CE 212 Engineering Materials


The structure of materials can be described on dimensional scales
1. The molecular level 2. Materials structural level 3. The engineering level


1. The molecular level
o o o o

Smallest scale (atoms, molecules or aggregation of molecules) Realm of materials science Particle sizes: 10-7 – 10-3 mm Examples: crystal structure of metals, cellulose molecules in timber, calcium silicate hydrates in hardened cement paste, variety of polymers


o o


Atomic models used for description of the forms of physical structure (regular or disordered) Chemical and physical factors determine material properties o Chemical composition and/or the rate of chemical reactions determine material properties such as porosity, strength, durability, etc. Mathematical and geometrical models are employed to deduce the way materials behave


2. Materials structural level
– – Up in size from the molecular level Material considered as a composite of different phases Phase I Phase II

Examples: Entities within the • Cells in timber material structure • Grains in metals • Concrete Deliberate mixing of • Asphalt disparate parts • Fiber composites • Masonry - regular composition • Concrete • Asphalt
particles such as aggregates distributed in a matrix such as hydrated cement or bitumen


o Particle sizes : 5x10-3 mm (wood cell) - 225 mm (brick length) o Individual phases of the material can be recognized independently o More general information can be derived from examination of the individual phases of the material (Multiphase models allow prediction of material behavior)


Three aspects must be considered while formulating the models;
a) Geometry: Particulate or disperse phase scattered or arranged within the matrix or continuous phase model considers shape and size distribution and concentration b) State and properties: Structure of material is affected from chemical and physical states of phases. Behavior of material is affected by properties of phases

c) Interfacial effects: Existence of interfaces between phases may introduce additional modes of behavior. (strength: failure of material being controlled by band strength at an interface)


The engineering level o Total material is considered o Material is considered as continuous and homogenous o Average properties for the whole volume of material body o This level is recognized by construction practitioners 8 .3.

Representative cell: minimum volume of the material that represents the entire material system Dimensions for cells: 10-3 mm for metals – 100 mm for concrete – 1000 mm for masonry Isotropic material: properties same for all directions – unit cell is a cube Anisotropic material: properties change with dimensions – unit cell is a parallel pipe Technical information on materials used in practice comes from tests on specimens of the total material Strength and failure tests Deformation tests Durability tests provide technical information used in practice 9 .


CONCRETE A composite of mineral particles (aggregates) distributed in a matrix of hardened cement paste (mixture of powder cement and water at the beginning) Versatile. 8085 % in 28 days Increases in strength have been found in 30 year old concrete 11 . comparatively cheap and energy efficient Great importance for all types of construction throughout the world Concrete is fresh and plastic at the beginning (throughout some time after mixing of constituent materials) Final properties of the hardened state of concrete have been gained slowly through time Properties change with time 50-60 % of ultimate strength is developed in 7 days.

sand and gravels have been found in Eastern Europe. first concrete with a hydraulic cement (lime + volcanic ash from near Pozzuoli) Active silica and alumina in ash reacts chemically with lime Similar materials still known as pozzolona 12 . in Egypt and in Ancient Greek and Roman times This dates from about 5000 BC Romans.History of concrete History of concrete is very old Mixtures of lime.

com/artchive/r/roman/roman_colosseum.it/images/common/dove/pantheon. 2: http://www.jpg Fig.Roman structures.htm Fig.wonderquest.com/fountain-octopus-enzyme. 1: www. 3: www.artchive.jpg 13 .dolceroma. Foundations and columns of aqueducts In arches of the Colosseum In the dome of the Pantheon Fig.

wikipedia.In 1756.asp?image=10307921 Extra info: http://en. John Smeaton Mixture of burnt clay bearing limestone & Italian pozzolana for producing a suitable hydraulic cement to be used in construction of Eddystone Lighthouse Picture ref: http://www.scienceandsociety.co.org/wiki/Eddystone_Lighthouse 14 .uk/results.

Then widespread production and use started worldwide 15 . Joseph Aspdin Patented “portland cement” an artificial mixture of lime and clay bearing materials used in repairs of Thames Tunnel in 1828 In 1890s improvement in kiln technology reduced the cost of Portland cement production. James Parker Patented “Roman cement” from calcareous clay burnt in a kiln and ground to a powder In 1824.In 1790.

Fe2O3.CONSTITUENT MATERIALS OF CONCRETE Portland Cements Raw materials. Clay and calcareous stones Silica from clay + lime from calcareous stone (SiO2) (shale) (CaO) (Chalk or limestone) Al2O3. MgO. K2O also exist in clay 16 .

calcium aluminates and calcium aluminoferrites 17 . simple but involves high temperatures Chalk + clay reduced to 75μm or less and mixed Blend fed into upper end of inclined long (up to 250m). 6m diameter rotating kiln which is heated to 1500°C at lower end Raw materials Fuel + air 20°C Drying 250°C 650°C 950°C 1250°C 1500°C Clinker Preheating Calcining decomposition CaCO 3 of clay minerals CaO + CO 2 Fig.Cement manufacturing process. The processes taking place in a Portland cement kiln in the wet process Burning or clinkering combination of oxides to produce calcium silicates.

CaCO3 in chalk decomposes to give quicklime (CaO) and gaseous CO2 Fusion reactions start at 1200°C Calcium silicates.cement.At 600°C. 2CaOSiO2 or 3CaOSiO2 Form as a result of these reactions Calcium aluminates. (300m2/kg specific surface) www.org/tech/cct_port_cem_prod_tech. 3-4% gypsum (CaSO42H2O) is added to clinker Mixture is ground to powder (2-80μm size).asp 18 . 3CaOAl2O3 Other oxides act as a flux Clinker particles (a few mm) emerge from kiln After cooling.

Diagrammatic representation of the wet process of manufacture of cement 19 .

Diagrammatic representation of the dry process of manufacture of cement 20 .

Composition. Principle oxides in cement CaO (lime):C SiO2 (silica): S Al2O3 (alumina): A Fe2O3 (iron oxide): F Four main compounds (phases) formed in fusion process: Tricalcium silicate: 3CaO.SiO2 (C3S) Dicalcium silicate: 2CaO.SiO2 (C2S) Tricalcium aluminate: 3CaOAl2O3 (C3A) Tetracalcium aluminoferrite: 4CaOAl2O3Fe2O3 (C4AF) 21 .

Instead BOGUE formulas are used that were calculated from the results of oxide analysis.07C − 7.85S S = SO3 % C2S = 2.70F 22 .64 % C3 S = 4.04 F If A/F ≤ 0.Each cement grain consists of an intimate mixture of these compounds.60S − 4.754C3S C2 F + C4 AF = 2.60S − 6.43F − 2.86F − 2. Direct chemical analysis is not possible to determine the amounts. If A/F > 0.69F % C4 AF = 3.85S C2 S = 2.1A + 1.48A − 2.07C − 7.72A −1.64 C3 S = 4.65A −1.754C3S % C3 A = 2.87S − 0.87S − 0.

5 – 6. ∼ 75 – 80 % by wt.0 0.1 – 4.The approximate range of oxide composition that can be expected for Portland Cements Compositions of Portland Cements Oxides (% by wt) CaO SiO2 Al2O3 Fe2O3 Na2O + K2O MgO Free CaO SO3 Range 60-67 17-25 3-8 0.3 0. 23 Principle oxides: CaO & SiO2 Principle oxides: C3S & C2S .2 – 1.0 0–2 1–3 ∼ 3 to 1by wt.

Composition of cement depends on quality and proportions of raw materials (limestone and clay) Relatively small variations in oxide composition result in considerable changes in compound composition Properties of compound cement constituents Rate of reaction C3S C2S C3A C4AF Medium Slow Flash High Cementing value Early High Medium Low Low Final High High Low Low Heat of hydration Medium Low Very high High Sulfate resistanc e Medium High Very slow Medium 24 .

C P.C Typical or High-Early Low Heat average P.C Strength P.Typical Portland Cements Oxides (% by wt) CaO SiO2 Al2O3 Fe2O3 Free CaO SO3 A 66 21 7 3 1 2 B 67 21 5 3 1 2 C 64 22 7 4 1 2 D 64 23 4 5 1 2 Potential compound composition (% by wt) C3S C2S C3A C4AF 48 24 13 9 65 11 8 9 31 40 12 12 42 34 2 15 Sulphate Resisting P.C 25 .

5 BPÇ 32.5 SDÇ 32.5 PÇ 52.5 PÇ 42.5 SSÇ 32.5 CÇ 32.5 UKÇ 32.Türk Çimento Standardları Standard No TS 3441 TS 19 TS 3646 TS 21 TS 10157 TS 10158 TS 26 TS 20 TS 809 TS 640 TS 22 TS 12139 TS 12140 TS 12141 TS 12142 TS 12143 TS 12144 TS 23 TS 24 TS 687 İsim Portland Çimentosu Klinkeri Portland Çimentosu Erken Dayanımı Yüksek Çimento Beyaz Portland Çimentosu Sülfatlara Dayanıklı Çimento Katkılı Çimento Traslı Çimento Yüksek Fırın Cüruflu Çimento Süper Sülfat Çimentosu Uçucu Küllü Çimento Harç Çimentosu Portland Cüruflu Çimento Portland Kalkerli Çimento Portland Silika Füme Çimento Kompoze Çimento Portland Kompoze Çimento Puzolanik Çimento Çimento Numune Alma Metodları Çimentoların Fiziki ve Mekanik Deney Metodları Çimentonun Kimyevi Analiz Metodlar Notasyon PÇ 32.5 TÇ 32.5 BPÇ 42.5 KÇ 32.5 HÇ 16 PCÇ/A PCÇ/B PLÇ/A PLÇ/B PSFC KZÇ/A KZÇ/B PKÇ/A PKÇ/B PZÇ/A PZÇ/B 26 .5 EYÇ 52.5 CÇ 42.

7 CaO + SiO2 + MgO ≥ % 66.7 (CaO + MgO)/SiO2 > 1. < 10mm Pişirilmiş ŞeyL Kalker T L Silis Dumanı D Minör İlave Bileşen Kalsiyum Sülfat Katkılar F 27 .0 MgO ≤ % 5 Camsı faz miktarı ≥ % 66.7 CaO/SiO2 ≥ 2.2 g / 100g Organik Madde Miktarı ≤ % 0.0 Reaktif SiO2 ≥ % 25 KK ≤ % 5 Reaktif CaO ≤ % 5 Reaktif SiO2 ≥ % 25 % 5 ≤ Reaktif CaO ≤ % 15 Reaktif SiO2 ≥ % 25 KK ≤ % 5 Hacim Genl.2 Amorf SiO2 ≥ % 85 KK ≤ % 4 Özgül yüzey (BET) ≥ 15m2/g Granüle Yüksek Fırın Cürufu Doğal Puzolan Endüstriyel Puzolan Silisli Uçucu Kül S P Q V Kireçli Uçucu Kül W % 5 ≤ Reaktif CaO ≤ % 15 Reaktif SiO2 ≥ % 25 KK ≤ % 5 Hacim Genl. < 10mm σ28 ≥ 25N/mm2 Hacim Genl.ENV 197-1’e Göre Çimento İçinde Bulunabilecek Malzemeler (Materials in cement) Malzeme PÇ Klinkeri Kısaltma K Sınırlamalar C3S+C2S ≥ % 66. < 10mm CaCO2 ≥ % 75 Kil miktarı ≤ 1.

TS EN 197-1 Çimento Tipleri ve Kompozisyonları (Types of cement and compositions) Çimento Adı Tipi I Portland Çimentosu Portland Cüruf Çimentosu Notasyon K 95-100 80-94 65-79 90-94 80-94 65-79 80-94 65-79 80-94 65-79 80-94 65-79 80-94 65-79 80-94 65-79 80-94 65-79 S 6-20 21-35 D 6-10 P 6-20 21-35 Q 6-20 21-35 V 6-20 21-35 6-20 21-35 W 6-20 21-35 T 6-20 21-35 L MİB 0-5 0-5 0-5 0-5 0-5 0-5 0-5 0-5 0-5 0-5 0-5 0-5 0-5 0-5 0-5 0-5 0-5 0-5 0-5 0-5 0-5 0-5 0-5 0-5 0-5 I II/A-S II/B-S Portland Silis Dumanı Ç II/A-D II/A-P II/B-P Portland Puzolan Çimentosu II/A-Q II/B-Q II/A-V II/B-V Portland Uçucu Kül Çimentosu II/A-W II/B-W II/A-T Portland Pişirilmiş Şeyl Çimentosu II/B-T II/A-L Portland Kireçtaşı Çimentosu II/B-L II/A-M Portland Kompoze Çimento II/B-M II 6-20 21-35 III IV V Yüksek Fırın Çimetosu Puzolanik Çimento Kompoze Çimento III/A III/B III/C IV/A IV/B V/A V/B 35-64 20-34 5-19 65-89 45-64 40-64 20-39 36-65 66-80 81-95 18-30 31-50 - - - 11-35 36-55 18-30 31-50 - - - 28 .

