Q1. WHAT IS PRODUCTIVITY? WRITE A BRIEF NOTE ON CAPITAL PRODUCTIVITY. Ans 1: Productivity is a measure of the efficiency of production.

Productivity is a ratio of production output to what is required to produce it (inputs). The measure of productivity is defined as a total output per one unit of a total input. These definitions are short but too general and insufficient to make the phenomenon productivity understandable. A more detailed theory of productivity is needed, which explains the phenomenon productivity and makes it comprehensible. Furthermore is needed operationalization of the concept productivity that makes it a measureable quantity. In explaining and operationalizing a set of production models are used. A production model is a numerical expression of the production process that is based on production data, i.e. measured data in the form of prices and quantities of inputs and outputs. It is most advisable to examine any phenomenon whatsoever only after defining the entity the phenomenon under review forms part of. Then it will be possible to analyse the phenomenon as part of such an entity. Hence, productivity cannot be examined as a phenomenon independently but it is necessary to identify the entity it belongs to. Such an entity is defined as production process. It goes without saying that productivity is a critical factor of production process in one way or another. To define the way is the object of this article. The benefits of high productivity are manifold. At the national level, productivity growth raises living standards because more real income improves people's ability to purchase goods and services, enjoy leisure, improve housing and education and contribute to social and environmental programs. Productivity growth is important to the firm because it means that the firm can meet its (perhaps growing) obligations to customers, suppliers, workers, shareholders, and governments (taxes and regulation), and still remain competitive or even improve its competitiveness in the market place. Capital Productivity Output per unit of value of fixed production assets (fixed capital). In a socialist economy, capital productivity characterizes the efficiency with which fixed capital stock is used. It is commonly employed in economic analysis and in the formulation of production plans and plans for capital expenditures, both for the national economy as a whole and for individual sectors, production associations, and enterprises. Data on the gross social product and on national income (from productive activities) are used in calculating capital productivity for the national economy as a whole; for calculating the productivity of individual sectors, data on gross (commodity) or net output are used. In sectors

The working of mineral deposits at greater depths requires additional expenditures in fixed capital. Capital productivity differs from one branch of material production to another. . Capital productivity is the reciprocal of the capital-output ratio. and in organizations. Productivity is influenced by a number of factors. The level of capital productivity and the pattern of changes in productivity depend in large measure on technical and economic indicators describing the utilization of machinery and equipment and especially on increases in the equipment shift index. there was a slight decline (by 3 percent). Thus. by the deterioration of geological and mining conditions in the existing mineral deposits. the organizational and technical measures employed in managing production capacities. cement). and 1. Thus. Its growth depends primarily on the level of technology. again leading to lower productivity. and the proportion of capital investment earmarked for reconstruction and retooling. thereby lowering capital productivity. the national income produced in current prices per ruble of fixed production assets in the USSR in 1975 amounted to 45 kopeks in the national economy as a whole. Many factors act to lower productivity. and improved product quality. at enterprises. using either the average value over the year or the value as of the end of the year. The expansion of production in the country’s eastern and northern regions has the same effect because the cost of fixed capital stock is between 30 and 50 percent higher there than in the European part of the USSR. During the ninth five-year plan. lower production costs. 50 kopeks in industry. capital productivity in industry in the USSR rose through the 1950’s and declined between 1961 and 1965. the accelerated development of industrial branches with relatively low capital productivities may lower productivity for industry as a whole. caused primarily by construction programs launched in the country’s eastern and northern regions. Thus. For example. Capital productivity is calculated on the basis of the balance valuation of the fixed production assets (depreciation costs included).where the output is homogeneous (petroleum. if outlays for additional fixed capital stock can be recouped in the period prescribed by norms. physical units are sometimes used in the calculations. and by difficulties encountered in supplying light industry and the food processing industry with agricultural raw materials because of extremely adverse weather conditions over a number of years. The raising of capital productivity leads to increased efficiency of production. productivity showed no change with regard to gross output but increased with regard to net output. Improved use of fixed capital stock is reflected not only in higher capital productivity but also in higher labor productivity. Five-year plans make provision for better use of fixed capital stock and for the development and implementation of programs to raise capital productivity in various sectors of the national economy. coal. 13.18 rubles in construction.4 kopeks in transport and communications. During the eighth five-year plan (1966–70). Various purification facilities included in industrial projects which do not directly influence the volume of production nevertheless raise the total cost of the fixed capital stock. 36 kopeks in agriculture. the investment is economically warranted even if capital productivity is slightly lowered.Capital productivity has fluctuated over the years because it is simultaneously influenced by a variety of factors.

