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In certain circumstances, tolerances of size are not always sufficient to provide the required control of form. For example, in Fig.1a, the shaft has the same diameter measurement in all possible positions but is not circular, in Fig.1 b the component has the same thickness throughout but is not flat, in Fig. 1c, the component is circular in all cross sections but is not straight. The forms of these components can be controlled by means of geometrical tolerances. For an internal feature of a hole, the variation of size, form and position is illustrated in Fig. 2.
(b) Fig. 1 Errors of form
a - Error of Size
b - Error of form
c - Error of position
Fig. 2 Geometric tolerances of internal feature
It is a variation of the actual condition of a form feature (surface, line) from geometrically ideal form.
It is a variation of the actual position of the form feature (surface, line) form the geometrically ideal position, with reference to another form feature, called datum feature.
Geometrical tolerance is defined as the maximum permissible overall variation of form or position of a feature.
Geometrical tolerances are used, i. to specify the required accuracy in controlling the form of a feature, i. to ensure correct functional positioning of the feature, ii. to ensure the interchangeability of components, and iii. to facilitate the assembly of mating components.
The form of a single feature is deemed to be correct. The relation between the distance is h1 < h2 < h3. A3 –B3 and the corresponding maximum distances are h1. and h3. Referring Fig. possible orientation of ideal surface are A1 – B1.h2. A2 – B2. The orientation of the ideal surface should be so chosen that the maximum distance between this and the actual surface of the feature concerned is the least possible value. when the distance of its individual points from a superimposed surface of ideal geometrical form is equal to or less than the value of the specified tolerance. 3. .
3 Orientation of ideal surface .Fig.
According to the feature which is to be toleranced and the manner in which it is dimensioned. the tolerance zone may be one of the following: . Therefore. the orientation of the ideal surface is A1 – B1 and h1 must be equal to or less than the specified tolerance value.
The area between two parallel lines iv. The area between two concentric circles iii. The space within a cylinder or between two co – axial cylinders vi. The area within a circle ii. the space between two parallel surface vii. .i. The space within a sphere v.The space within a parallelopiped.
unless otherwise specified.The feature may be of any form or orientation within this tolerance zone. the tolerance applies to the whole length or surface of the feature considered. . unless a more restricted indication is given by an explanatory note. Further.
4 . within which the controlled feature of the manufactured component must be completely contained.Tolerance Zone It is an imaginary area or volume. Element Tolerance zone Element Tolerance zone a – Tolerance area b – Tolerance Volume Fig. 4 a and b. as shown in Figs.
such as an edge. .. Datum Feature A datum feature is a feature of a part. 5). straight lines. terminating in a filed or an open triangle (Fig. 5).Definitions Datum It is a theoretically exact geometric reference such as axes. 5). planes. which forms the basis for a datum or is used to establish its location (Fig. to which the tolerance features are related (Fig. Datum Triangle The datums are indicated by a leader line. etc. surface or a hole.
Fig. 5 .
a capital letter is enclosed in a frame. has considerable influence on the result obtained ( Fig.Datum Letter To identify a datum for reference purpose. the sequence of datums referred. 5). . connected to the datum triangle (Fig. Datum System Datum system is a group of two or more separated datums. 6). used as a combined reference for tolerance features. In this case.
the form of datum feature should be sufficiently accurate for its purpose and it may therefore be necessary in some cases to specify tolerances of form from the datum features.The datum feature is the feature to which the tolerance of orientation. Further. . position and run – out are related. Table 1 gives the symbols which represent the feature characteristics to be controlled by the tolerance.
6 Datum System .Fig.
as shown in Fig.Indication of geometrical tolerances on a drawing To eliminate the need for descriptive notes. the complete geometrical requirements on engineering drawings.5. geometrical tolerances are indicated on drawings by symbols. all contained in compartments of a rectangular frame. Geometrical tolerances convey very briefly and precisely. tolerances and datums. . Advantages of using geometrical tolerances 1.
The symbols used are internationally recommended. squareness can correct flatness and straightness. 3. because of which the drawings are much clearer to read. 4. One type of geometrical tolerance can control another form. The use of symbols and boxes. eliminates the need for lengthy descriptive notes and corresponding dimensions. For instance.2. . the language barrier is minimized and misunderstanding is eliminated. Hence.
The tolerance frame is connected to the tolerance feature by a leader line. from the tolerance frame. terminating with an arrow in the following ways: .Indication of features controlled The feature controlled by geometrical tolerance is indicated by an arrow head at the end of a leader line.
at the dimension line.7 a. when the tolerance refers to the axis or median plane of all features.7e). . and On the projection line. On the outline of the feature.b. 7d) or on the axis.c). common to that axis or median plane ( Fig. when the tolerance refers to the axis or median plane of the part so dimensioned ( Fig. but not a dimension line. on extension of the outline. when the tolerance refers to the line or surface itself ( Fig.
