By Edgardo M. Bernardino

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Introduction The Basic Dimensioning and Call-outs Project Specifications Standard Fabrication Drawing Library Today’s World Fabrication Samples Reasons Why Mistakes are Committed Helpful Tables References and Further Reading About the author

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The purpose of this book is to guide curtain wall designers and fabricators alike to be familiar with the proper presentation of fabrication drawings. In my experience in different curtain wall companies here in the Philippines and in the Middle East they have their own different ways of presenting such drawings. This is more frequent in the Middle East considering the different nationalities working there, the different educational background, the different engineering standard, and most importantly the labourers who did not even know how to interpret a working drawing. This confusion were even enhance by the different experience of technical personnel like; technical manager, design manager, design project manager, design team leader, design supervisor, senior designer, draftsmen, and even production manager who brought their own knowledge which is not even close to the company’s standard. For example, when a new design project manager comes to a company, she/he adopted his/her standard disregarding the existence of company’s standard. This practice is very disturbing because it affects everything from design, quality assurance/ quality control and production department. Of course each has his own agenda; more specifically for their own department’s benefit because they find difficulty in adopting the established guidelines. By the way, I will not argue nor contradict what the existing standard practice of individual companies or


full. because of my experience where many drawings were not understood in the production. removed. electrical. simplicity is the best logical approach. even to know how to read a simple working drawing. In this book the author will not fully explain about the different types of section view such as. This take place when a profile or die 2 . civil. Those who have knowledge in architecture and engineering they have different way of presenting fabrication drawings. mechanical or sanitary way of presenting). there is no harm in adopting either architectural. half. Nevertheless. (There are those who present in architectural way. revolved and broken-out section because I really want to have a conventional or simple presentation were as much as possible abolish sectional views. electrical. To the ordinary workers section views might even confuse them especially if there are so many sections. sanitary or mechanical presentation the burden lies on the designer on how to present the drawings to be understood by an ordinary labourer who do not have any background. Besides. Although.CURTAIN WALL FABRICATION DRAWING GUIDE By Ed Bernardino the company where you are presently working as they have their own way of presentation. By the way those who believe that side view is similar to section view. Nor ask you to adopt what is being discussed in this book. civil. many assembly and part drawings in a curtain wall fabrication can be simplified accordingly.

front or side views. projection or extension lines help explain the relationship between each view.1 below. A view is called a section view when a cutting plane line is introduced to the top. 3 . Slotted holes can be easily identified on how it is displayed.CURTAIN WALL FABRICATION DRAWING GUIDE By Ed Bernardino is interpreted as a section. it is indeed a section but not in the orthographic or pictorial presentation jargon as it has own definition of the word section (views). True. FIGURE 1. 1. THE BASIC It is a norm that a mechanical method in presenting fabrication drawing is the most conventional way of presenting.1-ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION PRINCIPLES As shown above. This is simple because designer is not compels to show all the five (5) views illustrated in Figure 1.

FIGURE 1.CURTAIN WALL FABRICATION DRAWING GUIDE By Ed Bernardino where it is located and how it is associated with each other. However. If fabricator will learn this simple principle.2 and 1.3 Usually. Before going any further it is vital to explain the different between the two (2) types of projection. either one of these symbols is added to completed drawing to avoid directional viewing arrow. Nowadays however. as shown in Figure 1. designer will no longer find difficulty in producing fabrication drawings that can be understood in the production line.2 FIGURE 1. this becomes useless if the reader do not understand how it is oriented and what the fundamental differences between first and third angle projection system is. 4 .3. This kind of presentation is also called third angle projection. For better understanding and guidance for draftsman and fabricator alike let me start by showing the projection symbol. due to computer aided design drafting these lines are sometimes removed for clarity. the first angle projection and third angle projection.

This violation brings confusion to the drawing presentation. most of the time the aforementioned angle projection is violated. For example the draftsmen place the 5 . See Figure 1. Instead of using the angle projection. in several companies which I worked in United Arab Emirates only one (1) is following this standard. most of the draftsmen rely on the orientation arrow. they combined the two system making the interpretation difficult especially to the fabricators. FIGURE 1. Ironically. in preparing a complete working drawing decide which of the two you want to use.CURTAIN WALL FABRICATION DRAWING GUIDE By Ed Bernardino The current British and ISO standards accept both system but they should not be mixed on the same drawings.4 as example.4-VIEWING USING ORIENTATION ARROW The major mistakes of relaying to the so called orientation viewing arrow is. In short. Most of the time.

I think this is the right time for you to study this angle projection rules for your own benefit. See Figure 1.5 to Figure 1. Sometimes this also conflict with the addition of cutting plane line.8.CURTAIN WALL FABRICATION DRAWING GUIDE By Ed Bernardino arrow wherever he or she wants because he/ she want to show one or three portions of the object.5-FIRST ANGLE PROJECTION FIGURE 1. As a fabricator. you must be aware and fully conversant in all forms of orthographic and pictorial projection thus able to produce a complete fabrication drawing without doubt or ambiguity relating to interpretation. always put your shoes into the workers. where its objective totally deviate from what is intended in the sectional view. FIGURE 1. As an experienced draftsman or designer. Taking into account that the end user is not as qualified as you are (in interpreting what you did). there might be a possibility of mixing the two angle projection system which is not allowed by ISO procedures. The following illustration describes more on how the orientation of the two systems works.6-THIRD ANGLE PROJECTION 6 .

7) the block is turned to the left while the third angle projection (Figure 1. FIGURE 1. On the first angle projection (Figure 1.7-FIRST ANGLE PROJECTION FIGURE 1.8) is turning to the right yet both present the top view of the block.CURTAIN WALL FABRICATION DRAWING GUIDE By Ed Bernardino Notice the difference between the two.8-THIRD ANGLE PROJECTION 7 .