EN 197-1 The 27 products in the family of common cements 29 .

30 .Table cont.

52. Bu durumda Cl.10 Cl (%) * CEM III/C %4.miktarı belirtilir.5R Bütün Sınıflar Bütün Sınıflar Sınır ≤5 ≤5 ≤ 3.5’e kadar SO3 içerebilir.5.5 42.0 ≤ 0.1’in üstünde Cl. 42.TS EN 197-1 Çimentolarında Aranan Kimyasal Koşullar Özellik Kızdırma Kaybı (%) Çözünmeyen Kalıntı (%) SO3 (%) Çimento Tipi CEM I CEM III CEM I CEM III CEM I CEM II CEM IV CEM V CEM III* Bütün tiplert Dayanım Sınıfı Bütün Sınıflar Bütün Sınıflar 32.5R.5.5 ≤ 4. 32.içerebilir.5R. 31 . 52. t CEM III % 0.

EN 197-1 Chemical Requirements given as characteristic values 32 .

5 ≥ 32.5 42.5. ≤ 52.5.5R 42.5R 2G ≥ 10 ≥ 10 ≥ 20 ≥ 20 ≥ 30 Basınç Dayanımı Sınırları (N/mm2) 7G 28G ≥ 16 ≥ 32.5 ≥ 52.TS EN 197-1 Dayanım Sınıfları Dayanım Sınıfı 32.5.5 32.5 ≥ 42.5 ≥ 42.5 52. ≤ 52. ≤ 62. ≤ 62.5 EN 197-1 Mechanical requirements given as characteristics values 33 .5R 52.5.5 ≥ 52.

Hydration (Cement + Water) paste mixture initially fluid Fluidity or consistency remains constant for an initial period after mixing Initial set (2-4 hours after mixing): Mix starts to stiffer. hardening and strength gain starts Rate of strength gain is fast for the first 1-2 days . It continues with a decreasing rate in time 34 . fluidity is lost at a faster rate Final set (max 10 hours after mixing): Mix is completely stiff.

log scale) 35 .1 1.A Rate of heat output (J/kg/sec) Hydration reactions are exothermic A: High but very short peak lasts only a few minutes Dormant period: cement is inactive (2-3 hours) B: Broad peak after final set C: Sharp peak (seldom) after one or two days B C Dormant period 0.0 10 100 Time after mixing (hours.

Heat of Hydration Rate of Heat Evolution Final set hydrolysis C3S reacts I nucleation dissolution III IV diffusion control II Initial set V Time Stage I Stage II Stage III Stage IV Stage V Rapid Heat Evolution Dormant Period Accelerating Stage Deceleration Stage Steady State Important for transportation Begins with initial set No longer workable (<15 mins) (2-4 hrs) (4-8 hrs) (12-24 hrs) 36 .

Typical Setting Times for Portland Cements Vicat apparatus (Gebhardt 1995 and PCA 1996). 37 .

Vicat Needle Penetration Evolution 38 .

Gypsum added (3-4%) used up to after first 24 hours after mixing.Hydration compounds involve all four main compounds simultaneously. Then C3A hydration reaction taken over and ettringite transform into monosulphate form ( C 3 ACS H 16 ).5 H + 3 H → 2 C S H __ __ 2 (H = H2O) 2) Initial reaction of aluminate phases Very rapid reaction of C3A with water results in a flash set in a few minutes C 3 A + 6 H → C 3 AH 6 Retarding is provided by addition of gypsum which reacts with C3A to form calcium sulphoaluminate (ettringite) C 3 A + 3C S H 2 + 26 H → C 3 A3C S H 32 __ __ Calcium sulfoaluminate (Ettringite) Relatively slow reaction. This occurs as peak “C” in cements with C3A>12% 39 . Processes are extremely complex and not fully understood. Simplified description consider the chemical reactions of each of the compounds individually 1) Initial peak “A” is due to: Rehydration of calcium sulphate hemihydrate 2 C S 0 .

slower) 40 .faster) Most of the main peak “B” is due to this reaction (Reaction of C3S . They are responsible for most of properties of hardened cement 2C 3 S + 6 H → C 3 S 2 H 3 + 3CH 2C 2 S + 4 H → C 3S 2 H 3 + CH (Reaction of C3S .3) C4AF reacts similarly over same time scales Reaction products are similar to C3A products (has little effect on the overall cement behavior) 4) C3S and C2S react to form bulk of hydrated material after these initial reactions are completed.

FLY ASH (cured for 5 years) 41 .

FLY ASH (cured for 5 years) 42 .

showing C-S-H and ettringite aggregate Transition zone Bulk cement paste 43 .Fracture surface of 24 hour old cement paste.

Ca(OH)2 production enhanced Typical hydration product development in Portland cement paste 44 . thus.Calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) is responsible for strength and other properties After 1 day CSH dominates.

Development of strength of pure compounds from Portland cement 45 .

Reactions stop completely below -10ºC Fresh cement and water Initial set Two or three days old paste Mature paste 46 .Increasing temperature accelerates reactions of hydration.

Also large hexagonal crystals of CH are formed. and fresh unhydrated cement is left in center of grains. ettringite from adjacent cement particles has began to interfere and C-S-H with a spicular crumpled-foil form has started to appear. a dense continuous gel of C-SH is formed between particles. resulting in increasing strength. ettringite is formed at cement surface as sharp needles or rods. 3) At the end of dormant period. Some larger pores remain unfilled between grains. Solid layers of foil are a few molecules thick 4) During subsequent hydration. 47 .Microstructural development during HYDRATION of cement 1) After mixing fresh cement particles dispersed throughout mix water as single grains or small flocs. Spacing depends on w/c 2) During dormant period.

Model – Hydration of cement paste 48 .

Pore size distribution in 28-day-old hydrated cement paste 49 .

Structure of hardened cement paste Residue of unhydrated cement. also calcium aluminates. mainly calcium silicates (C-S-H). called capillary pores C-S-H occupy about 75 % of volume of HCP C-S-H govern mechanical properties C-S-H structure: from poorly crystalline fibers to crumpled sheet-like network of colloidal scale Extremely high specific surface: 100-700 m2/g (~ 103 times higher than cement particles) Spaces between C-S-H particles: gel pores: ~ 0. sulphoaluminates and ferrites Crystals of calcium hydroxide (calcite) Unfilled spaces between cement grains. at center of original grains Hydrates.5-5nm ~ 27 % of C-S-H weight Note: Don’t confuse gel pores with capillary pores (on the average about 2 orders of magnitude larger) 50 .

43 c) Relative density of gel+pores = 1.76 51 .cem+gel+cap. a) Chemically combined water: ~23% by wt of cement b) Relative density of gel solids = 2.pores 2) Same gel is produced at all stages of hydration regardless of type of cement and water/cement ratio Constants are.Strength of hardened cement paste Strength arise from Van der Waals forces between hydrate layers Quantitative estimate of unhydrated cement. hydrated gel and capillary pores was done by Powers in 1950s. Important futures of his model are: 1) Hydration takes place at constant volume Vcem+water = Vunh.

Gel occupies (including the pores) a space about 1. 100% hydration doesn’t fill the space (capillary pore) For hcp in water: at w/c = 0.8 times that of unhydrated cement For too small a space. hydration stops when products grow to fill this space (complete hydration never occurs) For too large a space.38 → 100% hydration fills space completely and no capillaries form 52 .

b) sealed 53 .(a) (b) Composition of hydrated cement paste at the final stage of hydration after prolonged storage a) in water.

self-desiccation occurs at low w/c because of insufficiency of water. results in self-healing property.For sealed hcp. 54 . Break-even point for w/c is 0. hcp contains less cement gel and more unhydrated cement and capillaries than those shown in the figures Unhydrated cement. not detrimental to strength. The curves show the final stage (100% hydration) which is rarely achieved. Therefore. hydration stops before it is affected by lack of space for gel.44.

Water in hardened cement paste 55 .

Heating to very high temperatures evolves this water through decomposition of paste.3 nm) Lost on drying to 30% RH and this contributes mainly to shrinkage Interlayer water: In gel pores < 2.6nm under influence of two surfaces very strongly held. bulk water free from attractive forces of solid surfaces. Not lost on drying. Causes in considerable shrinkage (Van der Waals forces pull solid surfaces closer together) Chemically combined water: combined with fresh cement in hydration reactions. and removal does not cause shrinkage In voids < 50nm (small capillaries) capillary tension forces dominate and removal of water may result in shrinkage Adsorbed water: On solid surfaces under influence of surface attractive forces up to 5 molecular layers (~ thickness of 1. In voids > 50nm (large capilleries) It is free water.Water vapour: in partially filled larger voids Capillary water:: in capillary pores. 56 . Lost on drying at elevated temperatures and/or to 10% of RH.

ADMIXTURES Chemicals added immediately before or during mixing Significantly change fresh. early age or hardened properties to advantage Used in small quantities (1-2 % by wt of cement) Plasticizers workability Workability aids. ↑ fluidity or workability of concrete at same w/c Water reducers. ↓ w/c and thus ↑ strength and durability at same 57 .

2 at normal fluidity) and thus very large increases in strength (high-strength or highperformance concrete) 58 . modified lignosulphonates or based on sulphonated melamine or naphtalene formaldehydes – Great increases in workability (flowing concrete) (segregation occurs if used with high doses of normal plasticizers or high water contents) – Great decreases in w/c (down to 0.1) 2) Normal plasticizers. based on lignosulphonates or hydroxycarboxylic acids Superplasticizers.

breaking up any flocs and causing a better dispersion and wetting of particles This results in increased fluidity and slight increase in strength at same w/c ratio Plasticizers may cause retardation of setting time and also may entrain 1-2% air into concrete 59 . giving slight negative charges to the surface and thus particles repel each other.Plasticizers adsorbe on cement particle surfaces.

It may cause increased creep and shrinkage Prohibited in R.Accelerators Increased rate of hardening and enhanced early strength May allow early removal of formwork May reduce curing time for concrete placed in cold weather CaCl2 is a popular accelerator.C due to corrosion of steel in presence of chloride ions 60 .S.C and P.

Typical effects of calcium chloride admixture on (a) setting times. and (b) early strength of concrete 61 .

Retarders Delay setting time Counteracts accelerating effect of hot weather (especially for long transportation distances) Avoids cold joints and discontinuities by controlling setting in large pours Sucrase and citric acid and calcium lignosulphonate are examples 62 .

Entrained air.1mm) bubbles into cement paste of concrete Bubbles preserve stability during mixing. uniformly dispersed in hcp with a spacing factor of not more than 0. provide a reservoir for water to expand Entrained air volumes of 4-7% by vol. 63 . transporting. of concrete is required to provide effective protection.Air entraining agents Organic materials which entrain controlled amount of microscopic (less than 0. placing. Successive cycles of freezing and thawing may lead to progressive deterioration. water in capillary pores expands on freezing resulting in disruptive internal stresses. entrained air and entrapped air are different Air entrainment is done for providing freeze-thaw resistance to concrete In winter time.2mm. compaction and setting and hardening Note.

Secondary effects Increase in workability due to lubricating affect of small air bubbles About 6% decrease in strength for each 1% of air. However. Thus they provide air stability hydrophobic 64 . improvement in workability may allow to partially offset the loss in strength by reducing water content and thus w/c ratios Air bubble hydrophilic Organic substances reduce surface tension of water and bubbles form during mixing Long chain molecules have hydrophilic and hydrophobic ends They align themselves radially on surface of air bubble with hydrophilic ends in water and hydrophobic ends in air.

chemically react with calcium hydroxide at ordinary temperatures to form cementitious compounds Pozzolanic reaction (Secondary reaction) S + CH + H → C .H 65 . in a finely divided form and in presence of moisture.Cement replacement materials (CRM) Mineral additives that partially replace portland cement Could be by-products from other industries (Economically advantageous) They enhance concrete properties in a variety of ways Pozzolanic behavior A pozzolanic material is one which contains active silica (SiO2) and is not cementitious in itself but will.S .

clay and shale minerals heat treated Rice husk ash. 2. slag from scum formed in iron smelting in a blast furnace. to reduce to dust or powder. some volcanic ashes Calcined clay and shale. to melt or fuse (ores) in order to separate the metallic constituents. sometimes called microsilica. 3.Types of Cement Replacement Materials 1. ground to a powder Condensed silica fume. ash from pulverized coal used to fire power stations Ground granulated blast furnace slag (ggbs). Fly ash (pulverized fuel ash). 6. very fine particles of silica condensed from waste gases given off in production of silicon metal Natural pozzolans. Dictionary definitions: Pulverize. 5. Husk. as by pounding or grinding Smelt . ash from controlled burning of rice husks after rice grains have been separated 4. the dry external covering of certain fruits or seeds 66 .