cross-functional training. and management’s failure to understand problems within . Adopt New Philosophy In today’s economic age. Ans 2. It is mistake to presume that services offered at present can keep an organization solvent and ahead of competition. For example. 1. TQM functions on the premise that the quality of products and processes is the responsibility of everyone who is involved with the creation or consumption of the products or services offered by an organization. Customer demands are always changing. workforce. strategic planning. A real concern is the availability of a wide network of service stations supplying gas or replacing discharged batteries with charged ones. education. Cua. and Schroeder (2001) identified the nine common TQM practices as cross-functional product design. defects. Innovation generates new and improved services. 2. McKone. Considering the practices of TQM as discussed in six empirical studies. information and feedback. TQM capitalizes on the involvement of management. Gas and battery industries can work together with the automakers industry to provide solutions with sustained business opportunities for themselves. which is achieved by putting resources into research. In other words. businesses cannot survive with commonly accepted levels of mistakes. in order to meet or exceed customer expectations. Therefore. The transportation organization’s highest priority must be to provide the best transportation services to its community at the lowest cost possible. The plan-do-check-act (P-D-C-A) cycle allows the statement to evolve as customer demand grows and changes. To create a constancy of purpose necessitates the development of a mission statement for the transport corporation.Q2. people on the job who do not understand the job and are afraid to ask questions. committed leadership. The transport agency must create a constancy of purpose by putting the customer first. and even customers. process management. supplier quality management. the transportation organization must strive to maximize efficiency and effectiveness through constant improvement. The organization is responsible to both its community and its own workforce in maintaining a high level of excellence and value. This flexibility permits innovation. customer involvement. and employee involvement. Total quality management or TQM is an integrative philosophy of management for continuously improving the quality of products and processes. Create Constancy of Purpose The customer is the most important part of transport service. and maintenance of the transport system. The corporate sector should lobby for electric-and gas-based vehicles for urban areas. suppliers. use of electric.and gas-based vehicles can reduce pollution in urban areas (Shridharan 2002). WHAT IS MEANT BY TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT? MENTION THE 14 POINTS OF DEMING’S APPROACH TO MANAGEMENT.

Every worker and every department . One of the first steps for managers is to learn enough about the statistical control of quality to access the qualification of an operator by talking with them in statistical language. 5.the corporation. but from improvements in the system. To achieve best economy and productivity. low quality and high cost being the inevitable results. they must consider joint planning for improvement and joint improvement activities to serve customers better than their competitors. and to promote excellence and personal accountability. Employees. Price has no meaning without a measure of quality. End the Practice of Awarding Business on Price Tag Alone Today’s requirements for transport service suppliers are uniformity and reliability. Acceptable defective services and poor work performance are among the most severe roadblocks to better quality. business drifts to the lowest bidder. The common thread in adopting a new philosophy is meeting the needs of those who pay for and use the services provided by the transportation organization. This requires close cooperation between those who provide the services and those who consume them. transport agencies should know what quality they are delivering. Everyone working in a transport corporation can find ways to promote quality and efficiency. Improvement is not a one-time effort. Transport agencies should select suppliers that can provide statistical evidence of quality. The statistical control of the process provides the only way for transport operators to build quality service and the only way to provide managers evidence of uniform. The organization’s managers must be knowledgeable in the statistical control of quality. Cease Dependence on Mass Inspection Lasting quality comes not from inspection. They must proceed under the new philosophy: the right service quality characteristics must be built in without dependence on inspection. the organization should seek the best quality in a long-term relationship with a single supplier for only one item. Instead. The major benefit of the new philosophy is the creation of a continuous learning environment. should adopt a new work philosophy by meeting in cross-functional teams or quality circles to set priorities for staff training. 3. 4. Management is obligated to look continually for ways to reduce waste and improve quality. The results of implementing this strategy are longer lasting items and greater quality service at no additional cost. Since transport organizations tend to think of their suppliers as “partners” in their operations. repeatable quality and cost of service. Without adequate measures of quality. to improve all aspects of the transportation system. with the support of top management. Improve the System of Transport Service Quality can be built into all transportation activities and services and can be assured by continuous examination to identify potential improvements.