CURTAIN WALL FABRICATION DRAWING GUIDE By Ed Bernardino (In the course of my examples.1. Let us go back to our objective which is to reduce the number of views to save drafting time not only during the design stage but during the revision or modification. removing one side view will not jeopardize the fabrication drawing.9. See Figure 1. FIGURE 1. as much as possible I will use the third angle presentation as it is similar to the standard orthographic projection). Looking back to Figure 1.9 – FOUR VIEWS PRESENTATION Can I still remove one or two views without abandoning the objective of complete working drawing which stressed that the reader or end user need not to go back to the designer to ask any question regarding the drawing? A complete working drawing thoroughly explains what is to be done and 8 .

12 . other might misread the intent especially if revolved section is not explained to the end users.13 is highly recommended however.10 – OBJECT WITH CENTER INEbject with Center Line FIGURE 1. However. FIGURE 1.10). Figure 1.12 is more convenient by just adding size and material of part.13 – REVOLVED SECTION IS ADDED Figure 1. 9 . to an ordinary worker they will not understand this kind of object unless one (1) view will be added see Figure 1.11 is the most acceptable to most workers with limited technical background but Figure 1.CALL OUT IS ADDED FIGURE 1.12. In college days one (1) view with center line explain that the object is a rod or cylindrical or conical as the case maybe (See Figure 1.11 or a call-out which identifies that this is indeed a rod like in Figure 1.SIDE VIEW IS ADDED FIGURE 1. For purposes of simplification.CURTAIN WALL FABRICATION DRAWING GUIDE By Ed Bernardino will stick to it.11 . Before removing a view let me explain further another principle in drawing presentation.

when the object is complicated and end user cannot figure it out then CPL and SL is required. However. most of the companies in the Middle East include cutting plane line (CPL) and section lines (SL) in the fabrication drawing without understanding the primary purpose of doing so. When two (2) or more separate parts were cut.14). when there are complicated areas where a plain view cannot fully identify such areas.CURTAIN WALL FABRICATION DRAWING GUIDE By Ed Bernardino Let me discuss the Cutting Plane Line (CPL) and Section Line (SL). direction of section line shall be observed to characterize that they are separate with each other. 10 .14. then it is necessary to provide cutting plane line and section line so fabricator can understand the drawing. section line shall not be shown on these items. When the CPL passed through a bolt. When using CPL the designer shall be aware of the rules such as. Now. 2. They do not have the idea that following only the principle of orthographic projection is enough to make a fabrication drawing. keys and the likes. there is no need to use CPL as these are very simple object. Similarly. auxiliary view or helping view can be added if required. as the author experience. screws. As shown on Figure 1. In the drawing samples above. 1. (Also in Figure 1. Again. when to use it or not to use it.

14 – CUTTING PLANE LINE AND SECTION LINE APPLICATION The drawing as shown in Figure 1. Similarly. In this example. with an intention to clear up doubts that might arise when fabricator will start the production.CURTAIN WALL FABRICATION DRAWING GUIDE By Ed Bernardino Since this discussion focus on simplicity. Again. the designer intent is to display the holes and that is the reason why the CPL is drawn in such direction.14. FIGURE 1. the cutting plane line is passing thru two (2) bolts. there is no need to elaborate the different section line symbol of every material but rather use the standard symbol. if it is not required do not provide cutting plane line and section views. two (2) parts of the 11 . You will also notice that bolts were not section as stated in rule number 1. It is therefore the responsibility of the designer where he intent to place the CPL.

Let us use the same channel shown on Figure 1. eliminating views and reducing to the minimum is beneficial to designer. Maybe the more additional infusion of technicalities into our fabrication drawing. Let us go back now to the simplification of drawing. FIGURE 1. removed. As previously discussed. half. full. since our goal is to convey to the workers in the simplest way possible in preparing a fabrication working drawing so they can understand easier. revolved and broken-out as this might be beyond the comprehension of the end user. I wish to restate my position to have a simple easily understandable fabrication drawing presentation. fabricator and other end users. I will no longer venture in explaining the different kind of section views like.CURTAIN WALL FABRICATION DRAWING GUIDE By Ed Bernardino assembly were section in different direction indicating that these are separate parts. Again. the workers.15 – THREE VIEWS PRESENTATION 12 .1 in our discussion. but I rather focus on the above in order not to complicate matters. the more they will be confused. There are additional rules on this subject.

projection lines will be removed for presentation clarity).16 – TWO VIEWS PRESENTATION 13 . such as.15 was change if you compare it against Figure 1. Since I wish to reduce the views I oriented it in such a way that all the information required by the fabricator is clearly explained in the given views. Can I remove another view? In this example – no more! Otherwise it will just complicate things.1 & 1. FIGURE 1. if the slotted holes are align then it can be presented in two (2) views. I am leaving the designer to his own judgment whether to adopt this presentation or not.9 you need extra view(s) to explain the holes location.CURTAIN WALL FABRICATION DRAWING GUIDE By Ed Bernardino You will notice that the orientation of the side view on Figure 1. See Figure 1. Maybe there are limitations in using this. Actually. space. In this position the slotted holes are all highlighted in three (3) views only while in Figure 1. However.16 below (from this point. it doesn’t matter if it was oriented differently for as long as it defines the part to be fabricated. company guidelines and other reasons.1.

