves in Madhyadesa. That migrations were sometime s propelled by cults. was famous for its merchants. and law. and that Persian Mithraism was also the product of missionary efforts extended from that great and ancient cultural area. and broidered wor . and sent ou t her little rivers unto all the trees of the field." [* 3]                     . exclaimed: "O Assyrian. . The civilization of which he was a product had an agr icultural basis. The cedars in the garden of God could not hide him: the fir trees were not li e his boughs. and traders. As the god of a city state he must h ave been worshipped by agriculturists. was one of the names of the Babylonian sun god. the rod of mine anger. an d made of cedar". who accomplished the Brahmanization of the rest of India. who said: "Behold. "the lan d where the Brahmanas and the later Samhitas were produced". he must have been recognized as a deity of fertility. All the fowls of heaven made their nests in his boughs. the ancient capital. It is referred to in the Bible as one of the cities which traded with Tyre "in all sorts of things. but still remained a local cor n god. artisans. and the chestnut trees were no t li e his branches. [*1] As a military power. "Behold." [*2] The same prophet. and his boughs were multiplied. is suggested by the invasion of India at the cl ose of the Vedic period by the "later comers". 339] begin with merely a battle and solar deity. addressi ng King Heze iah." Isaiah said. as has been stated. to ta e the spoil . and his branches became long because of the multitude of waters when he shot forth. who laid the foundations of Brahm anism. as was recognized by the Hebrew prophet. But Ashur could not have been to [p. . 340] clothes. the so-called "dreamer". I will send him against an hypocritical nation . bound with cords." [*1] Asshur. for his root was by great waters. "thou hast heard what the ings of Assyria have done to all la nds by destroying them utterly. The waters made him great.

birds. therefore. The flowers were formed by seven petals. and Thor's in Scandinavia was to exterminate the frost giants. As a corn god. Now. as Ashur was evidently a complex deity. It was "an elegant device. the staf f in their hand". it is futile to attempt to read his symbols without giving consideration to the remnants of Assyrian mythology whic h are found in the ruins of the ancient cities.We expect to find Ashur reflected in these three phases of Assyrian civilization . "satyrs". . The "owls". As the god made a contract with his people. . Assyria is compared to a cedar. Tammuz's first act was to slay the demons of winter and storm. As one o f the figures last described [*1] was turned. When. and water.W. which Ashur's symbols reflect. and Ashur was therefore closely a ssociated with the "watery place". it was evidently a sacred emblem. a s has been indicated. . as if in act of adoration. and the people therefore waged war against f oreigners to obtain victims. he was a god of war. The corn god h ad to be fed with human sacrifices. Manell [p. with the canals or "rivers running round abou t his plants". or tree of life. and "d ragons" of Babylon. As Layard pointed out many years ago. included the worship of trees. . 341] prophets invariably utilized for their poetic imagery the characteristic beliefs of the peoples to whom they made direct reference. These either reflect the attribu tes of Ashur. If we recognize him in the first place as a god of fertility. or constitute the material from which he evolved." [*1] This tree loo s li e a pillar. and that the greatn ess of the tree is due to "the multitude of waters". appear on the sola r discs. and I recognized in it the holy tree. the battle standard which was a symbol of Ashur. Photo. A god of fertility is a corn god and a water god. terminated in flowers of graceful form. he provided them with food and they in turn fed him with of ferings. or fertilizing tears. spring ing from a ind of scroll wor . he was a deity of commerce. as Indra's in India was to slay the demons of drough t. and under them reproducing beasts of the field. his other attrib utes are at once included. were ta en from Babylonian mythology. the conclusion is suggested that Assyrian religion. the Assyrians had a sacred tree which beca me conventionalized. . Tamm uz and Osiris were tree gods as well as corn gods. The symbol of the Assyrian tree--probably the " world tree" of its religion--appears to be "the rod of mine anger . and which was preserved in the religious systems of the Persians to the final o verthrow [p. and it is stated that there are nesting birds in t he branches. so universally adored at the remotest period in the East. In Eze iel's comparison of Assyria to a mighty tree. towards this device. that is. Palace of Nimrod: now in British Museum. which is greater than fir or chestnut. The river as a river was a "creator" (<page 29>). in which curved branches. The rippling water-rays. there is no doubt a mytholo gical reference. beasts. 342] of their Empire. and is thrice crossed by conventionalized bull's               . mentioned by Isaiah. The Hebrew Clic to enlarge WINGED DEITIES KNEELING BESIDE A SACRED TREE Marble Slab from N.

which symbolized the storm and a phase of the sun. an ox. and eagle's legs with claws. with eagle's head. was worshipping in the house of Nisroch. it is highly probable that the Ashur symbol. Pious and orthodox lips could pronounce them without fea r of defilement. and the battle of the sun with the storm clouds according to another. and in all probability ri diculous as well. Seeing that the eagle received prominence in the mythologies of Sumeria and Assy ria. a deity with lion's head." [*4] At the same time the "Nisr" theory is probable: it may re present another phase of this process. ing of Assyria. stags.. . it seems certain that the conflict was associated with the idea of sacrifice to procure the food supply. and an eagle". fertility. and it was associated wi th wild goats. but only partly shown as if it were a crescent. The idea that it represents the sun in eclipse. This is evidently the Assyrian tree which was called "the rod" or "staff". . lions. is a winged symbol of life. as a tribal sun god. [*1] it certainly does not explain why the "rays" should only s tretch out sideways. On the silver vase of Lagash the lion and eagle were combined as the lion-headed eagle. suggesting th e wars of totemic deities. Whatever the explanation may be of o ne animal deity of fertility slaying another. and was also a de ity of fertility. for instance. carrying in one hand a metal bas et on which two winged men adored the holy tree. [*1] Layard suggested that the latter deity. a form of Nin-Girsu (Tammuz). The names of heathen gods were not all tr eated in li e manner by the Hebrew teachers. On a mace head dedicated to Nin-Girsu. and also as a deity with eagle's head a nd feather headdress. was Nisroch. according to one "school". li e wings. "the wor d Nisr signifying. and in th e other a fir cone. a lion. seems rather far-fetched. became Abe d-nego (Daniel. Abed-nebo. . and En lil. human body. li e the Egyptian Horus solar dis . a winged lion with human head. why the "rays" should be double. as it was to "Marad" (Merodach) to give the reading Ni-Marad = Nimrod. the old sun). but considers that the "ni" was attached to "Ashur" (Ashura u or Ashurachu ). a lion slays a bull as the Zu bird slays serpents in the fol tale. the moon god. The eagle is represented by t he Zu bird. [*2] This deity is refer red to in the Bible: "Sennacherib. a winged b ull with human head (the [p. 7). The na mes of heathen deities were thus made "unrecognizable. li e the double wings of cherubs. while Nergal was a lion. What mythical animals did this tree shelter? Layard found that "the four creatur es continually introduced on the sculptured walls". . Ninip (Saturn. a human body. in all Semitic languages. bulls. and downward li e a tail. [*3] Professor Pinches is certain that Nisroch is A shur. . as a deity of fertility with solar and atmospheric attributes. and destruction. with protruding [p. or why the dis is surmounted by conventionalized horns                         . the highest pair of horns hav ing a larger ring between them. were "a man. The tree with its many "sevenfold" designs may have been a symbol of the "Sevenf old-one-are-ye" deity. wings. &c. because eclipses were disasters and indications of divine wrath. . i.horns tipped with ring symbols which may be stars. 343] ing's). [*2] In Sumeria the gods were given human form. and divided into secti ons suggesting feathers. and feather-fringed robe. his god". In Assyria the various primitive gods were combined as a winged bull. a winged man. as Professor Pinches shows. 344] rays. an eagle". and bulls. but before this stage was reached the bull symbolized Nannar (Sin).

with "four faces"--the face of a man. And when t he living creatures went. "by the river o f Chebar" in Chaldea (Kheber. near Nippur). it is signi ficant to find that the arrow he is about to discharge has a head shaped li e a trident. it is evidently a lightning symbol. . This great prophet ma es interesting references to "four living creatures". the wheels were lifted up. who had been in Egypt and had adopted unmoral ways of Clic to enlarge EAGLE-HEADED WINGED DEITY (ASHUR) Marble Slab. and their rings were full of eyes round about them four. . their w ings were joined one to another. li e the noise of great waters. . and the wheels. . [*1] Traces of the red colour on the wall been observed by excavators. the wheels went by them. and they four had one li eness. The winged g painted in vermilion. and their wings. British Museum. As for their rings. . And the li eness of the firmament upon the heads of the living cr eature was as the colour of terrible crystal. . the images of girded with girdles upon their loins". tipped with star-li e ring symbols. as the voice of the Almighty. and the face of an eagle. s of Assyrian temples and palaces have ods "li e burning coals" were probably "doted upon the Assyrians" she "saw men p the Chaldeans pourtrayed with vermilion. . with his four faces. the voice of speech. thither was their spirit to go. Photo. . What particular connection the five small rings within the dis were suppo sed to have with the eclipse of the sun is difficult to discover. as the noise of an host. the face of a lion. . When Eze iel prophesied to the Israelitish captives at Tel-abib. and the wheels were li fted up over against them. and their bac s. The living creatures ran and returned as the appearance of a flash of lightning. identical with those depicted in the holy tree. "they had the hands of a man under their wings. Probably he came into contact in Babylonia with fugitive priests fro m Assyrian cities. Eze iel tells that when Aholibah ourtrayed upon the wall. stretched forth over their heads a bove. . and when the living creatures were lifted up from the earth. Their appearance was li e bur ning coals of fire and li e the appearance of lamps. .. he appears to have utilized Assyrian symbolism. 345] life. for the spirit of the living creature was in the whee ls. In his vision he saw "one wheel upon the earth by the living creatures. referring to the sisters. . they went. the face of an ox. . Mansell [p. . a nd their hands. were full of eyes (? stars) rou nd                                       . . . And when they went I heard the noise of their wings. Eze iel ma es reference to "ring" and "wheel" symbols. when they stood they let down their wings. Whithersoever the spi rit was to go. . they were so high that they we re dreadful. . Aholah and Aholibah. . . ." [*3] Another description of the cherubs states: "Their whole body. [*2] . . . In one of the other symbols in which appears a feather-robed archer. The appearan ce of the wheels and their wor was li e unto the colour of beryl." [*2] Elsewhere. their wings were stretched upward: two wi ngs of every one were joined one to another. and their appearance and their wor was as it were a wheel in the middle of a wheel.

. . Eze iel's references are suggestive in this c onnection. the Mahabharata. Fertility gods were asso ciated with fire. The gods. Shamash. then loo s "li e masses of bl ac clouds". revolving incessantly. The fire cu lt was also represented in Sumeria (pp. . the revolving ring or wheel protects the So ma [*2] (ambrosia) of the gods. The celestials. the goddess of heaven. He slays the sna es. of great energy. "And he (Vis hnu) made the bird sit on the flagstaff of his car. li e Ashur. of blazing eyes". and sharp as a razor. The Soma is protected by fire. saying: 'Even thus thou shal t stay above me'. of t he lustre of the blazing sun and of terrible form. the other being lifted up as if blessing those who adore h im. in front of which is a sun wheel. een [p. Ishtar. Garuda becomes the vehicle of the god Vishnu." Garuda passes "through the spo es of the wheel". graspin g a ring in one hand. In Hittite inscriptions there are interesting winged emblems. "overwhelmed by that dust". fully armed. of mouth emitting fire. as has b een suggested. but also of fertility. 347] edged. . O wheel!"--or. 346] about. who carries the discus. . on which their existence depends. Then Garuda finds that right above the Soma is "a wheel of steel. not of war only. a variant rendering) was a symbol of li fe. "the central porti on" of one "seems to be composed of two crescents underneath a dis (which is al so divided li e a crescent). The gods afterwards recover the stolen Soma. and other Babylo nian deities carried rings as the Egyptian gods carried the an h. which the bird quenches after "drin ing in many rivers" with the numerous mouths it has assumed. Garuda approaches "dar ening the worlds by the dust raise d by the hurricane of his wings". or dis . and "the noise of their wings" resembled "the noise of great w aters". Sandan of Asia Minor. . "And the cherub ims were lifted up. Agni of India. the Babylonian sun god. lightning. Above the emblem there appear the symbol of sanctit y (the divided oval) and the hieroglyph which Professor Sayce interprets as the                                           . The eagle gian t Garuda sets forth to steal it. it was cried unto them in my hearing. The spo es of the wheel are formed by a star symbol and threefold rippling "water rays". according to a marginal rendering.[p. another fi ery wheel which revolves and returns to the thrower li e lightning. When the cherubs "ran and returned" they had "the appearance of a fla sh of lightning". and water." [*1] It would appear that the wheel (or hoop. Shamash was also depicted sitting on his throne in a pillar-supported pavi lion. That fierce instrument. gather round to protect the life-giving drin .e. of tongues bright as the lightning flash. <page 49>-51)." [*1] The Persian god Ahura Mazda hovers above the ing in sculptured representations of that high dignitary. was devised by the gods for c utting to pieces all robbers of the Soma. Their bodies were "li e burning coals of fire". and that the Assyrian feather-robed figure which it enclosed was a god. wheel. even the wheels that they four had. Garuda afterwards assumes a fiery shape. As for the wheels. and in the end its body becomes golden and bright "as the rays of t he sun". move round. and has then to contend against "two great sna es of the lustre of b lazing fire. a lightning symbol. "they were called in my hearing. the symbol of life. In the Indian epic. His trident-headed arrow resembles. sw oon away. or Gilgal. and Mel arth of Phoenicia were highly developed fire gods of fertility." i. enclosed in a winged wheel.

350] [paragraph continues] 25th of January to commemorate Abraham's escape from Nimro d's pyre. To punish the offender Nimrod had a great pyre erected at Cuthah. and the sun. bearing out the suggestion of the sculptures nea r Boghaz-Keui [*1]. lightning. harp. too. but "he was identified at some time or other with Sandes". Perhaps th e priest ing was believed to be an incarnation of the deity. Meshach. from which he was pres erved by the angel Gabriel. he commanded: "O people . Sandon's animal symbol was the lion. s o that he might renew his youth. Hercules burned hi mself on a mountain top. nations." In another instance "the centre of [p. refused to adore the idol. underlying the newer religi ous symbolism". h e "bra e them all in pieces except the biggest of them. namely. which was heated "seven times more than it was wont to be heated". His spirit was in the solar wheel which revolved at times of seasonal change. and his soul ascended to heaven as an eagle. who displaced the elder gods as one year displaces another . . sac but. or cults of mountain deities. [*3] who lin s with the Babylonian Tammuz." Eastern Christians were wont to set apart in the Syrian calendar the [p." Professor Garstang is here dealing with sacred place s "on roc y points or hilltops. [*1] In the Koran it is related that Abraham destroyed the images of Chaldean gods. These fiery rites were evidently not un nown in Babylonia and Assyria. he lin s with Hercules and Mel ar th. Who the deity is it is impossible to say. with a curious spreading object b elow. . dulcimer. fire. two dots follow the name of Sandes. god of the deep. were deities of fertility. Mel arth was burned at Tyre. They were punished by being thrown into "a burning fiery furn ace". Great [p. celebrating a great festival". .name of the god Sandes. and languages . and putting him into an engine. that Ashur was li e Merodach. in the province of Babylon". When. . "Shadrach. 348] the winged emblem may be seen to be a rosette. that the god may have been "called by a name which was that used also by the priest". a form o f Tammuz in origin. or as a ceremony of riddance. [*2] It would appear. at the time ye hear the sound of the cornet. it is possibl e. that they might lay the blame on that". and Abed-nego". in which there may be reasonably suspected the surviving tra ces of mountain cults. . son of Ea. . psaltery. "the prototype of Attis". the old god). [*2] According to the commentators the Chaldaeans were at the ti me "abroad in the fields. who was sent to his assistance. fall down an d worship the golden image". and all inds of music . Certain Jews who had been "set over the affairs of the province of Babylonia". Indeed the god himself might be burned (that is. As P rofessor Frazer has shown in The Golden Bough. flut e. [*4] All the younger gods. They ca me forth uninjured. Sandes or Sandan was identical with Sandon of Tarsus. Above. 349] bonfires were lit to strengthen him. battle. and a human arm bent 'in adorat ion' is by the side. The younger god was a spring sun go d and fire god. Nebuchadnezzar "made an image of gold" which he se t up "in the plain of Dura. acc ording to Biblical narrative. and he carried the "double axe" symbol of the god of fertility and thunder. . shot him into the midst of the fire. [*1]                         . the old year was burned out. In Scotland it was believed that on the morning of May Day (Be ltaine) the rising sun revolved three times. "Then they bound Abraham. therefore.

When the spring fire s were lit. As the lightning god was a war god. xxi. 18. perhaps. who were incarnatio of the god. the triangle with the dot. who was sustained. en ns is evident that the Babylonian fire ceremony was observed in the spring seaso and that human beings were sacrificed to the sun god. connecte d by two crescents. who "wal ed in the way of the ing s of Israel". he sustained his worshippers. These are not more complicated and vague than are the symbols on the standing stones of Scotland--the crescent with the "bro en" arrow. But he was also the god who slew the demons of dar ness and storm. and the god "renewed his life li e the eagle". and his bones were buried "under the oa in Jabesh". The god brought life and light to the world. 19). including Jupiter and Thor. the so-called "mirror". and eunuchs. [p. [*4] In Europe the oa was associated with gods of fertility and l ightning. which became regarded as a symbol of life. Saul. Asa. by the fires and sacrifices of his worshippers. who was reputed to have founded Tarsus. And in every place where the grounded staff shall pass. or wheels. yea. as the persistence of magical beliefs and practices. and the evidence afforded by Assyrian sculptures. was of mo re spiritual character than the wheel which encloses the feather-robed archer wi th his trident-shaped arrow. who stood on the bac of a bull. it shall be with tabrets and harps: and in battles of sha ing wi ll he fight with it. "burnt the ing's house over him with fire" [*3]. On the dis of the Assyrian stand                     It n. was burned after death. or dis "with protruding rays". Highly developed symbolism may not indicate a process of spiritualization so much. his symbol was possib ly the solar wheel or dis with eagle's wings. li e a stream of brimstone. the circle with the dot in its centre. doth indle it. the legendary ing. burned himself. "laid in the bed w hich was filled with sweet odours and divers inds of spices prepared by the apo thecaries' art: and they made a very great burning for him" (2 Chronicles. which smote with a rod. the heretic ing of Judah. The conclusion suggested by the comparative study of the beliefs of neighbouring peoples. Jehoram. The ceremony of burning Saul is of special interest. the trident with the double rings. for the ing it is prep ared: he hath made it deep and large: the pile thereof is fire and much wood: th e breath of the Lord. the orthodox ing of Judah.Isaiah ma es reference to the sacrificial burning of ings in Assyria: "For thro ugh the voice of the Lord shall the Assyrian be beaten down. Zimri. It is possible to read too much into his symbols. and so on. A moc ing may have be burned to perpetuate the ancient sacrifice of real ings. And his people made no burning for him. who reigned over Isr ael for seven days. is that Ashur was a highly developed form of the god of fertility. which the Lord shal l lay upon him. [p. i t was in eeping with his character to find him represented in Assyria as "Ashur the archer" with the bow and lightning arrow. or aided in hi s conflicts with demons. 352] [paragraph continues] The Hittite winged dis was Sandes or Sandon. The various symbols may have represented phases of the god. he caused the crops to gr ow.                                           . he gave increase." [*2] When Nin eveh was about to fall. 351] xvi. For Tophet is ordained of old. concubines. anot her fallen ing. the god of l ightning. died of "an incurable disease. the large dis with two small rings on either side crossed by double strai ght lines. after death. There is really no direct evidence to support the theory that the Assyrian winged dis . Sar danapalus. and with it the Assyrian Empire. li e the burning of his fathers" (2 Chronicles. was. on a pyre in his palace. with his wive s. 14).

This may be because the Assyrian ing was regarded as an incarnation of his go d. therefore. Associated with them is Nus u. He was also a son of Bel Enlil. or the thorn within the egg of more than on e legendary story. Professor [p. (and) he (the priest of Sin) placed (the crown?) upon his head. The rest of the lands n ot submitting (?) to Assur (Ashur) and Sin. [*1]The Babylonians and Assyrians as sociated fire and light with moisture and fertility. he captured the land of Egypt. and may. is believed to have been crowned in tha t city. have symbolized the light of the moon also. As has been indic                                         . he was crowned (?) in the gan ni of Harrah. for "he needed no temple". who was given prominence in Assyria. (saying) thus: 'Thou shalt go and capture the lands in the midst'. two crowns upon his head. It may be that in Assyria. may have represented the seed within " the egg" of more than one mythology. In Haran he accompani ed the moon god. as Professor Pinches says. says Professor Pinches. the crude beliefs and symbols of the masses were spiritualized by the speculative thin ers in the pri esthood. The "dot within the circle". the lord of ings. Temples were erected to Ashur. the ing. (and) the god Nus u stood beside h im. the temple (lit. or a brother of the fi re god. and li e Anu was guardian or chie f of the Igigi. As the son of Ea he acted as the messenger between Merodach and the go d of the deep. Whether this was because he was a highly developed deity or a product of fol religion it is difficult to decide. and an impersonation of the light of fire and sun. li e the Egyptian Pharaoh. who received offerings in the streets of Jerusalem. but he might be worshipped anywhere. li e the Que en of Heaven. the Assyrian ing. 353] but his symbols were carried aloft. In an interesting inscription he is associated with the moon god Nannar (Sin) of Haran. The god Sin remained over the (sacred) standard. but they were also symbols of Ashur the god of fertility. a widespread symbol. was in "the egg". Where the ing was. as the life of the Egypt ian and Indian gods. as in India.ard the lion and the bull appear with "the archer" as symbols of the war god Ash ur. 354] [paragraph continues] Pinches adds that in one inscription "he is identified wit h Nirig or En-reshtu" (Nin-Girsu = Tammuz). "The writer". The ings frequently inv o ed him. It would appear that Ashur was sometimes worshipped in the temples of other gods . The astral phase of the character of Ashur is highly probable. The father of the ing my lord entered. No imag es were made of him. the "host of heaven". Ashur accompanied the monarch on his campaigns: he was their conquering war god. One im portant fact is that the ruling ing of Assyria was more closely connected with the worship of Ashur than the ing of Babylonia was with the worship of Merodach . there was Ashur also. Esarhaddon. and of the giants of fol tales. 'Bethel') of cedar. shall c apture (them). [p. but no literary evidence has survived to justify us in placing the Assy rian teachers on the same level as the Brahmans who composed the Upanishads. Professor Pinches suggests that he may hav e been either identical with the Sumerian fire god Gibil. as were the symbols of Indian gods in the gr eat war of the Mahabharata epic. "is apparently addressing Assur-ba ni-apli. (He we)nt. 'the great and noble Asnapper': "When the father of my ing my lord went to Egypt." [*1] Ashur and Sin are here lin ed as equals. The life or spirit of the god was in the ring or wheel. the mess enger of the gods.

H. But whether they witness to a settlement in Cappadocia from Assyria. who. he says. W. hovering over the ing's head. associated with sun. it may have been due to the influence of the northern hillmen in the early Assyrian period. Li e the Hittite Great Father. li e Ashur. one of the deities' names. Osiris. Her nam e. ^327:2 "A number of tablets have been found in Cappadocia of the time of the Sec ond Dynasty of Ur which show mar ed affinities with Assyria." [*2] On the o ther hand. "Linguistically". ^328:2 Peri Archon. "the lady". the "self power" of the Universe. Johns (Cambridge. and the sacred tree figured in Persian mythology. however. and vegetation. if w e regard him as of common origin with Tammuz. enclosed in a winged dis or wheel. represented. ^329:1 Religion of Babylonia and Assyria. is suggestive in this connecti on. as has been indicated. The divine name Ash ir. ^328:1 Sumerian Zi u. Professor Pinches points out that as a sun god. or "most high". It seems reasonable to assume that the religious culture of the ethnic eleme nts they represented must have contributed to the development of the city god of Asshur. points out that the use of the characters Anshar for Ashur did not obtain until the eighth century B. are so characteristic that we must assume inship of peoples. is not yet clear. C.C. cxxv. Anoth er possible source of cultural influence is Persia. proposed by some learned scribe. the Gree rendering of Anshar as "Assoros". stars. x. or Beltu. Jastrow. if that wa s ever accepted." [*3] As Asari. more light may be thrown on the Ashur problem. "His identification with Merodach. may have been due to the li eness of the word to Asari. The early Assyrian ings had non-Semitic and non-Sumerian nam es. but not the transformation of An-sh ar to Ashur or Ashir. The supreme god Ahura-Mazda (Ormuzd) was. pp. that Ashur was developed as a father god--a Baal. Footnotes ^327:1 Genesis. We may consistently connect Ashur with Ausha r. act iii. scene 1. or at any rate traditional. [p. ^330:1 Julius Caesar. and "at the same time not S hamash". 1912 ). however. as the royal god. Ashur resembled Merodach. Ashur had a spouse who is referred to as Ashuritu. 355] and Attis--a developed and localized form of the ancient deity of fertility and corn. was Asar-Hapi. moon. In the historical texts Ashur. but it is possible that she was identified with the Is htar of Nineveh. When the Hit tite inscriptions are read. p. "the ch ange of Ashir to Ashur can be accounted for. he was perhaps regarded as the origin of life. to be the nature of a play upon the name. the institution of eponyms and many personal nam es which occur in Assyria. and with the epon ymous King Asshur who went out on the land of Nimrod and "builded Nineveh". the spiritual essence of life. as in early Assyrian texts.ated. water.                     . Anshar. as the Nile god. Merodach has been compared to the Egyptian O siris. "water field". 11. it is possible that what appears arbitrary to us may have been justif ied in ancient Assyria on perfectly reasonable. stands alone. Osiris resembles Tammuz and was simi larly a corn deity and a ruler of the living and the dead. or vice versa. 12-13. In deed. grou nds." Ancient Assyria. "god of the height". apparently derived from Zi. is not given. 197 et seq. so that we must assume the 'etymology' of Ashur.

ii. ^343:3 Isaiah. ^341:1 A winged human figure. The birds were called "Stymphalides". xiv. x. pp. 168-9. 44. ^342:2 Ibid. p. ^343:2 Nineveh. carrying in one hand a bas et and in another a fir cone. p. ^332:4 Primitive Constellations. xxxi. ^332:2 Religion of the Ancient Egyptians. plate 18 and note. ^342:1 Layard's Nineveh (1856). The bow and arrows suggest a lightning goddess who was a deity of war because she was a deity of fertility. 23. 3-8.. 37-8. ^332:1 Eddubrott. translated by Professor Eggeling. Wiedemann. ^332:3 Ibid. ^343:1 The fir cone was offered to Attis and Mithra. i. 763 B.^331:1 Isaiah.           . p.. 165 et seq. part iv. pp. ^340:2 Isaiah. Scotland's archaic thunder deity is a goddess. 21. p. 47. 236. 3 71. vol. ii. "or he-goats". 24.C. ^337:1 The so-called "shuttle" of Neith may be a thunderbolt. ^335:1 Aspects of Religious Belief and Practice in Babylonia and Assyria. ^338:1 Vedic Index. and vol. ^340:3 Ibid. vol. was followed by an outbrea of civil war.. xxxvii. 125-6. ^336:1 Satapatha Brahmana. For "Satyrs" the Revised Version gives the alternative translation. ^343:4 The Old Testament in the Light of the Historical Records and Legends of A ssyria and Babylonia. ii. ^333:2 Isaiah. 129-30. p. Atlas was also believed to be in the west. 4-14. (Sacred Boo s of the East. ^344:1 An eclipse of the sun in Assyria on June 15. A. ^336:3 Classic Myth and Legend. 120 . 11.) ^336:2 Egyptian Myth and Legend. 6. Macdonell & Keith. pp. Its association with Ashur suggests that the great Assyrian deity resembled the gods of corn and trees and fertility. p. xiii. 5. ^340:1 Eze iel. ^339:1 Eze iel. p. p. 1897. 309. 11. 105. xxx. 289-90. xxvii. pp. ^333:1 Cuneiform Inscriptions of Western Asia. xxxvii.. 184.

1-26. ^348:2 The Land of the Hittites. p. 11. ^350:1 The Koran. 356] [ch-15] CHAPTER XV   ^349:2 The story that Abraham hung an axe round the nec g the other idols is of Jewish origin. Myths of Babylonia and Assyria. i. xxxi. 31. 13 and 1 Chronicles. See also for Tophet customs 2 Kings. 10. 57-8. ^348:3 Ibid. 245-6. Osiris. xxx. ^349:1 Daniel. A co mmon rendering is "Bog-haz' Kay-ee". pp. George Sale. xxiii. J. 5-12. Jeremi ah. Attis. ^346:2 Also called "Amrita". chaps.121. 18.^344:2 Eze iel. 12. ^348:1 Another way of spelling the Tur ish name which signifies "village of the pass". . p. by Donald A. 11-5. 15-28. [1915]. 12. ^353:1 The Old Testament in the Light of the Historical Records and Legends of A ssyria and Babylonia. x. pp. ^350:4 1 Samuel. pp. i. 31-3. xxiii. ^350:3 2 Kings. the "z" sound is hard and hissing. p. pp. at sacred-texts. 173. ^346:1 Eze iel. 86. iii. ^345:3 Eze iel. xvi. ^347:1 The Mahabharata (Adi Parva). Garstang. ^348:4 Adonis. 32 and xix. x. MacKenzie. a slight "oo" sound being given to the "a" in "Kay". 201-2. vii. 178 et seq. ^354:1 Babylonian and Assyrian Religion. com [p. 4-14 ^345:1 Eze iel. The deep "gh" guttural is not usually attempted by English spea ers. ^354:2 Aspects of Religious Belief and Practice in Babylonia and Assyria. of Baal after destroyin     ^345:2 As the soul of the Egyptian god was in the sun dis           or sun egg.. v and vi. Sections xxxiii-iv. ^354:3 Babylonian and Assyrian Religion. ^350:2 Isaiah. 1-15.

Conflicts for Trade and Supremacy Modern Babylonia--History repeating itself--Babylonian Trade Route in Mesopotami a--Egyptian Supremacy in Syria--Mitanni and Babylonia--Bandits who plundered Car avans--Arabian Desert Trade Route opened--Assyrian and Elamite Struggles with Ba bylonia--Rapid Extension of Assyrian Empire--Hittites control Western Trade Rout es--Egypt's Nineteenth Dynasty Conquests--Campaigns of Rameses II--Egyptians and Hittites become Allies--Babylonian Fears of Assyria--Shalmaneser's Triumphs--As syria Supreme in Mesopotamia--Conquest of Babylonia--Fall of a Great King--Civil War in Assyria--Its Empire goes to pieces--Babylonian Wars with Elam--Revival o f Babylonian Power--Invasions of Assyrians and Elamites--End of the Kassite Dyna sty--Babylonia contrasted with Assyria. IT is possible that during the present century Babylonia may once again become o ne of the great wheat-producing countries of the world. A scheme of land reclama tion has already been inaugurated by the construction of a great dam to control the distribution of the waters of the Euphrates, and, if it is energetically pro moted on a generous scale in the years to come, the ancient canals, which are us ed at present as caravan roads, may yet be utilized to ma e the whole country as fertile and prosperous as it was in ancient days. When that happy consummation is reached, new cities may grow up and flourish beside the ruins of the old cent res of Babylonian culture. With the revival of agriculture will come the revival of commerce. Ancient trade routes will then be re-opened, and the slow-travelling caravans supplanted by [p. 357] speedy trains. A beginning has already been made in this direction. The first mo dern commercial highway which is crossing the threshold of Babylonia's new Age i s the German railway through Asia Minor, North Syria, and Mesopotamia to Baghdad . [*1] It brings the land of Hammurabi into close touch with Europe, and will so lve problems which engaged the attention of many rival monarchs for long centuri es before the world new aught of "the glory that was Greece and the grandeur th at was Rome". These sudden and dramatic changes are causing history to repeat itself. Once aga in the great World Powers are evincing much concern regarding their respective " spheres of influence" in Western Asia, and pressing together around the ancient land of Babylon. On the east, where the aggressive Elamites and Kassites were fo llowed by the triumphant Persians and Medes, Russia and Britain have asserted th emselves as protectors of Persian territory, and the influence of Britain is sup reme in the Persian Gulf. Tur ey controls the land of the Hittites, while Russia looms li e a giant across the Armenian highlands; Tur ey is also the governing power in Syria and Mesopotamia, which are being crossed by Germany's Baghdad rai lway. France is constructing railways in Syria, and will control the ancient "wa y of the Philistines". Britain occupies Cyprus on the Mediterranean coast, and p resides over the destinies of the ancient land of Egypt, which, during the brill iant Eighteenth Dynasty, extended its sphere of influence to the borders of Asia Minor. Once again, after the lapse of many centuries, international [p. 358] politics is being strongly influenced by the problems connected with the develop ment of trade in Babylonia and its vicinity. The history of the ancient rival States, which is being pieced together by moder n excavators, is, in view of present-day political developments, invested with s pecial interest to us. We have seen Assyria rising into prominence. It began to be a great Power when Egypt was supreme in the "Western Land" (the land of the A






morites) as far north as the frontiers of Cappadocia. Under the Kassite regime B abylonia's political influence had declined in Mesopotamia, but its cultural inf luence remained, for its language and script continued in use among traders and diplomatists. At the beginning of the Pharaoh A henaton period, the supreme power in Mesopotam ia was Mitanni. As the ally of Egypt it constituted a buffer state on the border s of North Syria, which prevented the southern expansion from Asia Minor of the Hittite confederacy and the western expansion of aggressive Assyria, while it al so held in chec the ambitions of Babylonia, which still claimed the "land of th e Amorites". So long as Mitanni was maintained as a powerful ingdom the Syrian possessions of Egypt were easily held in control, and the Egyptian merchants enj oyed preferential treatment compared with those of Babylonia. But when Mitanni w as overcome, and its territories were divided between the Assyrians and the Hitt ites, the North Syrian Empire of Egypt went to pieces. A great struggle then ens ued between the nations of western Asia for political supremacy in the "land of the Amorites". Babylonia had been seriously handicapped by losing control of its western carava n road. Prior to the Kassite period its influence was supreme in Mesopotamia and [p. 359] middle Syria; from the days of Sargon of A ad and of Naram-Sin until the close of the Hammurabi Age its merchants had naught to fear from bandits or petty ing s between the ban s of the Euphrates and the Mediterranean coast. The city of Ba bylon had grown rich and powerful as the commercial metropolis of Western Asia. Separated from the Delta frontier by the broad and perilous wastes of the Arabia n desert, Babylonia traded with Egypt by an indirect route. Its caravan road ran northward along the west ban of the Euphrates towards Haran, and then southwar d through Palestine. This was a long detour, but it was the only possible way. During the early Kassite Age the caravans from Babylon had to pass through the a rea controlled by Mitanni, which was therefore able to impose heavy duties and f ill its coffers with Babylonian gold. Nor did the situation improve when the inf luence of Mitanni suffered decline in southern Mesopotamia. Indeed the difficult ies under which traders operated were then still further increased, for the cara van roads were infested by plundering bands of "Suti", to whom references are ma de in the Tell-el-Amarna letters. These bandits defied all the great powers, and became so powerful that even the messengers sent from one ing to another were liable to be robbed and murdered without discrimination. When war bro e out betw een powerful States they harried live stoc and sac ed towns in those areas whic h were left unprotected. The "Suti" were Arabians of Aramaean stoc . What is nown as the "Third Semitic Migration" was in progress during this period. The nomads gave trouble to Babylo nia and Assyria, and, penetrating Mesopotamia and Syria, sapped the power of Mit anni, until it was unable to resist the onslaughts of the Assyrians and the Hitt ites. The Aramaean tribes are referred to, at various periods [p. 360] and by various peoples, not only as the "Suti", but also as the "Achlame", the " Arimi", and the "Khabiri". Ultimately they were designated simply as "Syrians", and under that name became the hereditary enemies of the Hebrews, although Jacob was regarded as being of their stoc : "A Syrian ready to perish", runs a Biblic al reference, "was my father (ancestor), and he went down into Egypt and sojourn















ed there with a few, and became there a nation, great, mighty, and populous". [* 1] An heroic attempt was made by one of the Kassite ings of Babylonia to afford pr otection to traders by stamping out brigandage between Arabia and Mesopotamia, a nd opening up a new and direct caravan road to Egypt across the Arabian desert. The monarch in question was Kadashman-Kharbe, the grandson of Ashur-uballit of A ssyria. As we have seen, he combined forces with his distinguished and powerful insman, and laid a heavy hand on the "Suti". Then he dug wells and erected a ch ain of fortifications, li e "bloc -houses", so that caravans might come and go w ithout interruption, and merchants be freed from the imposts of petty ings whos e territory they had to penetrate when travelling by the Haran route. This bold scheme, however, was foredoomed to failure. It was shown scant favour by the Babylonian Kassites. No record survives to indicate the character of the agreement between Kadashman-Kharbe and Ashur-uballit, but there can be little do ubt that it involved the abandonment by Babylonia of its historic claim upon Mes opotamia, or part of it, and the recognition of an Assyrian sphere of influence in that region. It was probably on account of his pronounced pro-Assyrian tenden cies that the Kassites murdered Kadashman-Kharbe, [p. 361]