7 Indication of feature controlled (outline or surface only) .correct Fig.Incorrect d .a .correct e .correct c .correct b .
Indication of Datum features The datum features are indicated by a leader line. and 2. 8c). when the datum feature is an axis or median plane of the part so determined ( Fig. . the base of which lies. at the dimension line. when the datum feature is the line or surface itself (Fig. or on the axis or median plane of all the features. if such an axis can be determined with sufficient accuracy. 8b). 8a). 1. On the projection line. terminating in a solid triangle. On the outline of the feature or an extension of the outline ( but not a dimension line). common to that axis or median plane ( Fig.
a b c Fig. 8 Indication of datum features .Note : The leader line shown on the right hand side is to be connected to the feature to the toleranced with reference to that datum indicated.
9 Identification of a datum feature . a capital letter (different for every datum feature) is used (Fig. lying any where. Fig. 9).10). the value of this length should be added after the tolerance value and separated from it by an oblique stroke (Fig. If the tolerance is applied to a specified length.If the tolerance frame cannot be connected in a clear and simple manner with the datum feature.
01/100 B Fig. . This means that the tolerance is applied to all the lines of specified length in any position and direction.// 0. 10 Tolerance over specified length In the case of a surface. the same indication is used.
Boxed dimensions These dimension are enclosed as 40 . the corresponding actual dimensions of the part are subjected only to the position tolerance. Profile tolerance. angularity tolerance and size tolerances are not given to the dimension. When the dimensions are boxed. ø 20. .
provided it lies in an axial plane between two parallel straight lines. . 0. and the tolerance value is the distance between these lines. 11 b. as shown in Fig. The tolerance zone for controlling errors of straightness is the area between two parallel lines.02 mm apart. 11 a can take any form. when measured along the line. The line on the surface of the feature in Fig.Tolerances of form for single features Tolerance of straightness The tolerance or perfect straightness of a line on a surface may be defined as the condition in which the distance between any two points on that line is always the shortest possible.
11 Tolerances of straightness .Fig.
12 a can take any form. The surface controlled as shown in Fig. provided it lies in the space between two parallel flat planes. when measured along that surface. and the tolerance value is the distance between these planes. 0.04 mm apart. 12 b.Tolerance of flatness The theoretical or perfect flatness of a surface may be defined as the condition in which the distance between any two points on that surface is always the shortest possible. . as shown in Fig. The tolerance zone for controlling errors of flatness is the space between two parallel planes.
12 Tolerances of flatness .Interpretation Fig.Example b .a .
In Fig.e. The tolerance zone for controlling errors of roundness is the annular area between two concentric coplanar circles.Tolerances of Roundness The theoretical or perfect roundness of a surface may be defined as the condition in which the surface has the form of a perfect circle.. and the tolerance value is the radial distance between these circles. provided it lies in the space between two concentric circles. 13 a. .03 mm radially apart. 0. perpendicular to the axis. the circle controlled.13b. can take any form. which may represent the periphery at any cross-section. the distance between any point on the circumference and the centre is always equal to the radius of the circle. i. as shown in Fig.
Example b .Interpretation Fig.a . 13 Tolerance of roundness .
The tolerance zone for controlling errors of Cylindricity is the annular space between two perfect cylindrical surfaces lying on the same straight axis. 14 a may take any form provided it lies between two perfect concentric cylinders.14 b . The surface controlled as shown in Fig.03 mm apart. 0. with their centres lying on a straight axis. and the tolerance value is the radial distance between these surfaces. as shown in Fig.Tolerances of Cylindricity Theoretical or perfect Cylindricity may be defined as the condition in which all cross sections of solid are perfect circles.
a .Interpretation Fig. 14 Tolerance of Cylindricity .Example b .
The tolerance zone has a constant width equal to the tolerance value. The tolerance zone is the area between two lines which envelope circles of diameter equal to the tolerance value. which locate the true position of any point on the line. .05 mm apart.Profile tolerance of a line The theoretical or perfect form of a profile is defined by boxed dimensions. 15 a can take any form provided it lies between two lines 0. as shown in Fig.15b. normal to the theoretical profile and equally disposed about it. The profile line controlled in Fig.
Example b . 15 Profile tolerance of a line .Interpretation Fig.a .