it is important to observe the dimensioning standard as described in British Standard 8888 which covers all ISO dimensioning rules. material and other relevant topics will be discuss thoroughly. they are using Metric system. or the company you are working. all the data require for the complete working drawing like call-outs. dimension lines. 14 . although there is already guideline for the minimum text height in a particular drawing as stated in the company drafting manual. In the Middle-East where I worked before. so sample drawings in this book will adopt Metric system. in case they have one. Many designers ignore the significance of this. DIMENSIONING AND CALL-OUTS Dimension and call-outs are very important information in a fabrication drawing otherwise it will be impossible for the fabricator to manufacture an object. finishes. Likewise. Dimensions might be in English of Metric system depending upon which part of the world you are. 2. I wish to emphasize the importance of callouts and dimension text which shall be legible enough so anybody who read drawings can clearly understand what are being describe and dimensioned. Although most of the countries are adopting Metric system there are some companies who still use English system. In order to produce a good professional standard drawing.CURTAIN WALL FABRICATION DRAWING GUIDE By Ed Bernardino As we go along.

Maguire.CURTAIN WALL FABRICATION DRAWING GUIDE By Ed Bernardino For our reference. 3. depending on the size of the drawing. must be of uniform size and shape and in every case touch the dimension line to which they refer.7mm thick. The drawing outline will then be clearly defined and in contrast with the dimensioning system.35mm thick. 4. 1. 2. Simmons and Dennis E. Bearing in mind the size of the actual dimensions and the fact that there may be two numbers together where limits of size are quoted. Arrowheads should approximately triangular. “Dimension and projection lines are narrow continuous lines 0. clearly placed outside the outline of the drawing. about 2 to 3mm. The projection lines should not touch the drawing but a small gap should be left. Arrowheads drawn manually should be filled in. Arrowheads drawn by machine need not be filled in. (Please compare this to your Office Drafting Manual and if there is any deviation apply your company standards). below is the Dimensioning Principles from the Manual of Engineering Drawing by Colin H. The drawing outline is depicted with wide lines of 0. if possible. then adequate space must be left 15 . The projection lines should then continue for the same distance past the dimension line.

however. They can be extended. so that they can be read from the right hand side. for example. It should be stated here that on metric drawings the decimal marker is a dot positioned on the base line between the figures.2 but never 5 5 with a decimal point midway. 7. To enable dimensions to be read clearly. Leader lines are used to indicate where specific indications apply.CURTAIN WALL FABRICATION DRAWING GUIDE By Ed Bernardino between rows of dimensions and a spacing of about 12mm is recommended. The leader line to the hole is directed towards the center point but terminates at the circumference in an arrow. or turning the drawing in a clockwise direction.4 and not .0. For example. which might not be noticed on a drawing print that has poor line definition. Dimensions are quoted in millimeters to the minimum number of significant figures. 5. A 16 . 19 and not 19.4. 5. Center lines must never be used as dimension lines but be left clear and distinct. always use a nought before the decimal marker. In case of a decimal dimension. 6. 8. when used in the role of projection lines. figures are placed so that they can be read from the bottom of the drawing. We write 0.

” In a computer generated drawing most of these principles above can be pre-set accordingly. production department has no complained about the drawing so why change it now and many other excuses just to contradict the established principles.1 – APPLICATION OF DIMENSIONING PRINCIPLES The next I will be showing dimension using the principles and the one which does not. there is no more time. 17 .CURTAIN WALL FABRICATION DRAWING GUIDE By Ed Bernardino leader line for a part number terminates in a dot within the outline of the component. like submission schedules. Let us see the different.1 below. Application of dimensioning principles is best explain in Figure 2. The most important thing is the clarity of quoted dimensions. Many draftsmen failed to follow the principles with so many excuses. it was done before. FIGURE 2.

In most cases dimensions crisscross with each other and cited numbers are unreadable.CURTAIN WALL FABRICATION DRAWING GUIDE By Ed Bernardino Regrettably. 18 . Studying the illustration below.3. FIGURE 2. The rule is to place it outside other dimensions. placing dimensions inside the object is not advisable especially so if it is crowded. Please view Figure 2. this should not be the right attitude of draftsmen because drawing is a media in communicating to workers your intent on how things are manufacture.2 intensively and compare the difference. I have seen drawings were it is place the other way around. showing the sum of the multiple dimensions.2 –DIMENSIONING PRINCIPLES ILLUSTRATION Another typical example draftsmen ignore is the placement of overall dimensions. See figure 2.

Is this the kind of output in a computer generated presentation? Maybe we are just hard headed or ignorant enough that we miss to see the convenient of other people who will be using our fabrication drawings.CURTAIN WALL FABRICATION DRAWING GUIDE By Ed Bernardino FIGURE 2.4 below. We have to accept the fact that we are technologically oriented professional who shall produce a better drawing presentation. Check Figure 2. End user or fabricator’s expect the best from us. but we are no longer living in a world where we are writing in plant leaves or bark. True. this is the classical illustration of what I mentioned earlier.3 – INCORRECT DIMESIONING PRACTICE Some of draftsmen and designers assume that by just placing dimensions anywhere in the drawing is good enough for as long as it is there and can be understood. 19 .

The closer the dimensions to the shape (in this example is circles) the better.CURTAIN WALL FABRICATION DRAWING GUIDE By Ed Bernardino FIGURE 2. Embracing the second practice (preferred) bring the fabrication drawing much clearer. 20 . can be presented in a simple and much better way as shown in Figure 2.5. although it is correct. when it can be done on the nearer side.4 – INCORRECT DIMESIONING PRACTICE I also encountered some dimensions in a fabrication drawing. I do not appreciate any reason why dimension lines are place all the way to the other side. passing the length or width of the object.