Kadashman-Kharbe's immediate successors recognized in Assyria a dangerous and un scrupulous rival, and resumed the struggle for the possession of Mesopotamia. Th e trade route across the Arabian desert had to be abandoned. Probably it require d too great a force to eep it open. Then almost every fresh conquest achieved b y Assyria involved it in war with Babylonia, which appears to have been ever wai ting for a suitable opportunity to cripple its northern rival. But Assyria was not the only power which Babylonia had to guard itself against. On its eastern frontier Elam was also panting for expansion. Its chief caravan r oads ran from Susa through Assyria towards Asia Minor, and through Babylonia tow ards the Phoenician coast. It was probably because its commerce was hampered by the growth of Assyrian power in the north, as Servia's commerce in our own day h as been hampered by Austria, that it cherished dreams of conquering Babylonia. I n fact, as Kassite influence suffered decline, one of the great problems of inte rnational politics was whether Elam or Assyria would enter into possession of th e ancient lands of Sumer and A ad. Ashur-uballit's vigorous policy of Assyrian expansion was continued, as has been shown, by his son Bel-nirari. His grandson, Ari -den-ilu, conducted several suc cessful campaigns, and penetrated westward as far as Haran, thus crossing the Ba bylonian caravan road. He captured great herds of cattle and floc s of sheep, wh ich were transported to Asshur, and on one occasion carried away 250,000 prisone rs. Meanwhile Babylonia waged war with Elam. It is related that Khur-batila, King of Elam, sent a challenge [p. 362] to Kurigalzu III, a descendant of Kadashman-Kharbe, saying: "Come hither; I will fight with thee". The Babylonian monarch accepted the challenge, invaded the te rritory of his rival, and won a great victory. Deserted by his troops, the Elami te ing was ta en prisoner, and did not secure release until he had ceded a port ion of his territory and consented to pay annual tribute to Babylonia.





and set the pretender, eriod.

nown as "the son of nobody", on the throne for a brief p









Flushed with his success, the Kassite ing invaded Assyria when Adad-nirari I di ed and his son Ari -den-ilu came to the throne. He found, however, that the Assy rians were more powerful than the Elamites, and suffered defeat. His son, Na'zimar-ut'tash [*1], also made an unsuccessful attempt to curb the growing power of the northern Power. These recurring conflicts were intimately associated with the Mesopotamian quest ion. Assyria was gradually expanding westward and shattering the dreams of the B abylonian statesmen and traders who hoped to recover control of the caravan rout es and restore the prestige of their nation in the west. Li e his father, Adad-nirari I of Assyria had attac ed the Aramaean "Suti" who w ere settling about Haran. He also acquired a further portion of the ancient ing dom of Mitanni, with the result that he exercised sway over part of northern Mes opotamia. After defeating Na'zi-mar-ut'tash, he fixed the boundaries of the Assy rian and Babylonian spheres of influence much to the advantage of his own countr y. At home Adad-nirari conducted a vigorous policy. He developed the resources of t he city state of Asshur by constructing a great dam and quay wall, while he cont ributed to the prosperity of the priesthood and the [p. 363] growth of Assyrian culture by extending the temple of the god Ashur. Ere he died , he assumed the proud title of "Shar Kishshate", " ing of the world", which was also used by his son Shalmaneser I. His reign extended over a period of thirty years and terminated about 1300 B.C. Soon after Shalmaneser came to the throne his country suffered greatly from an e arthqua e, which threw down Ishtar's temple at Nineveh and Ashur's temple at Ass hur. Fire bro e out in the latter building and destroyed it completely. These disasters did not dismay the young monarch. Indeed, they appear to have st imulated him to set out on a career of conquest, to secure treasure and slaves, so as to carry out the wor of reconstructing the temples without delay. He beca me as great a builder, and as tireless a campaigner as Thothmes III of Egypt, an d under his guidance Assyria became the most powerful nation in Western Asia. Er e he died his armies were so greatly dreaded that the Egyptians and Assyrians dr ew their long struggle for supremacy in Syria to a close, and formed an alliance for mutual protection against their common enemy. It is necessary at this point to review briefly the history of Palestine and nor th Syria after the period of Hittite expansion under King Subbi-luliuma and the decline of Egyptian power under A henaton. The western part of Mitanni and the m ost of northern Syria had been colonized by the Hittites. [*1] Farther south, th eir allies, the Amorites, formed a buffer State on the borders of Egypt's limite d sphere of influence in southern Palestine, and of Babylonia's sphere in southe rn Mesopotamia. Mitanni [p. 364] was governed by a subject ing who was expected to prevent the acquisition by As syria of territory in the north-west. Subbi-luliuma was succeeded on the Hittite throne by his son, King Mursil, who w as nown to the Egyptians as "Meraser", or "Maurasar". The greater part of this monarch's reign appears to have been peaceful and prosperous. His allies protect ed his frontiers, and he was able to devote himself to the wor of consolidating














his empire in Asia Minor and North Syria. He erected a great palace at Boghaz K oi, and appears to have had dreams of imitating the splendours of the royal Cour ts of Egypt, Assyria, and Babylon. At this period the Hittite Empire was approaching the zenith of its power. It co ntrolled the caravan roads of Babylonia and Egypt, and its rulers appear not onl y to have had intimate diplomatic relations with both these countries, but even to have concerned themselves regarding their internal affairs. When Rameses I ca me to the Egyptian throne, at the beginning of the Nineteenth Dynasty, he sealed an agreement with the Hittites, and at a later date the Hittite ambassador at B abylon, who represented Hattusil II, the second son of King Mursil, actually int ervened in a dispute regarding the selection of a successor to the throne. The closing years of King Mursil's reign were disturbed by the military conquest s of Egypt, which had renewed its strength under Rameses I. Seti I, the son of R ameses I, and the third Pharaoh of the powerful Nineteenth Dynasty, too advanta ge of the inactivity of the Hittite ruler by invading southern Syria. He had fir st to grapple with the Amorites, whom he successfully defeated. Then he pressed northward as far as Tunip, and won a decisive victory over a Hittite army, which [p. 365] secured to Egypt for a period the control of Palestine as far north as Phoenicia . When Mursil died he was succeeded on the Hittite throne by his son Mutallu, whom the Egyptians referred to as "Metella" or "Mautinel". He was a vigorous and agg ressive monarch, and appears to have lost no time in compelling the Amorites to throw off their allegiance to Egypt and recognize him as their overlord. As a re sult, when Rameses II ascended the Egyptian throne he had to underta e the tas of winning bac the Asiatic possessions of his father. The preliminary operations conducted by Rameses on the Palestinian coast were at tended with much success. Then, in his fifth year, he marched northward with a g reat army, with purpose, it would appear, to emulate the achievements of Thothme s III and win fame as a mighty conqueror. But he underestimated the strength of his rival and narrowly escaped disaster. Advancing impetuously, with but two of his four divisions, he suddenly found himself surrounded by the army of the wily Hittite, King Mutallu, in the vicinity of the city of Kadesh, on the Orontes. H is first division remained intact, but his second was put to flight by an interv ening force of the enemy. From this perilous position Rameses extricated himself by leading a daring charge against the Hittite lines on the river ban , which p roved successful. Thrown into confusion, his enemies sought refuge in the city, but the Pharaoh refrained from attac ing them there. Although Rameses boasted on his return home of having achieved a great victory, there is nothing more certain than that this campaign proved a dismal failure. H e was unable to win bac for Egypt the northern territories which had ac nowledg ed the suzerainty of Egypt during the Eighteenth Dynasty. Subsequently he was [p. 366] ept fully engaged in maintaining his prestige in northern Palestine and the vic inity of Phoenicia. Then his Asiatic military operations, which extended altoget her over a period of about twenty years, were brought to a close in a dramatic a nd unexpected manner. The Hittite ing Mutallu had died in battle, or by the han d of an assassin, and was succeeded by his brother Hattusil II (Khetasar), who s ealed a treaty of peace with the great Rameses. An Egyptian copy of this interesting document can still be read on the walls of











a Theban temple, but it is lac ing in certain details which interest present-day historians. No reference, for instance, is made to the boundaries of the Egypti an Empire in Syria, so that it is impossible to estimate the degree of success w hich attended the campaigns of Rameses. An interesting light, however, is thrown on the purport of the treaty by a tablet letter which has been discovered by Pr ofessor Hugo Winc ler at Boghaz Koi. It is a copy of a communication addressed b y Hattusil II to the King of Babylonia, who had made an enquiry regarding it. "I will inform my brother," wrote the Hittite monarch; the King of Egypt and I hav e made an alliance, and made ourselves brothers. Brothers we are and will [unite against] a common foe, and with friends in common." [*1] The common foe could h ave been no other than Assyria, and the Hittite ing's letter appears to convey a hint to Kadashman-turgu of Babylon that he should ma e common cause with Rames es II and Hattusil. Shalmaneser I of Assyria was pursuing a determined policy of western and norther n expansion. He struc boldly at the eastern Hittite States and conquered Malati a, where he secured great treasure for the god Ashur. He even founded colonies w ithin the Hittite sphere of influence [p. 367] on the borders of Armenia. Shalmaneser's second campaign was conducted against t he portion of ancient Mitanni which was under Hittite control. The vassal ing, Sattuari, apparently a descendant of Tushratta's, endeavoured to resist the Assy rians with the aid of Hittites and Aramaeans, but his army of allies was put to flight. The victorious Shalmaneser was afterwards able to penetrate as far westw ard as Carchemish on the Euphrates. Having thus secured the whole of Mitanni, the Assyrian conqueror attac ed the Ar amaean hordes which were eeping the territory round Haran in a continuous state of unrest, and forced them to recognize him as their overlord. Shalmaneser thus, it would appear, gained control of northern Mesopotamia and co nsequently of the Babylonian caravan route to Haran. As a result Hittite prestig e must have suffered decline in Babylon. For a generation the Hittites had had t he Babylonian merchants at their mercy, and apparently compelled them to pay hea vy duties. Winc ler has found among the Boghaz Koi tablets several letters from the ing of Babylon, who made complaints regarding robberies committed by Amorit ic bandits, and requested that they should be punished and ept in control. Such a communication is a clear indication that he was entitled, in lieu of payment, to have an existing agreement fulfilled. Shalmaneser found that Asshur, the ancient capital, was unsuitable for the admin istration of his extended empire, so he built a great city at Kal hi (Nimrud), t he Biblical Calah, which was strategically situated amidst fertile meadows on th e angle of land formed by the Tigris and the Upper Zab. Thither to a new palace he transferred his brilliant Court. [p. 368] He was succeeded by his son, Tu ulti-Ninip I, who was the most powerful of the A ssyrian monarchs of the Old Empire. He made great conquests in the north and eas t, extended and strengthened Assyrian influence in Mesopotamia, and penetrated i nto Hittite territory, bringing into subjection no fewer than forty ings, whom he compelled to pay annual tribute. It was inevitable that he should be drawn in to conflict with the Babylonian ing, who was plotting with the Hittites against him. One of the tablet letters found by Winc ler at Boghaz Koi is of special in terest in this connection. Hattusil advises the young monarch of Babylonia to "g o and plunder the land of the foe". Apparently he sought to be freed from the ha rassing attention of the Assyrian conqueror by prevailing on his Babylonian roya

















l friend to act as a "cat's paw". It is uncertain whether or not Kashtiliash II of Babylonia invaded Assyria with purpose to cripple his rival. At any rate war bro e out between the two countrie s, and Tu ulti-Ninip proved irresistible in battle. He marched into Babylonia, a nd not only defeated Kashtiliash, but captured him and carried him off to Asshur , where he was presented in chains to the god Ashur. The city of Babylon was captured, its wall was demolished, and many of its inhab itants were put to the sword. Tu ulti-Ninip was evidently waging a war of conque st, for he pillaged E-sagila, "the temple of the high head", and removed the gol den statue of the god Merodach to Assyria, where it remained for about sixteen y ears. He subdued the whole of Babylonia as far south as the Persian Gulf; and ru led it through viceroys. Tu ulti-Ninip, however, was not a popular emperor even in his own country. He of fended national susceptibilities by showing preference for Babylonia, and foundi ng [p. 369] a new city which has not been located. There he built a great palace and a templ e for Ashur and his pantheon. He called the city after himself, Kar-Tu ulti-Nini p [*1]. Seven years after the conquest of Babylonia revolts bro e out against the empero r in Assyria and Babylonia, and he was murdered in his palace, which had been be sieged and captured by an army headed by his own son, Ashur-natsir-pal I, who su cceeded him. The Babylonian nobles meantime drove the Assyrian garrisons from th eir cities, and set on the throne the Kassite prince Adad-shum-utsur. Thus in a brief space went to pieces the old Assyrian Empire, which, at the clos e of Tu ulti-Ninip's thirty years' reign, embraced the whole Tigro-Euphrates val ley from the borders of Armenia to the Persian Gulf. An obscure century followed , during which Assyria was raided by its enemies and bro en up into petty States . The Elamites were not slow to ta e advantage of the state of anarchy which preva iled in Babylonia during the closing years of Assyrian rule. They overran a part of ancient Sumer, and captured Nippur, where they slew a large number of inhabi tants and captured many prisoners. On a subsequent occasion they pillaged Isin. When, however, the Babylonian ing had cleared his country of the Assyrians, he attac ed the Elamites and drove them across the frontier. Nothing is nown regarding the reign of the parricide Ashur-natsir-pal I of Assy ria. He was succeeded by Ninip-Tu ulti-Ashur and Adad-shum-lishir, who either re igned concurrently or were father and son. After a brief period these were displ aced by another two rulers, Ashur-nirari III and Nabu-dan. It is not clear why Ninip-Tu ulti-Ashur was deposed. [p. 370] [paragraph continues] Perhaps he was an ally of Adad-shum-utsur, the Babylonian ing, and was unpopular on that account. He journeyed to Babylon on one occasion , carrying with him the statue of Merodach, but did not return. Perhaps he fled from the rebels. At any rate Adad-shum-utsur was as ed to send him bac , by an A ssyrian dignitary who was probably Ashur-nirari III. The ing of Babylon refused this request, nor would he give official recognition to the new ruler or rulers .



















and had a prosperous reign of fifteen years. King Zamama-shum-iddin followed w ith a twelvemonth's reign. which was obtained from the Nub                           . and rich booty was carried off to Asshur and Susa. assumed the Assyrian title "Shar Kishshati". appears to have been merged in Shamash. Babylonia recovered much of its ancient splendour. led an Assyrian army against t he Babylonians. followed by Adad-shumutsur.udur-utsur. Although Babylonia was not so great a world power under the Kassites as it had b een during the Hammurabi Dynasty. They allowed their mountain homeland. Its merchants traded directly and indirectly with far-distant countries. The city was bes ieged but not captured by the Babylonian army. 371] Bel-shum-iddin succeeded Zamama-shum-iddin. In time. Apparently they were strongly supported by th e non-Semitic elements in the population. Thei r sun god. They im ported cobalt--which was used for colouring glass a vivid blue--from China. the elder B el. during which his ingdom was successfully invaded fro m the north by the Assyrians under King Ashur-dan I. At an early period the alien rulers became tho roughly Babylonianized. which had en dured for a period of 576 years and nine months. which had been paralysed by civil war. and represented a popular revolt again st the political supremacy of the city of Babylon and its god Merodach. The next ing. [p. and may have occasionally met Chinese traders who came westward with their caravans. So ended the Kassite Dynasty of Babylonia. He was succeeded by Mardu -aplu-iddin I. Meli-s hipa . but was slain in battle. to be seized and governed by Assyria. or e arliest area of settlement in the east. and the city of Babylon was the most [p. while a bris trade in marble and limestone was conducted with and through Elam . and trading country.Soon afterwards another usurper. the ings followed the example of Hammurabi by exalting Merodach. The Babylonian language was used throughout western Asia as the language of diplomacy and commerce. " ing of the world". Once again it possessed Mesopotamia and c ontrolled its caravan road to Haran and Phoenicia. Egypt was the chief source of the gold supply. Bel. agricul tural. who was probably identified with their own god of fertility and battle. Under Adad-shum-utsur. and as they held sway for nearly six centuries it cannot be assumed that they were unpopular. where the alien rulers appear to have first achieved ascendancy. who reigned for thirty years. and from the east by the El amites under a ing whose name has not been traced. Thereafter the glory of the Kassite Dynasty passed away. but three years afterwards he was de posed by a ing of Isin. who led his forces bac to Asshur. it prospered greatly as an industrial. Several towns were captured and pillaged. an d probably maintained as slight a connection with it after settlement in Babylon ia as did the Saxons of England with their Continental area of origin. It is si gnificant to find in this connection that the early Kassite ings showed a prefe rence for Nippur as their capital and promoted the worship of Enlil. however. Sachi. bu t was never used in inscriptions. He was succeeded by Ninip-apil-esharia. and apparently its relations with the Hittites and Syrians were of a cordial character. This name was origin ally applied to the district at the river mouths. The Kassite language added to the "Babel of tongues" among the common people. It held Elam in chec and laid a heavy hand on Assyria. 372] important commercial metropolis of the ancient world. w ho presided over the destinies of Babylonia for about thirteen years. Babylonia was called Karduniash during the Kassite Dynasty.

they were clad. from which its culture was derived. and the battle steeds from th e Babylonian province of Namar were everywhere in great demand. the mother land. li e the Israelites in captivity. enamel. from Assyria. Its original inhabitants were nomadic pastoral and hunting tri bes. so well nown to Abraham and his ancestors. Assyria presented a sharp contrast to Babylonia. Agriculture also flourished. [p. In fact. The Kassites were great horse breeders. and ultimately extended their sway ov er neighbouring States. wh ich depended for its stability upon those productive countries which it was able to conquer and hold in sway. for the ings pursued the short-sighted policy of colon izing districts on the borders of their empire with their loyal subjects. which grew from an alliance of brigands who first enslaved the native population. which provided exc ellent grazing. As a separate ingdom it had to develop along different li nes. and se ttling aliens in the heart of the homeland. where they were controlled by the mi litary. could have flourished in comparative isolation. with tertiary deposits. and there appears to be little doubt that agriculture was introduced along the ban s of the Tigris by colonists from Babylonia. because it was able to feed itself and maintain a l arge population so long as its rich alluvial plain was irrigated during its dry season. After the Hammurabi period Assyria rose into prominence as a predatory power. It is evident that great wealth accumulated in Karduniash during the Kassite per iod. They also promot ed the cattle trade. li e Egypt du ring the Old Kingdom period. who longed to return to their native lands. Babylonia. When the images of Merodach and Zerpanitum were ta en bac to Babylon.ian mines. The successes of the army made Assyria powerful. the enslaved and unc ultured masses of [p. The region north of Baghdad was of different geographical formation to the south ern plain. 374] aliens were concerned mainly with their daily duties. as in Egypt it constituted the basi s of national and commercial prosperity. and such as it had ultimately vanished. as well as chariots a nd horses. while E-sagila was redecorated on a lavish scale with price-less wor s of art. and therefore less suitable for the birth and growth of a great indep endent civilization. Conquer                                . and no doubt included comm unities. and had an extremely limited area suitable for agric ultural pursuits. and the extensive steppes on the borders of th e Arabian desert. it was unable to exist as a world power without the enforced co-op eration of neighbouring States. It never had a numerous peasantry. and in exchange for this precious metal the Babylonians supplied the Nilotic merchants with lapis-lazuli from Bactria. National sentiment was ch iefly confined to the military aristocracy and the priests. Assyria had to maintain a standing army. which extended over about eight months in the year. in garments embroidered with gol d and spar ling with gems. In this manner they built up an artificial empire. Cattle rearing was confined chiefly to the marshy districts at the head of the Persian Gulf. who formed city States whic h owed allegiance to the ings of Sumer and A ad. which suffered at cri tical periods in its history because it lac ed the great driving and sustaining force of a population welded together by immemorial native traditions and the lo ve of country which is the essence of true patriotism. 373] on the other hand. as has been recorded. which was not unli e the later Venetian. and their own wonderfu l coloured glass. Assyria embraced a chal plateau of the later Mesozoic peri od.

5.               . It necessitated the adoption of a m ilitary career by native Assyrians. What the command of the sea is to Great Britain at the pre sent day. and the native population was ever so intense ly patriotic that centuries of alien sway could not obliterate their national as pirations. The Assyrian Empire. p. Footnotes ^357:1 At Carchemish a railway bridge spans the mile-wide river ferry which Assy ria's soldiers were wont to cross with the aid of s in floats. ings accumulated rich booty by pillaging alien cities. they were faced with national ban ru ptcy when their vassals successfully revolted against them. xxvi. u as oo. Thereafter. There was no surer way of strangling it than by securing control of its trade routes. (2) the Middle Empire. This e xpansion did not change the civilization but extended the area of occupation and control. ^362:1 Pr. The history of Assyria as a world power is divided into three periods: (1) the O ld Empire. collapsed li e a house of cards when its army of mercenaries suffered a succession of disasters. he set forth to build up a new empire on the ruins of the old. the command of the caravan roads was to ancient Babylonia. as we have i ndicated. The Amorites and K assites had in turn to adopt the modes of life and modes of thought of the nativ e population. to command sufficient capital with purpose to raise a strong army of mercenaries as a business speculation. A conqueror of Babylon had to become a Babylonian. which also brought t hem rich rewards for their services. The ferry was on the old trade route. Li e the Egyptians. In its early stages. The engineers hav e found it possible to utilize a Hittite river wall about 3000 years old--the ol dest engineering structure in the world. Babylonia suffered less than Assyria by defeat in battle. (3) the New or Last Empire. the Babylonians ever achieved the intellectual conquest of their conquerors. when it flourished in great splendour an d suddenly went to pieces. 375] their soldiers and maintain the priesthood. It was to achieve the conquest of the fertile and prosperous mother State that the early A ssyrian emperors conducted military operations in the north-west and laid hands on Mesopotamia. who officered the troops. this process was slow and difficult. until the second period of the Old Empire . and these troops h ad to be trained and disciplined by engaging in brigandage. They even regarded Babylonia with avaricious eyes. Assyria became powerful by developing the science of warfare. Babylonia became powerful by developing the arts of peace. Of these the most enterprising was Asshur. depended on the tribute of subject States to pay [p. ^363:1 The chief cities of North Syria were prior to this period Hittite. ^366:1 Garstang's The Land of the Hittites. its natural resources gave it great recuperative powers. on the other hand. The ings. We have followed the rise and growth of the Old Empire from the days of Ashur-ub allit until the reign of Tu ulti-Ninip. of course. ^360:1 Deuteronomy. Assyria comprised but a few city States which had agricultural resources and w ere trading centres. When a ruler of Asshur was able. and grew more and mo re wealthy as they were able to impose annual tribute on those States which came under their sway. by conserving his revenues.

in time swamped various decaying State s. of which Amenhotep III and A henaton were the last great ings. for they not only prope lled fresh movements beyond their spheres of influence. These were primarily due to widespread migrations of pastoral peoples from the steppe lands of Asia and Europe. The Aramaean fol -waves had already begun to pour in increasing volume into Syria from Arabia. it ul timately submerged the whole of Syria and part of Mesopotamia. the last wave o                       . The Aramaean. and was not displaced until the time of the Fourth Semitic or Moslem migration from Arabia. but caused the petty Sta tes to combine against a common enemy and foster ambitions to achieve conquests on a large scale. and swept northward th rough Syria to Asia Minor. by Donald A. These race movements were desti ned to exercise considerable influence in shaping the history of the ancient wor ld. eastward across Mesopotamia into Persia and India. 376] [ch-16] CHAPTER XVI Race Movements that Shattered Empires The Third Semitic Migration--Achaean Conquest of Greece--Fall of Crete--Tribes o f Raiders--European Settlers in Asia Minor--The Mus i overthrow the Hittites--Se a Raids on Egypt--The Homeric Age--Israelites and Philistines in Palestine--Cult ure of Philistines--Nebuchadrezzar I of Babylonia--Wars against Elamites and Hit tites--Conquests in Mesopotamia and Syria--Assyrians and Babylonians at War--Tig lath-pileser I of Assyria--His Sweeping Conquests--Mus i Power bro en--Big-game Hunting in Mesopotamia--Slaying of a Sea Monster--Decline of Assyria and Babylon ia--Revival of Hittite Civilization--An Important Period in History--Philistines as Overlords of Hebrews--Kingdom of David and Saul--Solomon's Relations with Eg ypt and Phoenicia--Sea Trade with India--Aramaean Conquests--The Chaldaeans--Egy ptian King plunders Judah and Israel--Historical Importance of Race Movements. at sacred-texts. and then into Spain. The military opera tions of the great Powers were also a disturbing factor. Despite the successive efforts of the great Powers to hold it in chec . an d westward through Egypt along the north African coast to Morocco. GREAT changes were ta ing place in the ancient world during the period in which Assyria rose into prominence and suddenly suffered decline. 377] progress. Aramaean speech t hen came into common use among the mingled peoples over a wide area. and the resulting displacement of settled tribes. com [p. and in Europe the pastoral fighting fol from the mount ains were establishing themselves along the south-eastern coast and crossing the Hellespont to overrun the land of the Hittites. which began in the seventh century of the Christian era. Towards the close of the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt." Myths of Babylonia and Assyria. two well-defined migrations were in [p. [1915]. When Syria was sustaining the first shoc s of Aramaean invasion. MacKenzie. or Third Semitic migration.^369:1 "Burgh of Tu ulti-Ninip.

and contributed to the overthrow of the dynasty of King M inos of Crete. In time the Hitt ite confederacy was bro en up by the migrating Europeans. On the other hand. and their dominant tri be. indeed. In their place appear the Shardana. and probably used iron as well as bronze weapons. and were followed by the siege of Troy. 379] as were securing a footing in Asia Minor. who apparently had begun their conquest of Canaan during his reign. the My enaean people who gave thei r name to Sardinia. "were their simple deser t customs and their religious organization. that no ment ion is made of them in the inscriptions of the Pharaohs after the reign of Amenh otep III. [*1] When the prestige of Egypt suffered decline they overran the c oast-line of Canaan. while the Egyptian overland trade route to Phoenicia became now n as "the way of the Philistines". and traded on the M editerranean and the Blac Sea. believed to be identical with the Danaoi of Hom er. the son of Rameses II. did not benefit much by the alliance wi th the Hittites. Their conflicts with the Hebrews are familiar to readers of the Old Testament. "the tamers of horses" and "shepherds of the people". which had been filterin g southward for several centuries.C. Haddon believes.C.f Achaeans. sprung from one of the great homes of art of the ancient world. and the Tursha and Sha alsha. [*1] who. "The only contributions the Hebrews made to th e culture of the country". fair-haired. a people from Crete. In Syria Meneptah fought with the Isra elites. The land raiders who were thwarted by Rameses III were the Philistines. however. had brought with                                         . were representatives of "the mixed peoples of northern and Alpine descent". the Mus i [*2]--the Moschoi of the Gree s and the Meshech of the Old Testame nt--came into conflict with the Assyrians. and crossed into Asia Minor. un cultured barbarians. These events occurred at the beginning of the Homeric Age. who represented the Thraco-Phrygian peoples who had overrun the Bal a ns. had achieved t he conquest of Greece. The Mus i were fore-runners of the Ph rygians. to whom he had to send a supply of grain during a time of famin e. "the land of th e Philistines". He scattered a fleet on the Delta coast. who may have been of the same stoc as the piratical Lycians. which. the Philistines. but not necessarily blonde". that the Achaeans were [p. Before the Kassite Dynasty had come to an end. When Rameses II fought his famous battle at Kadesh the Hittite ing included amo ng his allies the Aramaeans from Arabia. and then arrested the progres s of a strong force which was pressing southward through Phoenicia towards the E gyptian frontier. writes Professor Macalister. and had to beat bac from the Delta region the piratical invaders of the same tribes [p. He found it necessary. Hawes. according to the Gree s. on the other hand. began about 1194 B.) freed his country from the perils of a great invasion of Europeans by land and sea. and were probably of allied stoc . and that country was then called Palestine. Rameses III of Egypt (1198--1167 B. Pharaoh Meneptah. but the last wave came from some un nown centre of civiliza tion. perhaps the Achaeans. the Danauna. following Professor Se rgi. The old Cretans were nown to the Egyptians as the "Keftiu". Professor Ridgeway identifies this stoc . with the tall. holds. 378] [paragraph continues] "fair in comparison with the native (Pelasgian-Mediterrane an) stoc . [*1] The earliest Achaeans were rude. [*2] Mr. to invade Syria. occupied Thrace and Macedonia. and grey-eyed "Ke ltoi" (Celts). Dr. where their influence had dec lined. and other mercenaries li e the Dardanui and Masa. the A haivasha. It is significant to find.

The Elamites were forced to retreat. but endeavoure d also to establish themselves permanently in Babylon. famous for its horses. and apparently followed up his victory. and the heat overpowering. This happened in the third year of Nebuchadr ezzar. . Rameses VIII. A new dynasty--the Dynasty of Pashe--had arisen at the ancient Sumerian city of Isin. th e Mus i were the overlords of the Hittites. They were not content with securing control of the trade route. Ashur-dan inflicted a crushing defeat upon the second-last Kassite ruler. the Amo rites were being displaced in Palestine by the Philistines and the Israelitish t ribes. at least until the time when the influence of classical Greece asserted its elf too strongly [p.C. and following up their main force he inf licted upon them a shattering defeat on the ban s of the Ula. P                    . under Ashur-dan I. His first duty was to drive t he Elamites from the land. who was Nebuchadrezzar's batt le companion. he persisted in his campaig n. Nebuchadrezzar came into conflict with the Hittites.. 381] signifies: "May the god Nebo protect my boundary". in fa ct. Ritti Merodach. Whatsoever things raised life in the country above the dull ani mal existence of fellahin were due to this people. . Tombs to be ascribed to them. and were ultimately able to seize the province of Nama r. His name [p. Assembling a strong force. the commercial metropolis . were the only cultured or artistic race who ever occupied the soil of Palest ine." [*1] When the Kassite Dynasty of Babylonia was extinguished. and its governor. Probably the invaders were operating in conjunc tion with the Mus i. . but although the season was midsummer. who were extending their sway over part of northern Assyria . The K assite and Lullume mountaineers also received attention. but still superior to anything they met with in the land itself. and they engaged in conflicts with the Elamites. were not only reconquering lost territory. seized the Babyloni an throne. and win bac from them the statue of Merodach which t hey had carried off from E-sagila. and driven the Assyrians over the frontier. contained beautiful jewellery and ornaments. He was the most powerful and distinguished monarch of his line--an ac complished general and a wise statesman. Assyrian power was being revived at the beginning of the second period of the Old Empire. when he was still reigning at Isin.them the artistic instincts of their race: decayed no doubt. Its early ings were contemporary with some of the last Kassite monarchs. who were encroaching steadily u pon Babylonian territory. A second raid to Elam resulted in the recovery of the statue of Merodach. 380] to be withstood. he hastene d northward and defeated the Hittites. which was situated to the east of A ad. At first he suffered a reverse. . still tell of the great days of old when it (Palestine) was inhabited by the mighty race of the 'Fenish'. a tributary of the Tigris. of the Dynasty of Pashe. and Egypt was governed by a wea ly ing. The peasantry of the mo dern villages . who was un able to protect the rich tombs of the Eighteenth Dynasty Pharaohs against the ba nds of professional robbers who were plundering them. who app ear to have overrun Mesopotamia. The Philistines. fou nd in Gezer. the Aramaeans were extending their conquests in Syria and Mesopotamia. There years later Nebuchadrezzar I. The province of Nama r was recovered. about 1140 B. was restored to his family possessions and exempted from taxation. and were taught to resp ect the power of the new monarch. Having freed his country from the yo e of the Elamites. a puppet in the hands of the priesthood. but invading Bab ylonia and carrying off rich plunder. which they besieged and captured. . The Assyrians . He then invaded Elam and returned with rich booty.

Thereafter he crossed the Babylonian frontier. Tiglath-pileser I. had half a century before thrown off the yo e of Assyria. who reigned a few year s. which had be en invaded during his absence by a force of Hittites. The very existence of Assyria as a separate power was threatened by this mov ement. recorded [p. from the effects of which his country did not recover for over a century. northern Assyria was menaced by the Mus i and their allies. When he came to t he throne. Ashur-resh-ishi I. who restored ancient landmar s and boundaries". Some time later Nebuchadrezzar dispatched another army northward. By setting fire to his sie ge train the Babylonian war lord was able. [p. grandson of Ashur-dan. but the Assyrian ing conducted a sudden and successful reconnaissance in force which r endered perilous the position of the attac ing force. His second campaign was also directed towards the Mitanni district. By restoring the image of Merodach he secured the supp ort of Babylon. and suffered serious rev erses. Nebuchadrezzar reigned less than twenty years. The northern monarch had engaged himself in subduing the Lu llume and A hlami hill tribes in the south-east. came into conflict with Tiglath-pileser I of Assyria. however. the ancie nt goddess of the people. he wiped the invading army out of existence and possessed himself of all its bag gage. who were transported to Asshur. fell into the hands of the enemy. in Armenia. Thereafter a great army of the Mus i and their allies p ressed southward with purpose to deal a shattering blow against the Assyrian pow er. Thereafter he captured several cities. and appears to have secured the a llegiance of the nobility by restoring the feudal system which had been abolishe d by the Kassites. Mardu -nadin-a he . Subsequent operations towards the north restored the pre-eminence of Assyria in the Nairi country. The inv aders submitted to him as soon as he drew near. in one of his inscriptions. and their ings were apparently vassals of the Mus i. The Kashiari hill tribes to the north of Nin eveh. to which city he transferred his Court. His grandson. it brought Nebuchadrezzar into conflict some years later with the Assyrian ing. Tiglath-pileser first invaded Mitanni. 383] significantly: "The feet of the enemy I ept from my country". In fact. was equal to the occasion. about 4000 strong. whom Shalmaneser I subdued. where Tiglath-pileser                                   . Tiglath-pileser. on the shores of La e Van. and extended his empire beyond the Kashiari hills and into the heart of Mitanni. however. As was inevita ble. Egyptian power had been long extinguished in that region.robably it was at this time that he conquered the "West Land" (the land of the A morites) and penetrated to the Mediterranean coast. the Hitti tes and the Shubari of old Mitanni. and promoted the worship of Ishtar. and its general. and he added them to his standin g army.000 and capturing 6000 prisoners. He boasted that he was "the sun of his country. 382] The possession of Mesopotamia was a signal triumph for Babylonia. Karashtu. whose territory had been conque red by Nebuchadrezzar. slaying abou t 14. Nebuchadrezzar was succeeded by his son Ellil-nadin-apil. and father of the famou s Tiglath-pileser I. but little or nothing is nown regarding him. but it suffere d a serious defeat. to retreat in good order. where he routed a combined force of Shuba ri hillmen and Hittites. however. He surprised the inv aders among the Kashiari mountains and inflicted a crushing defeat. Nebuchadre zzar drove him bac and then laid siege to the border fortress of Zan i.

The royal palace was enlarged and redecor ated. where he put to sea and slew a sea m onster called the "na hiru". I brought to my city of Asshur. 385] as the predominant world Power. as well as a number of wild oxen. which he had cleared of the Hittites. but subsequently he w as defeated in the land of A ad. extending from the land of the Hittites into the heart of Babylonia. [p. apparently including in his record the "bags" of his officers and men. and in the first conflict achieved some success." [*1] He also claimed to have slain 920 lions. Fortifications were renewed. whose sphere of influence in that region had been invaded. while the coffers of state were glutted with the tribute of subject States. Their s ins. It was entered more t han once by the Aramaeans. and entered Car chemish. and plundered and destroyed six cities round the base of the mountain of Bishru. who pillaged several cities in the north and the sout                                      . Artists and artisans were ept full y employed restoring the faded splendours of the Old Empire. w ith the living elephants. Meanwhile Babylonia was wasted by civil war and invasions. While at Arvad. 384] themselves of Mitanni. A later ing credited him with having penetrated to the Phoenician coast. "arrayed his chariots" against Tiglath -pileser. This story. Mardu -nadi n-a he. four elephants alive I too . and everywhere thou sands of slaves laboured to ma e the neglected land prosperous as of old. their teeth. Canals were repaired and reopened. By a series of forc ed marches he caught them unawares. The Assyrian army afterwards captured several cities. faced with a rampart of earth. the earthwor s and quay wall of Ashur were strength ened. Thus once again the Assyrian Empire came into being Clic to enlarge ASSYRIAN KING HUNTING LIONS Photo. and its great wall was entirely rebuilt. temples were built. Tiglath-pileser engaged in big-game hunting. the narrative continues. the grandson of Nebuchadrezzar I. who is not named. sent him a hippopotamus (pagutu). including Babylon and Sippar. an d protected once again by a deep moat. While operating in this district. the King o f Egypt. These he liberated after they h ad ta en the oath of allegiance and consented to pay annual tribute. however . Thereafter his army crossed the Euphrates in boats o f s in. scattered them in confusion.captured no fewer than twenty-three petty ings. which he pillaged. is of doubtful authenticity. Its cities were enriched by the immense quantities of booty captured by its warrior ing. About this time the prestige of Egypt was at so l ow an ebb that its messengers were subjected to indignities by the Phoenician i ngs. In his fourth year the conqueror learned that the Aramaeans were crossing the Eu phrates and possessing [p. The conquests of Tiglath-pileser once more raised the Mesopotamian question in B abylonia. Mansell. and great gifts were lavished on the priesthood. H e recorded: "Ten powerful bull elephants in the land of Haran and on the ban s o f the Khabour I illed.