1 2.1 10-150 350 Ggbs 36 9 1 11 40 2.15 0.5 15000 PC 20 5 4 1 64 0.01-0.9 3-100 400 Silica fume 97 2 0.2 0.Typical composition and properties of cement replacement materials Oxide SiO2 Al2O3 Fe2O3 MgO CaO Na2O K2O Specific gravity. (gr/cm3) Particle size (μm) Specific Surface (m2/kg) Fly ash Low lime High lime 48 40 27 18 9 8 2 4 3 20 1 4 2.5 3.1 0.2 0.5-100 350 67 .

They have certain self-cementing due to high CaO content.High lime fly ash and ground granulated blast furnace slag are not true pozzolanas. They may be used at high substitution rates (up to 90%) Low lime fly ash is used at most 40% replacement Silica fume is used at most 25% replacement (needs superplasticizer to maintain workability) Particles of artificial pozzolanas are smooth surfaced and spherical (Thus they improve workability) 68 .

C 70% P. delay is much less due to high surface area and active silica content At later ages concretes with cement replacement materials exceed strength of Portland cement only concretes Slower pozzolanic reaction reduces porosity Pozzolanic reaction enhances transition zone between aggregate and cement paste Compressive Strength (N/mm2) 69 .A w/c or w/(c+fa) = 0.100% P.C + 30% F.47 Age (days) Pozzolanic reaction and then early strength development is slow With silica fume.

1. High cost Remedy to disadvantages. Dimensional instability (high creep and shrinkage) 2. Put aggregates into cement paste → Produce concrete Aggregates occupy about 70-80% of total concrete volume 70 .Aggregates Disadvantages of hardened cement paste (hcp).

71 . Minimized Fine agg.Objective. Void content of aggregate mixture Amount of hcp required Coarse agg. Use as much aggregate as possible Use largest possible aggregate size Use a continuous grading of particle sizes from sand to coarse stones Thus.

the weakest phase) 72 .Concrete composite models a) Two-phase model for describing deformation behavior Coarse aggregate dispersed in mortar matrix Coarse and fine aggregate dispersed in hcp matrix b) Three-phase model for considering cracking and strength Aggregates + hcp + transition or interfacial zone (∼ 50 μm) (cracking and failure starts from interfacial zone.

rounded or spherical body 73 . According to origin. According to density or specific gravity 1. According to size. a) Fine aggregate. Particle size from 0 to 4 mm Ex. Particle size from 4 to 16 or 32 mm Ex.Types of aggregates 1. Accroding to size 3. natural sand and crushed sand b) Coarse aggregate. small. crushed limestone Dictionary definition: Pellet. According to origin 2. a) Natural aggregates from natural sand and gravel deposits and crushed rocks b) Specifically manufactured aggregates such as fly ash pellets. gravel. granulated blast furnace slag 2.

3. granite). as rocks of volcanic origin or rocks crystallized from molten magma Sediment. natural aggregates. a) Normal density aggregates.75 gr/cm3 • Concrete density.2450 kg/m3 • Gravels from deposits in river valleys or shallow coastal waters are directly used after washing and grading. igneous rocks (basalt. According to density or specific gravity. Examples. 2250 . 74 . air. sedimentary rocks (limestone. sandstone) • Mineral composition is not that important • Specific gravities. particles are round • Bulk rock sources (granite. or ice. 2. produced under conditions involving intense heat. mineral or organic matter deposited by water. basalt. limestone) require crushing giving angular and sharp particles Dictionary definitions: Igneous.55 – 2. gravels.

better thermal insulation • Reduced specific gravity (less than 2. pumice (a naturally occurring volcanic rock). the main source of barium Ore. a mineral or natural product serving as a source of some nonmetallic substance 75 .b) Lightweight aggregates. artificial lightweight aggregates (sintered fly ash. foamed slag) • To produce lower density concretes (less than 2000 kg/m3) advantages. reduced self-weight. Barytes. a white or colorless mineral (BaSO4).0 gr/cm3) due to voids in particles • Reduced strength of concrete due to increased porosity c) Heavyweight aggregates. minerals like barytes to barium sulphate ore and steel shots • To produce high density concrete (3500 to 4500 kg/m3) (For nuclear radiation shielding) Dictionary definition: Sintering. expanded clay or shale. to form a coherent mass by heating without melting.

Properties of aggregates Grading or particle size distribution (Why do we need that?) Overall objective – To calculate suitable grading for good workability and stability (continuous grading → low void content) How much sand? How much crushed stone? 76 .

0.25.5) – Weight of aggregate retained on each sieve measured and converted to percentage retained and then to cumulative – Then plotted against the sieve size to obtain grading curve Sieve Sieve Shaker 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0.25 0. 1.5 77 .50. 8. 2. 4. weighed and passed through a stack of the sieves • Sieve sizes in mm (0. 16.5 1 2 4 8 16 31. 31.Grading or particle size distribution (Sieve analysis) – Aggregate samples dried.

5 78 .5 1 2 4 8 16 31.Grading curves Standards for aggregate define limits inside which the grading curves for coarse and fine aggregate must fall 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0.25 0.

Coal and Lignites 4. With MgSO3 1.25 2. Outline of TS 706 Limits for Concrete Aggregates 1.00 Freeze and Thaw (DIN 4226) Organic Impurities: The aggregate may give yellow or lighter color in a 3% solution of. Impact C16 A32 100 62 38 23 14 8 2 0-31. With Na2SO4 2.00 1. Limits for Quality (max. NaOH.00 3.00 1.Table. Los Angeles 2.00 27.00 15.5 mm B32 100 80 62 47 37 28 8 C32 100 89 77 65 53 42 15 100 88 74 62 49 18 A63 100 61 46 30 19 11 6 2 0-63 mm B63 100 80 64 50 38 30 24 7 C63 100 90 80 70 59 49 39 14 Fine Aggregate 1. but not dark colors 79 .50 18. Soft particles 3.00 22. %) Property Deleterious 1.00 0.00 Coarse Aggregate 0.5 100 100 16 100 100 100 60 76 8 61 74 85 36 56 4 36 57 70 21 42 2 21 42 57 12 32 1 5 11 21 3 8 0.00 50 45 4. Limits for Grading (with square opening) Sieve size 0-8 mm 0-16 mm (mm) A8 B8 C8 A16 B16 63 31.25 5. Mud and clay Sulphate Soundness Abrasion 1. Clay lumps Substances 2.

Sieve size (mm) Material Passed (%) Sand (%) Crushed stone (%) 0. Sum of the cumulative percentages retained on the sieves of the standard series Fineness modulus ↑ coarser material 80 .30.25 0.50 18 0 23 0 1 28 0 2 48 0 4 60 5 8 90 40 16 100 60 31.Example problem Determine mix proportions of sand and crushed stone such that fineness modulu of mixture will be 4.5 100 100 Fineness modulus.

Fineness Modulus = -----------------------------------------------For sand = --------------------------------------For crushed stone = ----------------------------------- 81 .

3 Crushed stone (0.8 1.5 0 15 1 17.30 a = 0.33 a + 5. b (for crushed stone) Using law of simple mixtures.6 0 18 2 30.9 40 8 56.2 0 30 4 37.95 b = 4.Mix proportions by vol: a (for sand).25 Material Passed (%) Sand (0.37 Sieve size (mm) 0. m1a + m2b = mm a + b = 1 3.7 14.2 85 31.37) 0 Mixture 11 0.63) 11.50 14.63 b = 0.5 63 37 100 82 .8 72 16 63 22.

Limiting grading curves 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0.5 1 2 4 8 16 31.25 0.5 83 .

5 1 2 4 8 16 31.25 0.Grading curves of sand and crushed stone 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0.5 84 .

25 0.) 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0.Grading curve of the mixture (sand+crushed s.5 85 .5 1 2 4 8 16 31.

Pi = % passing from ith sieve di = opening size of ith sieve Dmax= Max particle size (sieve size through which 100% of aggregate passes) di Pi = 100 Di 86 .In case of more than two aggregate fractions a +b + c =1 Pi1 a + Pi 2 b + Pi 3 c = Pi m Pj1 a + Pj2 b + Pj3 c = Pjm Can be extended to as many equation as number of size fractions which provides full conformity to the desired grading curve Ideal (desired) grading curves TS 500 grading curve ⎛ di di +4 Pi = 20⎜ ⎜D Dmax ⎝ max Fuller parabola ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ where.

OTHER PROPERTIES OF AGGREGATES 1) Porosity and absorbtion Normal weight aggregates contain pores (typically 1-2 % by volume) Particles can absorb and hold water Aggregate Moisture Conditions Completely (oven dry) All pores empty Air dry Pores partially filled Field conditions Saturated surface dry Saturated or wet excess water All pores full but no excess water Possible only in lab. conditions No absorbtion and no addition Field conditions Add to mix water in fresh concrete Absorb some of mix water in fresh concrete Absorb some of mix water in fresh concrete 87 .

to ensure the required free water/cement ratio. then less mix water is required 2) Elastic properties and strength Elastic properties of aggregates have major influence on elastic properties of concrete Strength of normal weight aggregates are higher than hcp and do not have major influence on strength of normal strength concrete In high-strength concrete (greater than 70-80 MPa). If aggregate is drier than SSD. strength of aggregates and effect of transition zone between aggregate and hcp become seriously important 88 .e.Amount of water available for cement hydration. extra water must be added If it is wetter. i. it is necessary to allow for the aggregate moisture condition When calculating the amount of mix water. non-absorbed or free water is of prime importance Therefore.

clay etc.) Better adhesion » stronger interface between aggregate and hcp Stronger interface zone » higher mechanical performance 89 .3) Surface characteristics Surface texture have greater influence on the flexural strength than on the compressive strength of the concrete (rougher texture results in a better adhesion) Surface cleanliness is also important for adhesion (surface should be kept clear of the materials such as mud.

placing. surface finishing Treatment (curing) of in-placed concrete 6-10 hours after casting (placing) and during first few days of hardening is important 90 .Fresh state / early age properties of concrete Fresh state properties enormously affect hardened state properties Fresh concrete: from time of mixing to end of time concrete surface finished in its final location in the structure Operations: batching. mixing. transporting. compacting.

placing and compacting • Fluidity or consistency: capability of being handled and of flowing into formwork and around any reinforcement. transporting.Main properties of fresh concrete during mixing. such as poker vibrators Stability or cohesiveness: fresh concrete should remain homogenous and uniform. with assistance of compacting equipment Compactability: air entrapped during mixing and handling should be easily removed by compaction equipment. No segregation of cement paste from aggregates (especially coarse ones) • • Fluidity & compactability known as workability Higher workability concretes are easier to place and handle but obtaining higher workability by increasing water content decreases strength and durability 91 .

Compaction of concrete Finishing of concrete 92 .

2. 3.Workability measurement methods 1. Slump test .simplest and crudest test (standardized in ASTM C 143 Fill concrete into frustum of Hand tap concrete a steel cone in three layers In each layer Lift cone up Define slump as downward Movement of the concrete 93 . 5. Slump test Mini-slump test Compacting factor test Vebe test Flow table test and EN 12350-2) 1. 4.

edu/thinshells/module%20III/concrete_material_files/image002.arche.gif Fig.psu. http://myphliputil. http://www.com/media/nccer_carpentry_2/module03/fg03_00900.pearsoncmg.Define slump as downward movement of the concrete Lift cone up Fig.gif 94 .

K1 Plastic.60 60 – 130 130 – 200 ≥ 200 Collapse Slumps greater than 175 mm .self-leveling concrete Consistency grade Stiff. K4 Recommended method of compaction Mechanical compaction like vibration Mechanical or hand compaction (rodding. K2 Flowing.True Shear Valid slump measurement 0-175 mm Mixes having tendency to segregate – repeat test Slump (mm) 0 . K3 Self compacting. tampering) Hand compaction or no compaction No compaction 95 .

Mini-slump test • Used for workability testing of cement pastes • Mini slump cone is a small version of slump cone • The cone is placed in the center of a piece of glass.2 sp:%2 w/b : 0. w/b : 0. paste is cast into cone and then the cone is lifted to measure the average spread of paste.2.22 sp:%2 96 .

The concrete is fully compacted. Compacting factor test (to distinguish between low slump mixes) Upper hopper 1.3. The cylinder and concrete weighed (partially compacted weight) 5. Concrete is placed in an upper hopper 2. extra concrete added and then conrete and cylinder weighed again (fully compacted weight) Lower hopper approx. 3. 1m Cylinder Compacting factor = weight of partially compact concrete weight of fully compact concrete 97 . Dropped into a lower hopper to bring it to a standard state and then allowed to fall into a standard cylinder.

Vebe test 1. A clear perspex disc. Vibration at a standard rate is applied Vebe time is defined as the time taken to complete covering of the underside of the disc with concretecontainer 98 . A slump test is performed in a container 2. is lowered onto the concrete surface 3. free to move vertically.4.

hinged along one edge 2. A conical mould is used to produce a sample of concrete in the centre of a 700 mm square board.5. Flow table test (to differentiate between high workability mixes) 1. The free edge of the board is lifted against the stop and dropped 15 times Flow = final diameter of the concrete (mean of two measurements at right angles) 99 .