PREFFERED CALLOUT PRACTICE 21 . I prefer the drawing on the right side because it already shows the outline that is being described. FIGURE 2. Mistakenly draftsmen ignore the fact that pointing the leader dimension on the shape being describes (in this case on the elevation.CURTAIN WALL FABRICATION DRAWING GUIDE By Ed Bernardino FIGURE 2.6) they set it on the view where the shape is not properly displayed. see Figure 2. PREFFERED DIMENSION PRACTICE Allow me to discuss a little bit about “call outs” or leader dimensioning.5 – NOT PREFFERED VS. This practice to me is not acceptable.6 – NOT PREFFERED VS.

Dimensioning chambers 14. Parallel dimension (baseline in Auto-Cad) 3. running or staggered). Dimensioning tapers 13.CURTAIN WALL FABRICATION DRAWING GUIDE By Ed Bernardino Let us now proceed to the different methods of dimensioning which are listed below: 1. Dimensioning radii 7. Dimensioning spherical radii and diameters 8. Staggered dimension 5. Chain dimensioning (in Auto-cad it is label as continuous dimension). Dimensioning circles 6. Dimensioning irregular curves 10. I do not encourage you to change their existing dimensioning method (chain. This machine revolutionized the machining process by just encoding 22 . anyway they are your client. parallel. It is wise to coordinate with the production department and ask them which they prefer to used. 2. if your company have standard drafting manual the better and just follow their standard. Most of the company now has modern computer numerical control (CNC) machine. Nevertheless. Dimensioning counter-bores 16. Running dimension 4. Dimensioning countersunk holes Before choosing what particular kind of dimension you want to use in the preparation of fabrication drawings. Dimensioning holes 15. Dimensioning curves 9. Angular dimensions 11. Dimensioning squares or flats 17. Unidirectional and aligned dimensions 12.

etc. doors. Despite the introduction of the new technology. See Figure 2.7 below. the fact remains that by following the industry standard. curtain wall. fabricator will find their task much easier. The CNC operator is the most qualified to answer what kind of dimensioning they are using.CURTAIN WALL FABRICATION DRAWING GUIDE By Ed Bernardino data to the computer base on your drawing.7 –CHAIN DIMENSION 23 . Many designers and draftsman forgot these dimensions types maybe because they are already used doing the wrong presentation since it is also acceptable in the company and anyway fabricator can also produce windows. it is the draftsman. CHAIN DIMENSION When using chain dimensions take good care of the accumulation of tolerance as this might endanger the function of the part. Many times the overall dimension does not tally with this type of dimension especially if the dimension decimal were not set accordingly (auto cad drafting). I think it is just fair to explain the characteristic of each dimension type since at the end. However. designer and fabricator who will be directly benefited by such clarification. FIGURE 2. without following the principles. 1.

9. In running dimension it has also common datum similar to parallel dimension. PARALLEL DIMENSON This kind of dimensioning improved positional accuracy compare to chain by measuring from common datum.9 – RUNNING DIMENSION 24 . FIGURE 2. as shown in Figure 2. Many CNC operators prefer this dimensioning. I do not recommend running dimension to draftsmen and designers in fabrication drawing.CURTAIN WALL FABRICATION DRAWING GUIDE By Ed Bernardino 2.8. FIGURE 2.8 – PARALLEL DIMENSION 3. See Figure 2. RUNNING DIMENSION This method is a simplified parallel dimension with the advantage of less space.

Also accepted is showing the radius of circles in lieu diameter size. DIMENSIONING CIRCLES It is important to place Ø symbol to indicate the diameter of circle.11 – DIAMETER OF CIRCLE DIMENSION . STAGGERED DIMENSION For staggered dimension see Figure 2. For clarity other dimension were removed. There are several methods wherein draftsmen can choose which can be determine by the size of holes.10.CURTAIN WALL FABRICATION DRAWING GUIDE By Ed Bernardino 4. 25 FIGURE 2.10 – STAGGERED DIMENSION 5. FIGURE 2.11. In a computer aided design drafting it automatically show the type as shown in Figure 2.

13 26 . DIMENSIONING RADII FIGURE 2. This is only to illustrate how to dimension spherical radii and diameters. DIMENSIONING DIAMETERS SPHERICAL RADII AND In Figure 2.CURTAIN WALL FABRICATION DRAWING GUIDE By Ed Bernardino 6. the appearance has nothing to do with orthographic projection which means that views do not have any relationship with each other.13.12 7. Notice that dimension lines is drawn passing thru the arc center or in the case of short distances it rest in a line. FIGURE 2.

it is important to display the center line of each curve’s radii for proper dimensioning.14 9. fabricator makes a plywood or wood pattern using the coordinates. In Figure 2.CURTAIN WALL FABRICATION DRAWING GUIDE By Ed Bernardino 8. DIMENSIONING IRREGULAR CURVES Irregular curves maybe dimensioned using ordinates. FIGURE 2. Today. however due to 27 .15 x and y coordinates were not shown for clarity the important thing is the intersection of these coordinates which determine the point where each individual curve starts and where it ends.14.13 FIGURE 2. DIMENSIONING CURVES Where a curve is tangent to a line or lines and multitude of radii are intersecting which each other as shown on Figure 2. Years back. when significant quantities are required to be produced.

It is up to the designer to fix the default he wants whether it requires degrees.16 below. and degrees. the illustration measure a degrees only as this is the default in the auto-cad. On Figure 2. ANGULAR DIMENSIONS Angular dimensions on engineering drawings are stated in degrees. degrees & minutes. FIGURE 2. by using angular dimension in the pop up menu then clicking to the angle you want to measure will automatically produce the actual measurement.16 28 . FIGURE 2.CURTAIN WALL FABRICATION DRAWING GUIDE By Ed Bernardino the introduction of computer aided design and CNC machine this task is easy to work with. minutes and seconds or degrees only. minutes & seconds. In auto-cad this is just a simple operation.15 10.