Thus. not afraid to ask for further instructions. Institute Leadership The leader creates opportunities for all employees (good and bad performers) to interact and identify opportunities for improvement. but more importantly. Quality circles/teams continuously work to meet the needs of the people they serve. and implementing innovative experiments. Training must be totally reconstructed. To ensure better quality and productivity. poor lighting. people fear punitive assignments or other forms of discrimination or harassment. They should receive training in synergetic or cooperative supervision and work in supportive teams to improve instructions and learning. On-the-job quality improvement training ensures that every employee has a thorough understanding of customer needs for transport services. higher levels. 7. 8. The use of statistical quality tools helps to identify trouble spots and their sources. These groups may use basic quality tools to identify issues that need attention. 6. . Statistical methods must be used to learn when training is finished and when further training would be beneficial. and not afraid to report vehicles out of order. For example. Drive Out Fear Improved performance cannot occur unless employees in the transport organization feel comfortable to speak truthfully and feel confident that their suggestions will be taken seriously. by breaking through existing performance levels to new. The economic loss from fear is appalling. resulting in lower costs and improved quality of transport operations and services. total quality encourages applying new methods. To counter this fear. or other working conditions that impair quality service in transportation. Most workers are afraid to ask questions or to report trouble. improved transport service can result from focusing not only on achieving present performance levels. creating new solutions. The job of supervisor is not to tell employees what to do or to punish but to lead them toward better job performance.must commit to constant improvement. Leading consists of helping workers do a better job and of using learning by objective methods for those employees in need of individual help. workers are not afraid to express ideas not afraid to ask questions. Quality circles/cross-functional teams work together to improve transport service delivery. Suggesting new ideas is risky. which faults are local and which ones belong to the system? The responsibilities should be given where this fault belongs. Institute Training Quality circles help the human resource division to select training programs that increase the job skills of both main and support staff. Supervisors should be trained continually. employees must feel secure. Leadership training will help to introduce new best practices in transportation services to satisfy customer needs. In a secure environment.

numerical quotas cost as much as loss in terms of poor materials and mistakes. and growth should be emphasized. Therefore. A better approach is to provide the means to the desired ends. Slogans. For example. efficiency and effectiveness will rise. Quality Function Deployment (QFD) and quality circles improve cross-communication and encourage brainstorming among members of the transport organization. Eliminate Numerical Quotas Numerical quotas will not help workers do a better job. but it also strongly promotes the principle of “do it right the first time” (Srividya and Metri 2000). hard work. and other such devices are management’s lazy way out. like those encouraging zero accidents or zero defects. they do no more work yet they cannot go to home. Lack of coordination or disintegration between departments can lead to costly rework. For instance. people can work superbly in their respective departments. workers are idle the last hour or two. the company could face ruin. inspection simply identifies defects but does not explain how to prevent them. Eliminate Slogans. 11. This strategy is not only a powerful tool for integrating departments of the transportation organization. Intrinsically. In fact. the quota system will not help the organization’s competitive position or contribute to continuous improvement. and nonvalue-added activities will diminish. 12. Removing quotas encourages employees to apply new ideas to old tasks. bus transportation schedules and stop locations are now planned to meet the community’s needs. If the transport organization’s focus is on improving its work processes. the transportation staff prevents waste and reduces accidents by managing its own quota-free environment. Sharing a unified purpose and direction helps to improve the transport organization’s services. In many factories at the end of the day. Breakdown Barriers Between Departments According to Deming.9. QFD helps to capture the “voice of the customer” and convert it into service design requirements. and posters reinforcing the slogans do not help workers do a better job. The goal is to fulfill the needs of the community. and Targets for the Workforce Slogans. They have completed their quotas for the day and are waiting for the whistle to blow. unnecessary duplication of effort. For instance. Leadership . 10. pride. Exhortations. not to increase the number of people transported. and a heavy loss in resources. but if departmental goals conflict. Numerical goals can even produce a negative effect because they generate frustration. service quality will increase. posters. Instead of numerical quotas. people want to provide service without defects. Remove Barriers to Pride of Workmanship The transport industry cannot function properly without employees who are proud of their output and who feel respected as individuals and professionals. service.