Correlations between compacting factor. however the correlation is quite broad since each tests measures the response to different conditions 100 . Vebe time and slump Some degree of correlation between the results exist.

EARLY AGE PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE A) Behavior of fresh concrete after placing and compacting 1. Segregation and Bleeding From placing to final set. semi-fluid state Heavier particles (aggregates) have tendency to move down (SEGREGATION) Mix water has a tendency to move up (BLEEDING) 101 . concrete is in a plastic.

water rich concrete layer hydrating to a weak structure (not good for floor slabs that need to have hard wearing surface) Water-rich pockets. Surface laitance. later this water evaporates or re-absorbed into concrete Water-rich pockets Mix water Surface laitance Cement and aggregates Other effects of bleeding.BLEEDING A layer of water (~ 2 % or more of total depth of concrete) accumulates on surface. upward migrating water can be trapped under coarser aggregate particles causing loss of strength and local weakening in transition zone 102 .

Plastic settlement Cracks Horizontal reinforcing bars may put restraint to overall settlement of concrete Then plastic settlement cracking can occur Vertical cracks form along line of the bars. penetrating from surface to bars Plan Reinforcing bars Section 103 .2.

i. with higher concrete or ambient temperatures.e. If rate of evaporation > rate of bleeding. Plastic shrinkage On an unprotected surface. bleed water evaporates. thus. then surface dries (water content reduces on surface) and plastic shrinkage (drying shrinkage in fresh concrete) will occur Restraint of walls of concrete causes tensile strains in near surface region Fresh concrete has almost zero tensile strength.3. plastic shrinkage cracking results cracking is in fairly regular “crazing” form Plastic shrinkage cracking will be increased by greater evaporation rates of the surface water which occurs. or if the concrete is exposed to wind 104 .

4) Methods of reducing segregation and bleed and their effects CAUSES OF BLEEDİNG REMEDIES Poorly graded aggregate with a lack of fine material with particle size < 300µm 1. İncrease sand content 2. Air entrain concrete as substitute for fine materials High workability mixes Provide high workability with superplasticizers rather than high water contents Use very fine materials such as silica fume 105 .

REMEDIES for PLASTIC SETTLEMENT or PLASTIC SHRINKAGE CRACKS Revibrate surface region. particularly in large flat slabs Apply good curing that stops moisture loss from surface as soon as after placing is possible and for first few days of hardening 106 .

proctection of concrete from moisture loss from as soon after placing as possible. and for the first few days of hardening Curing methods Spraying or ponding surface of concrete with water Protecting exposed surfaces from wind and sun by windbreaks and sunshades Covering surfaces with wet hessian and/or polythene sheets Applying a curing membrane. to the exposed surface to prevent moisture loss 107 . a spray-applied resin seal.B) Curing Curing.

thus more C-S-H and gel is produced at earlier times. stop completely at -10 º C 108 .i) Effect of curing temperature Hydration reactions between cement and water are temperaturedependent and rate of reaction increases with curing temperature At early ages rate of strength gain increases with curing temperature (higher temperatures increases rate of reaction. higher strength are obtained from concrete cured at lower temperatures (C-S-H gel is more rapidly produced at higher temperature and is less uniform and hence weaker than produced at lower temperatures) Standard curing temperature is 22 ± 1 º C Hydration proceeds below 0 º C. achieving a higher gel/space ratio and thus higher strength) At later ages.

T (ºC ) Useful in estimating strength of concrete in a structure from strength of laboratory samples cured at different temperatures 109 . (T + 10) → shows correlation with strength T= -10 ºC is datum line At T= -10 ºC.ii) Maturity Cement hydration depends on both time and temperature Maturity = Σ t. hydration reactions stop. no maturity developed t (hours).

g. short and long term 110 .g. moisture movement and heat 2) Applied stresses e.DEFORMATION OF CONCRETE Causes of deformation of concrete 1) Environmental effects e.

The response of concrete to a compressive stress applied in a drying environment Load removal Load application Strain (contraction) Creep strain Elastic recovery Creep recovery Elastic strain Shrinkage strain t1 t2 Time 111 .

immediate strain recovery is less than immediate strain on loading.I → before t1→ net contraction in volume known as shrinkage due to drying. t1→ stress is applied and held constant. V → Time-dependent creep recovery 112 . this increase. t2→ stress is removed (without stress it follows dotted extension beyond t1.difference between solid and dotted curves shows effect of loading) II → on loading → immediate strain response (proportional to stress for low stress level) III → Compressive strain increases at a decreasing rate. after allowing for shrinkage represents creep strain IV → Upon unloading.

adsorbed water and interlayer water results in a net volumetric contraction called shrinkage Shrinkage is expressed as a linear strain through determination of length change 113 .1) Drying shrinkage Loss of capillary water.

considerable part of this is irreversible There is a continuous but small swelling of the hcp on continuous immersion in water As the strength of the hcp increases → less shrinkage and swelling Low w/c.decreases porosity . high degree of hydration.swelling Swelling with continuous immersion shrinkage Initial drying shrinkage first drying drying wetting drying wetting wetting drying reversible shrinkage Time Maximum shrinkage occurs on first drying.decreases shrinkage 114 . age .increases strength .

(r = ∞) p. r 2T P ln( ) = Rθρ r P0 P0: vapor pressure over a plane surface T : surface tension of liquid R : gas constant θ : absolute temperature ρ : density of the liquid r : the radius of curvature p1.Mechanisms of shrinkage and swelling 1) Capillary tension Free water surfaces in capillary pores will be in surface tension and upon drying due to drop in ambient vapor pressure free surface becomes more concave and surface tension increases Kelvin’s equation p0. r = d/2 d 115 .

r = d/2 d 116 . pores gradually empty starting with the widest first Higher w/c pastes will shrink more p1. (r = ∞) p. If evaporation ↑ compressive stresses ↑ shrinkage ↑ Exposing hcp to a steadily decreasing vapor pressure.p0. r Tension within water near meniscus = 2T/r which must be balanced by compressive stresses in surrounding solid.

work should be done against this tension force Surface tension forces induce compressive stresses=2T/r which are important in hcp whose average particle size is very small Adsorption of water molecules onto the surface of the particles. i.e.2) Surface tension or surface energy Surface of both solid and liquid materials is in a state of tension To increase surface area. reduces surface energy and reduces balancing internal compressive stresses leading to an overall volume increase. swelling 117 .

thickness of adsorbed water layer drops and reduces disjoining pressure. In regions narrower than twice this thickness (~ 2.3nm) thick adsorbed water forms on solid surface at saturation which is under pressure from the surface attractive forces.3) Disjoining pressure Adsorbed water layer Capillary water Capillary tension Disjoining pressure in region of hindered adsorption Water inside gel pores is under influence of surface forces 5 molecules (1.6nm) interlayer water will be in hindered adsorption resulting in development of swelling or disjoining pressure which is balanced by tension in interparticle bond On drying. This results in an overall shrinkage 118 .

to move interlayer water. high energy is needed Movement of interlayer water likely results in significantly higher shrinkage than movement of equal amount of free or adsorbed water 119 .4) Movement of interlayer water Interlayer water has an intimate contact with solid surfaces .

disjoining pressure -------------------------> <-----------.Opinion is divided on the relative importance of the above mechanisms and their relative contribution to the total shrinkage Suggested shrinkage mechanisms Source Powers (1965) Ishai (1965) Feldman and Sereda (1970) Witmann (1968) Relative humidity (%) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 <-------------------------------.capillary tension --------> <------surface energy-------> < ------------.capillary tension -----------> <---interlayer water---> <----surface energy---> < --capillary tension and surface energy -> < -------.disjoining pressure --------------> 120 .

unhydrated cement grains also act as a restraint 121 .1) Drying shrinkage of concrete a) Effect of mix constituents and proportions Drying shrinkage of concrete < drying shrinkage of cement paste Aggregate → dimensionally stable Aggregates put restraint to shrinkage deformation of hcp in concrete Degree of restraint depends on. aggregate volume concentration modulus of elasticity of aggregate In hcp.

Influence of aggregate content in concrete on the ratio of the shrinkage of concrete to that of neat cement paste Normal concretes have a shrinkage of 10-30 % of that of neat paste Shrinkage ratio Range for normal concrete Aggregate content (% by volume) 122 .

Shrinkage after 1 year of drying (microstrain) Normal density aggregates have higher stiffness (higher E – modulus) They give more restraint to concrete Lightweight aggregate concretes tend to have higher shrinkage Lightweight concrete Normal-weight concrete Elastic modulus of aggregate (kN/mm2) 123 .

2 μ a ) Ep Ea n= = 1. 2 − 1. 7 E p = modulus of elasticity of hcp E a = modulus of elasticity of aggregates μ p = poissons ratio of hcp μ a = poissons ratio of aggregates 124 .Combined effects of aggregate volume ratio and stiffness ε c = ε p (1 − g ) n sh sh ε c = shrinkage strain of concrete sh ε p = shrinkage strain of hcp sh g = aggregate volume content 3 (1 − μ p ) 1 + μ p + 2 (1 .

surface cracking may occur C3A and sulphate content of cement affect the shrinkage.b) Effect of specimen geometry Size and shape of concrete specimen influence rate of drying and degree of restraint from the core. e. alkali content and fineness has a significant effect 125 . a member with a large surface area to volume ratio will dry and shrink more rapidly Restraint from central core of a concrete element which has higher moisture content than the surface puts the surface into tension. under these tensile stresses. Thus. also.g.

self desiccation leads to removal of water from the capillary pores and Its magnitude is an order of magnitude less than that of drying shrinkage More pronounced in concretes with low water-to-cement ratios autogenous shrinkage 126 . with no moisture movement to or from the cement paste.2) Autogenous shrinkage Continued hydration with an adequate supply leads to slight swelling of cement paste Conversely.

Ca(OH)2 is dissolved from stressed region resulting in shrinkage CaCO3 crystallizes in pores reducing permeability and increasing strength Max carbonation at 25-50 % RH If saturated. its cause is chemical CO2 + H2O → H2CO3 H2CO3 + Ca (OH)2 → CaCO3 + 2H2O H2O is → weight of paste ↑ released shrinkage accompanies. strength ↑ and permeability ↓ Explanation.3) Carbonation shrinkage Carbonation shrinkage is not a result of loss of water. H2CO3 can not penetrate concrete If dry H2CO3 can not form 127 .

128 . water in areas of hindered adsorption and forces between layers of gel solids will determine the behavior of cement paste upon being heated.Thermal Expansion Cement paste and concrete expand on heating Thermal expansion coefficient is needed in two main situations. free water. 1. freely adsorbed water. To calculate stresses due to thermal gradients arising from heat of hydration 2. To calculate overall dimensional changes in structures Thermal expansion of cement paste Coefficient of thermal expansion of hcp=10 -20 x 10-6 / ºC The value depends on moisture content Disturbance of equilibrium between water vapor.

80 % of concrete volume.Thermal expansion of concrete Coefficient of thermal expansion of most rocks = 6 . effect of humidity is very much reduced. therefore. differential stresses set up by different thermal expansion coefficients of paste and aggregate can lead to internal microcracking 129 . cement paste content and aggregate type. we assume a constant coefficient of thermal expansion for concrete. This value depends on concrete mix proportions. At temperatures higher than ~ 60 ºC. coefficient of thermal expansion of concrete is less than that of hcp Since aggregate occupies 70.10 x 10-6 / ºC Therefore.

Stress-strain behavior Elasticity. hcp has a near linear compressive stress-strain relationship.p c )3 E p = modulus of elasticity of paste E g = modulus of elasticity when Pc = 0 (represents the modulus of elasticity of the gel) pc = capillary porosity 130 . modulus of elasticity can be determined from stressstrain data E p = E g (1 .

Effect of w/c and age on the elastic modulus of hcp

Elastic modulus, (kN/mm2)



Age (days) 60 28 14 7 3







water/cement ratio by weight


Models for concrete behavior
Concrete is a composite multiphase material Elastic behavior depends on elastic properties, relative proportions and geometrical arrangement of; a) unhydrated cement, b) cement gel, c) water, d) fine aggregate, e) coarse aggregate
The model for the concrete behavior requires the following 1. The property values for the phases a. The elastic modulus of the aggregate, Ea b. The elastic modulus of the hcp, Ep c. The volume concentration of the aggregate, g. 2. A suitable geometrical arrangement of the phases

Several models (unit cubes) are proposed to predict average behavior
Assumption for model analysis; 1) Applied stress remains uniaxial and compressive throughout the model 2) Effects of lateral continuity between layers can be ignored 3) Any local bond failure or cracking does not contribute to deformation

Hansen’s models;
Model I
Matrix Aggregate

Matrix (hcp) and distributed phase (aggregates) arranged parallel with direction of loading. Phases undergo same strain Known as; Parallel-phase model Equal strain model


Strain compatibility; εc = εa = εp Equilibrium; Total force = Σ force on each phase Expressed in terms of stresses and area σ.1= σa.Va + σp.(1-Va)

Constitutive relations; both phases and concrete are elastic

σ c = ε c Ec

σ a = ε a Ea

σ p = ε p Ep

Substituting into equilibrium equation

ε c E c = ε a E aVa + ε p E p (1 − Va )
E c = E aVa + E p (1 − Va )

From compatibility equation


Model II σ
Matrix (hcp) and distributed phase (aggregates) arranged in series with direction of loading Phases are subjected to same stress g Known as; Series - phase model Equal stress model

σc = σ


= σ


Strains; Total displacement = Σ displacements in each of the phases expressed in terms of strain εc = ε a.Va + ε p. (1-Va)
Substituting from constitutive and equilibrium equations and rearranging gives

1 Va (1 − Va ) = + Ec E a Ep

Counto’s model;
Aggregate set within hcp complying with volume requirements Greater resemblance to concrete Combination of Hansen’s two models

(1 − Va ) Va 1 = + Ec Ep Ea Va + E p (1 − Va )


The effect of volume concentration of aggregate on elastic modulus of concrete calculated from simple two-phase models

All paste

All aggregate

Ec Model A C B Ep 0 0.5


Models A & B give upper and lower boundaries to concrete modulus of elasticity. Model C gives intermediate values.