The important thing it is presented in a very precise and clear manner as shown in Figure 2. FIGURE 2.17 12. DIMENSIONING TAPERS Let me explain first the meaning of taper. See Figure 2. Formula: Taper = X – Y Length 29 .CURTAIN WALL FABRICATION DRAWING GUIDE By Ed Bernardino 11. The difference between dimension X and Y (whether diameters or widths) divided by the length between them defines a ratio called taper.17. aligned dimensions can be easily manipulated in computer aided design drafting.18A. UNIDIRECTIONAL DIMENSIONS AND ALIGNED Similar to angular as stated previously.

CURTAIN WALL FABRICATION DRAWING GUIDE By Ed Bernardino FIGURE 2.18A For example. the conical taper in Figure 2.18B 30 .25 40 40 FIGURE 2.18B. Taper = 20 – 10 = 10 = 0.

rate of taper might not be required for as long as dimensions X.18b). An arrow is ISO recommended symbol for taper this symbol can be added to the drawing accompanied by the rate of taper (see Figure 2.19. FIGURE 2. DIMENSIONING HOLES 31 .CURTAIN WALL FABRICATION DRAWING GUIDE By Ed Bernardino This can be expressed as rate of taper 0. For fabrication drawing simplicity however.19 14. The arrow indicates the direction of the taper. When the arrow and the rate of taper is enclosed in a box this indicates that the taper is required as datum. Y and length are given.25: 1 in diameter. 13. DIMENSIONING CHAMFERS Different methods of internal and external chamfer dimensioning are shown in Figure 2.

20 If holes are positioned around pitch circle (PCD) and may be equally spaced on the main center lines. B and C alternate methods of dimensioning counter bores are illustrated which are applied to elevation and sections.. 15. When holes are positioned individually. It is not ample to state “COUNTER BORE FOR M10 RD HD SCREW”. DIMENSIONING COUNTER BORES In Figure 2. FIGURE 2.20C. angle dimensions and size of holes dimension shall be introduced. In all three cases it is important to specify the size of the needed counter bore. as shown in Figure 2.CURTAIN WALL FABRICATION DRAWING GUIDE By Ed Bernardino Dimension of the depth of drilled holes. since 32 . denotes the cylindrical portion and not the point left by the drill.21-A. PCD dimension. Refer to Figure 2. size and location of holes can be dimensioned using callouts similar to Figure 2. when specified in a note form.20-A.20-B. If no other indication is given they are assumed that it go through the material.

CURTAIN WALL FABRICATION DRAWING GUIDE By Ed Bernardino obviously the head of the screw will fit into any counter bore which is larger than the head. to accommodate the heads of the screw and rivets to provide a flush finish. some company’s production department might accept the above statement for they already knew what to do in the fabrication floor.21 16. They might have organized table for counter bore sizes in every bolt sizes. DIMENSIONING COUNTERSUNK HOLES The common machined angles for countersunk holes are 60° and 90°.22A. B and C demonstrates the different methods of dimensioning countersunk holes (shown in elevation and sections). Figure 2. 33 . Well. FIGURE 2. It is a good practice to refer to the manufacturer’s catalogue for suitable screw and rivets dimensions.

FIGURE 2.23 Still with me!!! Again let me remind the readers that I am not imposing the aforementioned principles. FIGURE 2. DIMENSIONING SQUARES OR FLATS In Figure 2. since 34 .CURTAIN WALL FABRICATION DRAWING GUIDE By Ed Bernardino Countersunk holes dimensioning in one of the company I work simply provides a call out (leader dimension) by writing“(3) COUNTERSUNK HOLES FOR M6 X 19mm SCREW”. standard dimensioning is acceptable.23A & B. Nevertheless. It also worked well because the fabrication department is already aware of what to do. shows a simple dimensioning of square or flats.22 17.


there are still many methods in the engineering or ISO standard you can implement. If you feel that the present system you are using now is sufficient enough for your presentation it is up to you. Further, if the dimensions, drawings or any ideas explained in this book will not help in improving the preparation of fabrication drawings you can just stick with your old standard, but if you feel the other way around by all means adopt this now.

It is imperative that draftsmen, designers and team leaders shall know by heart the project specification of each project assigned to them. As a matter of fact in every lecture I conducted to the company’s new employees’ orientation seminar, I always stressed the important of project specifications. The duty of the design team leader is to read and prepare a summary of project specifications. This step will help draftsmen and designers under him in the preparation not only fabrication drawings but shop drawings as well. During my time as design supervisor, this is always the first thing I do since every step in drawing preparation evolve in specifications. On the part of draftsmen and designers, their job is to stick with specifications. What does project specification has to do in the production of fabrication drawings? Well, in the fabrication drawings material specification, material finishes and profiles are to be indicated.