Take Action to Accomplish Transformation The essence of TQT is an organization-wide focus on meeting the needs of those who use and/or pay for transport services. Implementation of Deming’s 14 points requires a special top management team. 14.e. 13. Both management and employees must continuously acquire knowledge to be of service to the community. Encourage Education and Self-improvement for All Employees The transport organization needs not only good people. staff and community do not have the same knowledge base or purpose of work. including teamwork and statistical techniques. Everyone within the organization can be given an opportunity to understand the TQT program and their individual role within that effort. the community). with a plan of action to carry out the transport agency’s quality mission.and continuous system improvement make this possible. but people who are growing through education and life experiences as well. Every activity. such as a quality council. transport employees may receive training on ISO 14000 for providing environmental-friendly transport services to the community. every process. Improvement teams that include broad representation throughout the organization can help ensure success of initial efforts and create opportunities for cross-disciplinary dialog and information exchange. . superiors must listen to the transport staff/employees and transport staff must listen to the recipients of their service (i. Communicating the organization’s mission and achieving respect among the staff and the community is one of the greatest challenges facing transport organizations. For instance.. and every job in the transport organization can be improved. To achieve pride in work. They should be educated in new methods. Often.

which are repetitive. Identify corrective actions to address issues and risks properly (How can we get on track again). DESCRIBE BRIEFLY THE PROJECT MONITORING AND CONTROL. when necessary. Project Management is the discipline of planning. A project is a temporary endeavor with a defined beginning and end (usually time-constrained. In practice. . to control the execution of the project. The secondary—and more ambitious—challenge is to optimize the allocation of necessary inputs and integrate them to meet pre-defined objectives. Ans 3. the management of these two systems is often quite different. securing. Monitoring the project variables (cost. Monitoring and controlling consists of those processes performed to observe project execution so that potential problems can be identified in a timely manner and corrective action can be taken. Monitoring and controlling includes • • • • Measuring the ongoing project activities ('where we are'). and as such requires the development of distinct technical skills and management strategies. organizing. etc. and managing resources to achieve specific goals. permanent. and often constrained by funding or deliverables). The key benefit is that project performance is observed and measured regularly to identify variances from the project management plan. undertaken to meet unique goals and objectives. or semi-permanent functional activities to produce products or services. The primary challenge of project management is to achieve all of the project goals and objectives while honoring the preconceived constraints. Monitoring and controlling Monitoring and controlling process group processes.) against the project management plan and the project performance baseline (where we should be). and budget. The temporary nature of projects stands in contrast with business as usual (or operations).typically to bring about beneficial change or added value. effort. Influencing the factors that could circumvent integrated change control so only approved changes are implemented.Q3. scope. Typical constraints are scope. time.

to name a few. When the changes accumulate. contractor-requested changes. value engineering and impacts from third parties.” The requirement for providing them is a norm in construction contracts. the viability of the project has to be re-assessed. and it includes • • • Continuing support of end-users Correction of errors Updates of the software over time Monitoring and controlling cycle In this stage. Project maintenance is an ongoing process. The end product of this effort is what the industry terms as-built drawings. Changes can be the result of necessary design modifications. the owner usually requires a final record to show all changes or. “as built. Over the course of any construction project. When changes are introduced to the project. The record is made on the contract documents – usually. material availability. the monitoring and control process also provides feedback between project phases. the work scope may change. any change that modifies the tangible portions of the finished work. differing site conditions. It is important not to lose sight of the initial goals and targets of the projects. the design drawings. more specifically. but not necessarily limited to. in order to implement corrective or preventive actions to bring the project into compliance with the project management plan. the change normally needs to be documented to show what was actually constructed. Hence. auditors should pay attention to how effectively and quickly user problems are resolved.In multi-phase projects. This is referred to as change management. the forecasted result may not justify the original proposed investment in the project. or more simply. . Change is a normal and expected part of the construction process. Beyond executing the change in the field.