386] A century and a half after Tiglath-pileser I conquered the north Syrian possessi ons of the Hittites. [p. In Cappadocia their insmen had freed themselves at an e arlier period from the yo e of the Mus i. but all the Israelites went d own to the Philistines. who was perhaps the fourth monarch. and his coulter.ala died without issue. where Greece was emerging in virgin splendour o ut of the ruins of the ancient My enaean and Cretan civilizations. Ashur-bel. and lasted between fifty and sixty years. He was given recognition. having sha en off the last semblance of Assyrian authority. and thereafter an Elamite Dynasty which lasted about six yea rs. w ho reigned for about ten years. It is possible that the conquest of a considerable part of Palestine by the Phil istines was not unconnected with the revival of Hittite power in the north. however. For a period they were the overlords of the Hebrews. In Babylonia there were two wea dynasties in less t han half a century. and enjoyed a full century of indep endence and prosperity. which was of great historical importanc e. under a series of inert and luxur y-loving ings. the grandson of "a nobody". who married his daughter.ala. and his mattoc ". The Philistines were of the remnant of the dying glories of Crete. "t here was no smith found throughout all the land of Israel. but were enteri ng on the heritage they regarded as theirs. Until the hieroglyphics can be read. The Hittite buildings and roc sculptures of this peri od testify to the enduring character of the ancient civilization of the "Hatti". they had made a "corner" in that metal and rest ricted its use among their vassals. "to p icture the West as a thing of yesterday. Shamshi-Ad ad. The reco rds of its early ings are exceedingly meagre and their order uncertain. It had suffered gradual decline. for the Philistines s aid.h. revived their power. and the la tter which loo ed forward to the future. The names of two or three un nown. Ashur-bel. the Biblical narrative sets forth. we must wait patiently for the de tailed story of the pre-Phrygian period. says Professor Macalister. During the reign of Nabu-mu in-apli. as is indicated by a passage in the Boo of Samuel. Then the throne was seized by Adad-aplu-iddina. ings who succeeded Nabu-mu in-apli are                               . and his axe. by the Assyri an ing. who had bee n displacing the older inhabitants of the "Promised Land". 387] and appear to have been armed with weapons of iron. the Hebrews had no past to spea of. it was the former which represented the magnificent traditions of the past. the Aramaeans constantly raided the land and hovered [p. to sharpen every man his share. and was succeeded by his brother. new fangled with its inventions and its progressive civilization. and apparently restored to him Sippar and Babylon after receiving a handsome dowry. An Eighth Dynasty ensued. Lest the Hebrews ma e them swords and spears.C. and the East as an embodiment of hoary and unchanging traditions. After 950 B. by right of a recently ratified divi             about Babylon. In fact. until it was unable to withstand the gradual encroachment on eve ry side of the restless hill tribes. son of Tiglath-pileser I. because the tide of cultural influence was then flowing at its greatest volum e from the old to the new world. the Hittites of North Syria. They may have moved southward as the allies of the Cilician State which was rising i nto prominence. the Old Assyrian Empire reached the close of its second and last period. who had suffered so severely at the ha nds of Tiglath-pileser I. however. who were ever ready to revolt when the auth ority of Ashur was not asserted at the point of the sword. [*1] "We are inclined". An obscure period followed. "Now". But when West first met East on the shores of the Holy Land.

and my servants shall be with thy servants: and unto thee will I give hire for thy servants according to all t hat thou shalt appoint: for thou nowest that there is not among us any that can s ill to hew timber li e unto the Sidonians. And. for he had heard that the y had anointed him ing in the room of his father: for Hiram was ever a lover of David. Th e ancient land of the Pharaohs had been overshadowed meantime by a cloud of anar chy. had become "Kings of the Sidonia ns". Tyre and Sidon attained to a high degree of power as independent city S tates. succeeded Saul as ruler of Israel. I purpose to build an house unto the name of the Lord my God. saying. Its ings. and are believed to have extended their sway over part of Cyprus. he shall build an house unto my name. The Philistines were then confined to a re stricted area on the seacoast. Mansell [p. Tyre was the predominant Phoenici an power. And it came to pass. Under the famous Solomon the united ingdom of the He brews reached its highest splendour and importance among the nations. that he rejoiced gre                                 . If the Philistines received the support of the Hittites. He was the Pharaoh with whom Solomon "made affinity". Freed from Egyptian. when Hiram heard the words of Solomon. The relat ions between the Hebrews and the Phoenicians were of a cordial character. Now therefore command Clic to enlarge TYRIAN GALLEY PUTTING OUT TO SEA Marble slab from Kouyunji (Nineveh): now in the British Museum. [p. whom I will set upon thy throne in thy room. 388] the Hebrews were strengthened by an alliance with Egypt. and select ed Jerusalem as his capital. which an Egyptian army had captured." [*2] Saul was the leader of a revolt against the Philistines in northern Palestine. behold. as the Lord spa e unto David my father. until the Lord put them under the soles of his feet . For a period of two and a half centuries no Egyptian army had crossed the Delta frontier into Syria. having liberated Judah from the yo e of the Philistines. Phoenicia was also flourishing. where they fused with the Semites and ultimately suffered loss of identity. but was unsuccessf ul in his attempt to subjugate Ammon. He also conquered Edom and Moab. During the reigns of David and Solomon. so that there is nei ther adversary nor evil occurrent. Abibaal and his son Hiram. Hittite. And Solomon sent to Hiram. a nd became the ruler of the ingdom of Israel. covenant. and piratical and robber bands settled freely on its coast line. [*2] Solomon h ad previously married a daughter of Sheshon 's. [*1] and from whom he received the city of Gezer. Thou nowest how that David my father could not build an house unto the name of the Lord his God for the wars which w ere about him on every side. And Hiram ing of Tyre sent his servants unto Solomon. At length a Libyan general named Sheshon (Shisha ) seized the throne from the Tanite Dyna sty. Then David. indeed the two powers became allies. Th y son. saying. But now the Lord my God hath given me rest on every side. and Assyrian inter ference. 389] thou that they hew me cedar trees out of Lebanon.

"came the navy of Tharshish. It is possible that this obscure ingdom embraced diverse ethnic elements. in giving food for my household. I have considered the things which thou sente st to me for: and I will do all thy desire concerning timber of cedar. and A rabians. "a man of Tyre". bringin g gold. which signifies Sealand) embraces a wide stretch of the coast land at the head of the Persian Gulf between Arabia and Elam. The ancient Sumerian city of Ur. who. Their in gdom of Chaldaea (Kaldu. saying. So Hiram gav e Solomon cedar trees and fir trees according to all his desire. After the downfall of the Kassites it had become thoroughly Semitized. and thou shalt receive them: an d thou shalt accomplish my desire. [*1] Hiram also sent s illed wor ers to Jerusalem to assist in the wor of building t he temple and Solomon's palace. which assumed considerabl e political importance after the collapse of Assyria's Old Empire. too. Large numbers of them acquired permanent settlement in that countr y. it continued to exist all through the Kassite period. [*2] Solomon must have cultivated good relations with the Chaldaeans. And Hiram sent to Solomon. My servants shall bring them down from Lebanon unto the sea : and I will convey them by sea in floats unto the place that thou shalt appoint me. as he promised him: and there was peace between Hiram and Solomon. 391] of the Persian Gulf. and said. thus acquiring full control of the trade r outes towards the west. an important trading centre. during the Brahmanical period. and apes. At this period. had "un derstanding and cunning to wor all wor s in brass". was included in the Seala nd ingdom. and entere d into the possession of Mesopotamia. and that it was cont rolled in turn by military aristocracies of Sumerians. perhaps as a result of the Aramaean migration. for he had a fl eet of trading ships on the Persian Gulf which was manned by Phoenician sailors. As we have seen. the Chaldaeans came into prominence in Babylonia. and they two made a league together. and were beginning to g row powerful at Damascus. 390] the Sans rit name "Samudra"." [*3] Apparently he traded wi th India. and peacoc s. was applied to the Indian Ocean. li e the Amorites of the Second Semitic migration in the pre-Hammurabi Age. An d the Lord gave Solomon wisdom. Kassites. Blessed be the Lord this day. and conce rning timber of fir. including his famous namesa e. [*1] The Aramaeans of the Third Semitic migration were not slow to ta e advantage of the wea ness of Assyria and Babylon. In Syria the Aramaeans established several petty States. which formerly signified the "collected waters" of the broadening Indus. ivory. li e his father. A lthough more than one ing of Babylon recorded that he had extinguished the Seal and Power. the land of peacoc s. Elamites. They overran the whole of Syria. From time to time they ravaged Babylonia from the north to the south. and silver. when [p. "a widow's son of the (Hebrew) tribe of Naphtali".atly. an important dynasty flourished in this region in the time of Hammurabi. and will cause them to be discharged there. which dominated a consider able area of steppe land to the west of the Euphrates. which hath given unto David a wise son over this great people. which may have found one of its o utlets around the head [p. and twenty measures of pure oil: thus gave Solomon to Hiram year by year. the narrative runs. and was consequently referred to in after-time as "Ur of the Chaldee                                   . "Once in three years". And Solomon gave Hiram twenty thousand measures of wheat for food to his househo ld.

but they ultimately overcame every obstacl e by sheer persistency and overpowering volume. 392] independence. that the migrations [p. The future. Babylonia was bro en up into a numbe r of petty States. and supplanted the Sumerians as the scholars and teachers of W estern Asia. Highly civilized men sowed the harvest and the barbarians reaped it. These migrations. and were renowned as astrologers. Waste land was reclaimed then as now by colonists from centres of civilizatio n. as "the wise men from the east". When Assyria began to assert itself again. lay with the Chaldaea ns. The prestige of the Hebrew ingdom suffered sharp and serious decline after Solo mon's death. invaded Pa lestine and Syria and re-established Egypt's suzerainty over part of the area wh ich had been swayed by Rameses II. and Chaldaeans held sway in various parts of the valley. however. replenishing his exhausted treasury with rich booty and the tribute he imposed. Phoenicia was able. became the liberators of the ancient inhabitants. It must not be concluded. as has been indicated. They introduced. Military aristocracies of Ar amaeans. When Solomon reigned over Judah and Israel. Sidon had sha en of f the yo e of Tyre and become an independent State. the migrating pastoral fol s lac ed the initiative and experience necessary t o establish new communities in undeveloped districts. The fruits of civilization tempted them. The Chaldaeans became famous in Syria. too.s". but all these con verged towards the districts which offered the most attractions to man ind. and struggled for supremacy. and even in Greece. Wh en Assyria was finally extinguished as a world power they revived the ancient gl ory of Babylonia. to maintain its [p. In time the barbarians became civilized and fused with the peoples w hom they conquered. 393] were historical disasters. They were p ropelled by climatic changes which caused a shortage of the food supply. The feudal revival of Nebuchadrez zar I had wea ened the central power. li e the Kassites. Pharaoh Sheshon fostered the elements of revolt which ultimately s eparated Israel from Judah. The direction of the ir flow might be diverted for a time. the reward of conquest was quic ly obtained in Babylon and Egypt with their flourishing farms and prosperous citie s. These human tides were irresistible. it laid claim on Babylonia. Pros perous and well-governed States were ever in peril of invasion by barbarous peop les. Great emperors in Assyria and Eg ypt endeavoured to protect their countries from the "Bedouin peril" by strengthe ning their frontiers and extending their spheres of influence. It will be seen from the events outlined in this chapter how greatly the history of the ancient world was affected by the periodic migrations of pastoral fol s from the steppe lands. but before the Assyrians moved westward again. who. however. Elamites. with the result that the nominal high ing s were less able to resist the inroads of invaders. and the Chaldaeans for a time made commo n cause with the Elamites against it. were due to natural causes. Once a migration beg an to flow. into communities which had grown stagn                           . and. however. when a favourable opportunity arose. it set in motion many currents and cross currents. or that they retarded the general advancement of the human race. as in early Sumerian times. ostensibl y as the protector of its independence. but the dammed-up floods of humanity only gathered strength in the interval for the struggle whic h might be postponed but could not be averted. and by the rapid increase of population under peaceful conditions.

The conq uerors from the steppes meanwhile contributed their genius for organization. Into the early States which fostered t he elements of ancient My enaean civilization. p. com [p. a fresh and invigorating atmosphere that acted as a stimulant in every sphere of human activity. and intellectual life of Greece. 7. p. ^377:2 The Wanderings of Peoples. viii. Footnotes ^377:1 Article "Celts" in Encyclopaedia Britannica. 22-3. the Forerunner of Greece.. 83-4. His concern was chiefly with the f uture. He shoo off the manacles of th e past which bound the Sumerian and the A adian ali e to traditional lines of p olicy based on unforgotten ancient rivalries. ^378:2 Pr. ^384:1 Pinches' translation. ^389:3 Ibid. [1915]. ^379:1 "Have I not brought up Israel out of the land of Egypt and the Philistine s from Caphtor (Crete)?" Amos. p. for instance. 1-12. was a unifying and t herefore a strengthening influence in Babylonia. at sacred-texts. ix. The nomads with their experience of desert wandering promoted trade. i. ^378:1 Crete. ^388:1 1 Kings.. vii.41. Myths of Babylonia and Assyria. and the revival of trade inaugurated new eras of prosperity in ancient centres of cu lture. iii. ^388:2 Ibid. xiii. physical. p. x. ^390:1 Indian Myth and Legend. ^387:1 Samuel. ^389:2 Ibid. 14 et seq. they left a dee p impress on the moral. 394] [ch-17] CHAPTER XVII                . 58. MacKenzie. and brought them into closer touch than ever before with one another. The Kassite. The rise of Greece was due to the blending of the Achaeans and other pastoral fight ing fol s with the indigenous Pelasgians. the ir simple and frugal habits of life. 16. ^389:1 1 Kings. by Donald A. ^387:2 A History of Civilisation in Palestine. ^380:1 A History of Civilization in Palestine. pp. Moosh' ee. 54. 19. 146. eleventh ed.. poured the cultural influences of the East through Asia Minor and Phoenicia and from the Egyptian coast. and their sterling virtues.ant and wea ly. v.

A number of Aramaean ingdoms had come into existence in Mesopotamia and through out Syria. The story proceeds: "If anyone should find the ey and open the door. so as to ensure the protection of the mingled peoples from the operations of the aggressive and ambitious war-lords of Assyria. The ingdom of Tabal flour ished in Cilicia (Khila u). as well. and blow but a single blast on the horn. and th e Nairi tribes had spread round the south-eastern shores of La e Van. loc ing the door behind him. it included several city States li e Tarsus. and blows two blasts on the horn which hangs suspended from the roof. The most influential of these was the State of Damascus. Teshu p of Armenia. Finn and all the Feans would come forth. Tar u of the western Hittites. The Syro-Cappadocian Hittites had grown once again powerful and prosperous. in which the great heroes of other days lie wrapped in magic slumber. but no great leader li e Subbi-luliuma arose to weld the various States into an Empi re. Ashur-dan. The tribes round the shores of La e Van had asserted themselves and extended their sphere of influence. Then the shepherd hears a warning voice which comes and goes li e the wind. and Comana (Kammanu). Farther west was the dominion of the Thraco-Phrygian Mus i. the ing of which was the overlord of the Hebrew [p. Groups of the Aramaeans had acquired a high degree of culture and become traders and artisans. Shalmaneser. saying: "If the horn is blown once again. the shepherd retreats hurriedly. And that would be a great day in Alban. Large numbers had filtered. " [*1] [p. 395] After the lapse of an obscure century the national heroes of Assyria were awa en ed as if from sleep by the repeated blasts from the horn of the triumphant thund er god amidst the northern and western mountains--Adad or Rimmon of Syria. the world will be upset altogether". 396] ingdoms of Israel and Judah when Ashur-natsir-pal III ascended the Assyrian thr one about 885 B. Terrified by the Voice and the ferocious appearance of the heroes. Adad-nirari. Shamash -Adad. The northe rn frontier of Assyria was continually menaced by groups of independent hill Sta tes which would have been irresistible had they operated together against a comm on enemy. not only                                          . One ingdom had its capital at Hamath and another at Carchemish on the Euphrates. The State of Urartu was of growing importance.The Hebrews in Assyrian History Revival of Assyrian Power--The Syro-Cappadocian Hittites--The Aramaean State of Damascus--Reign of Terror in Mesopotamia--Barbarities of Ashur-natsir-pal III--B abylonia and Chaldaea subdued--Glimpse of the Kal hi Valley--The Hebrew Kingdoms of Judah and Israel--Rival Monarchs and their Wars--How Judah became subject to Damascus--Ahab and the Phoenician Jezebel--Persecution of Elijah and other Prop hets--Israelites fight against Assyrians--Shalmaneser as Overlord of Babylonia-Revolts of Jehu in Israel and Hazael in Damascus--Shalmaneser defeats Hazael--Je hu sends Tribute to Shalmaneser--Baal Worship Supplanted by Golden Calf Worship in Israel--Queen Athaliah of Judah--Crowning of the Boy King Joash--Damascus sup reme in Syria and Palestine--Civil War in Assyria--Triumphs of Shamshi-Adad VII-Babylonia becomes an Assyrian Province. Tiana.C. They revived and increased the ancient glory of Assyria during its Middle Empire period. The great ings who came forth to " upset the world" bore the familiar names. IN one of the Scottish versions of the Seven Sleepers legend a shepherd enters a cave. and Ashur-nirari. The sleepers open their eyes and raise themselves on their elbows. but were liable to be extinguished when attac ed in detail. he casts the ey into the sea. Ashur-natsir-pal.

Another revolt bro e out in the Kir hi district between the upper reaches of the                                                         . Indeed. Adad-nir ari III (911-890 B.) and Tu ulti-Ninip II (890-885 B. the ings of petty States made submission to him wit hout resistance as soon as he invaded their domains. The former had raide d North Syria and apparently penetrated as far as the Mediterranean coast. the rebel son of the governor of Nishtun. not only fighting-men but women and children were either Clic to enlarge STATUE OF ASHUR-NATSIR-PAL. but he ultimately formed an alli ance with that ingdom.C. he appears to have transferred his Court to Nineveh. inaugurated a veritable reign of terror in Mesopotamia and northern Syria. on more than one occasion. to form a powerful confederacy against the Assyrians . and were no t easily overpowered by the Assyrian forces of footmen and charioteers. These he disp osed of with characteristic barbarity. he carried out great wor s at Asshur . Palace of Nimroud: now in British Museum. being composed mostly of mounted infantry. He entered the city. WITH INSCRIPTIONS From S. seized the pretender and many of his followers. Although. and when they had been flay ed their s ins were nailed upon the city walls. His son. was transported to Arbela. and apparently captured Sippar.into Babylonia but also Assyria and the north Syrian area of Hittite control. In his first year he overran the mountainous district between La e Van and the u pper sources of the Tigris. A hiababa the pretender was sent to Nineveh with a few supporters. Ashur-natsir-pal III. they were fearless warriors. Chiefs were s inned alive. a part of its population welcomed him. enclosed by its tributaries the Khabar and the Bali h. Photo. li e his father. Li e his father. operated in southern Mesopotamia . Ashur-natsir-pal III [*1] was preceded by two vigorous Assyrian rulers. and when he s ac ed their cities. Then he turned southward from the borders of Asia Minor and dealt with a rebellion in northern Mesopotamia. it would appear.). His methods of dealing with revolting tribes were of a most savage character. Ac customed for generations to desert warfare. whose power was decl ining. 397] slaughtered or burned at the sta e. Tu ulti-Ninip.W. Some were s inned alive and some impaled on sta es. Ashur-natsir-pal fought against the Mus i. He had come from the neighbouring Aramaean State of Bit-Adini. An Aramaean pretender named A hiababa had established himself at Suru in the reg ion to the east of the Euphrates. Bubu. and was preparing. Mansell [p. it was not until cavalry was included in the standing army of Assyria that opera tions against the Aramaeans were attended with permanent success.C. In co nsequence he came into conflict with Babylonia. while others were enclosed in a pillar which the ing had erected to remind the Aramaeans of his determination to broo no opposition. Their a rmies had great mobility. When Ashur-natsir-pal approached Suru. where he was s inned alive. It is not surprising to find therefore that. who had been ta en prisoner. a sure indication that As syria was once again becoming powerful in northern Mesopotamia and the regions t owards Armenia. In the north he had to drive bac invading ban ds of the Mus i. son of Tu ulti-Ninip II.

who was evidently anxious to regain control of the western trade route. dug it up. 399] on Suru. With battle and slaughter I assaulted and too the city. three walls surrounded it. in rebuilding the city o f Kal hi. many captives I burned with fire. copper and lead. yielding without a st ruggle. and had to agree to pay increased tribute. Assyri an colonies were established in various districts for strategical purposes. Having accumulated great booty. brother of Nabu-aplu-iddin. stirred up revolts in Mesopotamia as th e allies of the Babylonians. however. Many of their soldiers I too a live. The inhabitants trusted to their strong walls and numerous soldiers. For several years the great conqueror engaged himself in thus subduing rebelliou s tribes and extending his territory. the unfaithful governor being flayed. he engaged himse lf. of others the noses. and even supported by some Assyrian officials. I annihilated it.Tigris and the south-western shores of La e Van. Their booty and possessions. and devoted much a ttention to the temples. The city of Da mdamusa was set on fire. no fewer than 3000 p risoners were burned alive. of many soldiers I put out the eyes. Although he had laid a heavy hand [p. in fi re burned it. but his wars occupied less than half of that period. sheep. 398] [paragraph continues] When the city of Kinabu was captured. Terrible reprisals were me ted out to the rebels. where he erected a great palace and made records of his achievements. It was promoted by the Nairi t ribes. to which city the Court had been transferred. He also extended and redecorated the royal palace at Nineveh. He was so greatly feared by the Syro-Cappadocian Hittites that when he approached their territory they sent him tribute. sheep and cattle and horses. The Aramaeans of Mesopotamia gave much trouble to Ashur-natsir-pal. they did not come down or e mbrace my feet. Ashur-natsir-pal reigned for about a quarter of a century. Then Tela was attac ed. Three t housand warriors I slew in battle. The Babylonians were commanded by Zabdanu. the great majority of whom he incorporated in the Assyrian army. and arms. I carried away. and attac ed a combined force of Su hi Aramaeans and Babyloni ans. The Assyrian war-lord. I reared a column of the living and a column of heads. proved to be too powerful a rival. as soon as peace was secured throughout his empire. The mountain and valley tribes in the north furnished in abundance wine and corn. the Su hi. I devastated the city. [*1] The Assyrian war-lord afterwards forced several Nairi ings to ac nowledge him a s their overlord. cattle. Thither he drafted thousands of pr isoners. On one occasion Ashur-natsir-pal swept southward th rough this region. His military headquarters were at Kal hi. jewels and ivory. The people of Kashshi (Babylonia) and Kaldu (Chaldaea) were "stri c en with terror". and fr om the Aramaeans of Mesopotamia and the Syro-Cappadocian Hittites came much silv er and gold. Tribute poured in from the subject States. ing of Babylonia. as well as richly decorated furn                             . Ashur-natsir-pal's own account of the operations runs as follows:-The city (of Tello) was very strong. I hung on high their heads on trees in the vicinity of their city. and officials supplanted the petty ings in certain of the northern city States. [p. ears. the southern tribes. of some I cut off hands and limbs. The ir boys and girls I burned up in flames. He ach ieved so complete a victory that he captured the Babylonian general and 3000 of his followers.

. dignifi ed and massive.                                      . after the labour of the day. as they returned from hunting. or blue. or crouched down to mil those which had returned alone to their well-remembered folds. Som e were coming from the river bearing the replenished pitcher on their heads or s houlders. 400] renowned". There are traces of Phoenician influence in the art of this period . others. yellow. among other trea sures of antiquity. was a solitary hill overloo ing the ancient city of Arbela.iture. and erect in their [p. with the horses of the cav alry and of the inhabitants of Mosul. the products of many count ries. . Keshaf. whose military activities extended over his whole reign. had a materialistic basis. are [p. I often sat at the door of my tent. whose snowy summits cherished the dying sunbeams. which. The dogs. No fewer than t hirty-two expeditions were recorded on his famous blac obelis . Assyrian art found expressio n in delineating the outward form rather than in striving to create a "thing of beauty" which is "a joy for ever".C. Girls hurried over the greensward to see their fathers' cattle. Artists and artisans were also provided by the vassal s of Assyria. They reflect the spirit of Assyria's gr eatness. nown as the 'Jaif'. "for their rich and luxuriant herbage. As the sun went down behind the low hills which separate the river from the desert--even their roc y sides had struggled to emulate the verdant clothin g of the plain--its receding rays were gradually withdrawn. but in such thic and gathering clusters that the whole plain seemed a patchwor of many colours. armour and weapons. Still more distant. . and still more ind istinct. who has given a vivid description of the verdant plain on which the ancient city was situated . another venerable ruin. Over the pure cloudless s y was the glow of the last light. . and strong and lifeli e. issued fro m the long grass dyed red. . according to the flowers through whi ch they had last forced their way. while thousands of prisoners were assembled there to rear stately building s which ultimately fell into decay and were buried by drifting sands. li e a transparent v eil of light from the landscape. ivory and jewels. giving myself up to the full enjoyment of that calm and repose which are imparted to the senses by such scenes as thes e. the delicacy an d imagination of Sumerian and A adian art." [*1] Across the meadows so beautiful in March the great armies of Ashur-natsir-pal re turned with the booty of great campaigns--horses and cattle and sheep. In times of quiet. The Kurdish mountains. . becam e louder as the floc s returned from their pastures and wandered amongst the ten ts. In the distance and beyond the Zab.). Layard excavated the emperor's palace and dispatched to London. not thinly scattered over the grass as in northe rn climes. t he studs of the Pasha and of the Tur ish authorities. In the evening. The Assyrian sculptures of this period lac the technical s ill. no less graceful in their form. and many bas reliefs. . the sublime winged human-headed lions which guarded the entr ance. rose indistinctly into the evening mist. When Ashur-natsir-pal died. but they are full of energy. as it appeared in spring. bales of embroidered cloth. were carrying the heavy loads of long grass which they had cut in the meadows. The bleating of sheep and lowing of cattle. "Its pasture lands. however. . 401] carriage. he was succeeded by his son Shalmaneser III (860-825 B. Flowers of e very hue enamelled the meadows. at first faint. Ashur-natsir-pal's great palace at Kal hi was excavated by Layard. yet struggled with the twilight. are sent here to graze. he wrote. silver and gold. .

and in his sin wherewith he made Israel to sin". provo ing the Lord to anger." [*2] Jeroboam died in the second year of Asa's reign. "Abijah slept with his fathers. however. and shall scatter them beyond the river. Also he too away out of all the cities of Judah the high places and the images: and the ingdom was quiet before him. because they have made their grove s. Benjamin. Bethel with t he towns thereof. and was succeeded by his son Na dab. because the Lord had given him rest. d efeating that monarch in battle after he was surrounded as Rameses II had been b y the Hittite army. For he too away the altars of the strange gods. and the high p laces. as recorded in the Bible. And he built fenced cities in Judah: for the land had rest. whose capital was at Tirzah. [*4] After the raid of the Egyptian Pharaoh Shisha (Sheshon ) Rehoboam repented. who "did evil in the sight of the Lord. however. 402] was restricted to Judah. 403] chosen men. as a reed is sha en in the water ." [*5] Rehoboam was succeeded by his son Abijah. who shattered the power of Jeroboam. and wal ed in the way of his father . And Abijah pursued after Jeroboam. [*1] "T here were wars between Rehoboam and Jeroboam continually. who did sin. and the children of Judah prevailed." [*1] Ere Jeroboam died. and Jeshanah with the towns thereof. and he shall root up Israel out of this good land. He was condemned for his idolatry by the prophet Ahij ah. And Abijah and his people slew them with a great slaughte r: so there fell down slain in Israel five hundred thousand [p. an d the Lord struc him and he died. The "ten tribes" of Israel ha d revolted and were ruled over by Jeroboam. After Solomon died. "The children of Israel fled before Judah: and God delivered them into their hand. the wrath of the Lor d turned from him. And Asa did that which was good and right in the eyes of t he Lord his God. and they buried him in the city of David: and Asa his son reigned in his stead. on every high hill. and he had no war in those years. because of the light it throws on international politics and the situation which confronted Shalmaneser in Meso potamia and Syria in the early part of his reign. and Ephraim with the town s thereof. Moab. and too cities from him. and Edom. it will be of interest here to review the history of the divided ingdom s of Israel and Judah.As Shalmaneser was the first Assyrian ing who came into direct touch with the H ebrews. and who made Israel to sin. that he would not destroy him altogether: and also in Judah t hings went well. and bra e down the images. "And when he humbled himself. which he gave to their fath ers." [*3] In Judah Rehoboam similarly "did evil in the sight of the Lord". And he shall give Israel up because of the sins of Jeroboam. because they relied upon the Lord God of their fat hers. his subjects "a lso built them high places and images and groves. Jeroboam established the religion of the Canaanites and made "gods and molten images". and cut down the groves. In his days the land was quiet ten years. Thus the children of Israel were brought under at that time. Neither did Jeroboam recover strength again in the days of Abijah. "The Lord shall smite Israel. and under every green tree". And commanded Judah t o see the Lord God of their fathers and to do the law and the commandment. [*3] Nadab waged war against                                 . who declared." [*2] The religious organization which had united the Hebrews under David and Solomon was thus bro en up. the ingdom of his son Rehoboam [p.

the Philistines. and they besieged Tirzah. 405] [paragraph continues] Israel died in 886 B. captain of half his chariots". which. Thus ended the First Dynasty of the Kingdom of Israel. and was succeeded by his son Elah. Baasha was declared ing. that dwelt at Damascus. that he may depart from me". that he went into the palace of the ing's house. a few miles to the [p. which belonged to the Philistines. wherewith Baasha had builde d. the son of Hezion. and proceeded to operate against Judah. while he was "drin ing himself drun in the house of Arza steward of his house in Tirzah". and had to recognize the of that city as arbiter in all their disputes. The army was "encamped against Gibbethon. Baasha of [p. and Baas ha was compelled to abandon the building of the fortifications at Ramah. There is a league betwee n me and thee. son of Gina th: so Tibni died. and burnt the ing's house over him with fire. the son of Tabrimon. 404] Now Israel was at this time one of the allies of the powerful Aramaean State of Damascus. and the timber thereof. which had resisted the advance of the Assyrian armies during the reign of Ashur-natsir-pal I. and between my father and thy father: behold. He had ruled a li ttle over a year when he was murdered by "his servant Zimri. ing     north of Jerusalem.C. [*2] Ben-hadad accepted the invitation readily. saying. ing over Israel th at day in the camp. and delivered them into the hand of hi s servants: and King Asa sent them to Ben-hadad. "Then ing Asa made a proclamation throughout all Judah. Zimri hath conspired and hath also slain the i ng. Zimri's revolt was shortlived. "But the people that followed Omri prevailed against the people that followed Tibni. Judah was nominally subject to Egypt." [*3]       Judah and Israel thus became subject to Damascus. however. the captain of the host. And the peop le that were encamped heard say. wherefore all Israel made Omri. he proceeded to fortify Ramah. none was exempted: and they to o away the stones of Ramah. and therefore unable either to assert its authority in Judah or help its ing to resist the advance of the Israelites. I have sent unto th ee a present of silver and gold: come and brea thy league with Baasha ing of I srael. And Omri went up from Gibbethon and all Israel with him. and ing Asa built with them Geba of Benjamin." [*3] After reigning about twenty-four years. who came to the throne "in the twenty and sixth year of Asa". was we a ened by internal troubles. and Omri reigned. Having success fully waged war against Asa. He reigned only "seven days in Tirzah". ing of Syria. and Mizpah. He waged war against Israel." [*2] Omri's claim to the throne was disputed by a rival named Tibni. "Asa too all the silver and the gold that were left in the treasures of the house of the Lor d. and died. In the hour of peril Judah sought the aid of the ing of Damascus. and the treasures of the ing's house. "that he might not suffer any to go out or come in to Asa ng of Judah". [*1]                         i           . And it came to pass when Zimri saw that the city was ta e n. and apparently supported the rebellions of the northern Mesopotamian ings. and was besieging Gibbethon when Baasha revolted and slew him. [*1] Thus ended the Second Dynasty of the Kingdom of Isra el.

He also became a worshipper of the Phoenician god Baal. that I should [p.C. He then found it necessary to ma e "a covenant " with Ahab. and slew the Syrians with a great slaug hter. to whom a temple had be en erected in Samaria. And the ing of Israel went out. b ut the outspo en prophet Elijah. doing that which was right in the eyes of the L ord: nevertheless the high places were not ta en away. whither his Court was transferred from Tirzah t owards the close of his six years reign. They added: "Let us fight against them in the plai n. but was again defeated. .000 allies a ttempted to thwart his progress at Qarqar on the Orontes. "For the statutes of Omri are ept. and Ahab did more to provo e the Lord God of Israel to anger than all the ings of Israel that were before him. The l atter had a force of 10. Two years previously he had bro en the power of A huni." Ben-hadad was made to believe afterwards by his counsellors that he owed his defeat to the fact that the gods of Israel were "gods of the hills. "And Israel pursued them: and Ben-hadad the ing of Syria escaped on a horse with the horseman." So notorious indeed were father and son that the prophet Micah declared to the bac sliders of his day.Omri was the builder of Samaria.000 men under his command. was the governor of Ahab's house. Shalmaneser III of Assyria was engaged in military operations agains t the Aramaean Syrians. and marched against Samaria. who "feared the Lord greatly". "And he wal ed in all the ways of Asa his fath er. In the following year Ben-hadad f ought against the Israelites [p. And Ahab ." [*2] Obadiah. the daughter of the ing of that city State. and an army of 70. and all the wor s of th e house of Ahab. Among the Syrian allies were Bir-idri (Ben-hadad II) of Damascus. he turned not aside from it. The va rious rival ingdoms of Syria united against him." [*2] There is no record of any wars between Israel and Judah during this period. the leader of a strong confederacy of petty States. The Israelites issued forth from Samari a and scattered the attac ing force. whose arch enemy was the notorious Queen Jezebe l. and surely we shall be stronger than they". it was of no great advantage to him. and smote the horses and chariots. therefor e they are stronger than we". 407] at Aphe . but                                                       . and the inhabitants thereof an hissing: therefore ye sha ll bear the reproach of my people". . was an outcast li e the hundred prophets concealed by Obadiah in two mountain caves. ing of Bit-Adini in northern Mesopotamia. did evil in the sight of the Lord above all that were before him. for he marr ied the notorious princess Jezebel. for the people offered an d burnt incense yet in the high places. and ye wal in their counsel. [*1] Ahab was evidently an ally of Sidon as well as a vassal of Damascus. He was followed by his son Ahab. Although Shalmaneser c laimed a victory on this occasion. . 406] ma e thee a desolation. Asa died at Jerusalem and his son Jehoshap hat was proclaimed ing of Judah. [*3] Ahab became so powerful a ing that Ben-hadad II of Damascus pic ed a quarrel wi th him. Thereafter the Assyrian monarch turned towards the south-west and attac ed the Hittite State of Hamath and the Aramaean State of Damascus. [*1] In 854 B. "And Ahab made a grove. for he w as unable to follow it up. who as cended the throne "in the thirty and eighth year of Asa ing of Judah . Four years after Ahab began to reign. It was on this occasion that Ahab sent the famous message to Ben-hadad: "Let not him that girdeth on his harness (armour) b oast himself as he that putteth it off". . and Ahab of Israel ("A habbu of the land of the Sir'ilites").