Volume concentration of aggregate, Va (g)


Prediction of elastic modulus of concrete (Ec) from the modulus of the cement paste (Ep) and the aggregate (Ea) for 50 % volume concentration of aggregate

5 4 3 2

Model A C








Observed stress-strain behavior of concrete

Stress, N/m2

30 20 10

Concrete Cement paste

Stress-strain behavior of both aggregates and cement paste is substantially linear almost up to maximum Composite concrete with intermediate stiffness is markedly non-linear





Strain (μs) Stress-strain relationships for cement paste, aggregates and concrete “typical behavior of hcp, aggregate and concrete”


First cycle Second cycle
Working stress




Unloading/loading cycles show substantial ,but diminishing hysteresis loops. Explanation lies in contribution of microcracking to overall concrete strains Transition zone is a region of weakness and ever before loading some microcracks occur in this zone. Bleeding, drying and thermal shrinkage determine the number and width of these cracks. As stress level increases, these cracks increase in number, length and width, causing progressively increasing nonlinear behavior





Stress-strain relationships for cement paste, aggregates and concrete “typical short term behavior of concrete”

Elastic modulus of concrete B Stress A C Different definitions for elastic modulus.static modulus of elasticity . . -A: slope of tangent to the curve at any point (tangent modulus) -B: initial tangent modulus -C: slope of the line between the origin and a point on the curve (Secant modulus) According to the testing method.dynamic modulus of elasticity Strain 141 .

It is higher than secant modulus 142 . Cylindrical or prismatic specimens are used and loaded longitudinally with a static load Dynamic modulus of elasticity: dynamic test is applied to a prismatic specimen and dynamic elastic modulus is calculated as 2 2 n: fundamental resonant frequency d l: length of specimen E = 4n l ρ ρ: density of concrete Dynamic modulus of elasticity approximates to the initial tangent modulus (line B).• • Static modulus of elasticity: secant modulus is calculated from readings of strain at a stress at 40% of ultimate strength.

E (GPa) Ed= dynamic modulus of elasticity Ec= static modulus of elasticity fcu= ultimate compressive strength (28 day strength) 143 .Modulus of elasticity increases with age and decreasing w/c. Thus.16 f cu Ec = 20 + 0. Ed = 31 + 0. increasing compressive strength of concrete results in increased modulus of elasticity Proposed relations for mean moduli.2 f cu f cu (MPa).

0. μ c = μ p (1 − Va ) for n μp = 0. age and strength Anson proposed the relation. n = 0.25 ≤ μ ≤ 0.42 μc = poisson ratio of concrete μp = poission ratio of cement paste Va = volume of aggregates 144 .2 μ is largely is dependent of w/c.30 on drying it reduces to 0.22.Poisson’s ratio for water-saturated cement paste.

creep is higher while the concrete is simultaneously drying 145 .Creep Magnitude of creep strains is as great or greater than elastic strains on loading. they have a significant influence on structural behavior Creep and shrinkage are interdependent. Therefore.

εcr= εbc + εdc Total strain.Strain εsh εsh: free shrinkage of unloaded drying (sealed concrete) drying condition (a) Free shrinkage (no stress) concrete in drying condition εbc: basic creep under loading with no εbc εdc: drying creep under loading and (b) Basic creep (stress. no loss of moisture) εdc (drying creep) εbc εsh Time εcr Total creep strain. εtot= εsh + εcr = εsh + εbc+ εdc Total strain (c) Total creep stress and drying 146 .

Moisture content before loading: completely dried concrete has very small creep Level of applied stress: creep increases almost linearly with applied stress up to stress/strength of 0. Hence.Factors effecting creep 1. 3.1 6. creep of concrete is less than that of cement paste Neville proposed a relationship: εcr= εcrp (1-Va)n n = 1. 5. 2.7 – 2. Elastic modulus of aggregate: increasing modulus of aggregate decreases creep of concrete 147 .40 to 0. 4.60 Concrete strength: increasing strength decreases creep Temperature: increasing temperature increases creep significantly Aggregate volume concentration: aggregate is inert in creep.

Pressure drop in capillary pores b. gel particles. Viscous flow with adjacent particles sliding past each other b.Mechanisms of creep 1) Moisture diffusion: applied stress changes internal stresses and upsets the thermodynamic equilibrium in hcp. Moisture then moves from smaller to larger pores. calcium hydroxide crystalls) Load will be transferred to inert material which then deforms elastically 2) 3) 4) 148 . resulting a. Interlayer water diffusing slowly out of the gel pores Structural adjustment: stress concentrations in hcp may cause consolidation due to a. Adsorbed water gradually moving from zones of hindered adsorption c. Local bond breakage followed by reconnection nearby Microcracking: defects and cracks existing in concrete before loading propagate and form new cracks and this contributes to creep strains Delayed elastic strain: active creeping component (water in capillary or gel pores) act parallel with elastically deforming component (unhydrated cement particles.

Overall Outline • • • • • • • • Introduction Concrete Bituminous materials Masonry Polymers and polymer composites Cement-based fiber composites Metals Timber 149 .

Chapter Outline • CONCRETE – Cement – Admixtures – Aggregates – Strength and failure of concrete – Durability of concrete – Statistical quality control in the production of concrete – Property composition relations for concrete and concrete mix design 150 .

STRENGTH AND FAİLURE OF CONCRETE 1) Strength tests a) Compressive strength test b) Tensile tests i. Splitting tensile test Factors influencing strength a) Transition zone b) Water to cement ratio c) d) e) i. 2) 3) Effect of age Effect of humidity Effect of aggregate properties. Flexural test iii. Direct tension test ii. size and volume concentration Cracking and fracture in concrete Prediction of concrete strength 151 .

fatigue. impact.com/CRIB%20MATERIAL%20PHOTOGRAPHS%20testing%20013.ame-geolab.jpg 152 . torsional (shear). tensile. durability (permeability) Different types of loading in structures result in different modes of failure Relevant strengths: Compressive.STRENGTH AND FAILURE OF CONCRETE Strength of concrete is most important because structural elements must carry imposed loads safely In loading test: max stress = strength of specimen Under compressive loading. at max stress. strength is related to: elastic modulus. Complete breakdown subsequently occurs at higher strains and lower stress Also. strength under multiaxial loading http://www. test specimen is still whole (with extensive internal cracking).

1. Top surface is a trowelled surface. Strength tests a) Compressive strength test: Cubes (100x100x100 mm or 150x150x150 mm) Cylinder: (D= 100mm.Cylinders are loaded on top and bottom surfaces. concrete compacted top surface smoothed Steel Platens 1.Cubes are loaded on two parallel smooth steel moulded surfaces . Load is increased to its ultimate value in a few minutes . Cubes or cylinder are placed between steel platens of loading machine 2. Therefore it must be capped either with plaster paste or with molten sulfur 153 . H= 300mm) Steel moulds are used. H= 200mm or D=150mm.

this central zone is in uniaxial stress state. Therefore. 45° to axis near ends Cube (H/D=1) Cylinder (H/D=2) Cracking parallel to loads away from ends Cracking pattern of cubes and cylinders show that CUBES are not in uniaxial loading This is due to end restraint because of friction between loading platens and concrete surface.Cracking patterns during testing of concrete specimens in compression Cracking at approx. cylinder strength ≅ 0.80 cube strength 154 . This induces lateral tensile stress in both platen and concrete due to Poisson effect. there is a centre portion not affected from end restraint. Thus. Concrete is in a triaxial stress state with consequent higher strength compared to uniaxial stress case IN CYLINDERS.

0 0.4 Relative str.2 diameter Height 1.8 1.6 Slenderness ratio (h/d) affects strength Avoid h/d < 1 for test specimens h/d = 1 for cubes. h/d = 2 for cylinders 1. 1. 1925) 155 .8 0 1 2 3 4 Height/diameter ratio General relationship between height/diameter ration and compressive strength of a concrete cylinder.1. (Gonnerman.

Splitting tensile test P i. Flexural test iii. i.b. Tensile tests Tensile behavior of concrete can be evaluated by. Direct tension test ii. Direct tension test Results are not very dependable (due to eccentric loading and failure at grips) not very much used fd = P/A P Cross-sectional Area A 156 .

ii) Flexural test P End area = bxd fb Prism specimen (100x100x400mm or 150x150x600mm) + Stress distribution L PL Modulus of rupture = f b = bd 2 Load is applied at third points Failure occurs when flexural tensile crack at bottom of beam propagates upwards throughout beam Modulus of rupture > direct tensile strength 157 .

iii) Splitting tensile test tension compression d fs = 2P πdl Stress distribution Cylinder specimen (φ150mm. height 300mm) Placed on its side in a compression testing machine and loaded across its vertical diameter Stress distribution on a plane of vertical diameter is a near uniform tension Failure occurs by split or crack along this plane For the same compressive strength: Modulus of rupture > cylinder splitting > direct tension 158 .

Typical relationships between tensile and compressive strengths of concrete Tensile strength (N/mm2) 8 6 4 2 Direct tension Modulus of rupture Cylinder splitting 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Compressive strength (N/mm2) 159 .

2) 3) Effect of age Effect of humidity Effect of aggregate properties. Direct tension test ii. size and volume concentration Cracking and fracture in concrete Prediction of concrete strength 160 .STRENGTH AND FAİLURE OF CONCRETE 1) Strength tests a) Compressive strength test b) Tensile tests i. Splitting tensile test Factors influencing strength a) Transition zone b) Water to cement ratio c) d) e) i. Flexural test iii.

cracking and failure initiate in this zone Due to drying shrinkage.2. cracks in this zone start propagating into hcp. resulting in paths through concrete Typical crack path through normal strength concrete Use 3-phase model when considering strength of concrete 161 . FACTORS INFLUENCING STRENGTH a) Transition Zone Transition zone around aggregate particles hcp Aggregate Transition zone (~50μm wide) is the weakest phase. cracks are present before loading As loading increases in compression or tension.

b) Water/cement ratio: Strength of concrete depends on. w/c 162 . Strength of hcp Strength of aggregates Strength of transition zone Strength of hcp is governed by Porosity (indirectly depending on w/c) degree of hydration Strength of transition zone is dependent on.

average = 6 Graf.i) Prediction of Concrete Strength Various relationships are given by several researchers Abrams. entrained air. f cc fc = KG (W / C ) 2 163 . f c = k1 k2W / C when w/c (by wt) k1 & k2 empirical constants depending on age. aggregate type and size where fcc = compressive strength of cement KG = empirical constant related to testing condition KG = 4-8. type of cement. curing regime. test method.

Feret. water. type and amount of cement KB = 7 – 35 MPa for 7 days strength KB = 15 MPa for 28 days strength KB = 19 MPa k`=0. c fc = K F ( )2 c+w+v when c. type and amount of cement KF = 80 – 300 MPa for 7 days strength KF = 150 MPa for 28 days strength KF = 180 MPa Bolomey.5 164 . and air voids in 1cm3 of concrete KF = empirical constant depending on age. w. v → volumes of cement. C fc = K B ( − k `) W +v where c. w → weights of cement and water v → volume of air voids KB = empirical constant depending on age.

at w/c ≤ 0.Mix design methods use one of these formulas or curves or tables based on these equations to estimate w/c required for a given strength To achieve a homogenous. but with extreme care given to high standards of site practice and supervision and quality control 165 .4 < w/c < 0. compressive strengths > 130 MPa are achieved and placed with conventional mixing. cohesive concrete without significant segregation w/c < 1 0.20 – 0.30 → high or very high strength concretes are produced (70 .26.150 MPa) By using superplasticizer to achieve adequate workability By incorporating silica fume at 5-10 % cement replacement to improve properties of transition zone while also increasing strength of cement paste to a limited degree By selecting aggregate having high inherent strength and good bond characteristics With this approach.7 → produce concretes of normal to medium strength (20-50 MPa) w/c ≈ 0. transporting and compaction methods.

in presence of moisture. there will be some strength increase d) Effect of humidity Curing in water results in higher strength compared to air curing Moisture all through the life of concrete provides higher strengths 166 .c) Effect of age Hydration reaction continues in time with decreasing rate Thus even after years.

size and volume concentration Aggregate strength becomes important in high strength concretes. structure and chemistry of the transition zone is influenced by aggregate mineralogy and surface conditions. WHY??? Increasing volumetric proportion of aggregate in the mix. In high strength concretes. Increased surface roughness improves bonding due to mechanical interlocking. Dmax is limited to 8 or 16 mm. WHY?? With some carbonate and siliceous aggregates. produce a relatively small increase in concrete strength. There is a maximum limit to aggregate content (~ 80) for practical concretes 167 . Thus concretes with crushed rock aggregates have about 15 % higher strengths than concretes with smooth gravel aggregates Larger maximum aggregate size reduces strength at lower w/c.e) Effect of aggregate properties. at a constant w/c.