I will give some of the available description of the above, however, to those who are making and using fabrication drawing I encourage you to continue researching and reading new reference as new technologies in curtain wall industry are introduce day by day. Some company describe material as the composition of profile, sheets and parts. For examples in aluminium this is designated by alloy and temper. A. Aluminium Plates: AA-3003-H14, AA-5456H116 and AA-6061-T6 B. Aluminium Sheets: AA-3003-H12, AA-3003H14, AA-3003-H16, AA-3004-H12, AA-3004H14 and AA-3005-H34. C. Aluminium Dies or Profiles: AA-6061-T4, AA6061-T6, AA-6063-T4, AA-6063-T5, AA-6063T6, AA-7075-T5 and AA-7075-T6. For Carbon & Alloy Steel: A. Great Britain BS 970: 230M07, 070M20, 080M40, 070M55, 080A15, 080M13, 709M40, 708M40, 817M40, 816M40, 835M30, 655M13, 655H13, 722M24, 905M31 and 905M39. B. U.S.A. AISI/ SAE: 1213, M1020, M1023, 1040, 1055, M1015, M1016, 4140, 4142, 4340, 4337, 3310, 9314, E71400 and G71406. There are countries that has their own specification like; Germany (W-Nr Din), Italy (UNI), Japan (JIS), France (AFNOR) and Spain (UNE). This all depends on



the project specification and what standard is used. The best reference on this is the structural calculation made by your company’s structural engineers. For Stainless Steel: A. Great Britain BS 970: 17/4PH, 303S31, 304S11, 304S15, 316S31, 316S11, 321S31, 310, 416S21, 420S29, 420S37, 420S45, 410S21 and 431S29. B. U.S.A. AISI/ SAE: ASTM A564 Grade 630, 303, 304L, 304, 316, 316L, 321, 310, 310S, 416, 420, 420F, 410 and 431. Similar to carbon and alloy steel the best reference on this is the structural calculation made by your company’s structural engineers. For Glass:

A. B. C. D. E.

Float or Annealed Heat Strengthen Fully Tempered Heat Soak Laminated

The aforementioned glass can be either single glazed, double glazed, insulated glass unit (IGU) and multiple glazed. Different application whether soft coating (sputtered) or hard coating (pyrolytic) can be added to glass to get the U-Value needed by specification. These can be clear, tinted, coated, reflective and low emissivity (passive solar Low-E or solar control Low-


C. Low Iron Float Glass Transparent Mirror Patterned Glass Acid Etched Anti-Reflective Glass Fire-Resistance Glass Structural Glass Self-Cleaning Here let me list down the different material finishes for your guidance. H. F. G. For Aluminium: A. I. C. B. Listed below are other architectural specialty glasses that can be incorporated in the curtain wall.CURTAIN WALL FABRICATION DRAWING GUIDE By Ed Bernardino E) application or the combination of either of the above. D. E. A. B. F. Raw 38 . G. D. H. E. Mill Anodized Powder Coated (preferably for inside finish) Super Durable Powder Coated (preferably for outside finish) Polyvinylidene Flouride (PVDF) Alodine Chromated Brushed Mirror For Steel: A.

Mill Satin Mirror Brushed Matte Bead Blast 4. Volumes were completed for an easy. 7XXX for glazing adaptor. F. Hot Dipped Galvanized C. different system design itself has own designation. etc. 5XXX for sleeves. D. In one company I worked in Saudi Arabia. 2XXX for transoms. STANDARD FABRICATION DRAWING LIBRARY: The important of standard fabrication drawing library especially in any design organization cannot be overlooked. E.CURTAIN WALL FABRICATION DRAWING GUIDE By Ed Bernardino B. 3XXX for pressure plates. 8XXX for spandrel glass reducer. 4XXX for cover caps. One company in the middle-east. for the last 60 years they continuously update their standard drawings library. C. accurate and speedy future reference in the preparation of fabrication drawings. 6XXX for gutter splices. Like 1XXX for mullions. even group their system design components by serial numbering. Powder Coated For Stainless Steel: A. Stick curtain wall uses SW60 for 39 . B. Correspondingly.

SW90 for 90mm width profiles and so on. R & D Department is usually in-charge in preparing. SW70 for 70mm width profiles. shims. It is already in the library and ready for printing. gutter splices. Keeping these standard parts in the CNC machine or external storage will help expedite the production of parts. SW80 for 80mm width profiles. transoms. supports. many companies do not see the 40 . instead of the normal completion of say three (3) days can be done in one (1) day only. load transfer blocks. clips.CURTAIN WALL FABRICATION DRAWING GUIDE By Ed Bernardino 60mm width profiles. reducers. Not only design department benefits in this issue but production/ fabrication department as well. inserts. serrated washers and many others. The parts mentioned earlier can significantly reduce the number of man-hours and mistakes in producing fabrication drawings. hook brackets. mullion sleeves. adaptors. Unfortunately. shoe brackets. glazing beads. Unitized curtain wall system uses similar practice yet instead of using the prefix SW it uses UCW. wall brackets. corner cleats. transom connectors. filing. and other main curtain wall components? Imagine the savings!!! So significant that a fabrication drawings or even shop drawings. Parts that can be considered as standard are. toggles. How about standardizing mullions. modifying and updating the library.

In order to cover this scope I will try to give example of fabrication drawings of aluminium. stainless steel. In line with this. I will present a combination of drawings from different company were I worked before which I feel serves my purpose of simplification. TODAY’S WORLD: In today’s curtain wall industry limitation of materials is no longer an issue due to the new emerging technologies that is being introduces in the market. Steps in Fabrication Drawing preparation are as follows: 41 . True. steel. aluminium transoms and glass but as what the architect or consultant desire to do in the building envelope. In this regard. Let me remind again that different company has their own way of presenting fabrication drawings.CURTAIN WALL FABRICATION DRAWING GUIDE By Ed Bernardino significant of this in connection with fabrication drawings. 5. sheets and composite cladding. G.I. because the result is not seen in the early stages in design and drawing process but it will be cherished in the future. fabrication drawing is not only for aluminium mullion. It is not even limited to the external curtain wall only but it is also introduce inside the building. glass. So start now! It is never too late.