Jehoshaphat "joined affinity with Ahab". however. Mardu -za ir-shum afterwards reigned over Babylonia as the vassal of Assyria. who had married Atha liah. remained unconquered." Ahaziah offered him sailors--probably Phoenicians--but they were re fused. "He made ships of Tharshish to g o to Ophir for gold. The resisting power of the Syrian allies. The former. "and about the time of the sun going down he died" .it is evident that the two ingdoms had been drawn together and that Israel was the predominating power. appealed for help to Shalmaneser. The prophet Elisha sent a messenger to Jehu. and continued to conspi re against him. was defeated and put to death. who succeeded him. including Dam ascus. Shalmane ser III of Assyria found it necessary to invade Babylonia. When Nabu-aplu-iddin died. In 851 B. In the following year Shalmaneser had to lead an expedition into northern Mesopo tamia and suppress a fresh revolt in that troubled region. Israel.. where he was hospitably entertained. made offerings to the gods at Babylon. [*2] Apparently Jehoshaphat had close trading relations with the Chaldaea ns. and ta e it "ou t of the hand of the ing of Syria". The Chaldaeans were afterwards subdued. [*3] The two m onarchs plotted together. who was at Ramoth-gilead. and was thus able to operate in the north-west without fear of complications with th e rival claimant of Mesopotamia. and in 846 B. al though he put his enemies to flight. to assist him in capturing Ramoth-gilead from the ing of Damascus. 408] to throw off the yo e of Damascus. joined forces with his cousin and overlord. After a reign of two years Ahaziah was succeeded by Joram. was dead. Edom t hrew off the yo e of Judah and became independent.C . his over-lord. who were encroaching on the territory of the ing of Babylon. 409] monarch at once hastened to assert his authority in the southern ingdom. Apparently Israel and Judah desired [p. and returned to Jezreel to be healed. a nd Cuthah. [*1] He was the last ing of the Omri Dynasty of Israel. He devoted himself t o the development of his ingdom. he found it necessary to return with a great army. and compelled to pay annual t ribute. a military leader. his two sons Mardu za ir-shum and Mardu -bel-usate were rivals for the throne. which was being ept constantly on the defenc e by Assyria. the righ tful heir. which Israel claimed. but was wounded. and that [p. His son Ahaziah. and some years afterwards visited Samaria. but they went not. which may have been stirred up by Assyrian emissaries. Jehoram. He was succeeded by his son Ahaziah. a royal princess of Israel. After repulsing the Syrian allies at Qarqar on the Orontes in 854 B. but was not successful in achieving any permanent success.C. King Joram of Israel. [*1] In the battle which ensued (in 853 B. and menacing t he power of that monarch. for the ships were bro en (wrec ed) at E zion-geber. was being greatly wea ened by internal revolts. But the western allie s soon gathered strength again. who was supported by an Aramaean army. It is recorded in the Bible that they joined forces and set out on an expedition to attac Ramoth in Gilead. and Tyre and Sidon. and attempted to revive the sea trade on the P ersian gulf which had flourished under Solomon. Joram too possession of t he city. who ac nowledged the suzerainty of Damasc us.) Ahab was mortally wounded. Borsippa. with a box of oil and the omi                                                   . an d Shalmaneser. Jehoram succeeded Jehoshaphat and reigned eight years.C.C. Soon after he came to the throne he had formed an alliance with Nabu-aplu-iddin of that ingdom. The various western ingdoms. Jehoshaphat did not again come into conflict with Damascus. Mardu -bel-usate.

(2) Tributary Animals. where he was welcomed. accompanied by an escort. In 843 B. Then Jehu drew his bow and shot Joram through the heart. [*1] The Syrian ing against whom Joram fought at Ramoth-gilead was Hazael. portion of Jezreel. her body was devoured by dogs. Ahaziah endeavoured to conceal himself in Samaria. The prophet Elisha had previously wept before him. King of Israel. and carried away great booty.nous message. "I fought wi th him". and wilt dash their children and rip up their women with child". Hazael went out to oppose the advancing Assyrians . and the blood of all the servants . He had mu rdered Ben-hadad II as he lay on a bed of sic ness by smothering him with a thic cloth soa ed in water. "He came even unto them. "Is it peace?" Neither messenger returned. so that he might be the first to announce the revol t to the ing whom he was to depose. the local Thor. "Thus saith the Lord. Shalmaneser III crossed the Euphrates into Syria for the sixteenth time.C. saying. and the watchman informed the wounded monarch of Israel. Shalman       [paragraph continues] I have anointed thee e the house of Ahab thy master. for he driveth furiously". "In those days". Shalmaneser recorded. and their young men wilt thou slay with the sword. their strongholds wilt thou set on fire. that I may rophets. [p. but turned to flee wh en he discovered that he came as an enemy. and came into conflict with them in the vicinity of Mount Hermon. 411] unto the children of Israel. He fled to sa ve his life. And thou shalt smit avenge the blood of my servants the p of the Lord. but was s lain also. 410] Jehu "conspired against Joram". and th en suddenly marched southward. [*1] The time seemed ripe for Assyrian conquest. King Joram went out himself to meet the famous charioteer. who twice sent out a messenger to enquire. And the dogs shall eat Jezebel in the e none to bury her. The watchman on the tower of Jezreel saw Jehu and his company approaching and in formed Joram. "and accomplished his defeat. b ut failed. and cometh not again. and then." Hazael too refuge within the walls of Damascus. "rode in a c hariot and went to Jezreel". Shalmaneser's soldiers meanwhile wasted and burn ed cities without number. He made offerings there to Hadad." ing over Israel. which the Assyrians besieged. and the driving is li e the driving of Jehu the son of Nimshi. at the hand of Jezebel . . (3) Tribute bearers with shawls and bags (British Museum) [p. cc I now the evil that thou wilt do Clic to enlarge DETAILS FROM SECOND SIDE OF BLACK OBELISK OF SHALMANESER III (1) Tribute bearers of Jehu. His first objective was Aleppo. however. Then he had himself proclaimed the ruler of the Aramaea n State of Damascus. I slew with the swo rd 1600 of his warriors and captured 1121 chariots and 470 horses. Jezebel was thrown down from a window of the royal harem and trodden under foot by the horsemen of Jehu. and there shall b               . to capture.

"Now when Athaliah heard the noise of the people running and praising the ing. he brought out from the temple the seven years old prince Joash." [*1] Israel thus came completely under the sway of Damascus. God save the ing. which is by the river Arnon. "I received tribute from the Tyrians and Sidonians and from Yaua (Jehu) son (successor) of Khumri (Omri). For several years he engaged himself in securing contr ol of the north-western caravan road. even Gilead and Basha n. He persecuted the prophets of Baal. [*1] She endeavoured to destroy "all the seed royal of the house of Judah". And Jehoiada and his sons anointed him. This was Jehoshabeath. all the land of Gilead. [*2] The scholarly translator adds. 412] so that the Hebrews must have called him Yahua (Jehua)". His revolt received the support of the orthodox Hebrews. for although he stamped out the Phoenician religion he began to worship "the golden calves that were in Bethel and that were in Dan. He found it more profitable. and he began w ell by inaugurating reforms in the northern ingdom with purpose apparently to r e-establish the worship of David's God. son of Khumri: silver. which made Israel to sin. . and sounded with trumpets                             . and gave him the testimony. but soon became a bac slider. indeed. "the ing's son. . Jehu appears to have cherished the ambition of uniting Israel and Judah under on e crown. and said. a staff for the hand of the ing (and) scept res. [p. golden buc ets. shows that the unpronounced aleph at the end was at that time sounded .eser recorded. Hazael of Damascus avenged himself meanwhile on his unfaithful allies who had so readily ac nowledged the shadowy suzerainty of Assyria. and the Reubenites. Having secured the support of the captains of the royal guard and a portion of the army. Yaua. I received. sister of Ahaziah and wife of the priest Jehoiada. He departed not from the sins of Jeroboam. "It is noteworthy that the Assyrian form of the n ame. f rom Jordan eastward. [*2] In time Jehoiada stirred up a revolt against the Baal-worshipping queen of Judah . and put upon him the crown. she came to the people into the house of the Lord: and she loo ed. the Gadites. . to extend his ter ritories into Asia Minor. and. "In those days the Lord began to cut Israel short: and Hazael smote them in all the coasts of Israel. gold. But another woman thwarted the completion of her monstrous desi gn. a golden cup. Shalmaneser did not again attac Damascus. from Aroer. and the princes and the trumpets by the ing: and all the people of the land rejoiced. an d the Manassites. lead. golden vases. wh o concealed the young prince Joash "and put him and his nurse in a bed-chamber"." [*2] Apparently he found it necessary to secure the support of the idolators of the a ncient cult of the "Queen of Heaven". The crown of Judah had been seized by the Israelitish [p. His sphere of influence was therefore confined to North Syria. go lden vessels. behold t he ing stood at his pillar at the entering in. There Joash was strictly guarded for six years. and did not rest until he had subdued Cili cia and overrun the Hittite ingdoms of Tabal and Malatia. in "the house of God". 413] [paragraph continues] Queen mother Athaliah after the death of her son Ahaziah a t the hands of Jehu." The following is a translation from a bas relief by Professor Pinches of a passage detailing Jehu's tribute: The tribute of Yaua. and made hi m ing.

Edom. including Nineveh.C. After four years of civil war Shalmaneser died. Kati. the great empire was suddenly sha en to its foundations by the outbr ea of civil war. that they should be the Lord's people. also the singers with instruments of music . the Medes were conducting bold raids. so that they went out from under the hands of the Syrians. let him be slain by the sword." Then Jehoahaz repented. The ingdom of Urartu was growing more and more powerful. and said unto them. they slew her there. Shalmaneser III swayed an extensive and powerful empire. and bra e it down. because the ing of Syria oppressed them. Shamshi-Adad then turned attention to Babylonia. and he delivered them into the hand of Ben-hadad the son of Hazael all their days. and when she was come to the enteri ng of the horse gate by the ing's house. under King Joash. but Judah. "Then Jehoiada the priest brought out the captains of hundreds that were set ove r the host. And the Lord gave Israel a saviour. His chosen heir. Elamites. sent him his daughter. Arbela. the Syrians were openly defiant. 415] the support of most of the important Assyrian cities. In 829 B. as will be shown. and the Babylonians were plotting with the Chaldaeans. He fell upon the firs                                         ." [*1] When Jehu of Israel died. and bra e his altars and his images in pie ces. who evidently desired to supplant the crown prince Shamshi-Adad. On his way southward he subdued many villages. and it appears that the greater part of the army also remained loyal to him. he had to underta e the reconquest of those provinces which in the int erval had thrown off their allegiance to Assyria. Shamshi-Adad VI I. "The Lord was indled ag ainst Israel. Shalmanese r retained Kal hi and the provinces of northern Mesopotamia. the Philistines and the Ammonites were compelled to ac nowledge the suzerainty of Damascus. while thousands of prisoners were ta en and forced to serve the conqueror." [*2] The "saviour". After he subdued the H ittites. He was a popular hero and received [p. He "besought the Lord. 414] "And Jehoiada made a covenant between him. For the priest said. he was succeeded by Jehoahaz. Treason. [p. and said. When at length the new ing had stamped out the last embers of revolt within the ingdom. Treason. Having established his power in the north.. Shamshi-Adad. and between all the people. So they laid hands on her. and such as taught to sing praise . Asshur. Then all the people went to the house of Baal. Not only Israel. who was received into the r oyal harem. was Assyr ia. Then Athaliah rent her clothes. had to continue the struggle for the throne for two more years. Have her forth of the ranges: and whoso followet h her. Tribes of the Medes came under his power: the Nairi and Urartian tri bes continued battling with his soldiers on his northern borders li e the fronti er tribes of India against the British troops. and betwe en the ing. as well as some of the dependencies. and ept his generals c ontinually employed suppressing revolts on his frontiers. ing of Tabal. and slew Mattan the priest of Baal before the altars. Imgurbel. proved to be as great a g eneral as his father. and Durbalat. The party of rebellion was led by Shalmaneser's son Ashur-dani n-apli. and Ara maeans to oppose the new ruler. however. burned many cit ies and collected enormous tribute. and the Lord he ar ened unto him: for he saw the oppression of Israel. Urartu in the north had grown more aggressive. Slay her not in the h ouse of the Lord. He subdued the Medes and the Nairi tribes.

Elamites. and achieved a gre at victory. 245 et seq. 20-2. which he completely subdued. ^403:3 1 Kings. and 100 chariots [p. 1911). 15-8. vi. G. ^403:1 2 Chronicles. ^398:1 A History of the Babylonians and Assyrians. ^402:1 "Thou art beautiful.. 200 horsemen. 21-3.. pp.                              . xii." Solomon' s Song. ^396:1 Also rendered Ashur-na'sir-pal. and Aramaeans. ^405:3 Ibid. xii.t strong force of Babylonian allies at Dur-papsu al in A ad. illing 13. ^406:1 Micah.. xiii. ^405:2 Ibid. Borsippa. 1-12. 56. 1-20. 15. the influence which it exercised over the Assyrian Court was so great t hat it contributed to the downfall of the royal line of the Second Empire. Sir A. 197. and transported him to Assyria. xvi. xv. During that period. ^402:4 Ibid. Layard (London. ^406:2 1 Kings. ^403:2 Ibid. H. S. In th e end he too prisoner the new ing. ^404:1 1 Kings. vi. however. ^401:1 Discoveries at Nineveh. ^405:1 1 Kings. ^402:3 1 Kings. 29-33. pp. and Cuthah. ^402:5 2 Chronicles. ^404:2 Ibid. p. For over half a centu ry after this disaster Babylonia was a province of Assyria. ^404:3 Ibid. Ch aldaeans. as Tirzah. comely as Jerusalem. and the prisoners ta e n by the Assyrians included 5000 foot-men. xv. 4. 16. and offered up sacrifices as the over lord of the ancient land at Babylon. 416] Shamshi-Adad conducted in all five campaigns in Babylonia and Chaldaea. Bau-a h-iddina.. O my love. 21-2. xiv. Footnotes ^394:1 Finn and His Warrior Band. 16-7. 1-6. 55.000 and ta ing 3000 captives. penetrating as far as the shores of the Persian Gulf. Then the Babylonian ing. 25-6. ^402:2 2 Chronicles. The Babylonian camp was captured. advanced to meet him with his mixed force of Babylonians. 1-20. 1856). the successor of Mardu -bal atsu-i bi. 9-10. (London. but was defeated in a fierce battle on the ba n s of the Daban canal.. xiv. xvi. M ardu -balatsu-i bi. 18-9.. Goodspeed.

^413:2 2 Chronicles. ^413:1 2 Kings. ^407:3 2 Chronicles. MacKenzie. xi.. 48-9. Myths of Babylonia and Assyria. x. ^410:1 2 Kings. 32-3. 337 et seq. viii. ix and 2 Chronicles. xxii.. and Egyptians--Pigeon Lore in Great Britain and Ireland--D eities associated with various Animals--The Totemic Theory--Common Element in An cient Goddess Cults--Influence of Agricultural Beliefs--Nebo a form of Ea--His S pouse Tashmit a Love Goddess and Interceder--Traditions of Famous Mother Deities --Adad-nirari IV the "Saviour" of Israel--Expansion of the Urartian Empire--Its     . ^412:2 Ibid. 1-31. and Cyprus--Ishtar's Dove Form--St. xiii. ^411:2 The Old Testament in the Light of the Historical Records and Legends of A ssyria and Babylonia. 1-15. by Donald A. ^414:1 2 Chronicles. 43. ^408:2 1 Kings. ^407:1 1 Kings. 417] CHAPTER XVIII The Age of Semiramis Queen Sammu-rammat the original of Semiramis--"Mother-right" among "Mother Worsh ippers"--Sammu-rammat compared to Queen Tiy--Popularity of Goddess Cults--Temple Worship and Domestic Worship--Babylonian Cultural Influence in Assyria--Ethical Tendency in Shamash Worship--The Nebo Religious Revolt--Aton Revolt in Egypt--T he Royal Assyrian Library--Fish Goddess of Babylonia in Assyria--The Semiramis a nd Sha untala Stories--The Moc King and Queen--Dove Goddesses of Assyria. ^412:1 2 Kings. ^408:1 1 Kings.^406:3 Ibid. [1915]. xxiii. xxii. ^407:2 Ibid. ^409:1 1 Kings. xviii. 1-3. viii.. Hittites. ^414:2 2 Kings. pp. 1-5. xxii and 2 Chronicles. Valentine's Day beliefs--Sacred Doves of Cretans. xviii. xviii. at sacred-texts. 1-2. xxii. 1-4. com [p. 10-12. Phoen icia. xx. 1-17. ^411:1 2 Kings. xxii.

a deep impression on the popular imagination. and as these monarchs became ident ified in tradition with gods of war and fertility. to be referred to on equal terms with her royal husband in official inscrip tions. During their reign a temple was erected to the mother goddess Mut. The Tell-e l-Amarna letters testify to Tiy's influence in the Egyptian "Foreign Office". and to have departed from earth in bird form. As Sammu-rammat was evidently a royal princess of Babylonia. Li e Sargon of A ad. ing of the land of Ashur. In her character as the legendary Semiramis of Gre e literature. indeed. and Dietrich von Bern. although this is not improbable. Succession by the femal e line was also observed among the Hittites. she had attached to her memor y the myths associated with the mother goddess of love and battle who presided o ver the destinies of man ind. the worship of Mut was discontinued and Tiy went into retire ment. a nd it is suggested that it was confirmed by a matrimonial alliance. is associated with social and religious innovations. When Hattusil II gave his daughter in marriage to Puta hi. he had signed a treaty of peace with its ing. There is no evidence that Aton was first exalted as the son of th e Great Mother goddess. the Babylonian wife of an Assyrian ruler. [*1] As queen or queen-mother. ONE of the most interesting figures in Mesopotamian history came into prominence during the Assyrian Middle Empire period. that deity is reputed to be the protecto r of "the life of Adad-nirari. the dove and fish goddess of As alon. 418] daughter of Derceto. In A henaton's time the vulture symbol of the goddess Mut did not appear a bove the sculptured figures of royalty. the only Assyrian royal l ady. The principle of "mother right" wa s ever popular in those countries where the worship of the Great Mother was perp etuated if not in official at any rate in domestic religion. and the life                                    . it seems probable t hat her marriage was arranged with purpose to legitimatize the succession of the Assyrian overlords to the Babylonian throne. she made.Famous Kings--Decline and Fall of Assyria's Middle Empire Dynasty. who was transported with his palace treas ures to Assyria. Not a few Egyptian Pharaohs reigned as husbands or as sons of royal ladies. After A henaton's religious revo lt was inaugurated. and the early part of the reign of her son. the Assyrian queen was reputed to have been the [p. This treaty was repudiated by King Bau-a h-iddina. ing of the Amorites. Amenhotep III. Before the former monarch reduced Babylonia to the status of an Assyrian province. li e Tiy of Egypt. Sammu-rammat occupied as prominent a position in Assyr ia as did Queen Tiy of Egypt during the lifetime of her husband. This was the famous Sammu-rammat. and. It is not quite certain whether Sammu-rammat was the wife of Shamshi-Adad VII or of his son. an d we now that at home she was joint ruler with her husband and too part with h im in public ceremonials. In a dedication to the god Nebo. by reason of her achievements and influence. Amenhotep IV (A henaton). What connection the god Aton had with Mut during the period of the Tiy regime re mains obscure. Queen Sammu-rammat of Assyria. he inserted a clause in the treaty of alliance "to the effect that the sovereignty over the Amorite should belong to the son and descendants of his daughter for evermore". his lord. She was the first. Alexander the Great . 419] and beside it was formed a great la e on which sailed the "barque of Aton" in co nnection with mysterious religious ceremonials. [p. Adad-nirari IV.

Bel. Apparently Adad-nirari desired to be regarded as the legitimate heir to the thro nes of Assyria and Babylonia. Sacrifici al fires were lit and ca es were ba ed and offered to the "Queen of Heaven" in t he streets of Jerusalem and other cities. therefore. the royal pair probably posed as the high priest and high priestess o f the ancient goddess cult--the incarnations of the Great Mother and the son who displaced his sire. It was always possible.of Sammu-rammat. It is not possible to set forth in detail. in groves and on mountain tops. But ancient deities could still be worshipped. 420] may therefore have been his mother. that an official religion was not alw ays a full reflection of popular beliefs.apu.e. un nown. Egypt. as the case might be. among other things. In Babylonia and Assyria the peoples of the goddess cult fused with the peoples of the god c ult. Temple worship had therefore a political [p. secured a st rong following by giving official recognition to the cult of the golden calf. As Aruru she t oo part with him in the creation of man ind. but. to strengthen the position of the r uling classes. for usurpers to ma e popular appeal by reviving ancient and persistent forms of worship. it was intended. Je remiah has testified to the persistence of the fol practices in connection with the worship of the mother goddess among the inhabitants of Palestine. 421] aspect. It must be recognized. The worship of the Great Mother was the popular religion of the indigenous peopl es of western Asia. As we hav e seen. including parts of Asia Minor. In all the great civilizations of anti quity it was invariably a compromise between the beliefs of the military aristoc racy and the masses of mingled peoples over whom they held sway. Babylonian monarch than "Sulili". after stamping out Phoenician Baal worship. testifies to the persistence of immemorial habits of thought and anti que religious ceremonials among the descendants of the earliest settlers in the Tigro-Euphrates valley. The ing not only recorded his descent from the first Shalmane ser. or with intimate nowledge. Sumu-la-ilu.ap. If such was the case. and were worshippe d. in homes and fields. the great-great-g randfather of Hammurabi. du                                 . His claim upon the latter country must have had a substantial basis. the vario us innovations which Sammu-rammat introduced. It appears to have been closely associated with agricultural rites pr actised among representative communities of the Mediterranean race. or with which she was credited. and southern and weste rn Europe. Sammu-rammat [p. i. Jehu of Israel. she of the palace. who absorbed many of the old mothe r deities. but h er worship was revived after the early people along the coast and in the agricul tural valleys were freed from the yo e of the father-god worshippers. Merodach's spouse Zerpanitum was not a shadowy deity but a goddess who exercised as much influence as her divine husband. but the prominence maintained by Ishtar. the ing having become "husband of his mother". In Babylonia and Egypt domestic religi ous practices were never completely supplanted by temple ceremonies in which rul ers too a prominent part.apu was reputed to have been an over-lord of A ssyria.ap. In Asia Minor the mother goddess w as overshadowed by the father god during the period of Hatti predominance. It is not too much to assume that he was a son of a princess of its ancient royal family. his lady". but also claimed to be a descendant of Bel. She could have been called his "wife" in the mythological sense. in this connection. [*1] During the reign of Adad-nirari IV the Assyrian Court radiated Babylonian cultur e and traditions. an earlier. to us .

On one of these was cut the inscription. 423] Shamshi-Adad.C. who had boys and gir ls burned on pyres and the heroes of small nations flayed alive. which deals with the relations of the two ingdoms and refers to contemporary events and rulers. The inscriptions of Clic to enlarge STATUE OF NEBO Dedicated by Adad-nirari IV. He appears in his later character as a god of cultu re and wisdom. Mansell [p.                               . from which we have quoted. The priests of Ashur in the city of Asshur must have been as deeply stirred by t his religious revolt at Kal hi as were the priests of Amon when A henaton turned his bac on Thebes and the national god to worship Aton in his new capital at T ell-el-Amarna. Royal insc riptions record the triumphs of the army. and the Queen. inspired the ing with wisdom and ordained the [p.ring the reigns of Adad-nirari IV (810-782 B. son of Shalmaneser III. Shalmaneser established at Kal hi a royal library whic h was stoc ed with the literature of the southern ingdom. and especially Ashur-nirari IV. Sammu-rammat . which was more closely associated with religious ethics than that of war-loving Assyria. and closing with the exhortation. To the reign of Adad-nirari belongs also that important compilation the "Synchro nistic History of Assyria and Babylonia". two of which are now in the British Museum. During the reign of A dad-nirari IV this collection was greatly increased. the god of Borsippa. the patron of scribes and artists. and four statues of him were place d within it. He is invo ed on equal terms with Ashur. A great temple was erected to Nebo at Kal hi. He symbolized the intellectual life of the southern ingdom. 422] destinies of man ind. and the wise counsellor of the deities. "Whoso cometh in after time. lauding the exalted and wise deity and invo ing him to protect Adad-nirari and the lady of the palace. It would appear that this sudden stream of Babylonian culture had begun to flow into Assyria as early as the reign of Shalmaneser III. during the reign of Adad-nira ri IV is highly significant. and it may be that it was on account of that monarch's pro-Babylonian tendencies that his nobles and prie sts revolted against him. Sammu-rammat (British Museum) Photo. the last monarc h of the Middle Empire. No discovery ha s been made of documents li e the Tell-el-Amarna "letters". have literary qualities which distinguish them from those of his predecessors. let him trust i n Nebo and trust in no other god". and subsequent additions we re made to it by his successors.) and his father. An ethical tend ency becomes apparent in the exaltation of the Babylonian Shamash as an abstract deity who loved law and order. The prominence given to Nebo. which would shed lig ht on the social and political life of this interesting period. and may be accounted for by the influence e xercised by Babylonian scholars who migrated northward. But evidence is not awanting that Assyria was being suffused with Babylonian culture. but suppress the details of barbaritie s such as those which sully the annals of Ashur-natsir-pal.

he said. a developed form of a of Eridu. The story proceeds that Semiramis exercised so great an influence over the impre ssionable King Ninus. spouse of E is referred to as th name to Nineveh. which may be first ref erred to for the purpose of comparative study. As we have said. and is said to have instructed the ing how that city should be ta en. and on the second thrust Ninus into prison. In this manner she secured the empire for herself. 424] the child and adopted her. with whom King Dushyanta fell in love and married in Gandharva fa shion. and one of the generals of its alleged founder." [*1] Semiramis was similarly deserted at birth by her Celestial mother. and Mena a. "Because". governor of Nineveh." A sage discovered [p. Pliny identified that deity with Atargatis of Hierapolis. therefore hath she been named by me Sha untala (bird protected). She was of great beaut y li e Sha untala. and during the Semiramis                               . is believed to be derived fr om "Summat"--"dove". Viswamitra. She was prote cted by doves. Dam ina. She reigned for over forty years. she went down to traditio n as the daughter of the fish goddess. And beholding the new-born infant lying in that forest destitute of human beings but abounding with lions and tigers. "sweet smiles". On the first da y she gave a great banquet. that god e "son of Nudimmud" (Ea). "And she cast the new-born infant on the ban of that river and went away. A stri ing Indian parallel is afforded by the legend of Sha untala. Mena a gave birth to her child beside the sacred river Malini. "she was surrounded by Sha untas (birds). Wallcousins           In Babylonia the fish goddess was Nina. found the child and adopted her. that she persuaded him to proclaim her Queen of Assyria fo r five days. In the inscription on the Nebo statue. Professor Frazer inclines to the view that the legend is a reminiscence of the c ustom of appointing a moc ing and queen to whom the ingdom was yielded up for five Clic to enlarge THE SHEPHERD FINDS THE BABE SEMIRAMIS From the Painting by E. Sha untala was the daughter of th e rishi. She accompanied her husband to Bactria on a military campaign. Nina was the goddess who gave her it is possible that Nebo may have been regarded as her son period. the c hief of royal shepherds. The fair courtesan then became the wife of the in g. the Apsara (celestial fairy). She then ascended the throne dec ed in royal robes. and to signify "the dove goddess loveth her". Derceto. Ninus fell in love with Semiramis. [*1] The story of Semiramis's birth is evidently of great antiquity. the maiden of "perfect symmetry". and Onnes. It seems to surv ive throughout Europe in the nursery tale of the "Babes in the Wood". [*2] Semiramis became the wife of Onnes. and her Assyrian name. who refused to give her up. a number of vultures sat around to protect it from harm. or had h im put to death. King Ninus.The legends of Semiramis indicate that Sammu-rammat was associated li e Queen Ti y with the revival of mother worship. Sammu-rammat. Simmas. went and hanged himself. and "faultl ess features".

however. "The mounds of Semiramis which were pointed out all over Western Asia were said to have been the graves of her lovers whom she buried alive. or Deu alion. was reputed in another form o f the legend to have been born of an egg which the sacred fishes found in the Eu phrates and thrust ashore (<page 28>). . And forth emerged. [*1] She was the rival in tradition of the famous Sesostris of Egypt as a ruler. Atargatis. Strabo tells that unidentified mountains in West ern Asia were named after Semiramis. Her Aphrodite gods and mortals name. One half is a woman. The most archaic form of the legend appears to be that she was turned int o a dove and too flight to heaven in that form. [*4] Indeed. to control the river (Euphrates). Semiramis was said to have cut roads through mountainous di stricts and erected many buildings. According to Hesiod. The Gree Aphrodite was born of the froth of the sea and floated in a sea-shell.                       . states that she was reputed by some to be th e builder of the ancient temple of Aphrodite in the Libanus. which was f ormerly called "Shamiramagerd". [*2] Fish and doves were sacred to Derceto (Attar). According to one version of the legend she f ounded the city of Babylon. and the priestly ing die d a violent death in the character of her divine lover." [*1] As we have seen. says in this connection: "Semira mis held the throne for five generations before the later princess (Nitocris). although others cre dited it to Cinyras. green herbage flowering sprang. All the military expeditions of Semiramis were attended with success. Semiramis played the part of the mother goddess. were cr edited to the legendary queen of Babylonia and [p. A marvellou s spectacle it is. 426] [paragraph continues] Assyria. except her invasion of India. [*3] Several Median places bear her name. Where her delicate feet Had pressed the sands. well worthy of inspection.[p. Herodotus says. in the plain nea r Babylon. used to overflow and flood the whole country round about. who associates the famous queen with "mighty wor s in Asia". which. . says Lucian. . After death she was adored as a goddess and her worshippers abstained from e ating fish. Ishtar and other mother goddesses had many lovers whom they deserted li e La Belle Dame sans Merci (pp. After suffering this disaster she died. by Phoenician colonists from As alon . many of the great wor s in the Tigro-Euphrates valley. This tradition is one of the surest i ndications of the identity of the mythical Semiramis with the Babylonian goddess Ishtar or Astarte. ." [*2] Lucian. in the charms [p. except sacrificially. 427] Of awful beauty. <page 174>-5) . but the part which extends from thighs t o feet terminates with the tail of a fish. The wafting waves First bore her to Cythera the divine: To wave-encircled Cyprus came she then. She raised certain emban ments. and conqueror. Herodotus. "the image of Derceto in Phoenicia. a goddess. or abdicated the throne in favour of her son N inyas. builder. . 425] days. After her death she was worship ped as a dove goddess li e "Our Lady of Trees and Doves" in Cyprus. . As Queen of Assyria. "I have beheld". whose shrine at old Paphos was founded. not excepting the famous inscription of Darius. [*3] who had a mermaid for m. A golden image of a fish was suspended in her temple. and according to ancient Armenian tradition she was the founder of Van. till then." [*4] Derceto was supposed to have been a woman who threw herself in despair into a la e. who was identical with Derceto. She was supposed to have been defeated in the Punjab.

In Scotland there still linger curious fol beliefs regarding the appearance of ravens and doves after death. thou art destroyed. a nd mud. temple of Lara . poppy. thou art destroyed. . The dove was certainly not a p opular bird in the religious art of Babylonia and Assyria. Michael Scott. their images were stern facts. . 428] Beneath are turned to strangeness. . in her character as a dove goddess. . . [*3] She also loved the lion and the horse. My sanctuary. and her name is nown As Cytherea with the blooming wreath. the sacred place they pursue me . To my sanctuary ." [*2] It m ay be that the dove bul ed more prominently in domestic than in official religio n. and apple were sacred to her. In the Gilgamesh epic she is said to have loved the "brilliant Allalu bird" (the "bright-coloured wood pigeon". amid the multitude of waves.The foam-born goddess. how long to my dwelling-place will they pursu e me. For that she touched Cythera's flowery coast. the worshipper invo ed the deity by naming his or her variou s attributes. who presided over Lara . "she whose city is destroyed". Elton's translation. . and to have afterwards wounded it by brea ing its wings. according to Sayce). but in one of the hym ns translated by Professor Pinches Ishtar says. the bric walls of my city Isin. when on his                                         . [p. The Sumerian poets di d not adorn their poems with meaningless picturesque imagery. the doves they entrapped . the sw allow. the great magician. A Sumerian psalmist ma es a goddess (Gula. They are of archaic pattern. The dove cots they wic edly seized. and are "constructed upon the roofs of the huts with crude bric . [p. and regard as arbitrary her identific ation with the fish goddess Derceto or Atargatis. Of special interest are the references in Sumerian psalms to the ravens as well as the doves of goddesses. an d must therefore have assumed the forms of these animals. "Li e the dove I moan". My resting place. . The ravens he (Enlil) caused to fly. . [*1] She presided over the month of April. The Egyptians had their household dove-cots in ancient as in modern times. The goddess Bau. and the myrtl e. Lane ma es reference t o the large pigeon houses in many villages. Some writers connect Semiramis. Ishtar appears to have had a dove fo rm. above are turned to strangeness. pottery. And Cypris. for that on the Cyprian shore She rose. [*1] Apparently there were temple and household doves in Babylonia. shrine of my temple Galmah. The animals sacred to Aphrodite included the sparrow. they had a magical or religious significance li e the imagery of ma gical incantations. the swan. rose. and had a special seasonal significance. laments in a Sumerian psalm: Li e a dove to its dwelling-place. forms. a pa rt of Isin) lament over the city after it was captured by the enemy: My temple E-aste. and the wrynec . With wailings on the lyre my dwelling-place is surrendered to the stranger. Throughout Asia and Europe ravens are birds of ill om en. "with t he walls slightly inclining inwards (li e many of the ancient Egyptian buildings )". Langdon's translation. Each pair of pigeons occupies a separate (earthen) pot. "Li e a lonely dove I rest". 429] [paragraph continues] Here the goddess appears to be identified with the doves w hich rest on the walls and ma e their nests in the shrine. . &c. with Media a nd the old Persian mother goddess Anaitis. the dove. Lara the city which Bel Enlil gave. In another the worshipper tries to touch Ishtar's heart by crying.

I early rose . were deities o f [p. 431] [paragraph continues] Minor. one that was often depicted on carved gems. so the dove. The dove appears to have been a sacred bird in various areas occupied by tribes of the Mediterranean race. are in Egypt still regarded as sacr ed birds. "h er connection with air and earth. Professor Burro ws says: "As the serpent. yet as Lady of the Wild Creatures she had a more fearful aspect. [*2] Professor Robertson Smith has demonstrated that the dove was of great sanctity a mong the Semites. Although Egypt had no dove goddess. birds were "blessed with fecundity". O turtle dove-he dawn is all aglow Weary am I with love. In spite of fortune. Models of a shrine found in two royal graves at Mycen ae are surmounted by a pair of doves. coming from the crevices of the earth." [*1] In Indian mythology Purusha. Another form of the old custom is referred to by the poet Gay: Last Valentine. was disappointed. gentlen ess. shows its possession from the world of the s y". Oh. If the ravens were first the body was to be burned. "Hence were husband and wife produced. Th e ravens were foremost. as has been indicated. Thee first I spied. So the devil. whither shall I go? [*1] [paragraph continues] Pigeons. The "Fa tes" appear to Damayanti in the Nala story as swans which carry love messages. mated. which were "Fates". but if the doves were first it was to receive Christian burial. The Babylo nian Etana eagle and the Egyptian vulture. and also symbolizes innocence. [*3] It figures in Hittite sculptures and was probably connect ed with the goddess cult in Asia [p. when lots were drawn for wives b y rural fol s. first divided himself." This couple then assumed various animal forms and t hus "created every living pair whatsoever down to the ants". and holiness. Valentine's Day in February. the day when birds of ind Their paramours with mutual chirpings find. Doves and sna es were ass ociated with the mother goddess of Crete. the bird was ad dressed by lovers-I hear thy voice. with which this go ddess is also associated. 430] fertility. according to one view. . but in their hurry flew beyond their mar .deathbed told his friends to place his body on a hilloc . [ *3] According to Aryo-Indian belief. and the first swain we see. who had long been preparing a bed for Michael. and a few years ago British soldiers created a riot by shooting them. suggesting twin goddesses li e Isis and Ne pthys of Egypt and Ishtar and Belitsheri of Babylonia. Although her character was distinctly benefice nt and pacific. In many countries the dove is closely associated with love. "Three ravens and thr ee doves would be seen flying towards it. on St. the chaos giant. with love. . [*2] Goddesses and fairies in the fol tales of many countries sometimes assume bird forms. shall our true love be. shows the posse ssion of the tree or pillar from the underworld. according to popu lar belief. "typifying". Throughout Europe birds. where lions are her companions.                   . as indicated." [* 1] Discussing the attributes and symbols of this mother goddess. Doves were connected with the ancient Gree oracle at Dodona.

ma e them an article of food. They refrained also from illing the pigeon except sacrificia lly. . . Pennant says that many of the great families in Scotland had their demon or genius. Those who live in o r near Elephantine. "that the souls of their forefathers lived in certain spec ies of animals. . . "The Pelew Islanders believed". . "Gro se tells us". and so o n. In some districts the idea prevailed that no person could die on a bed which contained pigeon feathers : "If anybody be sic and lye a dying. excepting those which are preserved for sacred purpo ses. . A similar superstition about the feathers of different varieties of wild fow l [*2] obtained in other districts. For thi s reason one man would not ill sna es. it would appear. In the old ballad of "The Bloody Gardener" the white dove appears to a young man as the soul of h is lady love who was murdered by his mother. but in no other part of Egypt. Valentine's day is drawing near. The hippopotamus is esteemed sacred in the [p. [*4] The dove was not only a symbol of Semiramis. the example was set by the mating birds." wrote a corresponde nt. which accordingly they held sacred and would not injure. and some of the Welsh and Irish count ies. Derbyshire. but be in pain and torment. if they lye upon pigeon feathers they wil l be languishing and never die. . a sacred bird in these islands." [*1] That the Egyptians had similar customs is suggested by what Herodotu s tells us regarding their sacred animals: "Those who live near Thebes and the l a e Moeris hold the crocodile in religious veneration. . so far from considering these beasts as sacred. the Phoenician fish goddess. o r saw one appearing as the soul of the dead li e the lover in the ballad of "The Bloody Gardener". . but [p. As we have seen. many families have particular warnings or notices: some by the appearance of a bird. [*3] It still lingers in parts of the Scottish Highlands. the love goddess in bird form returned to earth. who gave them monitions of future events. . The maids will have good store of isses. says Brand. Lancashire. The connection between bird and fish may have been given an astral significance. birds and fishes ." [*1] Totemic animals controlled the destinies of tribes and families. the "t                                 . on the other hand. Brand traced this interesting traditional be lief in Yor shire. and suffered agonies on a death-bed which contained pigeon feathers. . He first saw the bird perched on hi s breast and then "sitting on a myrtle tree". another would not harm pigeons. but everyone was quite ready to ill and eat the sacred animals of his neighb ours. may hold that the associatio n of doves with sna e goddesses and fish goddesses of fertility was due to the f usion of tribes who had various animal totems. The "Almanac " poet no doubt versified an old astrological belief: when the spring sun entered the sig n of the Fishes. They roast and boil . besides general notices of death. And both the men and maids incline To choose them each a Valentine. s ays Professor Frazer. . . and B rand has recorded curious fol beliefs connected with it. For always when the sun comes there. "that. Valentine rhyme begins: This month bright Phoebus enters Pisces. dressed all in white.The pigeon was anciently. . 432] also of her mother Derceto. 433] district of Papremis. . and othe rs by the figure of a tall woman. In "Poor Robin's Alman ac " for 1757 a St." [*2] Members of tribes which venerated the pigeon t herefore invo ed it li e the Egyptian love poet and drew omens from its notes. . Advocates of the Totemic theory.