168 . CRACKING AND FRACTURE IN CONCRETE 100 Stress (% ultimate) Stage 4 75 Stage 3 50 30 Stage 2 Stage 1 Strain Transverse Longitudinal Volumetric Stress – strain behavior of concrete under compressive loading: a) from Glucklich (1965).3. b) From Newman (1966).

size and volume concentration Cracking and fracture in concrete Prediction of concrete strength 169 . Splitting tensile test Factors influencing strength a) Transition zone b) Water to cement ratio c) d) e) i. Direct tension test ii. 2) 3) Effect of age Effect of humidity Effect of aggregate properties.STRENGTH AND FAİLURE OF CONCRETE 1) Strength tests a) Compressive strength test b) Tensile tests i. Flexural test iii.

Stage 1: Below 30% of ultimate load transition zone cracks remain stable. However. leading to high strains. towards 75% of ultimate load. nonlinearity is observed. Stage 3: Above 50% of ultimate load. width and number. stress-strain curve is approximately linear Stage 2: Between 30-50% of ultimate load. they still remain stable. cracks start to spread into matrix. Transverse strains start increasing faster than longitudinal strains resulting in an overall increase in volume 170 . cracks become unstable and curve further deviates from linearity Stage 4: Unstable crack growth and propagation is frequent. Cracks increase in length.

Coarse aggregate hcp Stress Mortar Concrete Strain Typical stress-strain characteristics of aggregate. mortar and concrete under compressive loading 171 . hardened cement paste.

Chapter Outline • CONCRETE – Cement – Admixtures – Aggregates – Strength and failure of concrete – Durability of concrete – Statistical quality control in the production of concrete – Property composition relations for concrete and concrete mix design 172 .

Durability of concrete Outline • • • Transport mechanisms through concrete Flow processes Degradation of concrete 1) Durability against freezing and thawing 2) Durability against chemical action 3) Durability against very high temperatures Durability of steel in concrete – – Principles of corrosion of steel in concrete Two stages of corrosion damage • • Carbonation induced corrosion Chloride induced corrosion • 173 .

Environment to which concrete is exposed Internal causes within concrete Most important factor is the rate at which moisture. air or other aggressive agents can penetrate the concrete 174 .Durability of concrete Durability: ability of a material to remain serviceable for at least the required lifetime of the structure Concrete is not inherently of high durability Degradation of concrete arises from.

Transport mechanisms through concrete Porous impermeable material Porous permeable material High porosity. low permeability Low porosity. Rate of flow (permeability) depends on not only porosity but the degree of continuity of pores and their size 175 . high permeability Hcp and concrete contains pores of varying types and sizes.

Flow process depend on degree of saturation of hcp or concrete At very low humidities: moisture is in vapor state and adsorbed on dry surfaces of the paste with increasing humidity. adsorption is completed. Flow is taking place through the pore as a direct vapor movement due to pressure gradient Vapour flow Liquid flow Adsorbed phase 176 .

At humidity sufficient for water condensation: vapor flow is enclosed through a shorter path At increasing humidity: condensed water zone extend and flow is augmented by transfer in adsorbed layer 177 .

At increasing humidity: liquid flow under pressure gradient in incompletely saturated state

Finally at high humidities: liquid flow under pressure gradient in completely saturated state


Flow processes
Movement of a fluid under a pressure differential – i.e. permeation Movement of ions, atoms or molecules under a concentration gradient, i.e. diffusion Capillary attraction of a liquid into empty or partially empty pores, i.e. sorption


Flow processes
1) Flow or movement of a fluid under a pressure differential
Darcy’s law

For flow in x direction, ux = mean flow velocity

∂h ux = − K ∂x ∂h ∂x

= rate of increase in pressure head in x-direction

K = coefficient of permeability (m/sec)


2) Movement of ions, atoms or molecules under concentration gradient, process of diffusion governed by Fick’s law

∂c P = −D ∂x
For flow in x direction, P = transfer rate of substance per unit area normal to x-direction

∂c = concentration gradient ∂x
D=diffusivity (m2/sec)


3) Adsorption and absorption of a liquid into empty or partially empty pores by capillary attraction

x = St 1 / 2
where, x = depth of penetration S= sorptivity (mm/sec1/2) t = time (sec)


Primary transport mechanisms in the various exposure zones of a concrete offshore structure

Exposure zone Atmospheric Splash Tidal

Primary transport mechanisms Gas diffusion Water vapour diffusion Water vapour diffusion ionic diffusion Water vapour diffusion Water absorption ionic diffusion


Ionic diffusion Water permeability


Permeability; measure of the ability of a material to transmit fluids
Coefficient of permeability (x10-13m/sec)


10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 10 20 30 40

Coefficient of permeability



10-12 0 10 20 30

Age (days) The effect of hydration on the permeability of cement paste (w/c =0.7)

Capillary porosity (%) The relationship between permeability and capillary porosity of hardened cement paste 184

3 The relationship between permeability and water/cement ratio of mature cement paste (% 93 hydrated) 185 .5 Water/cement ratio 0.7 0.Permeability (x 10-13 m/sec) 10 8 6 4 2 0.

which therefore tends to migrate to supplement capillary water and thus increase disruption Water – cement ratio is a controlling factor of durability of concrete against freezing and thawing cycles because its magnitude determines the amount and size of the capillary pores in the cement paste.Degradation of Concrete 1) Durability against freezing and thawing (important in cold climates) Damage occurs due to. After capillary water has frozen. it posses a lower thermodynamic energy than still-liquid gel water. For this reason. water-cement ratio is limited in specifications for durability of concrete against frost action 186 . freezing and thawing cycles of water in capillary pores and entrapped air voids of the cement paste water in the pores of aggregates may also freeze and affect the durability of concrete against frost action water in the gel pores is adsorbed on CSH surfaces and does not freeze until temperature drops to about -78 ºC.

58 Severe In water Fresh Salty 0.53 Mild In water Fresh Salty 0.53 0.48 0.44 0.Max.49 0.44 In air 0.53 0.44 0.49 0.40 0.49 0.40 0.44 187 .53 0. values of w/c for durability against frost action Climatic condition Types of structures Thin elements Medium size elements Exterior faces of mass concrete (large elements) In air 0.44 0.

Air entrainment is achieved through some chemical admixtures and thus use of air-entraining admixtures has been a rule for concretes subjected to severe climatic action Freezing of the water in the pores of the aggregates may also damage concrete via damaging aggregate particles.Air-entrainment into concrete increases the durability of concrete against freezing and thawing. Durability of aggregate against frost action depends upon its pore characteristics and saturation degree. Optimum percentage of air-entrainment is about 4-6 % by volume. Indirect or direct tests of freezing and thawing are used to measure durability of aggregates 188 .

4 0.7 Water/cement ratio 0.8 The effect of air entrainment and water/cement ratio on the frost resistance of concrete moist-cured for 28 days (US Bureau of Reclamation. 1955) 189 .Number of freeze-thaw cycles for 25% weight loss 4000 3000 Air entrained 2000 Not air entrained 1000 0.6 0.5 0.

a cycle completed in 4 hours. air-entrain. to make concrete durable 1) 2) 3) Use durable aggregates Apply good curing to concrete Cement paste should be made durable (↓ w/c. pozzolanic materials) Concrete should be tested for durability against frost action Prismatic specimens are subjected to 300 cycles of freezing at -17 ºC and thawing at + 4 ºC. Decrease in Ed with respect to control concrete indicates the degree of durability against frost action 190 .Therefore. Specimens are tested non-destructively from time to time by measuring dynamic modulus of elasticity through resonance frequency testing.

Freeze – thaw cabin 191 .

5000 Degree of Action Strong 5. mg/lt Mg+2 in water.2) Durability against chemical action Concrete in industrial buildings Concrete containing contaminated aggregates Concrete in contact with sulphate soils or sulphate ground water may be subjected to the harmful effects of some chemical compounds Degree of action of certain chemicals in concrete Chemical pH value CO2 in water. mg/lt SO4-2 in soils.5 – 5. mg/lt SO4-2 in water.5 30 – 60 30 – 60 300 – 1500 600 – 3000 > 5000 Very Strong < 4.5 15 – 30 15 – 30 100 – 300 200 – 600 2000 .5 > 60 > 60 > 1500 > 3000 - 192 .5 – 4. mg/kg Weak 6. mg/lt NH4 in water.

causing disruption Reactions of other forms of sulphates can occur with CH in hcp forming gypsum again with an increase in volume. Na 2 SO4 + Ca(OH ) 2 + 2 H 2 O → CaSO4 2 H 2 O + 2 NaOH MgSO4 + Ca(OH ) 2 + 2 H 2 O → CaSO4 2 H 2 O + Mg (OH ) 2 Gypsum Severity of attack depends on the type of sulphate Damage of attack by MgSO4 > Damage of attack by Na2SO4 > Damage of attack by CaSO4 193 . C3 A.CS .H18 + 2CH + 2S + 12H → C3A3CSH 32 3CaOAl 2 O3 CaSO4 18H 2 O + 2Ca (OH ) 2 + 2 SO3 + 12 H 2 O → 3CaOAl 2 O3 3CaSO4 32 H 2 O This is an expansive reaction.Sulphates can react with hydrated aluminate phases in hardened cement paste to produce ettringite through reaction.

⇓ C3A content Higher cement content and lower water-cement ratio.Deterioration due to sulphates decreases with. WHY?? Cement replacement materials decreases permeability and improves resistance to sulphates 194 .

Concrete properly designed and well consolidated and cured w/c should be less than 0.50 Lateral dimension of the structural elements should be enlarged to ensure some protective cover Special cements & cement replacement materials should be used To resist very strong action. Concrete should be properly designed and well consolidated w/c should be less than 0. In addition to all above.To resist the weak action. protect the concrete by applying a protective cover 195 .60 To resist strong action.

Fire of buildings Pavements of air field Furnaces or chimneys of industrial buildings Rate of degradation depends on. Maximum temperature Concrete constituents Size of element 196 .3) Durability against very high temperatures Concrete maybe subjected to very high temperatures above 1000ºC in the case of.

These may result in severe cracking in hcp.For the cement paste a) at 105ºC. if it is wetted. 197 . capillary and gel water has been lost and shrinkage occurs b) at 250-300ºC. it again converts to Ca(OH)2 and expand. After cooling. siliceous constituents loose crystal water and shrink meanwhile Ca(OH)2 looses its water and converts to CaO. aluminous and ferrous constituents of cement loose crystal water c) at 400-700ºC.

blast furnace slag. crushed firebrick usually don’t change their volume extensively up to and well above 1000ºC 198 . some siliceous aggregates may expand excessively due to a change in crystal structure At 900ºC.For the aggregates a) b) c) d) Aggregates expand very mildly with increasing temperature At 550ºC. limestone aggregates may be calcined (separated from CO2) Basalt.

etc.To produce a concrete durable against medium temperatures (500600ºC) A proper design must be achieved Use limestone aggregates To produce a concrete durable against higher temperatures (9001100ºC) A refractory concrete should be designed Stabilizing agent (shamotte earth. powdered silica. blast furnace slag or crushed firebrick On the other hand.) should be used in place of some fine aggregate Use basalt. aluminous cement is very profitable for refractory concrete 199 .

JPG 200 . steel is left vulnerable to corrosion. If protection is broken. caused cracking and/or spalling of concrete. Corrosion products. being expansive.oregonstate. exposing steel to more rapid corrosion http://cce.Durability of steel in concrete Steel exist in concrete for reinforcing the concrete to compensate for weakness of concrete under tensile and shear stresses Sound concrete provides excellent protective medium for steel.edu/structural/images/corrosion_1.

2Fe → 2Fe++ +4eCathode reaction. 4e + O2 + 2H2O → 4OH at some distance from surface 2Fe++ + 4OH -→ 2Fe (OH)2 (Ferrous hydroxide (black rust)) Followed by 4Fe(OH)2 + O2 → 2Fe2O3H2O + H2O (Ferric hydroxide (red rust)) 201 .H2O Fe(OH)2 Oxygenated water Fe++ 2OH1/2O2 H2O Spacial arrangement of corrosion reactions of iron in moist air or oxygenated water Metal Fe Anodic area 2e- Cathodic area Anode reaction.Principles of corrosion of steel in concrete O2 Fe2O3.