In value engineering "functions" are always described in a two word abridgment consisting of an active verb and measurable noun (what is being done . Ans 4. i. the most basic function would be "blend liquid" which is less prescriptive than "stir paint" which can be seen to limit the action (by stirring) and to limit the application (only considers paint. WHAT IS VALUE ENGINEERING? EXPLAIN ITS SIGNIFICANCE. It is a primary tenet of value engineering that basic functions be preserved and not be reduced as a consequence of pursuing value improvements. For example a screw driver that is being used to stir a can of paint has a "function" of mixing the contents of a paint can and not the original connotation of securing a screw into a screw-hole.e. Value can therefore be increased by either improving the function or reducing the cost.the verb .and what it is being done to . Value engineering (VE) is a systematic method to improve the "value" of goods or products and services by using an examination of function.) This is the basis of what value engineering refers to as "function analysis". value engineering is specifically spelled out in Public Law 104-106. In the United States. is the ratio of function to cost. which states “Each executive agency shall establish and maintain cost-effective value engineering procedures and processes." Value engineering is sometimes taught within the project management or industrial engineering body of knowledge as a technique in which the value of a system’s outputs is optimized by crafting a mix of performance (function) and costs.the noun) and to do so in the most non-prescriptive way possible. what something "does" not what it is. VE follows a structured thought process that is based exclusively on "function". thereby increasing the value for the manufacturer and/or their customers. Value Engineering helps your organization in : • • • • • Lowering O & M costs Improving quality management Improving resource efficiecy Simplifying procedures Minimizing paperwork . In most cases this practice identifies and removes unnecessary expenditures. Value. as defined. In the screw driver and can of paint example.Q4.

• • • • • Lowering staff costs Increasing procedural efficiency Optimizing construction expenditures Developing value attitudes in staff Competing more successfully in marketplace Value Engineering helps you to learn how to: • • • • • Improve your career skills Separate "Symptoms" from "problems" Solve "root cause" problems and capture opportunities Become more competitive by improving "benchmarking" process Take command of a powerful problem solving methodology to use in any situation How is Value Engineering Applied? The technique of Value Engineering is governed by a structured decision making process to assess the value of procedures or services. Orientation 2. This procedure involves the following 8 phases : 1. methods and concepts of value technology. INVEST is a professional society established in October. Function 4. 1977 and dedicated to the advancement of Value Engineering through education. Audit Where can I find more about Value Engineering? The best and most convenient way to learn the technique of Value Engineering and its application. a Value Management Job plan can be followed. This provides a better understanding of the principles. is by becoming a member of Indian Value Engineering Society (INVEST). Whenever unsatisfactory value is found. Information 3. Creativity 5. Recommendation 7. Implementation 8. Evaluation 6. INVEST has members in virtually every state in .

such as the presence or absence of a part on a shelf. Quick notice that stock depletion requires personnel to order new stock is critical to the inventory reduction at the center of JIT. production management. The JIT inventory philosophy defines how inventory is viewed and how it relates to management.." In recent years manufacturers have continued to try to hone forecasting methods such as applying a trailing 13 week average as a better predictor for JIT planning. and behavioral science. which tell production when to make the next part. This saves warehouse space and costs. some research demonstrates that basing JIT on the presumption of stability is inherently flawed. instead of adding and storing value. Ans 5 Just in time (JIT) is a production strategy that strives to improve a business return on investment by reducing in-process inventory and associated carrying costs. industrial engineering. For instance. and efficiency. To meet JIT objectives. WRITE A BRIEF NOTE ON JUST-IN-TIME (JIT). its effective application cannot be independent of other key components of a lean manufacturing system or it can ". The philosophy of JIT is simple: inventory is waste. To achieve continuous improvement key areas of focus could be flow. Kanban are usually 'tickets' but can be simple visual signals. This way of working encourages . However. Inventory is seen as incurring costs. This does not mean to say JIT is implemented without awareness that removing inventory exposes pre-existing manufacturing issues. however. The company must follow an array of new methods to manage the consequences of the change. The ideas in this way of working come from many different disciplines including statistics. Just-in-time production method is also called the Toyota Production System.. contrary to traditional accounting.India. Q5. the complete mechanism for making this work is often misunderstood. and are therefore not a simple solution for a company to adopt. Implemented correctly. employee involvement and quality. or waste. JIT focuses on continuous improvement and can improve a manufacturing organization's return on investment. quality.end up with the opposite of the desired result. the process relies on signals or Kanban between different points in the process. It maintains a network of chapters throughout the country and provides its members with additional educational opportunities at the local level. JIT inventory systems expose hidden cost of keeping inventory.