In the second place it is not improbable that even in Assyria the introduction of Nebo and his spouse made widespread ap peal. it may be inferred that a rena scence of "mother worship" was favoured by the social and political changes whic h were ta ing place. had attached to h er the various animal symbols which were prominent in districts or among tribes brought into close contact. lon g centuries before Assyrian and [p. which were used as love charms. Nebo. Li e Nebo. or bird deities. [*1] his son. the influence of the Aramaeans. In another connection Sir Arthur Evans shows that the rese mblance between Cretan and early Semitic beliefs "points rather to some remote c ommon element. Anthro pomorphic deities were decorated with the symbols and flowers of fol religion. and the temple school at Borsippa became one of the chief centres for the astrological. tended to revive the ancient religion of the Mediterranean race. and. [*1] From the evidence afforded by the Semiramis legends and the inscriptions of the latter half of the Assyrian Middle Empire period. ." Nebo lin s with Merodach (Mardu ). Jehu's rel igious revolt in Israel. . and had no trad itional respect for Ashur. who protect s the fields and brings the crops to maturity. for the astronomical lore of Babylonia.. just as E                                          . 434] [paragraph continues] Babylonian influence filtered westward through Phoenician and Hittite channels. rose. and may have not been unconnected with the political ascen dancy elsewhere of the goddess cult. Ea is also associated with the irrigation of the fields and with their consequent fertilit y. That country had become largely peopled by an alien population. but also that of the masse s of old Sumerian and A adian stoc s who continued to ba e ca es to the Queen o f Heaven so as to ensure good harvests. who in Babylonia wrec ed the temples of the sun god. . occ urred after he came under [p. s ubsequently. than to any definite b orrowing by one side or another". were also consecrated to her. . while they regarded with hostility the military arist ocracy who conquered and ruled in the name of that dreaded deity. who li e Ishtar absor bed the attributes of several goddesses of fertility and fate. The study of th e heavens formed part of the wisdom which is traced bac to Nebo. many of th ese aliens came from districts where "mother worship" prevailed. "is to regard him as a counterpart of Ea. Some such explanation is necessary to account for the specialization of certain goddesses as fish. From the comparative evidence accumulated here. or for ma ing love potions. myrtle. suggests that he was not only concerned about the atti tude assumed by the scholars of the southern ingdom. "The most satisfactory view". A hymn praises him as the one who fills the canals and the di es. sna e. too. Aphrodite. who is sometimes referred to as his father. the nature of which is at present obscure. The fact that Adad-nirari found it necessary t o win the support of the Babylonians by proclaiming his descent from one of thei r ancient royal families. was more than a local god of Borsippa. Li e Ea. whom Adad-nirari exalted at Kal hi. cat. says Jastrow. while the poppy. it will be seen that the theory of the mythical Semiramis's Median or Persian origin is somewhat narrow. which established once again the cult of Ashtoreth. Jastrow assumes that the close pa rtnership between Nebo and Merodach "had as a consequence a transfer of some of the father Mardu 's attributes as a solar deity to Nebo. . as it certainly was in Crete.aboo" having been bro en. 435] the sway of Damascus. . It is p ossible that the dove was venerated in Cyprus. he is the embodiment and source of wisdom. &c. In the first place the influence of Babylon must have been strongly felt in this connection. Perhaps.

The multiplication of well-defined goddesses was partly due to the tendency to s ymbolize the attributes of the Great Mother. In Borsippa he had. the lunar and spring sun god of love and fertility. Bau is also prayed in a similar connection as "mighty lady that dwellest in the bright heavens". . 437] was. she alone remained. li e Merodach in Babylon. may he remove my sighing. pronounced Tammuz traits. O wife of Ea. it is unli ely that his statue would have [p. she interceded with Nebo. etc. the son of the ancient goddess. . appears to be the Tammuz of the new age. A god dess played many parts: she was at once mother. ma y he learn my supplication! Dam ina is similarly addressed in another prayer: O Dam ina.i-gal. Nebo. who became "Husband of his Mother". . evil and not good. or "Hearing". mighty queen of all the gods . mighty queen of all the gods. or Tashmit. carried the prayers of worshippers to Nebo. O Ir-nina. the prince. O lady of heaven and earth! . Thou that dwellest in the Abyss. proceeds: In the evil of the eclipse of the moon which . a ccording to Sayce. thy lord. Mardu ". If Nebo had no connection w ith Great Mother worship. A prayer addressed to her in associa tion with Nannar (Sin) and Ishtar. Thus. because the goddess was anci ently believed to be the First Cause.a passed his traits on to his son. son succeeding father. her spouse. the gods passed away. and wife of the god. according to Jastrow. the first-born of E-sagila . and with Osiris. As Is is interceded with Osiris. too. whose name signifies "Obedience". . [*2] As the "recorder" or "scribe" among the gods. the mighty one who invested the ruling god with the powers he possessed--the god who held sway because he wa s her husband. as has been indicated. Ishtar. Legends regarding a famous goddess were in time attached to other goddes                           . Nebo resembles the Egyptian god Th oth. i. in fact. The Great Mother [p. regarded as the eternal and undecaying one. This "goddess of suppl ication and love" had a lunar significance. and partly due to the development o f the great "Lady" in a particular district where she reflected local phenomena and where the political influence achieved by her worshippers emphasized her gre atness. t he servant of one god or the "mighty queen of all the gods". as did Nergal as the husband of Eresh.e. has ta en place. daughter. on behalf of man ind. intercede for me! May he hear en to my cry at the word of thy mouth. [*1] Tashmit. (I) have turned towards thee! . queen of Hades. who lin s with Khonsu. The Assyrian spouse of Nebo was called Tashmit. "Queen of heaven". as the queen-goddess of widespread legends.. valiant art thou. In the evil of the eclipse of the moon. 436] borne an inscription referring to King Adad-nirari and Queen Sammu-rammat on equ al terms. In the evil of the powers.. of the portents. which are in my palace and my land. the creatrix. aft er ings and gods had been forgotten. Before Nabu (Nebo) thy spouse. . To her was ascribed all the mighty wor s o f other days in the lands where the indigenous peoples first worshipped the Grea t Mother as Dam ina. But t his did not signify that she was the least influential of the divine pair. Nina. Bau. . did Semirami s survive in the popular memory.

and in Aphrodite and Derceto we appear to have mother deities who absorbed the traditions of more than one local "lady" of river and plain. Hazael. The old ing. as beforetime". the land of Omri (Israel). and Sargon became identified with Tammuz. who made Israel sin. and other goods "to a countless amount. Altho ugh it is not possible to give a detailed account of his various expeditions. forest and moun tain. survived as a lin between the old world and the new. [*1] Shortly after this new monarch came to the throne. 439] refuge behind the walls of Damascus. He was the Assyrian ing who became the "saviour" of Israel. 438] [paragraph continues] Sammu-rammat. was a vigorous and successfu l campaigner. He wa s succeeded by his son Mari. we find from the list of these which survives in the Eponym Chronicle that he incl uded in the Assyrian Empire a larger extent of territory than any of his predece ssors. No doubt the fame of Semiramis was specially emphasized because of her close association. between the country from which emanated the stream of ancient culture and the regions which received it. Possibly all the states which owed allegiance to the ing of that city became at once th e willing vassals of Assyria. He also confirmed his supremacy over the Hittites. and est ablished his hold in Babylonia by restricting the power of the Chaldaeans in Sea land. as Queen [p. and acquired a large portion of the Iranian plateau. [*1] Ashtoreth and her gold en calf continued to be venerated. Adad-nirari IV led a great ar my against him.000 talents of silver." Thus "the Lord gave Israel a saviour. The Syrian ruler appears to have been ta en by surprise. died when Assyria's power was being strengthened and increased along his frontiers. Semiramis. as we have seen. who is believed to be identical with the Biblical B en-Hadad III. embroidered materials. The price of peace included 23. but wal ed the rein: and there remained the grove also in Samaria". and Mari had at length to submit and ac nowledge Adad-nirari as his over lord. In the north he swayed--at least. so that they went out from under the hand of the Syrians: and the chil dren of Israel dwelt in their tents. This significant reference to the conquest of Damascus by the Assyrian ing is followed by another which th rows light on the religious phenomena of the period: "Nevertheless they departed not from the sins of the house of Jeroboam. The tribute received by Adad-nira ri from Tyre. This strongly fortified city was closely in vested. As the high priestess of the cult. and too [p. the ingdoms of Israel and J udah. It is not certain whether Adad-nirari penetrated farther than Damascus. she became identified with the goddess whose bird name she bore. as well as ivory ornaments and furniture. on the other hand. which had with-stood the attac of the great Sha lmaneser and afterwards oppressed. 20 of gold. [*2] At any rate Mari was unable to gathe r together an army of allies to resist the Assyrian advance. and doves were sacrificed to the local Adonis . Sidon. and Palastu (Philistia) ma y have been gifted as a formal ac nowledgment of his suzerainty and with purpose                           . with the religious innovations which disturb ed the land of the god Ashur during the Middle Empire period. 3000 of copper. the son or husband of In the north-east he overcame the Median and other tribes. probabl y his ingdom was suffering from the three defeats which had been previously adm inistered by the revolting Israelites. so he claimed--the wide domains of the N airi people. their protector. Edom. was completely overpowered by Adad-nirari. as Gilgamesh and Etana be came identified with the primitive culture-hero or patriarch of the ancient Sume rians. he compelled Edom to pay tribute. Adad-nirari IV. The Aramaean state of Damascus. and 5000 of iron.

The palace commande d a noble prospect of hill and valley scenery on the south-western shore of beau tiful La e Van. their ing was Menuas. which was called Kha ldinas [*1] after the national god. Meagre details survive regarding the reign of the next ing. Menua s forced the outposts of Adad-nirari to retreat southward. and furnished it with the rich booty brought b ac from victorious campaigns. Menuas was a great war-lord. The water supply of the city was assured by the construction of su bterranean aqueducts. and Arame. and was able to measure his strength against Assyria on equal terms. The strongest fortification at Dhuspas was the citadel. which became as large as Assyria. He had nearly doubled by conquest the area cont rolled by his predecessors. When Adad-nirari IV waged war against the Urarti. During the reign of Ashur-nats ir-pal their area of control was confined to the ban s of the river Araxes. Altho ugh Adad-nirari boasted that he had subdued the ingdom of Urartu in the north. as Queen Sammu-ram mat of Assyria. the son of Ishpuinis. was a contemporary of the great Urartian conqueror. Menuas's capital was the city of Turushpa or Dhuspas (Van). were unable to hold their own. During the reign of Shamshi-Adad the Assyrians came into conflict with the Urart i. a people of Indo-European speech. Menuas invaded Hittite territory. Shalmaneser IV (781 -772 B. subdued Malatia and compelled its ing to pay tribute. supplemented by the Urartian inscriptions. in sho rt. the northern enemies of the Medes. A small garrison could there resist a pro longed siege. The Assyrians.                                         . li e the Mitanni. The buildings erected there by Menuas and his successors became as sociated in after-time with the traditions of bring them directly under Assyrian control. Towards the north and north-west he added a considerable area to his ingdom. [p. son of Shardu ris II). and he laid out gardens which bloomed with brilliant Asian flowers. Their god was nam ed Khaldis. Sharduris I. He was a lover of trees and planted many. he appears to have [p. so that Damascus might be preven ted from ta ing vengeance against them. These are. He also conquered the Ma nnai and other tribes. Similarly a sculptured representation of the Hittite god was referred to by Herodotus as a m emorial of the Egyptian ing Sesostris. but all along the Assyrian frontier from the Euphrates to the Lower Zab. 440] done no more than limit its southern expansion for a time. but it was gradually extended under a succession of vigorous ings towards the south -west until they became supreme round the shores of La e Van.C. 441] Having extended his ingdom towards the south. The Urarti were. Three of their ear ly ings were Lutipris. and used the Assyrian script for their own language. which rivalled that o f the Assyrian monarch at Kal hi. Adad-nirari endeavoured to drive his rival northward . who were governed at the time by "Ushpina of Nairi" (Ishpuinis. a military aristocracy [*1] who welded togeth er by conquest the tribes of the eastern and northern Highlands which several As syrian monarchs included in their Empire. They acquired the elements of Assyrian culture. who. To the west were the tribes nown as the Mannai.). however. The Urartian ingdom had extended rapidly and bordered on Assyrian terr itory. Menuas erected a magnificent palace. which was erected on a r oc y promontory jutting into La e Van. and they called their nation Khaldia. For a century it was the seat of Urartian ad ministration.

C. but it is not ce rtain whether he fought against the Urartians.   Ashur-nirari IV was the last ing of the Middle Empire of Assyria. Namri was visited in 749-748 B.. He also subdued the Mannai. On more than one occasion the Assyrians we re defeated and compelled to retreat. During the early part of his reign he conducted military expeditions to the north beyond the river [p. For three years (781-778 B. He afterwards came into conflict with Assyria.C.C. He arranged one with a Mesopotamian ing.) occupied the Assyrian throne during a period of gre at unrest. Soon afterwards he died--perhap s he was assassinated--and none of his sons came to the throne. In 746 B. and 774 B. He ept his army at home while his foreign possessions rose in revolt one after another . In the end his disappointed sol diers found a worthy leader in one of its generals who seized the throne and ass umed the royal name of Tiglath-pileser. On June 15. He may have b                                         . Damascus rose in revolt and had to be subdued.C. there was a total eclipse of the sun. 763 B. but it is not certain whether or not he displaced his father for a time. The Syrian provinces regained their independence. who ascended the throne during the lif etime of Adad-nirari of Assyria.C.C. Ashur-dan again showed signs of activity by endeavouring to suppres s the revolts which during the period of civil war had bro en out in Syria. attempts were made to prevent the southern expansion of that Power. and no rthern Syria was greatly disturbed.C. During his leisure hours the ing engaged himself in studious p ursuits and made additions to the royal library. nown to the Gree s as Nabonassar. Ashur-nirari IV appears to have been a monarch of somewhat li e character to the famous A henaton of Egypt--an idealist for whom war had no attractions.C.) [p. Ashur-dan III (771-763 B. Apparently he had dreams of guarding Assyria against attac by means of treati es of peace.. a revolt bro e out in the city of Kal hi and the ing had to leave it. The ing's son Adad-nirari was involved in it. Indeed for the greater part of his reign he seems to have be en ept fully engaged endeavouring to establish his authority within the Assyria n borders. 442] [paragraph continues] Araxes. His army had to operate instead on hi s eastern and southern frontiers. and that dread event was followed by a revolt at Asshu r which was no doubt of priestly origin.Menuas was succeeded by his son Argistis. or the Aramaeans who had become a ctive during this period of Assyrian decline. He had to deal with revolts in Assh ur in other cities.C. He was unable to attac Urartu.) the general of Shalmaneser IV waged war constantl y with Urartu. A year previousl y Nabu-natsir. Mati-ilu of Agusi. Assyria suffered serious loss of prestige on account of its inability to hold in chec its northern rival. w ho had risen in revolt. the year in which Hadrach had again to be dealt with. Hadrach was visited in the last year of the ing's reign. was crowned ing of Babylonia. Adad-nirari V came to the throne in 763 B. who pl edged himself not to go to war without the consent of his Assyrian overlord. During the first four years of his successor Ashur-nirari IV (753-746 B.C. A great plague bro e out in 765 B. and acquired more territory on its northern frontier. and it is possible that there were other documents of li e character which have not survived to us.. In 758 B. and again in 776 B.C. 443] the army never left Assyria.

xvi. ^424:1 The Mahabharata: Adi Parva. T. 19 and Strabo. ^425:2 Herodotus. though the two got mixed up. had a swan form. ^428:2 Introduction to Lane's Manners and Customs of the Modern Egyptians. Perhaps the mythic Semiramis and legends connected were in existence long before the his toric Sammu-rammat. ^426:1 Diodorus Siculus. If there was no wound to "bleed afresh". ^428:1 Langdon's Sumerian and Babylonian Psalms. 14. ^429:1 Campbell's Superstitions of the Scottish Highlands. ^426:4 De dea Syria.. yea. pp. ii. i. he also had his seasonal period of sleep li e Tammuz. G. ^426:2 Herodotus. who was murdered by her lover. 135. ^425:1 The Golden Bough (The Scapegoat). 1-27. ^428:3 Tammuz is referred to in a Sumerian psalm as "him of the doveli e voice. 105. 3. the "dea th thraw" (the contortions of death) might indicate who the criminal was. or a death spell. ^426:3 Diodorus Siculus. 9-14. Hist. In a S cottish ballad regarding a lady. the verse occurs : 'T was in the middle o' the night The coc began to craw. 343. ii. J. ^424:2 That is. ^425:4 Strabo. 184. v. p. ^419:1 The Old Testament in the Light of the Historical Records and Legends of A ssyria and Babylonia. doveli e". 354. however. It may have symbolized the coquettishness of fair maidens. 133. pp. the Celtic god of spring. although an unsuitable ruler for a predatory State.een a man of high character and refinement and worthy of our esteem. As love godd esses were "Fates". lo ve. ^427:1 This little bird allied to the woodpec er twists its nec strangely when alarmed. and Indian Myth and Legend. without ceremony but with consent. And at the middle o' the night The corpse began to thraw. 213-216). Pinches.               . could be detected when he a pproached his victim's corpse. Garstang. He may have had a dove form. 1. Footnotes ^418:1 The Land of the Hittites. 157 et seq. 288. 2. 369 et seq. ^423:1 Nat. and fertility. Angus. pp. 4. xvi. p p. p. sections lxxi and lxxii (Roy's translation. the wrynec may have been connected with the belief that the perpetrator of a murder. (3rd edition). p. ^425:3 De dea Syria.

^432:1 The Golden Bough (Spirits of the Corn and of the Wild). xiii. 71. Hawes. the modern Armenians. pp. King. ^431:4 Ibid. 294. ^439:1 2 Kings. 69. p. Nebo had many phases: he was connected with the sun and moon. iii. ^438:2 2 Kings. ^436:1 Babylonian Magic and Sorcery. 293 ( 3rd ed. ^434:1 Cited by Professor Burrows in The Discoveries in Crete.). ^430:1 Crete. pp. p. 9. li e their descendants. 139. ^435:2 Aspects of Religious Belief and Practice in Babylonia and Assyria. xiii. H.. vol. he was young and yet old--a m ystical god. p. ^431:2 Including the goose. p. one of the forms of the harvest goddess. ^440:1 The masses of the Urartian fol appear to have been of Hatti stoc --"broa d heads". by Donald A. ^435:1 Li e the Egyptian Horus. Isaiah.. and 77.). 227. p. at sacred-texts. ii. 14-25. 3. C. 5. and H. Myths of Babylonia and Assyria. ii. vol. 230-1 and vol. xiii. B. The myrtle was used for love charms. x. vol. p. 444] [ch-19] CHAPTER XIX         . 95. 329-30. ^431:1 Egyptian Myth and Legend. p. L. ^433:2 Brand's Popular Antiquities. water and crops. 6-7 and 26-7. ^430:3 Religion of the Semites. com [p. 137-8. 6. the planet Mercury. 59. W.^429:2 Indian Myth and Legend. pp. 134. vol. ^431:3 Brand's Popular Antiquities. ^429:3 Ibid. 94 et seq. [1915]. iii. ^441:1 It is uncertain whether this city or Kullani in north Syria is the Biblic al Calno. 217. ii. 232 (1899 ed. ^430:2 The Discoveries in Crete. the Forerunner of Greece. pp. ^433:1 Herodotus. MacKenzie. iii. ^438:1 2 Kings.

[p. and Medes--Sac of Sidon--Mana sseh and Isaiah's Fate--Esarhaddon conquers Lower Egypt--Revolt of Assyrian Nobl es--Ashurbanipal. some thin . who tran sported the "lost ten tribes" of Israel. li e cer tain of his predecessors. as on a previous occ asion when they destroyed the temple of the sun god Shamash which was restored b y Nabu-aplu-iddina of Babylon. Plundering bands of Aramaeans were mena cing the western frontiers and had overrun part of northern Babylonia. Sippar had been occupied by Aramaeans. and Nippur. the mighty conqueror. and the now powerful Urartian ingdom was threatening the Syro-Cappadocia n states as if its rulers had dreams of building up a great world empire on the ruins of that of Assyria. Heze iah. and the ind ustries were in a languishing condition. It is signif icant to note in this connection that the new ing was an unswerving adherent of the cult of Ashur. Sennacherib. WE now enter upon the last and most brilliant phase of Assyrian civilization--th e period of the Third or New Empire during which flourished Tiglath-pileser IV. 446] Tiglath-pileser did not overrun Chaldaea.C. Cimmerians. [*1] He came to the Assyrian throne towar ds the end of April in 745 B. wh o became his vassal. and the idolat rous Manasseh. which. At the beginning of his reign there was m uch social discontent and suffering. but he destroyed its capital. Sippar. who. Tiglath-pilneser. Isaiah. and he offered sacrifices in the cities of Babylon. trade was paralysed. Cuthah. Tiglath-pileser combined in equal measure those qualities of generalship and sta tesmanship which were necessary for the reorganization of the Assyrian state and the revival of its military prestige. and [p. He appears to have been welcomed by Nabonassar. He appears to have been a popular leader of the revolt against Ashur-nirari. and extinguished the resistan ce of the Aramaeans in A ad. by the adherents of which he was probably strongly supported . Scythians. was nown to the Babylonians as Pulu. and reigned until 727 B.Assyria's Age of Splendour Tiglath-pileser IV. in-chiding Ahaz. was a term of contempt signifying "wild animal". who deposed Ashur-nirari IV. The national exchequer had been exhausted b y the loss of tribute from revolting provinces. but it seems clear that he was not of royal descent. the destroyer of Babylon. Sarraban                            . the Shalmaneser of the Bible.C. Tiglath-pileser IV. We also meet with not able figures of Biblical fame. the Biblical Pul--Babylonian Campaign--Urartian Ambitions in North Syria--Battle of Two Kings and Flight of Sharduris--Conquest of Syro-Capp adocian States--Hebrew History from Jehu to Menahem--Israel subject to Assyria-Urartu's Power bro en--Ahaz 's Appeal to Assyria--Damascus and Israel subdued--B abylonia united to Assyria--Shalmaneser and Hoshea--Sargon deports the "Lost Ten Tribes"--Merodach Baladan King of Babylonia--Egyptian Army of Allies routed--Ah az and Isaiah--Frontier Campaigns--Merodach Baladan overthrown--Sennacherib and the Hittite States--Merodach Baladan's second and brief Reign--Heze iah and Senn acherib--Destruction of Assyrian Army--Sac of Babylon--Esarhaddon--A Second Sem iramis--Raids of Elamites. and Esarhaddon. Tiglath-pileser first paid attention to Babylonia. had pronounced pro-Babylonian tendencies. We now nothing regar ding his origin. New polit ical confederacies in Syria ept the north-west regions in a constant state of u nrest. who made Lower Egypt an Assyrian province. "Sargon the Later". 445] [paragraph continues] Tiglath-pileser. In th e Bible he is referred to as Pul.

Tiglath-pileser had achieved an overwhelming victory against an army superior to his own in numbers. Tiglath-pileser advanced to meet Sharduris. delivered an unexpected attac on the Urartian army in Qummu h. The city appears to have open ed its gates to him although it was in the ingdom of Mati-ilu. moving northward. Two courses lay before Tiglath-pileser. and impaled King Nabu-ushabshi.000 of the enemy were slain or ta en captive. w ho leapt from his chariot and made hasty escape on horsebac . He could either cross the mountains and invade Urartu. Ere long Sharduris p ressed southward from Malatia and compelled the north Syrian Hittite states. who had formed an alliance with the north Mesopotamian ing. inc luding Carchemish. Tiglath-pileser led his army across the Euphrates and reached Arpad without meeting with any resistance. A struggle then ensued between Urartu and Assyria for the possession of the Syro-Cappadocian states. Over 70. his prestige would vanish at home and abroad and Shard uris might. In the spring of 743 B. and when evening was falling the chariots and cavalry of Ura rtu were thrown into confusion. Urartu. Well might Sharduris exclaim. Having disposed of the Aramaeans and other raiders. He proclaimed himself "King of Sumer and A a d" and "King of the Four Quarters". the Assyrian monarch had nex t to deal with his most powerful rival. however. where the influence of Ass yria had been completely extinguished. in the words of the prophet. on whom Ashur-nirari had reposed his faith. hotly pursued in t he gathering dar ness by an Assyrian contingent of cavalry. to ac nowledge his suzerainty. 447] was slaughtered. The tide of battle flowed i n Assyria's favour. crossed the Euphrates and. and one of its dramatic in cidents was a single combat between the rival ings. or stri e at his rival in north Syria. and carried Sharduris's bed to the temple of the goddess of Nineveh. whither he returned to prepare a new plan of campaign against his no rthern rival. An attempt was made to capture King Sharduris. for if he succeeded in expelling the invaders he would at the same time compel the allegiance of the rebellious Hittite state s. Mat i-ilu of Agusi. If he failed in his attac on Urartu. who ac nowledged Urartian sway. Tiglath-pileser burned the royal tent and throne as an offering to Ashur. "Whe re is the ing of Arpad? where are the gods of Arpad?" [*1] Leaving Arpad.C. Not until "the bridg e of the Euphrates" was reached was the exciting night chase abandoned.u. while the Urartian camp with its stores and horses and followers fell into the hands of the triumphant Assyrians.                                  . who was apparently ha stening southward to attac the Assyrians in the rear. after establishing himself in northern Syria. A fierce battle ensued. The latter appeared to him to be the most feasible and judicious procedure. invade Assyria and com pel its allegiance. Argistis I had been succeeded by Sharduris III. At this time the reputation of Tiglath-pileser hung in the balance. The frontier states of Elam and Media were v isited and subdued. Mansell [p. Tiglath-pileser. Its foreign garrison Clic to enlarge TIGLATH-PILESER IV IN HIS CHARIOT Photo.

and reigned in his stead. was strong enough to lay a heavy hand o n Edom. saying. came to the throne in 7 40 B. and trode down the thistle. The Dynasty of Jehu had c ome to an end by this time. The Biblical reference is as follows: "                     . the sun god]. Tiglath-pileser had therefore to march westw ard again. son of Amaziah. the last ing of the Jehu Dynasty of Israel. Once again the Hebrews came into contact with Assyria. let us loo one another in the face". the grandson of Jehu. Assyria did not immediately regain posses sion of north Syria. and thine heart hath lift ed thee up: glory of this. "Menihimme (Menahem) of the city of the Samarians". towards the close of the reign of Azariah. The shifty Mati-ilu either cherished the hope that Sharduri s would recover strength and again invade north Syria. Jeroboam. Two years later Kullani and H amath fell. Therefore Jehoash ing of Israel went up. In 740 B. and slew him. Jehoash the ing of Israel sent to Amaziah ing of Judah. [*1] Judah thus remained a vassal state of Israel's. Accordingly he sent a communication to Jehoash w hich contained some proposal regarding their political relations. son of Jehoash. About 773 B." [*2] Tiglath-pileser was operating successfully in middle Syria when he had dealings with. and he and Amaziah ing of Judah loo ed one another in the face at Beth-shemesh [city of S hamash. or that he might himself establish an empire in that region. In J udah the unstable Amaziah. and the districts which they controlled were included in the Assyria n empire and governed by Crown officials. had a long and prosperous reign. for why shouldest thou meddle to t hy hurt.C. "Come. "For Menahem the son of Gadi went up from Tirzah. which belongeth to Judah. Give thy daught er to my son to wife: and there passed by a wild beast that was in Lebanon. 448] [paragraph continues] For three years he conducted vigorous campaigns in "the we stern land". concluding wit h the offer or challenge. returning home to Samaria with rich booty and hostage s. he app ears to have co-operated with Assyria and conquered Damascus and Hamath. and flushed with triumph then resolved to readjust his relations with hi s overlord. The thistle th at was in Lebanon sent to the cedar that was in Lebanon. 449] Jehoash afterwards destroyed a large portion of the wall of Jerusalem and plunde red the temple and palace. he might secure his own position. even thou. ing of Judah . [p. the ings of Israel had become powerful and haughty. saying. Arpad was captur ed and Mati-ilu deposed and probably put to death.C. that thou shouldest fall. had achieved successes in conflict with Damascus. And Judah was put to the worse b efore Israel.C. where he met with vigorous resistance. who wa s probably ready to welcome the Assyrian conqueror. [p. Supported by Assyria. and they fled every man to their tents. Thou hast indeed smitten Edom. son of Joash. and Judah with thee? But Amaziah would not hear. the usurper. by arranging an all iance. among others. Jehoa sh. and tarry at home. His son Zachariah. so that. Six months afterwards he was assassinated by Shallum. This usurper held sway a t Samaria for only a month. Its fall may not have been unconnected with the tren d of events in Assyria during the closing years of the Middle Empire. A contemp tuous answer was returned. the ing of Israel.Despite the blow dealt against Urartu. an d came to Samaria. who paid tribute. and smote Shallum the son of Jabesh in Samaria. No resistance was possible on the part of Menahem.

vii. ing of Damascus. ing of Israel. In 735 B. Dhuspas was soon captured. also sent gifts t o Tiglath-pileser at this time (738 B. and stayed not there in the land. w hich penetrated to his capital. he invaded Urartu. queen of the Arabians. The walls of Jerusalem were repaired by Jo tham. He cond emned Israel for its idolatries. destroyed orchards. He overthrew buildings. Tiglath-pileser next operated against the Median and other hill tribes in the no rth-east. for the fortress cou ld he approached on the western side alone by a narrow path between high walls a nd towers. Amos prophesied. 3).C." [*1] When Pe ah was on the throne. So h e plotted with Rezin. the great Armenian state which had thre atened the supremacy of Assyria in north Syria and Cappadocia. the star of your god. and large numbers of the inhabitants w ere transported to various places in Syria." [*3] Rezin of Damascus.C.And Pul the ing of Assyria came against the land: and Menahem gave Pul a thousa nd talents of silver. father of Ahaz. And Menahem exacted the money of Israel. of each man fifty she els of silver. . . 451] in Israel to assert its independence. so that only a small force could find room to operate against the num erous garrison. . [*1] Pe ah sought to extinguish the orthodox party's movement by subduing Judah. The circumstances which made this expedition necessary are of special interest on account of its Biblic al associations. Menahem. Ahaz began to reign over Judah. Aramaean revolts on the borders of El am were suppressed by [p. and trans ported to Nineveh those of the inhabitants he had not put to the sword.                                           . In the following year Tiglath-pileser returned to Syria. See ye me and ye shall live. Thus was Urartu crippled and humiliated: it never regained its former prestige among the northern states. with all the live stoc he could lay hands on. "But Pe ah the son of Remaliah. even of all the mighty men of wealth.). and was succeeded by his son Pe ahiah. a captain of his. So the ing of Assyria turned bac . . Their most prominent leader was the proph et Amos. and Zabibi. Pe ah had to deal with a powerful party in Israel which favoured the re-establis hment of David's ingdom in Palestine. and he il led him. and reigned in his room. which ye made to yourselves. but Sharduris too re fuge in his roc y citadel which he and his predecessors had laboured to render i mpregnable. whose eloquent exhortations were couched in no uncertain terms. . . . and cried: For thus saith the Lord unto the house of Israel. Hiram of Tyre. There he was able to defy the might of Assyria. Tiglath-pileser had to content himself by devastating the city on the plain and the neighbouring villages. . to give to the ing of Assyria. conspired against h im and smote him in Samaria. in the palace of the ing's house. at the end of the conduit of the upper pool in the highway of the fuller's field" (Isaiah. Isaiah r efers to this tunnel: "Go forth and meet Ahaz . had died. Have ye offered unto me sacrifices and offerings in the wilderness forty y ears. 450] [paragraph continues] Assyrian governors. and a tunnel constructed to supply it with water. O house of Israel? But ye have borne the tabernacle of your Moloch and Chi un your images. King Sharduris wa s unable to protect his frontier or hamper the progress of the advancing army. that his hand might be with him to confirm the ingdom in his hand. Judah had ta en advantage of the disturbed conditions [p.

[*1] Tiglath-pileser recorded: "They overthrew Paqaha (Pe ah). And Ahaz too the silver and gold that was found in the house of the Lord. and Pe ah . . [*6] [p. and too it. and set a ing in the midst of it. have ta en evi l counsel against thee. and in the treasures of the ing' s house. for the fierce anger of Rezin with Syria. and Ammon would also be punished. in g of Syria. neither shall it come t o pass. [*3] Then he r esolved to purchase the sympathy of one of the great Powers. [*2] The unstable Ahaz had sought assistance from the Baal. and be quiet. according to the abominations of the heathen". which wi ll devour the palaces of Ben-hadad. wa s overrun. and slew him. It shall not stand. He swept through Israel "li e a hurricane". And Hos hea the son of Elah made a conspiracy against Pe ah the son of Remaliah. and reigned in his stead. fear not. which rise up against me. The remnant of t he Philistines shall perish. the city of Elath was captured and restored to Edom. . so he turne d to "the bee that is in the land of Assyria".Thus saith the Lord. So Ahaz sent messengers to Tiglath-pileser ing of Assyria. Edom. Tyre. and Hazor. Soon after Ahaz came to the throne he found himself hemmed in on every side by adversaries who desired to accomplish his fall. . I will brea also the bar of Damascus . and carried them captive to Assyria. . but could not overcome him. even the son of Tabeal: Thus saith the Lord God. refuge in his city li e "a mouse". And the ing of Assyria hear ened unto him: for the ing of Assyria went up agai nst Damascus. and the people of Syria shall go into captivity unto Kir. I am thy ser vant and thy son: come up and save me out of the hand of Syria and out of the ha nd of the ing of Israel. . and "made his son to pass through the fire. [*4] Assyria was the last resourc e of the ing of Judah. . while the Philis tines were liberated from the control of Jerusalem. [*2] Judah was completely isolated by the allies who ac nowledged the suzerainty of D amascus. and to o Ijon and Abel-beth-maachah. Isra                                             . for the Ethiopian Pharaohs had not yet conquered the Delta region. The Phi               Tiglath-pileser recorded that Rezin too el was also dealt with. and smo te him. all the land of Naphtali. . . saying. and sent it for a present to the ing of Assyria. Let us go up against Judah. 452] [paragraph continues] Ahaz. Isaiah visited Ahaz and said. . "At that time Rezin. and vex it. 453] In the days of Pe ah ing of Israel came Tiglath-pileser ing of Assyria. Because Syria. and Galilee. saying. There was no hope o f assistance from "the fly that is in the uttermost part of the rivers of Egypt" . Ephraim. and let us ma e a breach therein for us. however. neither be faint-hearted for the two tails of these smo ing firebrands. and carried the people of it captive to Kir [*5] and slew Rezin. and the son of Remaliah. and placed Ausi'a (Hoshea) over them". . I will send a fire into the house of Hazael. and of the son of Remaliah. and Gilead." [*1] Judah. came up to Jerusalem to war: and they besieged [p. and Janoah and Kedesh. their ing. Ta e heed.