Electrolyte is the pore water in contact with steel Normally highly alkaline (pH = 12-13) due to Ca(OH)2 from the cement hydration and the small amounts of Na2O and K2O in cement In such a solution. anodic reaction gives out Fe3O4 instead of Fe++. Fe3O4 is deposited at metal surface as tightly adherent thin film and stops any further corrosion (Steel is said to be passive) Concrete passivation may be broken by. A loss of alkalinity by carbonation Chloride ions 202 .

Different forms of damage from steel corrosion cracking spalling lamination corner effects 203 .

Two stages of corrosion damage Corrosion Level of corrosion to cause concrete cracking t0 = time for depassivating agents to reach steel and initiate corrosion t1 = time for corrosion to reach critical levels. sufficient to crack concrete t0 t1 age 204 .

well cured concrete is subjected to limited carbonation (only 20 – 30mm after years) 205 .Carbonation induced corrosion Carbonation first occurs on the surface and progresses inwards Reaction is a diffusion controlled process x = k t 1/ 2 k = constant x = carbonation depth t = time High quality.

diffusivity.Chloride induced corrosion Common sources of corrosion Calcium chloride (an accelerating admixture) Contamination in aggregates Sea water for coastal and marine structures Road deicing salts (on bridge decks) First two enter into concrete during mixing and steel may never be passivated (t0=0) Last two have to penetrate the concrete cover sufficiently to depassivate the steel (t0=fin Transport mechanisms are permeability. sorptivity 206 .

then Use corrosion inhibiting admixture (calcium nitrate) Use corrosion resistant stainless steel bars or epoxy coated bars Cover concrete surface by a protector Apply cathodic protection 207 .If protection against corrosion can not be guranteed.

Chapter Outline • CONCRETE – Cement – Admixtures – Aggregates – Strength and failure of concrete – Durability of concrete – Statistical quality control in the production of concrete – Property composition relations for concrete and concrete mix design 208 .

Statistical quality control in the production of concrete OUTLİNE • TS 500 • TS EN 206-1 • Conformity criterion 209 .

taking into account Level of importance of structure Materials Equipment Production facilities 210 . production and measuring methods and human. variations in concrete making materials.Statistical quality control in the production of concrete Concrete quality will show variation due to factors such as. the designer will first decide about the compressive strength of the concrete. This strength shall be selected among the values given in the standards of that country. is taken as a basis for investigating the quality of the concrete When a concrete structure is designed. Compressive strength of concrete. which is an excellent measure of not only the mechanical strength. but also some other properties of concrete.

.Mixed concrete → obligatory standard is adopted to accord with EU countries (March. Ready .Mixed concrete → Revised on Feb.TS 500: Requirements for design and construction of reinforced concrete structures → revised on Feb. 2001 (abrogated after acceptance of TS EN 206 – 1) Problem. Different conformity conditions and rules are defined by above standards . 2004) TS 11222: Ready . 2000. April 2002 TS EN 206-1: Concrete..

C14. C40. C45.TS 500 strength requirements TS 500 (2000) (Design principles for reinforced concrete buildings) Presents concrete design strengths (fcd) as. C20. That is. C30. C35. H=30cm). C50 C14 28 day compressive strengths of concrete cylinder specimens in MPa (D=15cm. C25. only 10% of the specimens taken from the produced concrete may have compressive strengths below these design strengths 212 . C16. TS500 specifies that these strength values are lower limits with confidence degree of 90%.

the standard deviation (σ) for the concrete production plant should be known for this purpose tσ fcd fca 213 .TS 500 strength requirements Calculation of aim strength (given by TS 500 (1984)) (not included in TS 500 (2000)) Considering test variation in conrete strength obeys normal probabilistic distribution law.

95 1.00 0.025 0.28 0.67 0.50 0.00 0.99 3.84 1.25 0.50 0.16 0.96 0.90 1.001 0.28 σ fcd = design strength fca = aim strength 214 .TS 500 strength requirements TS 500 (1984) Confidence limits in normal distribution Confidence Degree of Degree of parameter risk reliability (t) (r) (1-r) 0.999 Risk is P (fc ≤ fcd) Reliability is P (fc > fcd) Then required average strength (aimed or targeted strength) to be used in mix design calculations is given for 90% confidence as: fca = fcd + 1.01 0.05 0.65 0.975 2.75 1.10 0.33 0.00 0.

BS50 → Δf = 8MPa Ex. strength to be aimed in mix design is calculated as: fca = 25+6 = 31MPa 215 . then aimed strength is obtained by increasing the design strength by Δf as given for BS14 & BS16 → Δf = 4MPa for BS18 .BS30 → Δf = 6MPa for BS35 . for a design strength (fcd) of BS25.TS 500 strength requirements If standard deviation (σ) is not known.

TS 500 specifies to take Acceptance or rejection of concrete is made on two basis: Mean value (fcm) and minimum value (fcmin) are determined for acceptance fcm ≥ fcd + 1. G2.TS 500 strength requirements 3 test specimen for 1 unit (1 unit = 100m3 of concrete or 450m2 of area ) 3 specimens → 1 group 3 groups → 1 party P (G1.0 (MPa) (Minimum arithmetical mean calculated from groups of each party) 216 . G3) Compressive strengths of these specimens at 28 days after standard curing are evaluated statistically and arithmetical mean (fcm) is determined for the sample space.0 (MPa) (mean value of each party) fcmin ≥ fcd – 3.

Lightweight concrete design strengths LC8 – LC80 (14 concrete classes are defined) LC 8 / 9 28 day compressive strengths of concrete cylinder specimens in MPa (D=15cm. 28 day compressive strengths of concrete cube specimens in MPa (a=15cm). 217 . H=30cm). H=30cm). 28 day compressive strengths of concrete cube specimens in MPa (a=15cm).TS EN 206-1 strength requirements TS EN 206-1 Concrete design strengths C8-C100 (16 concrete classes are defined) Strengths are given as C20/25 C 20 / 25 28 day compressive strengths of concrete cylinder specimens in MPa (D=15cm.

the sampling rate shall be increased to that required for initial production for the next 35 test results Minimum rate of sampling Subsequent to first 50m3 of production a Concrete with production Concrete without production control certification control certification 3 1/200 m or 2/production 1/150 m3 or week 1/production day 218 .Minimum rate of sampling for assessing conformity Production First 50m of production 3 Initial (until at 3 samples least 35 test results are obtained) 1/400 m3 or 1/production Continuous b (when at least 35 week results are available) a Sampling shall be distributed throughout the production and should not be more than 1 sample within each 25 m3 b Where the standard deviation of the last 15 test results exceeds 1.37σ.

48 σ Criterion 2 Any individual test result (fci) N/mm2 ≥ fck .4 Initial Continuous 219 .4 ≥ fck .TS EN 206-1 Conformity criteria for compressive strength Production Number “n” of test results for compressive strength in the group 3 15 Criterion 1 Mean of “n” results (fcm) N/mm2 ≥ fck + 4 ≥ fck + 1.

concrete for which the required properties and additional characteristics are specified to the producer who is responsible for providing a concrete conforming to the required properties and additional characteristics 2) Prescribed concrete. concrete for which the composition of the concrete and the constituent materials to be used are specified to the producer who is responsible for providing a concrete with the specified composition 220 .TS EN 206-1 performance requirements Two definitons are given for concrete. 1) Designed concrete.

This can be a disadvantage.TS 500 vs. Limit values and conformity criterions are given for properties other than strength The number of samples to be tested is smaller in TS EN 206-1. Kamile Tosun. TS 500 and TS 11222 standards from the view point of concrete 221 . The evaluation of TS EN 206-1. Ref. Selçuk Türkel. TS EN 206-1 TS EN 206-1 is more specific by means of durability regulations than TS 500.

Chapter Outline • CONCRETE – Cement – Admixtures – Aggregates – Strength and failure of concrete – Durability of concrete – Statistical quality control in the production of concrete – Property composition relations for concrete and concrete mix design 222 .

Property composition relations for concrete mix design OUTLINE • • Workability Concrete mix design calculations a) Preliminary design b) Trial batch production and measurement 223 .

Property composition relations Required properties Workability Compressive strength Deformation (elastic. creep. shrinkage. chemical attack. thermal) Permeability Durability against freezing & thawing. fire 224 .


W = amount of mixing water.Workability Empirical equation that relate the mix water to workability W = α (10 − m) where. dm3/m3 α = coefficient depending on consistency & type of aggregate m = fineness modulus of the aggregate mixture Consistency grade Stiff Plastic Fluid Natural sand Natural sand & Sea sand & & gravel crushed stone crushed stone 28-30 31-33 36-40 33 37 43 37 40 47 226 αave .

Concrete mix design calculations a) Preliminary design Geometrical compatibility a+c+ w+v = A δa + C δc + W δw + v = 1m3 = 1000dm3 227 .

Abrams Graf Feret Bolomey fc = k1 k2 W /C (taken by weight) f cc fc = K G (W / C ) 2 (taken by weight) fc = K F ( c )2 c+ w+v (taken by volume) C fc = K B ( − k `) W +v (taken by weight) 228 .Strength requirement.

W. Assumption for volume of entrapped air voids ∼2-3 % for stiff consistency ∼1-2 % for plastic consistency ∼0-1 % for fluid consistency Solve for C.Constraint on air content. V where C+A+W = Δth 229 . A.

b) Trial batch production and measurement Preliminary design → first approximation to actual values Trial batch produced based on proportions obtained from preliminary design. Only water requirement is adjusted till required workability is obtained This is done by adding mix water incrementally to the mixture of dry ingredients (cement + aggregates) in the mixer Workability is tested by slump test throughout incremental addition of mix water. 230 . Specimens are tested at 28 days to check whether strength requirement is satisfied or not. If not mix proportions are altered. Unit weight of the trial batch is measured (Δm). Strength specimen (cylinders or cubes) are cast from the trial batch with desired workability.

Δac 231 . v considering given requirements Calculate theoretical weight (Δth) Cast trial batch Measure actual unit weight (Δac) Calculate actual proportions using Δth. a.Summary Determine w. c.

gravel 0.15kg/m3) Aggregate : mixture of sand & sandy gravel Sieve size (mm) Sand Sandy .Example (Concrete mix design) Given: Portland cement (fcc = 41MPa.50 23 3 1 45 7 2 60 12 4 100 20 8 100 55 16 100 100 δ 2. δc=3. m=4.65 Desired properties: Fresh concrete: plastic consistency Hardened concrete: BS16 Restrictions: For the aggregate mixture.25 8 1 0.60 2.07 Assume v=1% Cmin=300kg/m3 232 .

Overall Outline • • • • • • • • Introduction Concrete Bituminous materials Masonry Polymers and polymer composites Cement-based fiber composites Metals Timber 233 .

Chapter Outline BITUMINOUS MATERIALS – – – – – – Introduction Sources of bitumen Chemistry and Molecular structure Types of bitumen Aggregates Strength and Failure • Modes of breakdown • Evaluation of road condition – Viscosity of bitumen – Factors affecting deformation of bituminous mixes – Property composition relations for bituminous mixes 234 .

com 235 . Mineral dust called “filler” is also used. Factors determining the type of bituminous mixtures Bitumen content Bitumen grade Aggregate grading Aggregate size picture: www.saocl. Bituminous materials are used in highway engineering to construct flexible pavements.BITUMINOUS MATERIALS Bituminous materials include all materials consisting of aggregate bound with either bitumen or tar.

Trinidad lake (55 % bitumen. 10 % organic matter) Refinery bitumen 2) 236 .SOURCES of BITUMEN 1) Natural deposits (types of deposit range from almost pure bitumen to bitumen-impregnated rocks and bituminuous sands with only a few per cent bitumen) • Rock asphalt (Porous limestone or sandstone impregnated with bitumen with 10% content. “Tar sands” of North America) • Lake asphalt (Bitumen lake with mineral matter dispersed throughout the bitumen. 35 % mineral matter. Switzerland. “Val de Travers”.

2) Refinery bitumen: residual material left after the fractional distillation of crude oil Crude petroleum Products of distillation Petrol Kerosene Diesel oil Lubricating oil Bitumen Fluxing/blending Cutback bitumen Penetration grade bitumen Fig. Preparation of refinery bitumens 237 .

fraction soluble in heptane 238 . fraction insoluble in heptane Maltenes.Chemistry and molecular structure Bitumen is a complex colloidal system of hydrocarbons which is soluble in trichloroethylene Constituents of bitumen are Carbenes. fraction insoluble in carbon tetrachloride Asphaltenes.