However. a solution is to work with selected suppliers to help them improve their processes to reduce variation and costs. These problems include backups at work centers. Quality volatility JIT implicitly assumes that input parts quality remains constant over time. at the right place. and to constantly improve those processes to require less inventory. and inadequate capacity. Increased scale has required a move to vans and lorries (trucks). machine reliability. at the right time. As with price volatility. Fixing up of standards for volatility of quality according to the quality circle Demand stability . Transaction cost approach JIT reduces inventory in a firm. without the safety net of inventory. on average. Longer term price agreements can then be negotiated and agreed-on quality standards made the responsibility of the supplier. a 5% price premium. allowing any stock habituates management to stock keeping. the Just-in-Time inventory system focus is having “the right material.businesses to eliminate inventory that does not compensate for manufacturing process issues. a firm may simply be outsourcing their input inventory to suppliers. This violates three JIT waste guidelines: Time—wasted in traffic jams Inventory—specifically pipeline (in transport) inventory Scrap—fuel burned while not physically moving Price volatility JIT implicitly assumes a level of input price stability that obviates the need to buy parts in advance of price rises. Environmental concerns During the birth of JIT. If not. The JIT system has broad implications for implementers. even if those suppliers don't use Just-in-Time (Naj 1993). firms may hoard high-quality inputs. multiple daily deliveries were often made by bicycle. In short. Where input prices are expected to rise. and in the exact amount”-Ryan Grabosky. Management may be tempted to keep stock to hide production problems. and process variability. Newman (1994) investigated this effect and found that suppliers in Japan charged JIT customers. Cusumano (1994) highlighted the potential and actual problems this causes with regard to gridlock and burning of fossil fuels. Secondly. storing inventory may be desirable. lack of flexibility of employees and equipment.

Karmarker (1989) highlights the importance of relatively stable demand.S.000-worker plant because they had no supply. Karmarker argues that without significantly stable demand. If there is no demand for a product at the time.. The tool used here is SMED (single-minute exchange of dies). Benefits Main benefits of JIT include: • Reduced setup time. Cutting setup time allows the company to reduce or eliminate inventory for "changeover" time. which helps ensure efficient capital utilization rates. the need for storage facilities is reduced. . • The flow of goods from warehouse to shelves improves. which simplifies inventory flow and its management. • Smaller chance of inventory breaking/expiring. This saves the company money. A company without inventory does not want a supply system problem that creates a part shortage. This makes supplier relationships extremely important. Small or individual piece lot sizes reduce lot delay inventories. Having employees trained to work on different parts of the process allows companies to move workers where they are needed. it is not made. JIT becomes untenable in high capital cost production. Supply stability In the U. the 1992 railway strikes caused General Motors to idle a 75. When parts move directly from the truck to the point of assembly. • Production scheduling and work hour consistency synchronized with demand. Supply is synchronized with production demand and the optimal amount of inventory is on hand at any time. either by not having to pay workers overtime or by having them focus on other work or participate in training. • Employees with multiple skills are used more efficiently. • Increased emphasis on supplier relationships. • Supplies come in at regular intervals throughout the production day. • Minimizes storage space needed.

the semi finished parts are machine in the sequence determined by the process requirements a flow line is established. held. we will have automated flow lines established. They are moved further to other machines for performing further operations. Ans 6. DESCRIBE BRIEFLY THE AUTOMATED FLOW LINES. When these can be achieved with the help of automation and the processes are conducted with self regulation. So. Human intervention may be needed to verify that the operations are taking place according to standards. When several automated machines are linked by a transfer system which moves the parts by using handling machines which are also automated. It is necessary to design the machines in such a way that the operation times are the same throughout the sequence in the flow of the martial. we have an automated flow line. Designers now incorporate flexibility in the machines which will take care of small changes in dimensions by making adjustments or minor changes in the existing machine or layout. In fixed automation or hard automation. positioned etc. a few of the operations can be done on a single machine with a number of attachments. After completing an operation on a machine. One important consideration is to balance times that different machines take to complete the operations assigned to them. The global trends are favoring flexibility in the manufacturing systems. rotated. The costs involved in changing the set up of automated flow lines are high. automated flow lines are considered only when the product is required to be made in high volumes over a relatively long period.Q6. Sometimes. where one component is manufactured using several operations and machines it is possible to achieve this condition – or very nearly. We assume that product life cycles are sufficiently stable to invest heavily on the automated flow lines to achieve reduced cost per unit. The materials need to be moved. for completing different operations. lifted. The change in movements . The parts at various stages from raw material to ready for fitment or assembly are processed continuously to attain the required shapes or acquire special properties to enable them to perform desired functions.