He was met with a stubborn resistance. Apparently Hoshea.C. but brought Assyria into close union with Babylonia." [*1] Shalmaneser died before Samaria was captured. The throne was then seized by Nabu-shum-u in. he invaded Babylonia. and gave him prese nts. proclaimed ing (732 B. Ammon. The Chaldaeans paid tribute. he led an expedition to Syria and Phoenicia. Two years afterwards Tiglath-pileser returned. but in less than two months this usurper was assassinated and the Chaldaeans had one of thei r chiefs. crippled Urar tu and pacified his eastern frontier. which opened its g ates to him. [p. The Biblical account of the campaign is as follows: "Against him (Hoshea) came u p Shalmaneser ing of Assyria.C. He was welcomed in Babylon. [*2] and is the Ar eanos of P tolemy. ing of Israel.listines and the Arabians of the desert were also subdued. Babylon next claimed the attention of Tiglath-pileser. He had not only exte nded his empire in the west from Cappadocia to the river of Egypt. and besieged it three years. and may have been assassinated. the Philistines. and made Hoshea a prisoner. These included the P hoenicians. therefore the ing of Assyria shut him up and bound him in prison. He is referred to by Isaiah. and Edom. Several of the vassal peoples ha d revolted when they heard of the death of Tiglath-pileser. And the ing of Assyria found conspiracy in Hoshea: for he had sent messeng ers to So ing of Egypt. Nabonassar had died and w as succeeded by his son Nabu-nadin-zeri. and Hoshea became his servant. but this is not quite certain. U inzer too refuge in his capital. 455] as he had done year by year. [*2] An Assyrian gover nor was appointed to rule over Syria and its subject states. which held out successfully. and he had himself [p. "Then the ing of Assyria came up throughout all the land. He was succeeded by Shalmaneser V (727-722 B. Samaria closed its gates against him although their ing had been dispatched to Assyria. U inzer. When the Assyrian ing returned from Syria in 731 B. [*1] and brought no present to the ing of Assyria. after reigning for two years. was slain in a rebellion.). for he died a littl e over twelve months after he "too the hands of Bel (Merodach)" at Babylon. Little is nown regarding his brief reign. and res tored peace throughout Babylonia.C. pretended when the Assyrians entered his coun try that he remained friendly.). He was the Assyrian monarch who deported the "Lost Ten Tribes". although the surrounding country was ravaged and de spoiled. "In the ninth year of Hoshea" (and the first of Sargon) "the ing of Assyria too                          proclaimed ing of Sumer and A ad. 454] Tiglath-pileser had now reached the height of his ambition. who may have been his son. Moab. It was a proud day for Ahaz when he paid a visit to Tiglath-pileser at Damascus. In 725 B. C. was well informed. who. however. captured Shapia. Th e next Assyrian monarch. He did not live long. and went up to Samari a. was not related to either of his two predecessors. the home of culture and the land of the ancient gods .C. to enjoy his final triumph. and the Israelites who were intriguing with either Egypt or Mutsri. however. Shapia.). Shalmaneser. Tribute was sent to t he Assyrian monarch by Phoenicia. the mother land.                 . Sargon II (722-705 B.

They were no t united li e the Jews (the people of Judah). were not ultimately absorbed by the peoples among whom they settled between Mesopotamia and the Median Highlands. and the men of Hamath made [p. allowing their present grudge to efface the memory of past injuries. ." [*3] In all. for he taught them "how t hey should fear the Lord. by a common religious bond. This man was evidently an orthodox Hebrew. [* 2] The various sections must have soon lost touch with one another.Samaria. did Clic to enlarge COLOSSAL WINGED AND HUMAN-HEADED BULL AND MYTHOLOGICAL BEING From doorway in Palace of Sargon at Khorsabad: now in British Museum. and removed them out of his sight: th ere was none left but the tribe of Judah only. and dwelt in the cities thereof. And the ing of Assyria brought men from Babylon.290 people dwelling in the midst of it (Samaria) I carried off". and placed them in the cities of Samaria instead of the children of Israel: and they possessed Samaria. their graven images". the gods of Sepharvaim. and in the cities of the Medes. and served Baal. "regarding whom so m any nonsensical theories have been formed". and carried Israel away into Assyria. and from Ava. soon forgot to loo upon the latter as the opp ressors of all. In time of peace the (Assyrian) gov ernor did his best to protect them against molestation on the part of the native                       . the majority of the Israelites worshipped either the Baal or the Queen of Heaven. to provo e him to anger. . for although a few remai ned faithful to Abraham's God. Mansell [p. Ther efore the Lord was very angry with Israel. and worshipped all the ho st of heaven (the stars). and from Sepharvaim. and the Avites made Nibhaz and Tarta . and the Sepharites burnt their ch ildren in fire to Adram-melech and Anam-melech. and from Cuthah. A number of the new settlers were slain by lions. but also "served their own gods . . and from Hamath. And the men of Babylon made Succoth-benoth. . "exposed to the same hatred as the original Assyrian conquerors. who must have disli e d them. and the men of Cuth (Cuthah) made Nergal. "The colonists." says Professor Maspero. and. And they caused their sons and their daughters to pass through the fire. who were transported to Babylonia a century and a half later. The Assyrian policy of transporting the rebellious inhabitants of one part of th eir empire to another was intended to brea their national spirit and compel the m to become good and faithful subjects amongst the aliens. and placed them in Halah and in Habor by the river of Gozan. . "27. 457] not hesitate to ma e common cause with them. and made them molten images. and made a grove. [*1] There is no evidence to suggest that the "Ten Lost Tribes". So they feared the Lord". acco rding to Sargon's record. They (the Israelites) left all the commandments of the Lord their God. even two calves. 456] Ashima. . Photo. . and so ld themselves to do evil in the sight of the Lord. . and the ing of Assyria ordere d that a Samaritan priest should be sent to "teach them the manner of the God of the land". and used divination and enchantments.

had allied himself with the Elamites. its emperor would show him small mercy. The Philistines of Ashdod and the Arabians being stron gly pro-Egyptian in tendency. and received gifts in to en of homage from Piru of Mutsri." [*1] While Sargon was absent in the west. Trouble was brewing in Syria. the sole Pharaoh so far as can be ascertained of the T wenty-fourth Dynasty. His return in Sargon's reign was evidently connected with the new rising in which he too part. according to his records. the tyranno us Chaldaean. Then he marched southward. Simirra.s. The throne of Hamath had been seized by a n adventurer. afterwards paid tribute to Sargon. Samaria. A Chaldaea n ing. escaped "li e to a shepherd whose sheep have been ta en". He met the smith ing of Hamath in battle at Qarqar. overthrew A himiti. and he reigned there for over eleven years. King of Mutsri (an Arabian state confused. and punishing Samaria. the Ethiopians being supr eme in Upper Egypt. the Tartan (commander-in-chief) of Pi'r u [*1] (Pharaoh). As Babylon defied Sarg                                             . and an adventurer from Cyprus was proclaimed ing (711 B. 458] named Ilu-bi'di. who had deposed Bocch oris of Sais. the empire was consolida ted and maintained without too many violent outbrea s in regions far removed fro m the capital. and his brother A himiti was placed on the throne. and other cities. The citizens. [p. having defea ted him. however . had him s inned alive. Although Sa rgon swept triumphantly through the land. It was apparently fostered by an Egyptian ing--pr obably Bocchoris of Sais. In 715 B. Damascus.). Four years later a revolt bro e out in Ashdod which was. King Azuri of Ashdod had been deposed because of his Egyptian sympathies by the Assyrian go vernor. A battle was fought at Dur-ilu and the Elamites retreated. Sargon. Another league was about to be formed against Assyria. Piru and other two southern ings. and in return for this they rallied round him whenever the latter threatened to get out of hand. Than s to their help. perhaps. he had to leave his rival. in possession of the capital. 459] to Ahaz of Judah. He new that if the allies succeeded in stamping out Assyrian authority in Syria and Palestin e they would certainly depose him. a smith. Samsi and Itamara. with Misra im = Egypt). appeared with his army in Arabia. An alliance had been formed to cast off the yo e of Assyria. and Gaza. That monarch was placed in a difficult position. Hanno of Gaza had fled to Egypt after Tiglath-pileser came to the relief of Judah and bro e up the league of conspirators by capturing Damascus. G aza.C. At Rapi i (Raphia) he routed an army of allies. it would appear. the Ethiopian Pharaoh. Sargon appeared in the west with a strong army before the allies had matured the ir plans. a revolt bro e out in Babylonia. Samsi of Aribi. and beyond the immediate reach of the sovereign. Merodach Baladan III. and helped him to stifle the revolt. but if on the other hand he joined them and A ssyria triumphed. Shabi (? So). or hold it in chec unt il the arrival of reinforcements. who had allied himself with the local dynasts of Lower Egy pt and apparently sought to extend his sway into Asia. and. were willing sympathizers and helpers against the hated Assyrians. direct ly due to the influence of Shaba a.C . The city states involved Arpad. and I tamara of Saba. It would appear that advances were made by the anti-Assyrians [p. Hanno of Gaza was transported to Asshur. and occupied Babylon.

it must have seemed to the western ings as if the Assyrian empire w as li ely once again to go to pieces. he found it necessary to pursue the arduous tas of brea ing up a powerful league which had been form ed against him in the north. were combin ing for the last time against Assyria. supported by Mita (Midas). 460] states." [*1] Before Sargon could deal with Merodach Baladan of Babylon. according to the Assyrian records.C. he committed suicide. and when he found that the Assyrians pressed h ome their triumph by laying waste the country before them. joining the league. A fierce ba ttle was fought in which the Assyrians achieved [p. its ruler. And they (the allies) shall be afraid and ashamed of Ethiopia their expec tation. . where Assyria. Iranzu . Sargon conducted a vigorous and su ccessful campaign against the raiders. The Syro-Cappadocian Hittite [p. and of Egypt their glory. son of Sharduris III. The Lord spa e by Isaiah saying. although those of Urartu indicate that he su bsequently too part in the struggle against Sargon. remained faithful to Assyria and consequently became involved in wa r with Rusas of Urartu. In 714 B. Soon after Sargon began his operations in the north he captured Bagdatti and had him s inned alive. The way was now clear to Urartu. and put off thy shoe from thy foot. was ept flying by his brother. the scholarly Isaiah. Ullusunu. and extended Ullusunu's area of control. but ere long this ambitious man found it prudent to submit to Sargon on condition that he would retain the throne as a faithful Assyrian vassal. so shall the ing of Assyria lead away the Egyptians prisoners. The flag of revolt. including Tabal in Asia Minor and Carchemish in north Syria. ing of the Mu s i-Phrygians. Sargon attac ed the revolting ing of Zi irtu. And the Lord said. 461] a great victory. Iranzu was succeeded by his son Aza. hdod fled to Arabia. . A buffer state had been formed in that area b y Tiglath-pileser. "in the year that Tartan [*2] cam the ing of Assyria sent him)". The Armenian peoples were c ompelled to ac nowledge the suzerainty of Assyria. Fortunately for Ahaz he had a wise counsellor at this time in the great statesma n and prophet. "Go and lo ose the sac cloth from off thy loins. ing of Urartu. however. Li e as my servant Isaia h hath wal ed na ed and barefoot three years for a sign and wonder upon Egypt an d upon Ethiopia. King Rusas fled. who had assisted the ing of the Mannai to weld together the hill tribes-men between La e Van and La e Urmia into an organized nation. and the conqueror received gi                       Isaiah warned Ahaz against e unto Ashdod (when Sargon ainst Ashdod and too it".on and received the active support of Elam. Urartu had recovered somewhat from the disasters which it had suffered at the ha nds of Tiglath-pileser. and Rusas. . who was supported by an army led by Rusas. his overlord. and there were rumours of risings in the north. And he did so. and was winning bac portions of its lost territory on t he north-east frontier of Assyria. who either captured or won over several cities of the Ma nnai. The Tartan "fought ag [*3] According to Sargon's record the Pretender of As he was seized by an Arabian chief and delivered up to party in Palestine went under a cloud for a period th                                     . The pro-Egyptian ereafter. wal ing na ed and barefoot. and this ing was so pronounced a pro -Assyrian that his pro-Urartian subjects assassinated him and set on the throne Bagdatti of Umildish. His sudden change of policy appears to have been due to the steady advance of the Me dian tribes into the territory of the Mannai.

in southern Babylonia. Under him Assyria attained its highest degree of splendour. received large extensions of territory.C. however. but was closely watche d. who reigned over a shrun en ingdo m. Pushing southward.C. and. who oppressed the people and set at defiance ancien t laws by seizing private estates and transferring them to his Chaldaean insmen . attac ed Bit Ja in and captured it. threw off the Assyrian yo e. Sargon found time during his strenuous career as a conqueror to lay out and buil                                                    . and promoted the industries. Pisiris. M idas of the Mus i-Phrygians was compelled to ac nowledge the suzerainty of Assyr ia. The ing of Commagene. Li e the pious Pharaohs of Egypt he boasted that he fed the hungry and protected the wea against the st rong. Bit Ja in. Then he invaded middle B abylonia from the east. Then having expelled the Aramaeans from Sippar. was extinguished by Sargon. He intrigued with neighbouring states against Assyria. Cappadocia.fts from various tribes between La e Van and the Caspian Sea. and had similarly Messianic pretensions which were no doubt inspired by the Ba bylonian priesthood. Merodach Baladan escape d into Elam. In 712 B. succeeded in evading Sargon's army. Sargon was now able to deal with Babylonia. having [p. The northern confederacy was thus completely worsted and bro en up. Tabal revolted in 713 B. Before. Finding Elam was unable to help h im. but in the following yea r evidences were forthcoming of a more serious and wide-spread rising. Thus "Sargon the Later" entered at length into full possession of the empire of Sargon of A ad. Milid had to be overcome. irrigated vast tracts o f country. A revolt in Tabal in 718 B. In Babylonia he posed as an incarnation of his ancient namesa e . He was afterwards proclaimed ing at E-sagila. his allies cou ld hasten to his assistance he was overcome by the vigilant Sargon. Sargon's first move was to interpose his army between those of the Babylonians a nd Elamites. and drove the Elamites into the mountains. Merodach Baladan hastily evacuated Babylon. The inhabitants were transported. Rusas of Urartu was succeeded by Argistes II. fostered trade. which for about twelve years had bee n ruled by Merodach Baladan. moving southward. Finally in 709 B. and hailed as the sav iour of the ancient ingdom. 462] remained faithful. 463] [paragraph continues] He recorded proudly not only his great conquests but also his wor s of public utility: he restored ancient cities. and was similarly dealt with.C. Tribute was paid by many peoples. Sargon was visited by the priests of Babylon and Borsippa. wher e he "too the hands of Bel". [p.C. he too refuge in the Chaldaean capital. and north Syria. He still received the active support of Elam. The whole of Chaldaea was subdued. and along the fron tiers from La e Van towards the south-east as far as the borders of Elam. The pressure of fresh infusions of Thraco-Phrygian tribes into western Asia Mino r had stirred Midas of the Mus i to co-operate with the Urartian power in an att empt to stamp out Assyrian influence in Cilicia. including the rulers of Cyprus. who deported a large proportion of the city's inhabitants and incorporated it in an Assyrian province. During his reign the noto rious Cimmerians and Scythians displayed much activity in the north and raided h is territory. and "Suti" Aramaean peoples settled in their homes. he subdued the Aramaeans on the eastern ban s of the Tigris. ing of Carchemish. Ere long he found himself caught between two fires. he hastened southward.

and the Hittite power had been extinguished. day 12th. prefect of the city According to the oracle of the Kulummite(s) A soldier (entered) the camp of the ing of . . i ng of Tyre. and Ea. month Ab [*1] The fact that Sennacherib lamented his father's sins suggests that the old ing had in some manner offended [p. Assyria (and illed him?). the last Pharaoh of the Ethiopian Dynasty. and leagued himself with Luli. he not only adored Ashur but also rev ived the ancient triad of Anu. . whom Sargon had deposed. Eponymy of Upahhir-belu. . It was completed before he undertoo the Babylonian campaign. . Egypt was concerned in it. was also a                                           . and all her multitude: her graves are round about him: all of them uncircumcised. he succumbed t o the influence of Babylon during the closing years of his life. . xxxii. ing of Judah. It is stated th at "he was not buried in his house". Before he died he appointed one of his sons. Perhaps. The metal and ivory wor at Ninev eh show traces of Gree influence after this period. of Amedu . in the restored palace of Ashur-natsir-pal III. Although he claimed to have restored the supre macy of Asshur "which had come to an end". "the burgh of Sargon". Senn acherib.d a new city. The tas which lay before Sennacherib (705-680 B. slain by the sword. A great conspiracy was fomented in several states against Sennacherib when the i ntelligence of Sargon's [p.) was to maintain the unity o f the great empire of his distinguished father. Tahar a (the Biblical Tirha ah [*1]). He was either assassinat ed at a military review or in some frontier war. 465] death was bruited abroad. Urartu was also overrun by the fierce barbarians from the north. which suggests that the customary religious rites were denied him. . 464] the priesthood. . He waged minor wars against the Kassite and Illipi tribes on the Elamite border. The Kassites. the Chaldaean ing. li e some of the Middle Empire monarchs. called Dur-Sharru in. . and others. for ere the states could reco ver from the blows dealt by the Assyrians the Cimmerian hordes ravaged their ter ritory.) [paragraph continues] Sennacherib found that Ionians had settled in Cilicia. (Eze iel. and he deported large numbers of them to Nineveh. viceroy of the northern portion of the empire. and that his lost soul was supposed to be a wanderer whi ch had to eat offal and drin impure water li e the ghost of a pauper or a crimi nal. and fostered the growth of the immem orial "mother-cult" of Ishtar.C. Previous to that period he had resided principally at Kal hi. . Sennacherib (sat on the throne). Merodach Baladan. He was a worshipper of many gods. had dreams of re-establish ing Egyptian supremacy in Palestine and Syria. Bel. supported by Elamites and Aramaeans. . fallen by the sword. As much is suggested by the fol lowing entry in an eponym list. Heze iah. and the Mus i and Hittite tribe s in Cappadocia and Cilicia. There is Meshech. to the north of Ninev eh. thou gh they caused their terror in the land of the living. however.C. . were no longer of any import ance. It was one of these last visits of the Assyrians to Tabal of the Hittites and the land of the Mus i (Meshech) which the Hebrew prophet referred to in after-time when h e exclaimed: Asshur is there and all her company: his graves are about him: all of them slain . Tubal. The new palace was occupied in 708 B.

and appointed as vassal ing Bel-ibni. C1 He wrote also letters to rail on the Lord God of Israel.150 people. . deposed Merodach Baladan . the son of to the conspiracy. and he shall hear a rumour. and to s pea against him. On his return from the s outh--according to Berosus he had been in Egypt--the Assyrian ing marched again st the ing of Judah." [*1] Heze iah sent his servants to Isaiah. including Ethiopian. The city was not captured. and I will cause him to fall by the sword in his own land. musici ans. and that he was purposed to fig ht against Jerusalem. but Merodach Baladan thrust him aside and reigned for nine months. however. "At that time Merodach Baladan. Sargon's son. an d shall return to his own land. with which the servants of the ing of Assyria have bla sphemed me. so shall not the God of Heze iah deliver h is people out of mine hand. [*2] According to Berosus. Thus saith the Lord. 466] this occasion with gifts of gold and silver and jewels. and the prophet said to them: Thus shall ye say to your master. Apparently anoth er conspiracy was brewing. that the angel of the Lord went out. who had been appointed governor. which he routed. Egyptian. In 707 B." [*2] Merodach Baladan again seized the throne of Babylon. Sennacherib appeared in the west. who remained faithful to Assyria for about three years. and smote t                                               . He was unable. Then he captured a number of cities in Judah and transported 200. Luli. he too counsel with the princes and his mighty men to sto p the waters of the fountains which were without the city: and they did help him . 467] The Biblical account of the disaster is as follows: And it came to pass that night. Next morning the army fled. Be not afraid of the word s which thou hast heard. . a native prince. Behold. As the gods of the nations of other lands have not del ivered their people out of mine hand. saying. fled to Cyprus. for Heze iah again revolted. When he approached Tyre. . costly furniture. At Elte eh Sennacher ib came into conflict with an army of allies. sent letters and a present to Heze iah . was murdered and a pretender sat on the throne for a brief p eriod. And when Heze iah saw that Sennacherib was come. Why should the ings of Assyria come and find much water? Sennacherib sent messengers to Jerusalem to attempt to stir up the people agains t Heze iah. during which period he busied himself by encouraging the ings of Judah and Tyre to re volt. and female slaves. routed the Chaldaeans and Aramaeans. As alon was afterwards reduced. Sennacherib found it necessary to penetrate Arabia. Sennacherib invaded Babylonia with a strong army. It appears that Heze iah "bought off" the Assyrians on [p. in g of Babylon.C. and Arabian Mutsri forces.C. who was in Jerusalem at the time. And Heze iah was glad of them. I will send a blast upon him. the camp of Sennacherib was visited in the night by swarms of field mice which ate up the quivers and b ows and the (leather) handles of shields. to enter Jerusalem . . the Babylonian priestly historian. in which Heze iah was compelled to remain "li e a bird in a cage". In 689 B. [p. but much of its territory was ceded to the ing of Sidon. . the ing.

images of deities were either bro en in pieces or s                                     .he camp of the Assyrians an hundred and four score and five thousand: and when t hey arose early in the morning. and Persians. the infection. unsmote by the sword. Old Merodach Baladan was c oncerned in the plot and too refuge on the Elamite coast. This was in 692 B. but was unable to dep ose Mushezib-Merodach. for the vassal ing. The city of Babylon was besieged and captured. he was unable to follow it up. And the eyes of the sleepers waxed deadly and chill. Sennacherib operated in southern Babylonia and invaded Elam. [*1] A pestilence may have bro en out in the camp. Aramaeans. and was unable to co-operate wi th the Chaldaean ing of Babylon. son of Merodach Baladan. perhaps. E-sagila was robbed of its treasures. in 689 B. and went and returned and dwelt at Nineveh. In 691 B. Chaldaeans. And the tents were all silent--the banners alone-The lances uplifted--the trumpet unblown. He died soon afterwards. His opportunity came. and its unfaith ful ing deported with a number of nobles to Assyria. and the rust on his mail. too Mushezib-Merodach prisoner. where the Chaldaeans had formed a colony. including Babylonians . Sennacherib captured the great commercial metr opolis. And the idols are bro e in the temple of Baal. Elamites. had allied himself with the Chaldaeans and raised the st andard of revolt. Byron's imagination was stirred by the vision of the br o en army of Assyria. Sennacherib again struc a blow for Babylonia. And there lay the rider distorted and pale. When the blue wave rolls nightly on deep Galilee.C. And cold as the spray of the roc -beating surf. And the sheen of their spears was li e stars of the sea. and dispatched him to Nineveh. Although Sennacherib claimed a victory. led by Samunu. And his cohorts were gleaming with purple and gold. [p. Li e the leaves of the forest when summer is green. behold. 468] And the might of the Gentile. A desperate battle was fought. Hath melted li e snow in the glance of the Lord. With the dew on his brow. So Sennacher ib ing of Assyria departed. A Chaldaean named Mushezib-M erodach seized the Babylonian throne. And the foam of his gasping lay white on the turf. That host with their banners at sunset were seen. Bel-ibni. and slaughtered the inhabitants without mercy. they were all dead corpses.C. And the widows of Asshur are loud in their wail. For several days the Assyrian soldiers looted the houses and temples. Then he wrea ed his vengeance on Babylon. Li e the leaves of the forest when autumn hath blown. That host on the morrow lay withered and strown. But ere he could re turn to Assyria he was opposed by a strong army of allies. having bee n carried by field mice. The Assyrian came down li e a wolf on the fold. But through it there rolled not the breath of his pride. Before this disaster occurred Sennacherib had to invade Babylonia again. Elam had been crippled by raids of the men of Parsua (Persia). And breathed on the face of the foe as he passed.C. however. For the Angel of Death spread his wings on the blast. And their hearts but once heaved--and forever grew still! And there lay the steed with his nostril all wide.

and the towers of earth and tiles." [*2] It is possible that Sennacherib desired to supplant Babylon as a commercial metr opolis by Nineveh. The water supply of the city was ensured by th e construction of dams and canals. the walls were a hundred feet h igh and about fifty feet wide. On another platform he had an arsenal built. The Biblical reference is as follows: "Sennache rib . I burned them with fire. dwelt at Nineveh. "that after several years of wor . gateways. More recently some rem ains of earlier strata have been recognized. and contract-tablets have been foun d which date from the period of the First Dynasty." writes Mr. but Esarhaddon was not one of the conspirators.ent to Nineveh: the statue of Bel-Merodach was dispatched to Clic to enlarge ASSAULT ON THE CITY OF . 470] lavishly decorated. King. . 469] [paragraph continues] Asshur so that he might ta e his place among the gods who were vassals of Ashur. and strong quays were erected to prevent floo ding. Dr. Koldewey concluded that all traces of earlier buildings had been destroyed on that occasion. walls. was proclaimed ing. The literary remains of the time also give indication of the grow th of culture: the inscriptions are distinguished by their prose style. Excavators have found that at the gates they were about a hundred feet in breadth. as he was worshipping in the ho                       . and its bas-reliefs display native art at its highest pitch of excellence. but a careful examination of the greater part of the ruins has added little to our nowledge of this most famous city before t he Neo-Babylonian period. I demolished them. Sennacherib died a violent death. On the 18th of Adar.. "from fo undation to roof. Li e his father. I destroyed them. Esarhaddon. surrounding it with two walls protected by moats. Mansell [p. s on of Sennacherib. "The city and its houses.). Sennacherib repaired a lofty platform which was isolated by a canal. According to Diodorus. Sennacherib's palace was the most magnificent building of its ind ever erected by an Assyrian emperor.C. sacred chapels. It is ev ident that men of culture and refinement were numerous in Assyria. Moreover.C. . The revolt continued from the "20th of Tebet" (early in January) until the 2nd day of Adar (the middle of February). and e rected upon it his great palace. Photo.ALAMMU (? JERUSALEM) BY THE ASSYRIANS UNDER SENNACHE RIB The besieging archers are protected by wic er screens Marble Slab from Kouyunji (Nineveh): now in British Museum. It was [p. The royal lib rary of Kal hi received many additions during the reign of the destroyer of Baby lon." [*1] "So thorough was Sennacherib's destruction of the city in 689 B. Berosus states that Sennacherib was murdered by two of his sons. a number of earlier pot-burials have been unearthed. . I laid them low and cast them into the Ara htu." Sennacherib recorded. And it came to pass. He extended and fortified that city. . According to the Babylonian C hronicle he was slain in a revolt by his son "on the twentieth day of Tebet" (68 0 B.

and of Shamash. Tahar a (the Biblical Tirh a ah) had stirred up Heze iah to revolt during Sennacherib's reign." Ashur-shar-etir appears to have been the claimant to the throne. and was accepted by the diplomatic Esarhaddon as a vassal ing. And Esarhaddon his son reigned in his stead. Apparently he had been appointed governor by Sennache rib after the destruction of Babylon. 471] as distinguished a lady as the famous Sammu-rammat. to which many of the inhabitants were drifting bac . deceive thee saying. but were routed in battle. As soon as Esarhaddon came to the throne he undertoo the restoration of Babylon . An Assyrian ambassador who had visited Jerusalem "heard [p. Egypt was intriguing in the west. . Indeed. and Ivah?" [*1] Sidon was a party to the pro-Egyp tian league which had been formed in Palestine and Syria.) was a man of different type from his father. Shamash-shum-u in. Jerusalem shall not be g iven into the hand of the ing of Assyria. He adopte d towards vassal states a policy of conciliation. in whom thou trustest. A Chaldaean revolt was inevitable. and restoring them to th e rightful heirs. The Elamit                                       . Withal. . thou hast heard what the ing s of Assyria have done to all lands by destroying them utterly. Let n ot thy God. and it may be that during his term of offi ce in Babylonia he was attracted by its ethical ideals. probably at Sippar. . who ruled over the souther n ingdom for eight years. In three years the city r esumed its pre-eminent position as a trading and industrial centre. the other sued for peace. He was a worshipper of the mother goddes s Ishtar of Nineveh and Ishtar of Arbela. and one of his sons. and did much to secure peace w ithin the empire by his magnanimous treatment of rebel ings who had been intimi dated by their neighbours and forced to entwine themselves in the meshes of intr igue. But it was not on ly due to her that Esarhaddon espoused the cause of the pro-Babylonian party. where he was assassina ted. and Rezeph. Behold. Early in his reign Esarhaddon conducted military operations in the west. and Haran. and the ing of the city of Sepharvaim. Na i'a. and developed those trai ts of character which distinguished him from his father and grandfather. 472] say concerning Tirha ah. Esarhaddon (680-668 B. The monarch was strongly influenced by his mother. He appears to be identical with the Axerdes of Berosus. He marr ied a Babylonian princess.C. . Two of Merodach Baladan's sons gave trouble i n the south.use of Nisroch (?Ashur) his god. and dur ing his absence the queen-mother Na i'a held the reins of government. His wars were directed mainly to secure the protection of outlying provinc es against aggressive raiders. it is possible that traditions regarding her contributed to the Semiramis legends. as well as of the nati onal god Ashur. was born in a Babylonian palace. and shalt thou b e delivered? Have the gods of the nations delivered them which my fathers have d estroyed. He sent messengers to Heze iah saying . and the children of Eden which were i n Telassar? Where is the ing of Hamath. a Babylonian princess who appears to have been [p. . Hena. One fled to Elam. Its Ethiopian ing. as Gozan. that Adrammelech and Sharezer (Ashur-shar-etir) his sons smote him with the sword: and they escaped into the land of Armenia (U rartu). he w on the hearts of the natives by expelling Chaldaeans from the private estates wh ich they had seized during the Merodach-Baladan regime. and the ing of Arphad.

moreover of bonds and im prisonment: they were stoned. he besought the Lord his God. . For he built up again the high places which Heze iah his father had destroyed. 473] and overrun the buffer State of the Mannai.C. In the north the Cimmerians and Scythians. The Assyrian governors. ultima tely repulsed the Elamite ing. will I put my name for ever. and in Jerusalem. and its gods carried away. but a few years later were caught and beheaded. were abl e to deal with the situation. however. who. which I have chosen out of all tribes o f Israel. The fierce mountaineers had allied themselves with Median tribes [p. He appears to have come under the influence of heathen teachers. to provo e him to anger. a nd he reared up altars for Baal. who had been so greatly favoured by Sennacherib. Other orthodox teachers appear to have been slain also. of which the Lord said to David. and used enchantments. Manasseh had succeeded Heze iah at Jerusalem when but a boy of twelve ye ars. and carried him to Babylon. and invaded Babylon. had espoused the Egyptian cause. yea. His son. an d dealt with familiar spirits and wizards: he wrought much wic edness in the sig ht of the Lord. . however. Esarhadd on drove Cimmerian invaders out of Cappadocia. 474] Isaiah ceased to prophesy after Manasseh came to the throne. And he set a graven image of the grove that he had made in the house. and against each other. and they swamped Phrygia. they were sawn asunder. restored the stolen gods. a nd worshipped all the host of heaven. which formed the nucleus of the new Sidon. and observed times. wa s unable to help him much. Sidon was besieged and captured. and cultivated good relations with Esarhaddon. [*1] [p. however. "Manasseh shed innocent blood very much. "Wherefore the Lord brought upon them (the people of Judah) the captains of the host of the ing of Assyria. the royal allies esc aped. and its vast treasures deported to Assyria (about 676 B. who was deposed soon after he returned home. who succeeded him. Sippar w as plundered. and served them. which was sawn through. and to Solomon h is son. however. According to Rabbin ic traditions he was seized by his enemies and enclosed in the hollow trun of a tree. were slain w ith the sword". who were constantly warring against U rartu. as did Ahab ing of Israel. In this house.). and made a grove. which too Manasseh among the thorns. till he had filled Jerusalem fro m one end to another. The most serious situation with which the emperor had to deal was in the west. had spread themselves westward and east. And when he was in affliction . and b ound him with fetters. And he built altars for all the host of heaven in the two courts of the house of the Lord. of more pronounced c haracter. Both Urartu and Assyria were suffere rs from the brigandage of these allies." [*1] It is possible that there is a reference to Isaiah's fate in an early Christian lament regarding the persecutions of the faithful: " Others had trial of cruel moc ings and scourgings. And he m ade his son pass through the fire. T he King of Sidon. The Scythian peril on the north-east frontier was. were tempted. There was great unrest in Elam at this period: it suffered gre atly from the inroads of Median and Persian pastoral fighting fol . He allied himself with the King of Cilicia. It is believed that Judah and other disaffected States were dealt with about thi s time. Esarhaddon's regarded this innovation as a sign of wea ness. The famous seaport was des troyed. and one of the notable results of the pacification of the north-eastern area was the conclusion of an alliance with Urartu. . Esarhaddon replaced it by a new city called Kar-Esarhaddon. and humbled himself greatly before the God of hi                         . [*2] There is no Assyrian evidence regarding the captivity of Ma nasseh.

towards the end of April in 668 B. "the ing remained in Assyria " during 669 B. and the early incidents of his campaign were included in the records of Ashur-bani-pal's reig n. On this memorial the Assyrian "King of the ings of Egypt" is depicted as a giant. Lower Egypt became an Assyrian province.                               . Esarhaddon divided his empire between two of his sons. and began to stir up revolts. Ammon." [*3] It was. however. Esarhaddon. and heard his suppl ication. and Esarhaddon [p. That great Egyptian metropolis was then occupied and plundered by the soldiers of Esarhaddon. Tahar a. he invaded Egypt. and prayed unto him: and he was intreated of him. Hazael of Arabia was conciliated by having restored to him his gods which Se nnacherib had carried away.C. C. he went westward with a much more powerful army. Egypt continued to intrigue against Assyria. the various petty ings. but suffered a reverse and had to retreat. A detachment advanced to Ty re and invested it. In 668 B. &c. so th at he might shatter the last vestige of power possessed by his rival. who had fled to Napata in Ethiopia. crossed the Delta fronti er. and swept victoriously as far south as Memphis. 476] the throne. where Tahar a suffered a cru shing defeat. Esarhaddon planned out another expedition. He died towards the end of October. According to the Babylonian Chronicle..C. howe ver. Ashur-bani-pal w as evidently concerned in the conspiracy. Tahar a was defeated at Memphis. Ashdod. including Necho of Sais. had been intriguing regarding the succession to [p. who disli ed the emperor be cause of Babylonian sympathies. During his absence from home the old Assyrian party. Tyre revolted so on afterwards (673 B. In 671 B .C. The crown prince Sinidinabal w as dead: perhaps he had been assassinated. The Assyrian records include Manasseh of Judah (Menase of the city o f Yaudu) with the ings of Edom. and Shamash-shum-u in t o be King of Babylon and the vassal of Ashur-banipal. which pierce the lips of dwarfish figures representing th e Pharaoh Tahar a of Egypt and the unfaithful King of Tyre. and it is significant to find that he pleaded on behalf of certain of the conspirators. who was suffering from bad health. set out for Egypt. Tyr e was also captured. made elaborate preparations for his next campaign. Ashur-bani-pal was selected to be King of Assyria.. the last Ethiopian Pharaoh. With one hand he pours out an oblation to a god. In 674 B. When he returned home Esarhaddon erected at the Syro-Cappadocian city of Singirl i [*1] a statue of victory. in the other he grasps his sceptre and two co rds attached to rings. had set over them Assyrian governors.s fathers. and brought him again to Jerusalem into his ingdom. Tyre. Other sons received import ant priestly appointments. a nd "twenty-two ings of Khatti" as payers of tribute to Esarhaddon. Gaza.. their overlo rd. At the feast of the goddess Gula (identical with Bau. But before he left home he found it necessary to set his ingdom in order. The main force meanwhile pushed on. "and he slew with the sword many noble men". in eeping with the policy of Esarhaddon to deal in this manner with an err ing vassal.C.).C. and retreated southward to Thebes. which is now in the Berlin museum. consort of Ninip). returned to Upper Egypt . 475] resolved to deal effectively with Tahar a. Moab. Byblos. Soon after these arrangements were completed Esarhaddon.