I will present few unitized curtain wall system fabrication drawings. transom. Much my desire to give you as much examples as I can it is my belief that this guide is not intended for this purpose.CURTAIN WALL FABRICATION DRAWING GUIDE By Ed Bernardino 1. Produce assembly drawings. brackets. supports. As the name implies this means individual portion of the assembly. and other relevant curtain wall assemblies. These were based from the approved shop drawings which were submitted to the consultant and returned to us. Preferably. Included in setting out are tag numbers. On the next pages. Make setting out drawings. I will be giving fabrication drawing examples in sequential order following the three (3) steps in preparing fabrication drawing. Generate part drawings. cover cap. mullion. assembly dimensions and quantity of assemblies (can be counted based on tag numbers). Therefore. 42 . Assembly drawing is not only limited to panel but rather it includes. handrail. In curtain wall examples these are. the basic principles discuss in this book is sufficient enough in the production of simplified fabrication drawings. 2. wall bracket and shoe bracket (bracket might be either a sub-assembly or part). Besides. pressure plate. it is of great help in the quantification of assemblies if table is provided for this purpose although it is not mandatory. 3. mullion sleeve.

I will not mention their names or show their logos in any of the following drawing examples.UNITIZED CURTAIN WALL PARTIAL SETTING OUT . FABRICATION DRAWING SAMPLES: 43 FIGURE 4. 6.1.CURTAIN WALL FABRICATION DRAWING GUIDE By Ed Bernardino In fairness with all the company I work with.











Although to some extend this is limited to standard doors and windows only. On windows these may include: punch. sliding and rotating doors. width and height of a door or window then it will provide result for accessories. casement (side hung). Further. It was prepared in such way that the draftsman or designer job is to input the quantity. swing. This has been my experience in two of the companies in U. not for custom system design. 54 . sliding and turn/ tilt windows. While on doors these comprises: hinged. Actually. fabrication drawings are faster to produce.E.CURTAIN WALL FABRICATION DRAWING GUIDE By Ed Bernardino When a company have a fabrication and detail drawing library. it is organized to cater all types and system of standard doors and windows. where the fabricators were already familiar with all the details which guide them to assemble standard doors and windows. quantities. cutting size of profiles and glass automatically. awning (top or bottom hung). Additional examples on the next pages were made using the “excel” format not in auto-cad. this procedure aids in the speedy production of fabrication drawings.A. By the way this might only apply to common system. striped. not only fabrication drawings but shop drawings as well.









Additionally. every week or worst every day depending upon the agreement in the construction contract. Consequently. SUBMISSION SCHEDULE The primary reason is schedule commitment. For a very obvious reason. Equally disturbing. Talking about profits. If a company’s reputation is damage they might end up losing more bids in the future. closing the company altogether. 63 . maybe every month.CURTAIN WALL FABRICATION DRAWING GUIDE By Ed Bernardino 7. A. it is well accepted fact in the construction companies that once you miss the target day. the client can impose penalty to the contractor. nevertheless let us look deeper into the reasons why these things are happening. This situation is indeed very ironic. REASONS COMMITTED: WHY MISTAKES ARE I am disappointed to see fabrication drawings go back and forth from the QA/QC department to design department because designers hasten the preparation of drawings. if a construction’s completion go way beyond the estimated date then company losses significant amount of money. It is ideal if drawings smoothly go through these three stages in one direction but realistically it never happens. first the company reputation and second the company profits. During my stay in United Arab Emirates many companies anchored their minds on this obligation. is from production department to QA/QC to design and vice versa.

This attitude is passing responsibility to the next link in the production chain without remorse. Well. All the mistakes 64 . This attitude will lead to more mistakes and subsequently repetition of work. If a company has internal QA/QC department. all the full pressure lies on this department. working overtime and under pressure. meaning draftsmen and designers are force to the limit. this mean additional overtime is required. schedule commitment (when not properly done.CURTAIN WALL FABRICATION DRAWING GUIDE By Ed Bernardino Conversely looking into another philosophy. This kind of people is not really helping the organization but rather only helping his/her own reputation alone. documentation wise. I encountered few draftsmen and designers whose philosophy is to submit fabrication drawings fast and let the QA/QC department find the mistakes. not knowing the true priorities or not being follow) can even bring more disaster to both company’s reputation and profits. Some draftsmen and designers will submit incomplete or wrong fabrication drawings just to meet the schedule date imposed to them by their supervisors or design manager. this is good because it will appear very nice in the progress report. Let me give you an example. How? Let us look at it this way when a submission schedule is not reasonable. this will just add to the delay in the overall submission because it will just come back to them from QA/QC department. However.

Sadly. B. set aside the schedule primarily just do your job right the first time and at the end correctness of activities will prevail over the schedule thus beating it to become secondary in our activities. But three or more hours led to 60% increased risk of coronary heart disease”. “One or two hours’ overtime made no difference to people’s health. this is the weakest link. yet under no circumstances forget to ask a written order superseding the specific policy. physical tiredness and other related health illnesses. 65 . mental fatigue. especially if design department will continue to stick into such philosophy I mentioned above. EXCESSIVE OVERTIME The more overtime being rendered the more problem employee will encounter.CURTAIN WALL FABRICATION DRAWING GUIDE By Ed Bernardino and blames are all directed to QA/QC. My advice to QA/QC department never comprises company design standard policy in lieu of schedule. In a study. excessive overtime lead to stress. the researchers from University London and Finnish Institute of Occupational Health found. most of the time this department is the less appreciated in the series of chain. “Researchers in Britain reported in the European Heart Journal that people who work 10 hours a day is more likely to have heart related problems than those who work less”. both job related activities and health. heart attack. Unless of course higher authority overrides such policy. I came up with my own philosophy with regards to schedule.