Bottlenecks cannot be permitted. . At 5. Methodologies of achieving the final result may vary. With methodologies of JIT and Lean Manufacturing finding importance and relevance in the competitive field of manufacturing. it is important to note that setting up automated flow lines will not be suitable for many industries Automated Assembly Lines: All equipments needed to make a finished product are laid out in such a way as to follow the sequence in which the parts or subassemblies are put together and fitted. 4 an 5 need not wait. Production managers see every bottleneck as an opportunity to hasten the flow and reduce inventories. Provision for extra pallets or tool holders or conveyors is made in the original design to accommodate anticipated changes. a frame. Product Layouts are designed so that the assembly tasks are performed in the sequence they are designed. Flow lines compel engineers to put in place equipments that balance their production rates. base will be the starting point of an assembly. Cellular Manufacturing along with conventional Product and Process Layouts are still resorted to as they allow flexibility for the production system.needed can be achieved by programming the machines. screwing or even welding. we may provide more personnel to complete operations. Group Technology. Operation 2 takes longer time. but the basic principle is to fit all parts together and ensure linkages so that their functions are integrated and give out the desired output. An operator will oversee that the assemblies are happening and there are no stoppages. In automated assembly lines the moving pallets move the materials from station to station and moving arms pick up parts. However. say twice as long. By necessity. All parts or subassemblies are fitted to enable the product to be in readiness to perform the function it was designed to. Otherwise the flow is interrupted. It is not possible to think of inventories (Work In Process) in a flow line. This process is called assembly. Usually. every bottleneck gets focused upon and solutions found to ease them. The time taken at any of the locations should be the same. Sensors will keep track of these activities and move the assemblies to the next stage. body. The logic to be followed is to find out whether the reduction in cost per piece justifies the costs of designing. riveting. You will note that the same task gets repeated at each station continuously. The main consideration for using automated assembly lines is that the volumes justify the huge expenses involved in setting up the system. The finished item comes out at the end of the line The material goes from station 1 to 5 sequentially. place them at specified places and fasten them by pressing. To see that the flow is kept at the same pace we provide two locations 2a and 2b so that operations 3. The frame itself consists of a construction made up of several components and would have been ‘assembled’ or ‘fabricated’ in a separate bay or plant and brought to the assembly line. many companies have found that well designed flow lines suit their purpose well. manufacturing and setting up automated flow lines.

Any shape can be generated in this method. The physical space of the product is amenable to have cross sections made. EBM (Electronic Beam Melting) are some of Rapid Prototype Modeling Processes.Rapid Prototyping : Prototyping is a process by which a new product is developed in small numbers so as to determine the suitability of the materials. Rapid prototyping facilitates this. It uses virtual designs from Computer Aided Design – CAD or animation modeling which transforms dimensional data to 3dimensional views. The data that is thus created helps build a solid model exactly as per the drawings. Cross sections taken at very close positions gives thin layers which enable the generation of a solid model of the designed product. grinding machines. Prototypes do meet the specifications of the components that enter a product and performance can be measured on those. To arrive at decisions to make use of the advantages stated above. EDM (Electro Discharge Machining) also help in the production of prototypes. If serious defects or problems arise during the manufacture. milling machines. study the various methods of manufacture. Advanced technologies like – SLS (Selective Laser Sintering). FDM (Fused Deposition Modeling). LOM (Laminated Object Manufacture). it is important that the prototypes are made within the shortest possible time. Conventional machines like lathes. Since the basis data about the product is already available in CAD. It helps in confirming the design and any shortcomings can be rectified at low cost. Because of their advantages Rapid Prototyping is being increasingly used. A bimonthly magazine TCT Magazine – calling the Rapid Prototyping as Time Compressing Techniques – is dedicated to the publication of latest developments in this field as researched and developed by practitioners around the world . type of machinery required and to develop techniques to overcome problems that my be encountered when full scale manufacture is undertaken. a thorough change in design or even its replacement may be considered. the above processes can produce models in a matter of a few days.