16b.Profile tolerances of a surface The theoretical or perfect form of a surface is defined by boxed dimensions which locate the true position of any point on that surface. as shown in Fig. which envelope spheres of diameter equal to the tolerance value. with their centers lying on the theoretical surface of the correct geometrical shape. The curved surface of the part controlled as shown in Fig. . 16a is required to lie between two surfaces. The tolerance zone is the space between two surfaces.
16 Profile tolerance of a surface .a .Example b .Interpretation Fig.
0. 17 a is required to lie between two planes. The controlled top surface of the part as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. .06 mm apart and parallel to the datum line or surface. The tolerance value is the distance between the lines or planes. which are parallel to the datum feature.17b.Tolerances of Orientation (related features) Tolerances of parallelism Theoretical or perfect parallelism may be defined as the condition in which all the perpendicular distances between the line or the surface controlled and the datum feature are always the same. The tolerance zone for controlling errors of parallelism is the area between two parallel straight lines or the space between two parallel planes.
Interpretation Fig.Example b .a . 17 Tolerances of parallelism .
Tolerances of squareness Theoretical or perfect squareness may be defined as the condition in which the feature controlled is truly perpendicular to the datum feature.05 mm diameter. the axis of which is perpendicular to the datum surface A. The tolerance value here is preceded by the symbol Ø. 0. The controlled end surface of the second component is required to lie between two planes.06 mm apart and perpendicular to the axis of the left – side cylindrical portion (datum axis B). . as shown in Fig. The axis of the vertical pillar as shown in Fig. 18 b. 18 a is required to be contained within a tolerance cylinder of 0.
a .Example b . 18 Tolerances of squareness .Interpretation Fig.
as shown in Fig.1 mm apart which are inclined at 60o to the datum axis of the cylindrical portion or the datum surface.Tolerances of Angularity Theoretical or perfect angularity may be defined as the condition in which the controlled feature is inclined to the datum feature at a specified true angle. . 19b. The tolerance zone for controlling errors of angularity is the area between two parallel straight lines or the space between the parallel planes which are inclined to the datum feature at a specified angle. The controlled inclined surface of the part in Fig. The tolerance value is the distance between the lines or planes. 0. 19 a are to lie between two planes.
a .Example b .Interpretation Fig. 19 Tolerances of Angularity .
1 mm diameter.08 mm diameter.Tolerances of location for related features Tolerances of position The theoretical position of a feature is the specified true position of the feature as located by boxed dimensions. centered on the specified true point of intersection. centered on the specified true position. 0. The axis of the hole is required to be contained within a tolerance cylinder 0. . as shown in Fig. The actual point shown in Fig. 20 a is required to lie within a tolerance circle. 20 b.
20 Tolerances of Position .Example b .a .Interpretation Fig.
which is the datum. 21b.08 mm diameter and is to be co – axial within the axis of the left side portion. The tolerance value is the diameter of the tolerance zone. as shown in Fig.Tolerances of Concentricity Theoretical or perfect concentricity may be defined as the condition in which the controlled features which may be circles or cylinders lie truly on the same centre or axis. The tolerance zone for controlling errors of concentricity is a circle or cylinder within which the center or axis of the controlled feature is to be contained. .21a is to be contained within a cylinder. 0. as the datum features. The axis of the right side cylindrical portion of the component as shown in Fig.
Interpretation Fig.a .Example b . 21 Tolerance of Concentricity .
which are symmetrically disposed about the datum plane. as shown in Fig. is required to lie between two parallel planes. The tolerance zone for controlling errors of symmetry is the area between two parallel lines or the space between the parallel planes.22a. which are symmetrically disposed about the datum feature.Tolerances of symmetry Theoretical or perfect symmetry may be defined as the condition in which the position of the feature is specified by its perfect symmetrical relationship to a datum. The median plane of the slot controlled as shown in Fig.08 mm apart. . 0.22b.
Example b .Interpretation Fig. 22 Tolerance of symmetry .a .
(i) Radial run –out The tolerance zone in this case limited within any plane. The radial run – out a shown in Fig. a distance ‘t’ apart. by two concentric circles.1 mm in any measuring plane. 23a. . with the same centre or axis as the datum features. during one completed revolution about the common axis of the surfaces A and B. must not be greater than 0.Tolerance of run – out Theoretical radius may be defied as the condition in which the controlled features lie truly on a cylinder. perpendicular to the axis.
23b. about the axis of the surface in Fig. by two circles. lying on the measuring cylinder. a distance ‘t’ apart. The axial run – out must not be grater than 0. . during one complete revolution.1 mm in any measuring cylinder.(ii) Axial run out The tolerance zone is limited for any measuring point.
out b – Axial run .a – Radial run .out Fig. 23 Tolerance of run – out .
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