I remember during my time with Aramco. Every manager is directed to abide with this memorandum. Dhahran in Saudi Arabia. Here is an analogy in the petrochemical sector I used to work before. There are always three lines in the production of plastic pellets yet these lines are not working simultaneously in full capacity. Many times. During an 66 . This is a fifty 50 percentage decline in his standard output. for the same simple reason I previously stated. I rather work in a properly plan and organize time management environment than work overtime. Al Jubail Petrochemical Company (KEMYA) and Saudi Yanbu Petrochemical Company (YANPET) all in Saudi Arabia. I do not see the logic behind this procedure. I saw people working excessive overtime only to be absent the following day because of ailment. how can an employee perform his best? Instead of producing one (1) drawing a day he might complete it in two (2) days. That is a 100 percentage additional drafting cost entail by the company. This I learned while working in Arabian American Oil Company (ARAMCO). there is a mandatory memorandum from the Doctor that employee can only render overtime to a maximum of 40 hours (if my memory is right) per month. if before the guy got sick he completed his task. What happened to the schedule? Lucky. Worst come to worst they even go leaving the company in order to preserve their physical health and mental health.CURTAIN WALL FABRICATION DRAWING GUIDE By Ed Bernardino In a circumstance like this.

Applying this rotational procedure to personnel will not only preserve the health of the employees but eventually produce similar production result. Although all the teams work in typical curtain wall cladding they have their own way of drawing presentation. C. Seven (7) team leaders were assigned to the project. different bracket locations.CURTAIN WALL FABRICATION DRAWING GUIDE By Ed Bernardino annual preventive maintenance were one line is shut down. In my own experienced in a multi-million dollar project in Dubai were 100 employees are doing the fabrication drawings is a testimony that in a situation like this mistakes in presentation and delayed of submission is an ordinary incidence. designers and draftsmen. This procedure extends the life of each line way beyond the design specification’s intend. ORGANIZATION AND COORDINATION The third reason is the absence of organization and coordination between teams. Less stress and less pressure is the most conducive working environment for it eventually produces more with lesser mistakes. under them at least fourteen (14) senior designers. It was never run to produce more in one month (full capacity) but rather do it in one in a half or two months in a normal speed. two will run a little bit higher than normal to compensate for the production loss due to the stoppage of one line. different spread sheet bending dimensions 67 .

I think it will be unfair to you if I will not elaborate the system that our team particularly used. 1. and fabrication drawings on time? Well. One project in Kuwait and one project in Paris. We are nine (9) in a team who is doing two (2) huge projects simultaneously. material take-off (for material purchasing).CURTAIN WALL FABRICATION DRAWING GUIDE By Ed Bernardino deductions and different use of finish in the same material parts or assembly to name a few. In the project handover meeting with the Consultant. this responsibility is for the overall design supervisor or design manager to see to it that they are working in a similar design environment. Design Supervisor. DISASTER!! I am also lucky to work in a company were one of the priority is organization. How then our team manage to complete the shop drawings. 68 . many of these senior staffs do not want to involve directly in the design process. Our team is composed of Senior Project Design Manager. France. the Senior Project Design Manager and Design Supervisor we the curtain wall contractor readily prepared a set of relevant questions necessary for our team advantage. Contractors. Owner. the secret is not the number of personnel involve but a proper organization and coordination. Material Coordinator. Undesirably. Senior Designer and five (5) draftsmen. The result. Well.

3. besides the company has its own standard where the team consistently follow regardless of any situation like schedule of submission.CURTAIN WALL FABRICATION DRAWING GUIDE By Ed Bernardino 2. It is easy to coordinate and impose what supervisor wants. The soon we get such approval the soon our team can order required materials. Our objective is to revised shop drawings (or system design) to a maximum of two (2) revision only to get at least status “B”. After preparing the curtain wall system design. This step leads us to the next. In short. consultants or the owner we can even ask additional engineering cost due to the change. On the fabrication drawings. the format is designed where it produces more assemblies and parts drawings with less sheet and documentation. If there is any design changes requested by the contractor. we evolve in a one format presentation. They beauty is. We are lucky that we are very few people in our project management team. This is very significant because once the consultant signed the document we minimize the number of revisions in our drawing. 4. From here on everything will move smoothly to our benefits. our team organized a meeting with the consultant to present our proposal and subsequently ask them their comments. This kind of leverage is working for the company’s gain. it is indeed less man-hours in the design and engineering with less overtime rendered every 69 .

D.. ENJOY!!! 70 . 5.. we respected each of our insights for the betterment of the group not for the benefit of the few. In the same manner copying assembly drawing from a correct setting out drawing will have a similar consequence. Well. the longer you will get money going into your direction. the more you are healthy. This is the greatest secret in any organization. The success of one is the success of all. Lastly. Many of them failed to do so. In fabrication copying part drawing from a correct assembly drawing make the activity faster. You and I know precisely the outcome. HELPFUL TABLES: Below you will find tables which can assist in the preparation of fabrication. ERRONEOUS “COPY AND PASTE PRACTICE” Some draftsmen and designers today have the habit of copying and pasting drawings from previous project to the present fabrication. 8. for most of us this is not good because less extra money flows into our pocket. yet remember this. Recognition is given to those who deserve it and not to the manager or supervisor alone for we know we work as a team. This is an advantage if he/ she will check thoroughly the correctness of the copied drawings.CURTAIN WALL FABRICATION DRAWING GUIDE By Ed Bernardino month for our team.




Brian Griffiths. Second Edition 2004. February 2006. Manual of Engineering to British and International Standards. Simmons and Dennis E. Engineering Drawing for Manufacture. Maguire. 74 .CURTAIN WALL FABRICATION DRAWING GUIDE By Ed Bernardino REFERENCES AND FURTHER READING Colin H.

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