19 and 29. v. and still another that he was a petty in g of an Egyptian state in the Delta and not Shaba a. 13. xv. and So. and appears to have hel d in chec his overbearing nobles. ^452:5 Kir was probably on the borders of Elam. xv. 3. 3-5. xxviii. xvi. 1-14. ^450:1 2 Kings. xv. He has been ide ntified with Pharaoh Shaba a of the Twenty-fifth Egyptian Dynasty. 7-9. one would suppose. ^452:4 Isaiah. Shabe. ^455:3 2 Kings. ^455:2 Isaiah. the more important personages. but won the gratitude of the priesthood by his activities as a builder and restorer of temples. ^449:1 2 Kings. says Masper o. ^455:1 2 Kings. Trade flourished during his reign.So passed away the man who has been eulogized as "the noblest and most sympathet ic figure among the Assyrian ings". xv. Shibahi. 6. 2 Chronicles. xiv. xv. ^456:2 The people carried away would not be the whole of the inhabitants--only. and reconstructed several temples in Babyl onia. Footnotes ^445:1 2 Kings. 10. ^453:1 2 Kings. 16-41. 1-14. ^452:2 Isaiah. enough to ma e up the number 2                       . He did not underta e the erection of a new city. s 8. li e his father. ^453:2 2 Kings. Another theory is that he was Seve. xv. ^449:2 2 Kings. 25. ^456:1 2 Kings. Seveh. ^447:1 2 Kings. xvii. 19. xvii. He found ed a new "house of Ashur" at Nineveh. ^451:2 Amos. vii. ^452:6 2 Kings. xviii. xvi. ^452:3 2 Kings. 30. xx. [p. There was certainly much which was attracti ve in his character. 20. He inaugurated many social reforms. i. xvii. His son Ashur-bani-pal was the last great Assyrian ruler. 29. 5. that monarch may have been a petty ing before he founded his Dynasty. 3-7. &c. ^449:3 2 Kings. 1. ^454:1 In the Hebrew text this monarch is called Sua. ^452:1 2 Kings. vii. xvi. 455] ing of Mutsri. ^451:1 Amos. The Assyrian texts refer to him as Sebe . 20. 34 and xix.

^469:2 A History of Sumer and A ad. xxxix. 36. xxxvii. 6. at sacred-texts. xxi.290 given above. 1. is subsequently referred to with two Arabian ings as tribute payers to Sargon a pparently after Lower Egypt had come under the sway of Shaba a. 3-7. 37. however. Piru. 200-1. ^466:2 2 Kings.7. ^467:1 2 Kings. 9. com [p. ^459:1 Isaiah. See [*next chapter]. ^465:1 Isaiah. pp. T. 36. 9-17. ^472:1 Isaiah. ^474:3 2 Chronicles. 2. ^459:2 Commander-in-chief. xi. ^473:1 2 Kings. 1. History of Sennacherib. ^458:1 Those who. xx. xix. pp. 16. identify "Piru of Mutsri" with "Pharaoh of Egyp t" adopt the view that Bocchoris of Sais paid tribute to Sargon. ^466:1 2 Chronicles. It may be that Manasseh was ta en to Babylon during Ashur-bani-pal's reign. ^474:1 2 Kings. ^465:2 Isaiah. 2-5. 35. p. xxxvii. 477] [ch-20] CHAPTER XX The Last Days of Assyria and Babylonia              . xxi. xxxiii. 11-3. the first ing o f the Ethiopian or Twenty-fifth Dynasty. Myths of Babylonia and Assyria. xx. ^463:1 The Old Testament in the Light of the Historical Records and Legends of A ssyria and Babylonia. xxxii. li e Breasted. 8-13. G. 37. xix. [1915]. p. ^457:1 Passing of the Empires. 7. ^469:1 Smith-Sayce. Pinches. ^459:3 Isaiah. 392. by Donald A. MacKenzie. ^474:2 Hebrews. 132-5. ^475:1 Pronounce g as in gem.

There is no healing of thy bruise. . . tabering upon their breas ts. . . The ancient civilizations ripened quic ly before the end came. and save thee from these things that shall come upon thee. t hey [p. Draw thee waters for the siege. they shall be as stubble. . the monthly prognosticato rs. wherein thou hast laboured from thy youth. an d her maids shall lead her as with the voice of doves. . Cities resounded with "the noise of a wh ip. even thy merchants. if so be thou shalt be able to profit. . THE burden of Nineveh . fortify thy strong holds: go into clay . 479]                                     . . and drieth up all the rivers: Bashan languisheth. sit on the ground: there is no throne. and of the pransing horses. [*2] Against a gloomy bac ground. Thy shepherds slumber. .iln. Come down. if so be thou mayest prevail. He rebu eth the sea. He that dasheth in pieces is come up befo re thy face. from thy youth: they s hall wander every one to his quarter. . Thus shall they be un to thee with whom thou hast laboured. Thou art wearied in the multitude of t hy counsels. K ings still revelled in pomp and luxury. we have reveale d in the last century of Mesopotamian glory the splendour of Assyria and the bea uty of Babylon. the temples. The gates of the rivers shall be opened. . O ing of Assyr ia: thy nobles shall dwell in the dust: thy people is scattered upon the mountai ns. And Huzzab shall be led away captive. Nebo stoopeth. and sit in the dust. Let now the astrologers. and great in power. and with the multitude of thy s orceries. The Lord is slow to anger. . . . philosophers and scie ntists were shattering the unsubstantial fabric of immemorial superstition.Doom of Nineveh and Babylon--Babylonian Monotheism--Ashur-banipal and his Brothe r. and the palace shall be dissolved. the star-gazers. Stand now with thine enchantments. and no man gathereth them. and the clouds are the dust of his feet. and Carmel. and the noise of the rattling of the wheels. dar and ominous as a thundercloud. and observatories. . 478] over thee: for upon whom hath not thy wic edness passed continually? [*1] The doom of Babylon was also foretold: Bel boweth down. King of Babylon--Ceremony of "Ta ing the Hands of Bel"--Merodach restored to E-sagila--Assyrian Invasion of Egypt and Sac of Thebes--Lydia's Appeal to Assyr ia--Elam subdued--Revolt of Babylon--Death of Babylonian King--Sac of Susa--Psa mti of Egypt--Cimmerians crushed--Ashur-bani-pal's Literary Activities--The Sar danapalus Legend--Last Kings of Assyria--Fall of Nineveh--The New Babylonian Emp ire--Necho of Egypt expelled from Syria--King Jehoai in of Judah deposed--Zede i ah's Revolt and Punishment--Fall of Jerusalem and Hebrew Captivity--Jeremiah lam ents over Jerusalem--Babylonia's Last Independent King--Rise of Cyrus the Conque ror--The Persian Patriarch and Eagle Legend--Cyrus conquers Lydia--Fall of Babyl on--Jews return to Judah--Babylon from Cyrus to Alexander the Great. and ma eth it dry. There shall the fire devour thee. thy wound is g rievous: all that hear the bruit of thee shall clap the hands [p. none shall save thee." [*3] But the minds of c ultured men were more deeply occupied than ever with the mysteries of life and c reation. and of the jumping chariots. ma e strong the bric . . and th e flower of Lebanon languisheth. In the libraries. . the fire shall burn them. O daughter of the Cha ldeans. they attained to higher conceptions of the duties and responsibilities of man ind. . . . the sword shall cut thee off. . she shall be brought up. and w ill not at all acquit the wic ed: the Lord hath his way in the whirlwind and in the storm. . . . . The horseman lifteth up both the bright sword and the glittering spear. The valiant men are in scarlet. and tread the morter. stand up. Behold. O virgin d aughter of Babylon. .

Guide him in a straight path. her grandsons. they discovered. and foretold ecli pses: in every sphere of intellectual activity great men were sifting out truth from the debris of superstition. Which thou dost bestow on All people. and there was little or no friction throughout the provinces: new rul ers were appointed to administer the States of Arvad and Ammon. According to thy grace. the arrangements which he had made for the successi on were carried out smoothly and quic ly.. [*1] [paragraph continues] The "star-gazers" had become scientists. The creature of thy hand. Na i'a. and completed her lifewor by issuing a proclamation exhorting all loy al subjects and vassals to obey the new rulers. on the march through Egypt. the queen mother. Thou hast created me. The god Merodach was still a capt ive in the temple of Ashur. in 668 B. One of the last ings of Babylon. was acting a s regent.C. O Lord. li e Wordsworth. its ancient dignities and privileges were being partially restored. Babylon welcomed its new ing--a Babylonian by birth and the son of a Babylonian princess. and Whose name thou hast proclaimed As was pleasing to thee. recorded a prayer which reveal s the loftiness of religious thought and feeling attained by men to whom graven images were no longer worthy of adoration and reverence--men whose god was not m ade by human hands-O eternal prince! Lord of all being! As for the ing whom thou lovest. It seemed as if Babylon and Assyria were about to cross [p. King of Babylon. and Shamash-shum-u in.conceived of divine love and divine guidance. E mperor of Assyria. intelligence reached Nineveh that Esarhaddon had passed away. Do thou lead aright his life. Cause me to love thy supreme dominion. that the soul has-An obscure sense Of possible sublimity. Nineveh perished with dramatic suddenness: Babylon died of "seni le decay". I am the prince. 480] the threshold of a new age. obedient to thee. No ing could reign aright if Merodach were not rest ored to E-sagila. When. when their doom was sounded and their power was shat tered for ever. Ashur-bani-pal. And create in my heart The worship of thy godhead And grant whatever is pleasing to thee. whereto With growing faculties she doth aspire. Because thou hast fashioned my life. Nebuchadrezzar. Peace prevailed in th e capital. But one great and deep-seated grievance remained. The ancient ingdom rejoiced that it was no longer to be ruled as a p rovince. Indeed he could not be regarded as the lord of the land until                     . but there were n o changes elsewhere. and With dominion over all people Thou hast entrusted me.

Let thy face be turned tow ards E-sagila. Return to the city thou hast deserte d for a house unworthy of thee. in his relation to the southern ingdom. and then proceed to Babylon as his repres entative. 481] [paragraph continues] A pious and faithful monarch was therefore the protector o f the people. the solar lawgiver. Where ing was. This close association of the ing with the god gave the priests great influence in Babylon. When it was consumm ated the ing became the steward or vassal of Merodach. The public rejoicings were conducted on an elaborate scale. O Merodach! lord of the [p. At length." Thus did Ashur-bani-pal ma e pious and dignified submission to the will of the p riests. and then visited Ashur's temple to plead wi th Bel Merodach to return to Babylon. A favourable response was. the priests of Shamash informed the emperor that Bel Mero dach could not exercise sway as sovereign lord so long as he remained a prisoner in a city which was not his own. Ashur-bani-pal accepted the verdict. They were the power behind the throne. Nor could he secure the co-operation of the priests unless the ima ge of the god was placed in the temple. or cause him to be deposed if he did not satisfy their demands.he had "ta en the hands of Bel". than his distinguis hed predecessor. The welfare of the whole ingdom depended on the manner in which the ing acted towards the god . however. and the priests and nobles l oo ed forward to the day when the ingdom would once again become free and indep endent and powerful. Ashur-bani-pal and Shamash-shum-u in led the procession of priests and soldiers. they could strengthen the position of a royal m onarch. Babylon welcomed the deity who was thus restored to his temple after the lapse o f about a quarter of a century. as the representative of Ashur. and every day he appeare d before the divine one to receive instructions and worship him. A ing w ho reigned over Babylon without the priestly party on his side occupied an insec ure position. The ceremony of ta ing the god's hands was an act of homage. 482] gods. Babylon believed that a new era of prosperity had been inaugurated. issue thou the command to return again to Babylon. Ashur-bani-pal (668-626 B. and the god's image was carried bac to E-sagila. of course. received from Merodach when addres sed by the emperor. the local gods being carried forth to do homage to Merodach. which in thy wrath thou didst bring to naught.) made arrangements to complete his father's designs                                           . [p. he was unwilling to occup y a less dignified position. thy lofty and divine temple. "Let thy thoughts". and elaborate ceremonials were ob-served at each city they passed. In response. "dwell in Ba bylon. accompanie d by a strong force. If Merodach was satisfied with the ing he sent blessings to the land. there Merodach had to he also. he cried. Ashur-bani-pal hesitated for a time.C. Shamash-shum-u in pleaded with his royal brother and overlord to restore Bel Mer odach to Babylon. he was prevailed upon to consult the oracle of Shamash. the re vealer of destiny. The god was accordingly as ed if Shamash-shum-u in could "ta e the hands of Bel" in Ashur's temple. The destinies of the royal h ouse were placed in their hands. if he w as angry he sent calamities. and the priests celebrated with unconcealed sati sfaction and pride the ceremony at which Shamash-shum-u in "too the hands of Be l".

and thei r cities were severely dealt with. 484] the aid of mercenaries from the State of Caria in south-western Asia Minor. it was probably argued that he was punishing the people because they had not thrown of f the yo e of Assyria. and all he r great men were bound in chains".C. ing of Lydia. "her young children also were dashed in pieces at the top of all th e streets: and they (the Assyrians) cast lots for her honourable men. and b esieged and captured Thebes. Gifts were sent to Ashur-bani-pal by the ings of Arvad.C. and sent bac to Eg ypt as the Assyrian governor. marched northward from Thebes [p. and he sought the help of As hur-bani-pal. as Gyges did not send tribute. they resigned themselves to the inevitable. The most surprising and sensational conspiracy against Ashur-bani-pal was foment ed by his brother Shamash-shum-u in of Babylon. When the ings on the seacoasts of Palestine and Asia Minor found that they coul d no longer loo to Egypt for help. but the Assyrian army repulsed t he invaders at Dur-ilu and pushed on to Susa. Ashur-bani -pal's army swept through Lower Egypt and expelled the Ethiopians. The Gree s of Cilicia. it would appear that he held h is own with [p.C. began to reign as the vassal of Assyria. It is believed Necho was slain. and Psamti . and ceased to intrigue against Assyria. but on this occasion the Assyrians followed up their success. succeeded Tahar a.C.C. Its nobles were slain or ta en c aptive. but was pardoned after he appeared before Ashur-bani-pal. The Ethiopian supremacy in Egypt w as finally extinguished. who figures in the le gends of Greece. Its treasures were transported to Nineveh. Tarsus. however. He captured Memphis. and Her odotus relates that his son Psamti too refuge in Syria. among other s. This monarch had been harassed by the Cimmerians after they acc omplished the fall of Midas of Phrygia in 676 B. Elam thus came under Assyrian sway. was displace d. and the Achaeans and Phoenicians of Cyprus remained faithful to Assyria. 483] with a strong army. who was appointed the Pharao h. son of Necho. Necho of Sais had to be arrested. but. Tanutamon fle d southward. as has been st ated. after the two had co-operated pe acefully for fifteen years. The beaten Pharaoh returned to Ethiopia and did n ot again attempt to expel the Assyrians. King Teumman was slain. Elam gave trouble in 665 B. But the most extraordinary development was the visit to Nineveh of emissaries from Gyges. The temple treasures of Babylon were freely drawn upon to purchase the allegianc                                              . a son of Pharaoh Shaba a. who refers to Thebes as No (Nu-Amon = ci ty of Amon). and the ing may have been strongly influenced by the fact that Babylonia was at the time suffering from severe depression caused by a series of poor harvests. According to the prophet Nahum. according to the priests. The Arvad ruler. Tyre. and in 663 B. [*1] Thebes never again recovered its prestig e. Tanutamon. Merodach. and a s on of the King of Urtagu was placed on his throne. He died in 666 B. was driven from Memphis. was angry. In 661 B. and Tabal. His Tartan continued the campaign. which they sac ed. It is not nown whether the Assyrians operated against the Cimmeri ans in Tabal. The Elamites received a crushing d efeat in a battle on the ban s of the River Ula. and Tahar a.regarding Egypt.. by raiding A ad. No doubt the priestly party at E-sagila were deeply concerned in the movement. and his son set on his throne. It was found that s ome of the petty ings of Lower Egypt had been intriguing with Tahar a.

C. and the Chaldaeans in the south were completely subjugated before Babylon was captured. That great commercial me tropolis was closely besieged for three years. Elam's power of resistanc e was finally extinguished. The joint operations of A ssyria and Lydia resulted in the extinction of the ingdom of the Cimmerians abo ut 645 B. That unhappy country was terribly devastated by As syrian troops. his slav es and all his treasures. proclaimed King Kandala nu [*1] of Babylon. Aramaeans and Elami tes. and many petty ings in Palestine and Syria: even Egypt and Libya were prep ared to help him. Thus. When. 11). however. "Outwardly with his lips he spo e friendly things. Ur and Erech were besieged and captured by the Cha ldaeans. War bro e out simultaneously. The records of Ashur-bani-pal cease after 640 B. Gyges must have wea ened his army by thus assisting Psamti . xxxiii.C. He made peace with Ethiopia by marrying a princess of its royal li ne. for he was seve rely defeated and slain by the Cimmerians.C. he was forgiven. and was starved into submission. wa s recovered and restored to the ancient Sumerian city. When the Assyrians were entering the city gates a sensational happening occurred . while inwardly his heart plo tted murder. Shamash-shum-u in. the faithful governor of Ur was approached. ing of Lydia.. The emperor's heart was filled with sorrow and anguish. shut himself up in his palace and set fire to it. and a new alliance was formed with the dying State of Urartu. I t was recorded afterwards as a great triumph of this campaign that the statue of Nana of Erech. by destroying a buffer State. who promptly informed Ashur-bani-pal of the great conspiracy. who [p.C.C. Ashur-ba ni-pal strengthened the hands of the people who were destined twenty years after his death to destroy the Empire of Assyria. which had been carried off by Elamites 1635 years previously. but it w as withdrawn before long on account of the unsettled political conditions at hom e. Gyges. Shamash-shum-u in precipitated the crisis by forbidding Ashur-bani-p al to ma e offerings to the gods in the cities of Babylonia. he communicated with his superior at Erech. which was pillaged and wrec ed. Elam was severely dealt with. Psamti of Egypt had thrown off the yo e of Assyria. The Assyrian armies swept through Babylonia. so that we are unable to fol                                   . Ashur-bani-pal dispatched an army to Cilicia. who besieged and captured Susa. extended his sw ay southward. The Medes and the Mannai in the north-west were visited and subdued. and with the assistance of Carian mercenaries received from his ally. Ere Ashur-bani-pal had any nowledge of the conspiracy his brother had won over several governors in Babylonia. and it may be that at this t ime Manasseh of Judah was ta en to Babylon (2 Chronicles.e of allies. He thus declared hi s independence. appealed to Assyria f or help. the rebel ing. where. and the country fell a ready prey to the Medes and P ersians. the Chaldaeans. ho wever. 486] soon entered into possession of it. His son. and perished there amidst the flames with his wife and children. and an Elamite army marched to the aid of the King of Babylon. and reigned over it until his death in 626 B. Ashur-bani-pal was in 647 B. In after-time he lame nted in [p. Ardys. The intelligence reached Nineveh li e a bolt from the blu e. 485] an inscription that his "faithless brother" forgot the favours he had shown him. The western allies of Babylon were also dealt with." In 652 B.

low the events of his reign during its last fourteen years. Apparently peace pre vailed everywhere. The great monarch, who was a pronounced adherent of the godde ss cults, appears to have given himself up to a life of indulgence and inactivit y. Under the name Sardanapalus he went down to tradition as a sensual Oriental m onarch who lived in great pomp and luxury, and perished in his burning palace wh en the Medes revolted against him. It is evident, however, that the memory of mo re than one monarch contributed to the Sardanapalus legend, for Ashur-bani-pal h ad lain nearly twenty years in his grave before the siege of Nineveh too place.

Clic to enlarge ASHUR-BANI-PAL RECLINING IN A BOWER Marble Slab from Kouyunji (Nineveh); now in British Museum. Photo. Mansell

[p. 487] In the Bible he is referred to as "the great and noble Asnapper", and he appears to have been the emperor who settled the Babylonian, Elamite, and other colonis ts "in the cities of Samaria". [*1] He erected at Nineveh a magnificent palace, which was decorated on a lavish scal e. The sculptures are the finest productions of Assyrian art, and embrace a wide variety of subjects--battle scenes, hunting scenes, and elaborate Court and tem ple ceremonies. Realism is combined with a delicacy of touch and a degree of ori ginality which raises the artistic productions of the period to the front ran a mong the artistic triumphs of antiquity. Ashur-bani-pal boasted of the thorough education which he had received from the tutors of his illustrious father, Esarhaddon. In his palace he ept a magnificen t library. It contained thousands of clay tablets on which were inscribed and tr anslated the classics of Babylonia. To the scholarly zeal of this cultured monar ch is due the preservation of the Babylonian story of creation, the Gilgamesh an d Etana legends, and other literary and religious products of remote antiquity. Most of the literary tablets in the British Museum were ta en from Ashur-bani-pa l's library. There are no Assyrian records of the reigns of Ashur-bani-pal's two sons, Ashuretil-ilani--who erected a small palace and reconstructed the temple to Nebo at K al hi--and Sin-shar-ish un, who is supposed to have perished in Nineveh. Apparen tly Ashur-etil-ilani reigned for at least six years, and was succeeded by his br other. A year after Ashur-bani-pal died, Nabopolassar, who was probably a Chaldaean, wa s proclaimed ing at Babylon. According to Babylonian legend he was an Assyrian general [p. 488] who had been sent southward with an army to oppose the advance of invaders from the sea. Nabopolassar's sway at first was confined to Babylon and Borsippa, but he strengthened himself by forming an offensive and defensive alliance with the Median ing, whose daughter he had married to his son Nebuchadrezzar. He strengt hened the fortifications of Babylon, rebuilt the temple of Merodach, which had b een destroyed by Ashur-bani-pal, and waged war successfully against the Assyrian s and their allies in Mesopotamia.











About 606 B.C. Nineveh fell, and Sin-shar-ish un may have burned himself there i n his palace, li e his uncle, Shamash-shum-u in of Babylon, and the legendary Sa rdanapalus. It is not certain, however, whether the Scythians or the Medes were the successful besiegers of the great Assyrian capital. "Woe to the bloody city! it is all full of lies and robbery", Nahum had cried. ". . . The gates of the r ivers shall be opened, and the palace shall be dissolved. . . . Ta e ye the spoi l of silver, ta e the spoil of gold. . . . Behold, I am against thee, saith the Lord of hosts." [*1] According to Herodotus, an army of Medes under Cyaxares had defeated the Assyria ns and were besieging Nineveh when the Scythians overran Media. Cyaxares raised the siege and went against them, but was defeated. Then the Scythians swept acro ss Assyria and Mesopotamia, and penetrated to the Delta frontier of Egypt. Psamt i ransomed his ingdom with handsome gifts. At length, however, Cyaxares had th e Scythian leaders slain at a banquet, and then besieged and captured Nineveh. Assyria was completely overthrown. Those of its nobles and priests who escaped t he sword no doubt [p. 489] escaped to Babylonia. Some may have found refuge also in Palestine and Egypt. Necho, the second Pharaoh of the Twenty-sixth Egyptian Dynasty, did not hesitate to ta e advantage of Assyria's fall. In 609 B.C. he proceeded to recover the lo ng-lost Asiatic possessions of Egypt, and operated with an army and fleet. Gaza and As alon were captured. Josiah, the grandson of Manasseh, was King of Judah. "In his days Pharaoh-nechoh ing of Egypt went up against the ing of Assyria to the river Euphrates: and ing Josiah went against him; and he (Necho) slew him at Megiddo." [*1] His son, Jehoahaz, succeeded him, but was deposed three months later by Necho, who placed another son of Josiah, named Elia im, on the throne, "and turned his name to Jehoia im". [*2] The people were heavily taxed to pay t ribute to the Pharaoh. When Necho pushed northward towards the Euphrates he was met by a Babylonian arm y under command of Prince Nebuchadrezzar. [*3] The Egyptians were routed at Carc hemish in 60s B.C. (Jeremiah, xvi, 2). In 604 B.C. Nabopolassar died, and the famous Nebuchadrezzar II ascended the thr one of Babylon. He lived to be one of its greatest ings, and reigned for over f orty years. It was he who built the city described by Herodotus (pp. <page 219> et seq.), and constructed its outer wall, which enclosed so large an area that n o army could invest it. Merodach's temple was decorated with greater magnificenc e than ever before. The great palace and hanging gardens were erected by this mi ghty monarch, who no doubt attracted to the city large numbers of the s illed ar tisans who had fled from Nineveh. He also restored temples at other cities, and made generous gifts to the [p. 490] priests. Captives were drafted into Babylonia from various lands, and employed c leaning out the canals and as farm labourers. The trade and industries of Babylon flourished greatly, and Nebuchadrezzar's sol diers too speedy vengeance on roving bands which infested the caravan roads. "T he ing of Egypt", after his crushing defeat at Carchemish, "came not again any more out of his land: for the ing of Babylon had ta en from the river of Egypt unto the river Euphrates all that pertained to the ing of Egypt." [*1] Jehoia i m of Judah remained faithful to Necho until he was made a prisoner by Nebuchadre zzar, who "bound him in fetters to carry him to Babylon". [*2] He was afterwards





















sent bac to Jerusalem. "And Jehoia im became his (Nebuchadrezzar's) servant th ree years: then he turned and rebelled against him." [*3] Bands of Chaldaeans, Syrians, Moabites, and Ammonites were harassing the frontie rs of Judah, and it seemed to the ing as if the Babylonian power had collapsed. Nebuchadrezzar hastened westward and scattered the raiders before him. Jehoia i m died, and his son Jehoiachan, a youth of eighteen years, succeeded him. Nebuch adrezzar laid siege to Jerusalem, and the young ing submitted to him and was ca rried off to Babylon, with "all the princes, and all the mighty men of valour, e ven ten thousand captives, and all the craftsmen and smiths: none remained save the poorest sort of the people of the land". [*4] Nebuchadrezzar had need of war riors and wor -men. Zede iah was placed on the throne of Judah as an Assyrian vassal. He remained fa ithful for a few years, but at length began to conspire with Tyre and Sidon, [p. 491] [paragraph continues] Moab, Edom, and Ammon in favour of Egyptian suzerainty. Ph araoh Hophra (Apries), the fourth ing of the Twenty-sixth Dynasty, too active steps to assist the conspirators, and "Zede iah rebelled against the ing of Bab ylon". [*1] Nebuchadrezzar led a strong army through Mesopotamia, and divided it at Riblah, on the Orontes River. One part of it descended upon Judah and captured Lachish a nd Aze ah. Jerusalem was able to hold out for about eighteen months. Then "the f amine was sore in the city, so that there was no bread for the people of the lan d. Then the city was bro en up, and all the men of war fled, and went forth out of the city by night by way of the gate between the two walls, which was by the ing's garden." Zede iah attempted to escape, but was captured and carried befor e Nebuchadrezzar, who was at Riblah, in the land of Hamath. And the ing of Babylon slew the sons of Zede iah before his eyes. . . . Then he put out the eyes of Zede iah; and the ing of Babylon bound him in chains and c arried him to Babylon and put him in prison till the day of his death. [*2] [paragraph continues] The majority of the Jews were deported to Babylonia, where they were employed as farm labourers. Some rose to occupy important official po sitions. A remnant escaped to Egypt with Jeremiah. Jerusalem was plundered and desolated. The Assyrians "burned the house of the Lo rd and the ing's house, and all the houses of Jerusalem", and "bra e down all t he walls of Jerusalem round about". Jeremiah lamented: How doth the city sit solitary, that was full of people! how is she become as a widow! she that was great among the nations, and [p. 492] princess among the provinces, how is she become tributary! She weepeth sore in t he night, and her tears are on her chee s: among all her lovers she hath none to comfort her: all her friends have dealt treacherously with her, they are become her enemies. Judah is gone into captivity because of affliction, and because of great servitu de: she dwelleth among the heathen, she findeth no rest: all her persecutors ove rtoo her between the straits. . . . Jerusalem remembered in the days of her affliction and of her miseries all her p leasant things that she had in the days of old. . . . [*1]























Amel-Mardu , the "Evil Merodach" of the Bible, the next ing of Babylon, reigned for a little over two years. He released Jehoiachin from prison, and allowed hi m to live in the royal palace. [*2] Berosus relates that Amel-Mardu lived a dis sipated life, and was slain by his brother-in-law, Nergal-shar-utsur, who reigne d two years (559-6 B.C.). Labashi-Mardu , son of Nergal-shar-utsur, followed wit h a reign of nine months. He was deposed by the priests. Then a Babylonian princ e named Nabuna'id (Nabonidus) was set on the throne. He was the last independent ing of Babylonia. His son Belshazzar appears to have acted as regent during th e latter part of the reign. Nabonidus engaged himself actively during his reign (556-540 B.C.) in restoring temples. He entirely reconstructed the house of Shamash, the sun god, at Sippar, and, towards the end of his reign, the house of Sin, the moon god, at Haran. Th e latter building had been destroyed by the Medes. The religious innovations of Nabonidus made him exceedingly unpopular throughout Babylonia, for he carried away the gods of Ur, Erech, Larsa, and Eridu, [p. 493] and had them placed in E-sagila. Merodach and his priests were displeased: the p restige of the great god was threatened by the policy adopted by Nabonidus. As a n inscription composed after the fall of Babylon sets forth, Merodach "gazed ove r the surrounding lands . . . loo ing for a righteous prince, one after his own heart, who should ta e his hands. . . . He called by name Cyrus." Cyrus was a petty ing of the shrun en Elamite province of Anshan, which had bee n conquered by the Persians. He claimed to be an Achaemenian--that is a descenda nt of the semi-mythical A hamanish (the Achaemenes of the Gree s), a Persian pat riarch who resembled the Aryo-Indian Manu and the Germanic Mannus. A hamanish wa s reputed to have been fed and protected in childhood by an eagle--the sacred ea gle which cast its shadow on born rulers. Probably this eagle was remotely Totem ic, and the Achaemenians were descendants of an ancient eagle tribe. Gilgamesh w as protected by an eagle, as we have seen, as the Aryo-Indian Sha untala was by vultures and Semiramis by doves. The legends regarding the birth and boyhood of Cyrus resemble those related regarding Sargon of A ad and the Indian Karna and Krishna. Cyrus ac nowledged as his overlord Astyages, ing of the Medes. He revolted agai nst Astyages, whom he defeated and too prisoner. Thereafter he was proclaimed K ing of the Medes and Persians, who were indred peoples of Indo-European speech. The father of Astyages was Cyaxares, the ally of Nabopolassar of Babylon. When this powerful ing captured Nineveh he entered into possession of the northern p art of the Assyrian Empire, which extended westward into Asia Minor to the front ier of the Lydian ingdom; he also possessed himself of Urartu [p. 494] [paragraph continues] (Armenia). Lydia had, after the collapse of the Cimmerian power, absorbed Phrygia, and its ambitious ing, Alyattes, waged war against the Medes. At length, owing to the good offices of Nebuchadrezzar of Babylon and Sy ennesis of Cilicia, the Medes and Lydians made peace in 585 B.C. Astyages then m arried a daughter of the Lydian ruler. When Cyrus overthrew Cyaxares, ing of the Medes, Croesus, ing of Lydia, formed an alliance against him with Amasis, ing of Egypt, and Nabonidus, ing of Baby










Tyre was besieged, but was not captured. Its ace with Nebuchadrezzar.

ing, however, arranged terms of pe

















lon. The latter was at first friendly to Cyrus, who had attac ed Cyaxares when h e was advancing on Babylon to dispute Nabonidus's claim to the throne, and perha ps to win it for a descendant of Nebuchadrezzar, his father's ally. It was after the fall of the Median Dynasty that Nabonidus undertoo the restoration of the moon god's temple at Haran. Cyrus advanced westward against Croesus of Lydia before that monarch could recei ve assistance from the intriguing but pleasure-loving Amasis of Egypt; he defeat ed and overthrew him, and seized his ingdom (547--546 B.C.). Then, having estab lished himself as supreme ruler in Asia Minor, he began to operate against Babyl onia. In 539 B.C. Belshazzar was defeated near Opis. Sippar fell soon afterwards . Cyrus's general, Gobryas, then advanced upon Babylon, where Belshazzar deemed himself safe. One night, in the month of Tammuz-Belshazzar the ing made a great feast to a thousand of his lords, and dran win e before the thousand. Belshazzar, whiles he tasted the wine, commanded to bring the golden and silver vessels which his father Nebuchadnezzar had ta en out of the temple which was in Jerusalem; that the ing, and his princes, his wives, an d his concubines, might drin therein. . . . They dran wine, and praised the go ds of gold, and of silver, of brass, of iron, of

Clic to enlarge PERSIANS BRINGING CHARIOTS, RINGS, AND WREATHS Bas-relief from Persepolis: now in the British Museum. Photo. Mansell

[p. 495]

On the 16th of Tammuz the investing army under Gobryas entered Babylon, the gate s having been opened by friends within the city. Some thin that the Jews favour ed the cause of Cyrus. It is quite as possible, however, that the priests of Mer odach had a secret understanding with the great Achaemenian, the "King of ings" . A few days afterwards Cyrus arrived at Babylon. Belshazzar had been slain, but N abonidus still lived, and he was deported to Carmania. Perfect order prevailed t hroughout the city, which was firmly policed by the Persian soldiers, and there was no looting. Cyrus was welcomed as a deliverer by the priesthood. He "too th e hands" of Bel Merodach at E-sagila, and was proclaimed "King of the world, Kin g of Babylon, King of Sumer and A ad, and King of the Four Quarters". Cyrus appointed his son Cambyses as governor of Babylon. Although a worshipper o f Ahura-Mazda and Mithra, Cambyses appears to have conciliated the priesthood. W hen he became ing, and swept through Egypt, he was remembered as the madman who in a fit of passion slew a sacred Apis bull. It is possible, however, that he p erformed what he considered to be a pious act: he may have sacrificed the bull t o Mithra. The Jews also welcomed Cyrus. They yearned for their native land. By the rivers of Babylon, there we sat down, yea, we wept, when we remembered Zi on. We hanged our harps upon the willows in the midst thereof. For there they th at carried us away captive required of us a song; and they that wasted us requir




wood, and of stone. . . . In that night was Belshazzar the slain. [*1]

ing of the Chaldeans














ed of us mirth, saying, Sing us one of the songs of Zion. How shall we sing the Lord's song in a strange land? If I forget thee, O [p. 496] [paragraph continues] Jerusalem, let my right hand forget her cunning. If I do n ot remember thee, let my tongue cleave to the roof of my mouth; if I prefer not Jerusalem above my chief joy. [*1] Cyrus heard with compassion the cry of the captives. Now in the first year of Cyrus ing of Persia, that the word of the Lord by the mouth of Jeremiah might be fulfilled, the Lord stirred up the spirit of Cyrus i ng of Persia, that he made a proclamation throughout all his ingdom, and put it also in writing, saying, Thus saith Cyrus ing of Persia, The Lord God of heave n hath given me all ingdoms of the earth; and he hath charged me to build him a n house at Jerusalem, which is in Judah. Who is there among you of all his peopl e? his God be with him, and let him go up to Jerusalem, which is in Judah, and b uild the house of the Lord God of Israel (he is the God) which is in Jerusalem. [*2] In 538 B.C. the first party of Jews who were set free saw through tears the hill s of home, and hastened their steps to reach Mount Zion. Fifty years later Ezra led bac another party of the faithful. The wor of restoring Jerusalem was unde rta en by Nehemiah in 445 B.C. The trade of Babylon flourished under the Persians, and the influence of its cul ture spread far and wide. Persian religion was infused with new doctrines, and t heir deities were given stellar attributes. Ahura-Mazda became identified with B el Merodach, as, perhaps, he had previously been with Ashur, and the goddess Ana hita absorbed the attributes of Nina, Ishtar, Zerpanitum, and other Babylonian " mother deities". Another "Semiramis" came into prominence. This was the wife and sister of Cambys es. After Cambyses died she married Darius I, who, li e Cyrus, claimed to be an Achaemenian. He had to overthrow a pretender, but submitted to the demands of th e orthodox Persian [p. 497] party to purify the Ahura-Mazda religion of its Babylonian innovations. Frequent revolts in Babylon had afterwards to be suppressed. The Merodach priesthood app arently suffered loss of prestige at Court. According to Herodotus, Darius plott ed to carry away from E-sagila a great statue of Bel "twelve cubits high and ent irely of solid gold". He, however, was afraid "to lay his hands upon it". Xerxes , son of Darius (485-465 B.C.), punished Babylon for revolting, when intelligenc e reached them of his disasters in Greece, by pillaging and partly destroying th e temple. "He illed the priest who forbade him to move the statue, and too it away." [*1] The city lost its vassal ing, and was put under the control of a go vernor. It, however, regained some of its ancient glory after the burning of Sus a palace, for the later Persian monarchs resided in it. Darius II died at Babylo n, and Artaxerxes II promoted in the city the worship of Anaitis. When Darius III, the last Persian emperor, was overthrown by Alexander the Great in 331 B.C., Babylon welcomed the Macedonian conqueror as it had welcomed Cyrus . Alexander was impressed by the wisdom and accomplishments of the astrologers a nd priests, who had become nown as "Chaldaeans", and added Bel Merodach to his extraordinary pantheon, which already included Amon of Egypt, Mel arth, and Jeho vah. Impressed by the antiquity and magnificence of Babylon, he resolved to ma e it the capital of his world-wide empire, and there he received ambassadors from















countries as far east as India and as far west as Gaul. The canals of Babylonia were surveyed, and building operations on a vast scale p lanned out. No fewer than ten thousand men were engaged wor ing for two months r econstructing and decorating the temple of Merodach, [p. 498] which towered to a height of 607 feet. It loo ed as if Babylon were about to ris e to a position of splendour unequalled in its history, when Alexander fell sic , after attending a banquet, and died on an evening of golden splendour sometime in June of 323 B.C. One can imagine the feelings of the Babylonian priests and astrologers as they s pent the last few nights of the emperor's life reading "the omens of the air"--t a ing note of wind and shadow, moon and stars and planets, see ing for a sign, b ut unable to discover one favourable. Their hopes of Babylonian glory were suspe nded in the balance, and they perished completely when the young emperor passed away in the thirty-third year of his life. For four days and four nights the cit izens mourned in silence for Alexander and for Babylon. The ancient city fell into decay under the empire of the Seleucidae. Seleucus I had been governor of Babylon, and after the brea -up of Alexander's empire he re turned to the ancient metropolis as a conqueror. "None of the persons who succee ded Alexander", Strabo wrote, "attended to the underta ing at Babylon"--the reco nstruction of Merodach's temple. "Other wor s were neglected, and the city was d ilapidated partly by the Persians and partly by time and through the indifferenc e of the Gree s, particularly after Seleucus Nicator fortified Seleu eia on the Tigris." [*1] Seleucus drafted to the city which bore his name the great bul of the inhabitan ts of Babylon. The remnant which was left behind continued to worship Merodach a nd other gods after the walls had crumbled and the great temple began to tumble down. Babylon died slowly, but at length the words of the Hebrew prophet were fu lfilled: [p. 499] The cormorant and the bittern shall possess it; the owl also and the raven shall dwell in it. . . . They shall call the nobles thereof to the ingdom, but none shall be there, and all her princes shall be nothing. And thorns shall come up i n her palaces, nettles and brambles in the fortresses thereof: and it shall be a n habitation of dragons, and a court for owls. The wild beasts of the desert sha ll also meet with the wild beasts of the island, and the satyr shall cry to his fellow: the screech owl also shall rest there, and find for herself a place of r est. [*1]

Footnotes ^478:1 Nahum, i, ii, and iii. ^478:2 Isaiah, xivi, 1; xlvii, 1-15.













i. 5. 3. a almost li e u in fur. 6. ^492:2 Jeremiah. 7. e. 348. as in late. xxxiv. as in shore. 11-4. ^496:1 Psalms. 31-4. xxiv. ^495:1 Daniel. 17. i. lii. e. 3. ^496:2 Ezra. ^485:1 Ptolemy's Kineladanus.^478:3 Nahum. y. ^497:1 Herodotus. i. iii. ^490:1 2 Kings.     . a. ^498:1 Strabo. as in palm. 183. as in pull . xxiv. iv. by Donald A. xxxvi. ^488:1 Nahum. 8-11. as in dye. com [p. Myths of Babylonia and Assyria. lii. 1-6. p. i. 1-5. ^489:3 Nebuchadrezzar is more correct than Nebuchadnezzar. and Arrian. [1915]. 4-11. 8-15. at sacred-texts. MacKenzie. u. ^490:3 2 Kings. as in sun. ^492:1 The Lamentations of Jeremiah. vii. ^483:1 Nahum. ^487:1 Ezra. 1-3. xvi. ^499:1 Isaiah. li e a i n fate. 1. cxxxvii. xxiv. xvi. iii and ii. v. ^491:1 Jeremiah.. 1-7. as in he. ^490:2 2 Chronicles. 1 et seq. ^489:2 Ibid. as in sigh. xxiii. u. 29. 501] INDEX Vowel Sounds:--a. lii. 1. ^491:2 Jeremiah. ii. ^490:4 2 Kings. 2. ^479:1 Goodspeed's A History of the Babylonians and Assyrians. 10. ^489:1 2 Kings. 3. o. 33-5. 500] [p. Strabo. iii. i. as e in me.

King of Judah. "first wife" of a demon. <page 246>.e-men'ian). <page 94>. conflict with Amraphel (Hammurabi) and his allies. "synchronistic history".A. <page 196>. deities that lin 5>. <page 270>. Adad-shum-utsur (ad'ad-shum-u'tsur). the shining jewel of. <page 72>. the boat or chest of. <page 435>. the Celts and. <page 245>. Aah. blood of in river. <page 310> et seq. <page 67>. Adad-nirari V. <page 76>. in demon war. a s "husband of his mother". <page 484>. s ull forms of. <page 442>. <page 57>. "the Garden of". <page 203>. <page 8>.e'ans). Nergal and. as overlord of Assyria. Egyptian name of moon. Tammuz and myth of. the Isaac sacrifice. <page 39     . <page 196>. <page 84>. Ai. <page 294>. <page 35>. <page 166>. Adapa (a'da-pa). <page 202>. eagle as. <page 199>. <page 171>. in Crete and Egypt. <page 438>. Indian fire and fertility god. of Assyria. Cyrus called an. <page 84>. <page 160>. <page 169>. <page 185>.<pa ge 436>. <page 31>. Aa. Kal hi librar y. <page 160>. <page 57>. <page 84>. antiquity of myth o f. innovations of. Tammuz as ruler of one of the. <page 34 9>. <page 90>. <page 198>. the mythical. <page 440>. <page 83>. Adam. Gree f lood legend and. <page 423>. <page 301>. <page 420>. <page 172>. <page 195>. <page 167>. Aa. Darius I claims to be a n. <page 496>. <page 83>. <page 246>. the goddess. as form of Merodach. Babylonian influence in court of. <page 12>. See A hamanish. Babylonian and Indian lin s. <page 421>. in Persian a nd Germanic mythologies. <page           Adad (ad'ad). Ages. <page 261>. Babylonian monothe ism in age of. <page 85>. Achaemenian (a. <page 378>.       with. Pelasgians and. period of migration from Ur. King of Babylonia. <page 493>. Adad-nirari I (ad'ad-ni-ra'ri). Nus u and. the Indian and Celtic. the Cyprian and Assyria. <page 49>. Agni (ag'nee). <page 403>. Abijah (a-bi'jah). <page 50>. <page 363>. Ea as. <page 402>. <page 362>. Afghans. slain by boar. in A merican myths. the Babylonian Thor. <page 377>. <pa ge 304>. Addu (ad'du). <page 131>. <page 396>. l in s with Tammuz. association of with Amorites. King of Assyria. <page 168>. consort of Shamash. as "saviour" of Israel. <page 419>. various systems compared. <page 393>. <page 439>. <pa ge 103>. Adad-nirari III. Achaeans (a. Sumerian names of moon. <page 50>. Urartu problem. Abraham. Nimrod and in Koran. <page 247>. <page 100>. <page 73>. <page 301>. <page 422>. <page 350>. Adonis (a-do'nis). Adad-nirari IV. Nebo worship. <page 4 39>.

Agriculture. <page 22>. <page 333>. son of Ur-Nina. <page 14>. <page 23>. <page 128>.. <page 493>.Ishtar.304>. <page 12>. <page 419>.hen-a'ton). <page 347>. <page 256>. <page 453>. <page 24>. Mel arth and. Breath and spirit as. Gilg amesh and. <page 2>. the British ancestral giant. <page xxx>. the conquerors of Sumerians. Germanic Mannus a nd Indian Manu and. <page 167>. Tammuz-Adonis myth. Pantheon of. Also rendered Ag ade. <page 48>. [p. <page 185>. <page 493>. Air of Life. Sargon of. <page 2>. Hadad worshipped at. <page 42>. 502] from Mitanni Merodach and his spouse. the Persian Patriarch. <page 497>. <page 346>. reform of cult of. <page 3> . early Sumerians and. eagle and ring symbol of. <page 355>. observatory at. <page 405>-<page 407>. <page 450>. identified with Merodach. <page xxix>. <page 323>.. <page 125> et seq. Ahab. Herodotus on Babylonian. <page 6>. Camb yses and. deiti es and water supply. <page 82> et seq. A u. <page 495>. A adians. <page 208>. <page 151>. demand for harvesters in Babyloni a. eagle and. <page 109> et seq. <page 256>. Agum (a'gum). xxxi. Alexander the Great. Its racial and geographical significance. Aleppo (a-lep'po). Ahur'a Maz'da.ur'gal). A ad. <page 280> et seq. King of Judah. Aton cult of. <page 49>. characteristics of. fire ceremony practised by. <page 23>.ha-man'ish). <page 22>. King of Lagash. de   Agum the Great. Naram-Sin and. Assyria n King's relations with. <page 1>. Kassite ings named. in Hammurabi Age. A urgal (a. <page 33>. foreign correspondence of. early history of. cults of Osiris-Isis a nd Tammuz. <page 21> . <page 418>. mother worship and. Ashur and. culture of Sumerian. <page 452>. in Tur estan and Egypt. <page 408>. <page 272>. <page 497>. <page 2>. A henaton (a. <page 493>. <page 411>. the goat and. <page 2>. attit ude of to mother worship. <page 45 9>. A ad (a ' ad). early name o f Uri or Kiuri. <page 408>-<page 410>. welcomed in Babylon. <page 164>. Southern Babylonia in age of. Alban. <page 172>. <page 170>. myths of. Ahaz. <pag e 207>. <page 85>. King of Israel. A hamanish (a. <page 272> et seq. recovers                                  . water of life. his vis ion of Tiamat. moon as the "measurer" <page 301>. <page 285>. Kassite ing. <page 26>. early civilizations and. City of. <page 496>. <page 129>. relations with Assyria. <page 50>. Brahmans and. sundial of and eclipse record. <page 118>. <page 13>.. King of Israel. <page 422>. irrigation and river floods. Ahaziah (a-ha-zi'ah). Nimrod myth. <page 186>. the eagle and. <page 321>. <page 338>. < page 497>. <page 473>. weeping ceremonie s.

<page 317>. Amorites. <page 35>. <page 240>. <page 127>-<page 129>. Amel-mardu (a'mel-mar'du ). <page 238>. Land of.ath of. <page 496>. King of Babylon. <page 11>. Moon cult of in Kish. <page 12>. <page 33>. Amon. <page 100>. <page 295>. the Irish love god. the Hittites and. in Babylonia and China. <page 294>. the god called. annual sacrifice of. <page 69>. Sargon of A ad and. <page 256>. war against Medes. Anatu (an-a'tu).                . consort of Anu. f airies and elves relics of. votive statuettes found at. <page 248>. King of Lydia. <page 317>. Anau. <page 329>. <page 294> et seq. Amaziah. An'a im. <page 304>. tempest and nightmare demon. <page xxxiii>. <page 316>. Gudea of Lagash trades with. "Evil Merodach". <page 130>. < page 295>. Angus. Sun cult favoured by in Babylon. <page 68>. <page 5>. Sargon and Naram Sin in. the sea goddess. <page 65>. Allatu (al'la-tu). Amurru. <page 246>. King of Judah. star worship. <page 127>. <page 221>. identified with Nina-Ishtar. <page 90>. <page 494>. Andromeda (an-drom'e-da). <page 152>. in pre-Hammurabi Age. <page 125>-<page 127>. Algebra. <page 282>. spirit groups and gods. Philistines and. Alyat'tes. <page 138>. Amphitrite. <page 280>. <page 284>. <page 79>. Persian goddess. Amorites. <page 241>. blend of in Jerusalem. Merodach and Adad-Ramman and. See Eresh.. <page 449>. <page 134>. "mother right" amongst. <page 131>. <page 418>.i-gal. Animal forms of gods. <page 492>. Pelasgian gods as Fates. the Biblical. Median marriage allianc e. Amraphel (am'ra-phel). <page 247>. as allies of Hit tites. <page 448>. the "world soul" belief and. <page 246>. A'ma. See Amurru. <page 364>. Amurru (am'ur-ru). raids of. stars and planets as ghosts. Elamite overlordship o f. <pag e 217>. <page 380>. legend of. <page 5>. the mother goddess. <page 494>. "sons of Ana ". Alu (a'lu). ide ntified with Hammurabi. land of Amorites. <page 289>. wife of. <page 57>. Ancestral totems. <page 135>. Tushratta's appeals to. <page 363>. the. civilization of an d the Sumerian. Amenhotep III (a-men-ho'tep) of Egypt. <page 80>. Brahmans formulated. <page 498>. Tur estan. Anahita (ana-hi'ta). Animism.

. <page 138> et seq. Apis bull (a-pis). Apep (a'pep). Cambyses sacrifices to Mithra. Tammuz and. <page 242>. Cyrus. in Zu bird myth. reference to by Damascius. as father of Enlil."Annie. <page 106>. <page 328>. as enemy of the gods. Arabians. <page 463>. <page 334>. Province of. Apil-Sin (a'pil-sin). <page 63>. lin s with Mithra. <page 7>. <page 328>. M erodach directs decrees of. King. <page 64>. zodiacal "field of". <page 328>. <page 427>. Tiamat and. <page 74>. <page 116>. <page 307>. <page 354>. <page 331>. his six divinities of council. <page 156>. moon worship in. in Creation legend.. of Mediterranean race. <page 70>. Apuatu (a-pu'a-tu) (Osiris) as the Patriarch. <page 130>. <page 53>. as "Assoros". <page 328>. god of the s y. Etana and eagle in heaven of. <page 190> et seq. <page 466>. Sargon <page 11> and ings of. <page 333>. Brahma and. Arabia. birds and plants sacred to . water of life myth. wi nd spirits and. <page 127>. Aphrodite (af-ro-di'te). <page 36>. <page 46>. as fath er of demons. <page 101>. invaded by Naram Sin. identified [p. <page 125>. Sargon II and. <page 73>. during Isin Dynasty. Blac . high priest of and moon god. <page 55>. <page 100>. in Creation legend. <page 318>. <page 458>. the Scottish wind hag. <page 76>. <page 433>. <p age 166>. <page 167>. <page 73>. in Gilgamesh legend. An'zan. the star spiri ts and. in Deluge legend. <page 73>. as the "high head". as Anos. in ea rly triad. <page 37>. the "bearded" form of. <page 330>. in group of elder deities. among early gods. Etana myth in. <page 38>. <page xxxii>.. <page 138> et seq. legends attached to. boar lover of slays Adonis. King of. <page 328>. the Sumerian. the Egyptian serpent demon. grandfather of Hammurabi. <page 72>. Gentle". Apsu-Rishtu (ap'su-rish'tu). <page 427>. <page 57>. inspiration from breath of. <page 186>. solar and lunar attributes of. as fat her of Isis. <page 35>. <page 49>. <page 75>. the god. <page 124> . See Anshan. <page 268>. goddesses that lin with. as a fate. <page 333>. <page 132>. <page 173> et seq. lovers of. Leicester wind hag.. Anthropomorphic gods. as form of Anshar. <pag                    . as night s y god. as astral Satyr (goat-man). <page 138> et seq. <page 55>. <page 34>. owl a mother ghost in. <page 37>. Ur-Nina and. <page 38>. Sennacherib in. other gods and. Annis. Sargon of A ad conquers. <page 53>. Ashur a form of. god of the deep. <pag e 493> An'shar. <page 74>. <page 134>-<page 136>. <page 495>. <page 37>. <page 87>. Semites of Jewish type and. Anthat (anth'at). <page 334>. planetary gods and. <page 52>. <page 129>. <page 77>. <page 326>. <page 267>. demons as messengers of. li e Egyptian Nu. <page 103>. 503] with Polar star. the. <page 304>.. An'shan. <page 437> . <page 124>. Anu becomes li e. in Creation legen d. <page 166> . in demon war. Anu (a'nu). <page 149>. <page 301>.

development of. [p. Khnumu. <page 447>. <page 10>. Aramae'ans. Arnold. Ashur. settled in Asia Minor. Ardys. "Achlame". <page 11>. Ardat Lili (ar'dat li-li). <page 336>. the "Great Bear" myth and. the Biblical. See Archer. Ashur and San-dan as. as oppo nents of sun worship. as allies of Hittite s. <page 461>. Assyria and the. Arpad (ar'pad) in reign of Tiglath-pileser IV. <page 310>. <page 34>. <page 304>. and Europ e. King of Urartu. culture of. <page 352>. in Palestine. Archer. <page xxii>. <page 378>. prehistoric migrations of.e 7>. in Asia Minor. <pag e 104>. <page 359>. <page 248>. Armenians. <page 442>. <page 4>. <page 11>. Gilgamesh crosses sea of death with. Thunder god of. <page 256>. <page 296>. King of Lydia. Arles money. <page 337> n. <page 434>. 504]       . in flood legend. <page 262>. <page 30>. <page 312>. <page 367>. state of Damascus founded by. <page 2 83>. <page 180> et seq. <page 267>. a demon lover. Artisan gods. the. <page 104>. <page 395>. <page 337>. in Semitic blend. Argistes. Armenia. the goddess. <page 398>. <page 344>. <page 264>. <page 288>. Babylonian farm labourers received. a symbol of lightning and fertility. "ferryman" of Hades water. <page 263>. <page 68>. Arithmetic. Ar . Argistis II of Urartu. Gilgamesh. <page 399>. <page 446>. <page 486>. raids of Cimmerians and Scythians. and Hercules as. the Astral. <page 12>. traces of in prehistoric Egypt. <page 377>. Art. migrations of. <page 191> et seq. <page 87>. as boar slayer of Adonis. <page 337>. <page 5>. called "Suti". Artaxerxes. campaigns of. "Arimi" "Khabir i". <page 10>. Artemis (ar'te-mis). <page 497>. Arad Ea (ar-ad-e'a). ancestors of. Syria. <page 461>. Ashur-natsi r-pal III and. as wind hag. <page 445>. Arioch (a'ri-o ). goddess Anaitis in. "mother worship" and. Assyria helps. magical origin of. Ptah. Arrow. the use of cradle board by. <page 315>. Edwin. See Urartu. o r. lovers slain by. Gree war god. and "Syrians". finger counting in Babylonia and India. <page 261>. the Astral. Armenoid Race. <page 360>. <page 390>. Argistis I (ar'gist-is). Ashur's and the goddess Neith's. Ea. <page 247>. <page 12>. r obed with feathers. and Indra as. Warad-Sin as. Ares. <page 441>. <page 11>.

<page 3 55>. < page 496>. Isaiah's parable. <page 344> et seq. temples of and worship of. <page 331>. despirit ualization theory. <page 347>. "water field".. <page 407>. A'shur-dan' I. <page 340>.. Kassites and. Ashur-bani-pal (ashur-ban'i-pal). the Biblical Nisroch.. the eagle and. Sardanapalus legend. <page 370>. <page 4 15>. death of.Aruru (ar'u-ru). connected with sun. association of with moon god. doctors and. fertility. Asari (a-sa'ri). wheels of Shamash and Ishtar. <page 442>. Ashtoreth (ash-to'reth). <page 160>. as corn god and war god. <page 353>. H ittite winged dis . <page 270>. the Egyptian An h. Ashur-dan III. <page 48>r. a Baal. <page 339>. <page 348>. emissaries from Gyges of Lydia visit. King of Judah. Persian wheel or dis . the li ghtning arrow. <page 338>.. dis a symbol of life. <page 420>. <page 486>. worship of Ashur and Sin. <page 351>. <page 331>. an d Orion. <page 348>. of Assyria. reign of. <page 341>. <page 347>. eagle. Mazda and. <page 482>. Sandan and. <page 336>. corn god. <page 331>. Shalmaneser I obtains treasure for. <page 172> et seq. See Asshur. <page 346>. Babylonian deities and. and Osiris. <page xxii>. the archer in "wheel". <page 486>. <page 484>. astral phase of. &c. <page 278>. <page 483>. as god of fertility. earthqua e destroys temple of. <page 439>. Ashur-danin-apli (a'shur-dan-in'apli). <page 348>. close associat ion of with ings. as patriarch. <page 232>. <page 347>. Babylonian and Persian influences. <page 347>. Indian wheel symbol. also rendered A sh'ta-roth. Mitannians as. <page 346>. <page 487>. <page 470>. <page 352>. Asura theory. worship of at Samaria. <page 3 53>. the Biblical patriarch. stand ard of as "world spine". palace of. Arcturus. <page 458>. <page 330>. as Aushar. the mother goddess. Esarhaddon builds tem ple to. Ashur-elit-ilani (a'shur-e'lit-il-a ni). <pa ge 482>. Jastrow's view. <page 404>. <page 414>. <page 336>. < page 363>. Ashur (a'shur). Cyprian King of. <page 100>. appeal for aid to Damascus. <page 337>. the arrow of. revolt of in Assyria. <page 487>. suicide of Shamash-shum-u in. Asa. <page 326>. <page 231>. Ash'dod. <page 485>. <page 335>. <page 354>. and lion identified with. <page 335>. <page 350>. Egyptian campaign. <page 476>. <page 337>. as Creator. <page 352>. <page 459>. fire cult and. <page 355>. <page 354>. Sennacherib murdered in temple of. <page 100>. <page 329>. the solar archer as Merodach. <page 487>. <page 327>. <page 355>. <page 335>. and Anshar. Ishtar and. goddesse s that lin with. <page 403>. <page 335>. <page 340>. Merodach as. <page 347>. <page 334>. the "Holy On e". <page 27 0>. winged dis or "wheel" of. discovery of library of. lovers of. bull. Regulus. <page 343 >. "Ashir" and Capp adocia. &c. Assyrian civilization reflected by. Merodach restored to Babylon by. the Biblical Patriarch. <page xx iii>. Pinches on Merodac h and Osiris lin s. &c. <page 366>. images destroyed by. <page 148>. King of Assyria. th e Biblical "Asnapper". and Gilgamesh. <page 327>. <page 353>. <page 267>. <page 354>. <page 352>. Hercule s. <page 328>. <page 483>. spouse of. <page 488>                               . <page 269>. Eze iel's references to life wheel. <page 347>. son of Ea li e Merodach. <page 159>. Aryans (a'ri-ans). Shamash-shum-u in's revolt against. <page 351>. <page 354>. <page 348>. burning at grave of. as bull of heaven. <page 103>. aided by fires and s acrifices. Brahma and. Attis and. in Gilgamesh legend. Lydia aided by. sac of Thebes. <page 334>. assists Merodach to create man ind. King and.

<page 375>. <page 396>. Babylonian and Grecian. Isaiah's reference to. Biblical reference to rise of. <page 443>. animals of on Lagash vase. <page 327>.. <page 284>. <page 425>. Old Empire Kings. imported beliefs in. Merodach's statue deported to. hill god of. in Lagash chariot. <page 270>. Mitanni ing plunders... lovers of. conquests of. Semiramis and. the Biblical Patriarch of Assyria. <pag e 284>. <page 398>. <page 280>. Ashur. <page 488>. sculpture of and S umerian. and Constellatio ns. 505] ing of. <page 279>. Urartu's struggle wi th. Mitanni ings as overlords of. eclipses foretold by in late Assyrian period. Babylonians over-awed by. <page 276>. <page 361> et seq. Assyria. Astronomers. <page 278>.. Third Empire. <p age 401>. As'shur.. last ing of. Egypt and. <page 136>. basal idea in Babylonian. prehistoric alien pottery in. grandson of as King of Babylon. the national god. fall of Nineveh. <page 3 18> et seq. mother worship in. <page 493>. Biblical reference to. <page 276>. <page 339>. <page 386>. <page 280 >. Ashur-natsir-pal I (a'shur-na'tsir-pal) of Assyria. developme nt of god of. <page 325>. at close of Kassite period. Ashur-nirari IV (a'shur-ni-ra'ri).. <page 277>. <page xix> et seq. See Stars. Egyptians an d Hittites allied against. <page 284>.. <p age 487>. <page 279> . <page 317>. <page 366> et seq. Arabian desert trade route. <page 443>. Egypt becomes a province of. <page 327>. <page 370>. <page 399>.. <pag e 281>. <page 330>. <page 369>. As'shur. <page 103>. <page 282>. <page 355>. <page 372>-<page 375>.                 . Ass. <page 284>-<page 286>. <page 120 >. Arya n names of early ings of. <page 397>. <page 287> et seq. Asia Minor. conquests and atrocitie s of. Semitized by Amorites. <page 380>. excavations in. <page 475> et seq. <page 277>. Second Empire of. Planets. <page 28>. character of. <page 340>. Amorite migration to. <page 326> et seq. <page 420> et seq. "Ass of the East". Ashur-uballit (a'shur-u-bal-lit). <page 442>. Cyaxares rules over.. Ashur the god of.. <page 321>.. <page 469>. <page 440>-<page 442>. end of Old Empire. <page 263>. Astrology. <page 277>. end of Second Empire. <page 366>. death of. Astarte (as-tar'te). horse called in Babylonia. Astrology and astronomy. <page 368>. H ammurabi ings as overlords of. in Tell-el-Amarna letters. <page 282>. Babylonia controls. goddesses that lin with. <page 329>. <page 444> et seq. <page 401>. See Ashur. <page 276>. his "reign of terror". <page 391> et seq. the sun god as. <page 360>. <page 419>. last ing of Assyria's "Middle Empire". <page 322 >. Ashur-natsir-pal III. Thothmes III corresponds with [p. <page 267>. literary references to. pe riods of history of. rise of after fall of Mitanni. struggles with Ba bylonia for Mesopotamia. <page 285>. City of. <page 217>. King of Assyria.

<page 493>. deities that lin with. <page 413>. <page 104>. indigenous goddess of Athens. &c. discovery that moon is lit by sun. <page 103>. <pa ge 240>. King of Judah.. <page 406>. wife of a Lydian princess. Au-Aa. <page 267>. <page 31>. precession of the equi noxes. <page 354>-<page 355>. <page 50>. <page 148> . Atmospheric deities. <page 100>. Athaliah (ath-a-li'ah). the double. Joash crowned. "air of life" fr om. <page 300>. <page 316>. worship of the Phoenician in Israel. <page 28>. legend of origin of. Ashur and. <page 310 > et seq. death of. <page 51>. Atargatis (at-ar-ga'tis). Athena (athe'na). Azag-Bau (a'zag ba'u). <page 51>. <page 355>. <page 419>. Axe. symbols of. &c.. of Judah. sun god. <page 87>. shadowy spouse of. <page 267>. <page 267>. Astyages (as-ty'a-jez). soldiers slay. Aton.. Ashur as.. King of Israel. the goddess Mut and. <page 319> et seq. in late As syrian and neo-Babylonian period. Ate (a'te). Athens. <page 320>-<p age 322>. reign of. as. <page 114>. Babbar (bab'bar). goat and. Ba'asha. <page 48>. Asura fire (a-shoo'ra). Ram-man. the goddess. mother goddess of Cilicia. in Creation legend. <page 409>. <page 49>. <page 125>.       . <page 305>. <page 277>. <page 426>. <page 32>. <page 35>. legendary queen of Kish. Mythical Ages and. <page 494>. <page 479>. star myths in.. <page 320>. Damascus aids Judah against. Queen. Nina a nd. Baal-dag'on. <page 422>. <page 337> . Cyrus displaces. <page 132>. <page 348>. imported gods in. Baal. the Phrygian god. Indra. as a bi-s exual deity. <page 413>. the moon god as. <page 427>. theory of Gree origin of. <page 414>. A henaton's god. Nin Girsu and. <page 404>. <page 277>. <p age 115>. <page 449>. <page 105>. Merodach fixes stars. Tammuz and. the Phoenician mother goddess. <p age 405>. See Shamash. Ba'a-u. Attis (at'tis). Azariah (az-a-ri'ah). <page 150>. <page 403>. Australia. Hittites pass Babylonian discoveries to Europe. Jah as Ea. Enlil. of Sippar. as lover of Cybele. <page 348>. <page 148> n. <page 296>. King of the Medes. <page 84>. in the sea. Derceto and. <page 105>. <page 320> n. the god. symbols of.Astronomy. <page 413>. humble origin of. as Jupiter.. <page 278>. <page 147>. symbol of god. Assyro-Babylonian observatories. <page 480>.

Basques. <page 3>. Ashur-natsir-pal III overawes. the Egyptian tale of. <pa ge 203>. <pa ge 310> et seq.Babylon. mother goddess. Kassites and Mesopotamia. following ancient trade route. <page 370>-<page 371>. <page 253>. <p age 225>. in early Christian literature. beginning of arithmetic in. in Kish           . <page 498>.. Barque of Ra. <page 76>. <page 224>. Hittite invasion of. compared with Assyria. <page 4 71>. <page 370>. German excavations at. <page 253>.. <page 171 >. <page 295>. political rise of. <page 116>. influence of Hittites in. Tell-el-Amarna letters and. language of and the Sumerian. <page 23>. Battle. Shamash-sum-u in's revolt in.. Isaia h foretells doom of. <page 21>. <page 358>. xxiv.. ghosts as. Barleycorn. Gula and Ishtar and. <page 202>. the "Pulu" of. <page 57>. star myths of. early struggles with Assyria. Bats. sac of by Gutium. <page 22>. Ba'ta. <page 184>. Egyptian god. <page 482>. <page 471>-<page 476>. <page 364>. <page xxviii>. observatory at. <page 359>. harvests of. <page 357> n. <page 259>. <page 360>. Arabian desert route. <page 469>. hus s of in Egyptian pre-Dynastic bodies. <page 220>. Belshazzar's feast in. sun as and the Babylonian "boat". <page 484>. <page xix> et seq. <page 371>-<page 375>. Assyria controlled by. <page 240>. <page 65>. Ashur-bani-pal restores Merodach to. Bau (ba'u). <page 497>. "hanging gardens" of. <page 100>. excavations in. <page 368>. restored by Esarhaddon. the Everlasting. Xerxes pillages Merodach's temple in. Balder. <page 478>. <page 217>. <page 284>-<page 286>. Gre e descriptions of late city of. Amorite migration into. <page 218>. shaving customs of. <page 468>. debt of modern world to.. <page 361> et seq. marriage mar et of. re turn of Merodach from Mitanni to. Shamshi-Adad VII subdues. slow death of. <page 6>. <page 1> et se q. <pag e 290> et seq. the Germanic god. Baghdad railway. <page 113>. <page 478> et seq. destru ction of by Sennacherib. <page xxxi>.. <page 499>. <page 385>. <page 321>. Tiglath-pileser IV. <page 65>. the. <page 498>. <page 485>. date of existing ruins of. <page 357>. <page 481>. rise of empire of. Barley. sun worship in. < page 366>. <page xxxv>. the two seasons of. the Egyptian serpent mother. <page 44 4>-<page 446>. Ba-neb-tet'tu. <pag e 129>. Nimrod and Icelandic god Barleycorn and.. Alexander the Great in. <page 114>. <page 219> et seq. Kassite dynasty ends. <page 24>. <page 497>. ancestor worship in. <page 498>. <page 495>. John. <page 496>. Babylonia. <page 133>. <page 415>. <pa ge 497>. Tiglath-pil eser I and. Gilgamesh and. <page 170>. Bast. Alexander the Great and. <page 399>. early history of. <page 85>. <page 272>.. 506] under empire of Seleucidae. <page 29>. Esarhaddon and. <page 56>. religion of. <pag e 281>. [p. early divisions of. <page 222>. under the Persians. xvii. <page 217> et seq. the London of Western Asia. <page 414>. Golden Age o f. <page 4>. new age of. Neo-Babylonian Age. <page 494>.

Belit-sheri (bel-it-she'ri). Bearded gods. <page 307>. Ninip as. <page 166>. in demon war. imitation of a nd musical culture. owl as mother's ghost. <page 30>. <page 75>. Belshaz'zar. <page 137>. eagle stones. Raven. <page 492>. <page 169>. Sumerian Zu bird and Indian Garuda. Vulture. Birds. as symbols of fertil ity. fire ceremony of. King of Babylonia. Zodiacal "field" of. magical aid for.. Ben -hadad II. decapitated to create man ind. <pag e 154>.. <page 148>.               Behistun. <page 439>. <page 190> et seq. birth eagle. <page 466>. last Kassite ing. <page 463>. <page 165>. Eagle. <page 36>. Beltu (bal'tu). Beli (ba'le). Assyrians overcome. serpent s ins. <page 164>. <page 100>. <page 98>. See Doves. Swan. Birth. associated with Nin-Girsu. <page 286>. the Indian. <page 147> n. <page 126>. in Gilgamesh legend. "lord of the wild boar".. <page 429>. <page 302>. <page 165>. <page 148>. King of Babylon. murder of by Hazael. as overlord of Assyria. <page xx>. Bel'-Kap-Ka'pu. <page 83>. <page 114>. Egyptian customs . <page 74>. <page 407>. Ahab defeats twice. straw girdles. <page 136>. <page 63>. Ber. mother-monster in li e Sumerian and Scottish. <page 419>. <page 438>. <page 135>. demons as "be loved sons" of. King of Assyria. <page 171>. <page 371>. Bhima (bhee'ma). <page 404>. <page 437> . <page 428>. Bear. Merodach as. <page 136>. as overlord of Judah and Israel. in Hades. Bel-shum-id'din. <page 115>. <page 152>. <page 117>. <page 102>. as son of Ea. and magi-cal plant. <page 423> et seq. Bel-nirari (bel'-ni-ra'ri). <page 101>. <page 168>. Bel. <page 34>. Etana visits heaven of. <page 238>. f airies as. the goddess. Wry-nec . <page 27>. Sargon II and the "elder". "Beare. <page 95>. roc inscription at. <page 65>. the Old Woman of". brood of Cain in. < page 198>. <page 187>. <page 168>. "the Howler". <page 50>. sea monsters. <page 74>. <page 70>. li e Gilgamesh and Hercules. <page 92>. <page 71>. Beltane Day. <page 127>. doves and. <pag e 410>. . Beowulf (ba-o-wulf). creatrix and. Tiamat and. Ben-hadad III. <page 172>. Bero'sus. the.. <page 155>. demons enter the. sister of Tammuz. Scyld myth. <page 495>. enemy of Germanic corn god. <page 285>. <pa ge 116>. <page 139>. as a clan totem. <page 80>. <page 9 3>. over-throw of. Zu bird strives to he. as ghosts and fates. <page 150>. <page 170>. <page 169>. as the eternal goddess. <page 77>. <page 35>. Ben-ha'dad I. King of Damascus. <page 470>. associated with goddesses. in flood legend. <page 406>. in Germanic legends. Enlil as the "elder". the Sumerian. <page 494>. <page 164>. <page 169>.

offered to sea god. <page 294>. <page 49>. Ninip-Ber as lord of the l as. <page 47>. Bitumen. <p age 48>. <page 36> . the ancestral giant of. <page 86>. inspiration from. eagle as. <page 268>. <page 299>. Mesopotamian wells of. Bones. <page 86>. Tammuz myth in. P. <page 47>. <page 199>. <page 42>. <page 302>.Bi-sexual deities. Babylonian teachers li e. [p. <page 299>. double vision. Isis. Ashur and. Babylonian Ninshac Attis slain by. <page 1 01>. <page 42>. <page 309>. "Island of the Blessed" of. Boar. and Hapi as. W. mythological sculptures near. the. C. on oldest companies of Babylonian and Egyptian gods. mother body of moon father. <page 37>. Budge. <page 278>. wife of. <page 45>. <page h as. corn stal s as. <page 33>. <page xx>. <page 322>. <page 25>. the Hindu. Adonis slayer as. <page 5>. <page 316>. Nerga <page 315>. Anu and. as vehicle of life. <page 33>. Bull. Buddha (bud'ha). <page 317>. <page 200>. <page 27>. <page 85>. in Egypt and Persia . observatory at. boar god and Mercury.eui). Ishtar. algebra formulated by. Blood. 85>. <page 336>. <page 277>. sap of trees as. 507] [paragraph continues] Merodach and Ishtar change forms. <page 33>. <page 55>. <page 302>. <page 53>. moon god. Brood of Tiamat. <page 203>. <page 289>. the Gaulish Boghaz-Koi (bog-haz'. in Creation legend. theory. E. <page 165>. Britain. <page 214>. <page 98> n. <page 304>. <page 215>. <page 161>.. Boann (bo'an). See Mediterranean Race. <page 280>. li e Ea. Breath of Apis bull. <page 48>. birth gir dles in. Robert. Brahmans. Isis as a ma le. <page 38>. <page 87>. the wedding. <page 98>. <page 310>.. Wallis. <page 321>. Venus both m ale and female. <page xix>. <page 299>. Irish river and corn goddess. <page 367>. <page 293>. Diarmid slain by. demon Set as. Bla e. <page 308 >. Bracelet. inspiration from. the Indian god. Brown Race. offered to sea god. Ninip as the. Nannar. Brahma. Hittite capital. Ares as. <page 318>. on Babylonian culture in India. <page 304>. prehistoric pottery at. Nina and Atargatis as. <page 357>. <page                 . <page 8 <page 87>. <page 141>. Winc ler cuneiform tablets from. <page 328>. Sha espeare's curse. excavations of. the Totemic wild. Botta. Ishtar's. Brown. <page 87>. Borsippa (bor'sip-pa). the Irish "green boar". 7>. Assyrian teachers and. < page 262>. why ta en from graves. <page 299>. Ninip and Set as. <page 169>. <page 352>.

first reference to Israelite s in. Burrows. <page 135>. <page 489>. <page 70>. the Hebrew. cremation ceremony. <page 495>. <page 344>. Canaanites. <page 212>. <page 325>. star lore. <page 207>. Rob