Softening point.Types of bitumen 1) Penetration grade bitumen: refinery bitumen with a range of viscosities Penetration test classifies the bitumen according to hardness. Mostly used for industrial applications such as roofing and pipe coatings 239 . For road bitumen penetration grades is from 15 to 450. Thus. hardness of bitumen is increased with reduced ductility and temperature dependence. on the other hand. specifies the viscosity 2) Oxidized bitumens: air is introduced into bitumen under pressure Oxygen(from air) reacts with some compounds to result in more asphaltene with higher molecular weight.

3) Cutbacks: penetration grade bitumens for which the viscosity is temporarily reduced by dilation in a volatile oil. After application. oil evaporates and bitumen turns to its former viscosity Curing time defines Slow curing Medium curing Rapid curing Cutbacks 240 .

Adhesion of bitumen to aggregate surface 241 .Bitumen droplet (dispersed phase) Water Phase (continuous Phase) Repulsion between particles (like charges repel) Attraction of particle to substrate Surface active agent Opposite charges attract 4) Emulsions: two-phase system made up of two immiscible liquids. Emulsifier in a hydrocarbon chain with cationic and anionic functional group. Each droplet carries a like charge. depending on charge of ionic part of emulsifier. Hydrocarbon chain has affinity for bitumen where as ionic part has affinity for water. Cationic emulsions are positively charged. Cationic emulsions aid adhesion of bitumen on negatively charged aggregate surfaces. Anionic emulsions are negatively charged. Emulsifier provides dispersal of bitumen globules. bitumen being dispersed as fine globules in water.

242 . Shape and surface texture are also important. Strength and resistance to deformation are largely determined by aggregate grading with bitumen acting as adhesive Dense graded aggregate mixtures: Aggregate grading is still important but properties are determined largely by the matrix of fines and bitumen Aggregate particles must have sufficient strength for surfacing materials. Fine aggregates → passes 2. they must be resistant to abrasion and polishing.36mm sieve.Aggregates Aggregates make up about 92 % of bituminous materials Coarse aggregates → retained on 2.36mm sieve but is retained on 75µm sieve. Filler → passes 75µm sieve Open textured aggregate mixtures: Grading is continuous and provides a dense packing of particles.

Strength and Failure Purpose of the road is to distribute applied load from traffic to a level which the underlying subgrade can bear There are two forms of failure: Road surface may deteriorate through breakdown of surface material so that skidding resistance drops Road structure deteriorates – gradual and develops with the continued application of wheel loads 243 .

Modes of breakdown Case I Nearside wheel track rut depth Case II Bituminous material moving wheel load Granular material Asphalt layer Granular layer Subgrade fatigue crack εt . critical tensile strain εz . Subgrade soil critical vertical subgrade strains Permanent deformation Fatigue cracking and critical strains 244 .

It is linked to loss of support from subgrade soil. Case II . 245 .Cracking appears along wheel tracks. cracking is caused by tensile strain developed in bound layers as each wheel load passes.Two modes of breakdown Case I .Permanent deformation occurs in wheel tracks. Rutting is associated with deformations in all layers of pavement. It is a fatigue failure.

life of a road can be determined provided that loading can be assessed and performance of the materials evaluated. failure of roads must be identified in terms of serviceability and/or repairability.Evaluation of road condition If failure can be defined. Complete collapse of roads are not encountered. Therefore. if rut depth reaches 20mm. For no visible cracking. road is regarded as having failed 246 . It is accepted that if cracking is visible at surface. road is regarded as being at critical condition or as having failed.

There are two most common measures of viscosity Softening point: Temperature at which a bitumen reaches a specified level of viscosity Standard tar viscometer: (used to measure the viscosity of tars) time taken for 50ml of the tar to run out of a cup through a standard orifice 247 224 . The viscosity of bitumen is dependent upon both its chemical composition and its structure. the slower will be the movement of the liquid.Viscosity of bitumen Viscosity of a liquid is the property that retards flow so that when a force is applied to the liquid. the higher the viscosity.

Another test to evaluate viscosity Penetration test: commonly applied to bitumen for material characterization. the penetration will depend on the elastic deformation and viscosity Bitumens are thermoplastic materials so that they soften as the temperature rises but become hard again when the temperature drops. therefore. Susceptibility of bitumen to temperature is determined from the penetration value and softening point temperature Viscoelasticity describes materials that exhibit both viscous and elastic characteristics when undergoing plastic deformation 248 . It measures depth to which a needle penetrates a sample of bitumen under a load of 100 gr over a period of 5 sec at a temperature of 25ºC Bitumen is viscoelastic. The test measures the hardness of bitumen which is related to viscosity.

Thus. Characteristics of fine aggregate are important in gap-graded materials. 2) Aggregate: bituminous mixtures utilizing a continuously graded – aggregate rely mainly on aggregate particle interlock for their resistance to deformation. will undergo considerable strain. while undergo negligible strain. 249 . being hard and stiff.Factors affecting deformation of bituminous mixes 1) Bituminous viscosity: when a stress is applied to a bituminous material. Deformation is associated with movement in the bitumen and the extent of the movement will depend on its viscosity. both the aggregate particles and the bitumen will be subjected to the stress. grading and particle shape of aggregate are major factors governing deformation. WHY?? 3) Temperature: permanent strain increases with temperature due to the reduction in viscosity and stiffness of bitumen. Aggregate particles. whereas the bitumen. being soft.

250 .075mm) sieve P = % of bitumen by weight of the bituminous mixture In this equation.17c where.Property composition relations for bituminous mixes McKesson – Frickstad (California) formula P = 0.075mm) sieves c = % of aggregate passing No 200 (0. amount of bitumen is related to the surface area of the aggregate groups.015a + 0.03b+ 0. a = % of aggregate retained on No 10 (2mm) sieve b = % of aggregate remaining between No 10 (2mm) and No 200 (0.

In lab. Hubbard-Field test.. some tests have been done to determine the optimum bitumen content Compression test Stability test (Marshall test. Hveem test) Triaxial test 251 .

2)a maximum flow of 0. Test is repeated with mixes of different bitumen contents and bitumen content fulfilling all requirements is determined as OPTIMUM BITUMEN CONTENT 252 .5cm.Marshall test (most common) Objective To determine an optimum binder content from a consideration of mix strength (stability). subjecting the sample to an internal shearing towards the stress free plane surfaces. Loading speed is 5cm/min. Resultant maximum load and the corresponding deformations are measured Asphalt sample deformability (flow) Required properties are 1) minimum stability of 225kg (2207N). mix density.25cm height specimen is placed between the crescent shaped testing heads of testing machine and the force is applied from the side surfaces. 3) air voids (3-5%) and 4) degree of saturation of aggregate voids with bitumen (75-85%). mix Cylindrical samples of 10cm diameter and 6.

Analysis of mix design data from the Marshall test In compacted bituminous mixture Unit weight Existing unit weight d= Air voids weight in air (weight in air) . unit weight Gm = Marshall stability Pbit δ bit +∑ i 100 ( Pagg ) i (δ agg ) i Air void content Flow V= 5 6 7 8 Gm − d x100 Gm Bitumen Content (%) 253 .(weight in water) Theoretical max.

95 gr weight in water = 61.Example Properties and mix proportions of materials used for a bituminous mixture are as follows Material Asphalt Crushed stone Density (δ) 1.04 kg/dm3 2.70 kg/dm3 Mix proportions (P) 10 % by wt 90 % by wt Following data are obtained from a lab.16 gr 254 . specimen made using this mix: weight in air = 111.

Calculate unit weight of the lab. specimen This mix is placed on the road and consolidated under a roller. indicate if this bituminous pavement is acceptable? 255 . specimen Calculate the theoretical maximum unit wt. The specified degree of compaction for this pavement being at least 95% of the compaction of a laboratory specimen. of this core sample is determined to be 2. After consolidation a core sample is taken and the unit wt. of the mix Calculate volume percentage of voids in the lab.13kg/dm3.

Solution: a) d= b) Gm = c) v = d) specified unit weight = 256 .

Overall Outline • • • • • • • • Introduction Concrete Bituminous materials Masonry Polymers and polymer composites Cement-based fiber composites Metals Timber 257 .

stone structures such as Egyptian pyramids. Greek temples and many structures from fired clay bricks have survived for thousands of years The Romans used both fired clay bricks and hydraulic mortar 258 . One of the oldest building material Used by mankind for more than 6000 years Ancient civilizations of Middle East. Greeks and Romans used masonry Many of mudbrick work has been lost.Brickwork and Blockwork (Masonry) Masonry. However.

These are four main techniques for achieving stable masonry a) b) c) d) Dry stone walls: Irregularly shaped laminar pieces are placed by hand in an interlocking mass Ashlar: Medium to large blocks are made to a few sizes and assembled to a basic grid pattern either without or with mortar having very thin joints Normal brickwork: Small to medium units of different sizes are assembled to a basic grid pattern and mortar is used as a packing material Random rubble walls: Irregularly shaped and sized pieces are bonded together with adherent mortar 259 .

(a) (b) (c) (d) 260 .

Most common sands are based on silica (SiO2) Sand should be free of clay particles Mortar sand should have particles smaller than 5mm. sea beaches. Good range of particle size distribution is also needed (for good packing) Naturally occurring sands should be sieved and washed Very flaky and vary absorbent sand particles are not desired 261 .Materials Sand: particles with sizes from about 10mm diameter down to 75μm diameter obtained from riverbeds. older deposits from alluvial and glacial action.

sintered fly ash pellets. a finely divided dispersion of the plastic in water usually stabilized by a surfactant such as a synthetic detergent. expanded clay and foamed slag Binds mixtures of sands. They increase adhesion of mortar to all substrate. fillers to make Binders: mortar for masonry Organic plasticizers: For improving plasticity or workability of mortars. Solid content is ~ 50% of dispersion. They increase tensile strength and durability 262 . These plasticizers also entrain air as small bubbles Latex additives: Synthetic copolymer plastics may be produced in the form of a “latex”.Aggregates: Natural aggregates. aggregates.

all the voids of the aggregate must be filled with the paste of the cementing material and all the sand particles must be surrounded by a film of this paste. Existence of smaller particles in the sand is advantageous because. they fill the voids between larger particles and reduce the need for cementing material If the water content of the paste is high. It must have a good grading in size range of 0 . The composition of the mortar is chosen in such a way to obtain a good workability. if the cementing material is in excessive. There are three types depending on type of binder: 1) Cement mortar 2) Mixed mortar 3) Lime mortar The sand to be used in mortar must be free of mud. For this purpose. then the strength of the mortar will be lowered. clay. the mortar is said to be too rich. sand and water. certain mortar compositions have been accepted as a result of many years of experience. Taking all these factors into account.4mm. 263 .Mortar Mortars are composed of cementing material. and it tends to crack due to shrinkage. organic matter.

5 The last column shows the expected minimum compressive strength of the mortar at the age of 28 days 264 .Types and Mix Proportions of Masonry Mortars (TS 2848) Volume Proportions of Mix Type No 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 1 2 3 - Class of Mortar Type of Mortar Cement Cement Mixed Mixed Mixed Mixed Cement Mixed Mixed Mixed Mixed Lime Sand 3 4 4 4 4 7-9 5 5 6-8 6-8 2-3 3 Cement 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 - Masonry Lime cement putty ½ 2 1 1 2 1 Minimum compressive Powder strength Lime (MPa) ½ 1 3 15 15 A B C D E 5 2 0.

being crystalline. Magnetic and volcanic origin stones. limestone. Metamorphic rocks are those who experienced a change in their structure. rhyolite. breccia. Examples are: granite. give good quality materials. basalt. volcanic. feldspar and other nondurable minerals contained in these rocks Natural stones.Rocks from magnetic. Good quality stones are gneiss. care should be taken for mica. sedimentary or metamorphic origin make up the natural building units for masonry. Examples are: conglomerate. Sedimentary rocks are not crystalline but layered. trechite. However. chert. However. diorite. slate and shale are of poor quality. 265 241 . etc. quartzite and marble. They may contain voids and fossils. shale. sandstone. andesite. Sandstones and limestones make good stones for masonry.

0.75 55 .2 – 2.56 2.6 0.0 0.4 266 .65 2.Properties of Natural Stones Type of Stone Basalt Granite Andesite.97 Unit wt.102 32 .5 – 2. Str. (kg/dm3) 3.5 – 2.35 2.2 0.4 – 2. Diorite Dense limestone Travertene Comp.145 55 .60 Water absorption (%) by wt.0 0.70 2. (MPa) 90 .165 75 .

Most important properties of bricks are compressive strength. size tolerances and unit weight. extrusion or casting followed by drying and firing (burning) to a temperature usually in the range of 850-1300ºC During firing process complex chemical changes occur and clay particles are bonded together by sintering (transfer of ions between particles at points where they touch) or by partial melting to a glass.Fired Clay Bricks Bricks are made by forming the unit from moist clay by pressing. A low unit weight is desired to reduce the dead load and to provide heat and sound insulation 267 .

90 ± 3 190 ± 3 or 190 .5 6.Requirements for Factory made Bricks (TS 705) Definitions Normal brick (NT) Modular brick (MT) Brick block (BT) Type of Brick Dimension (mm) 190x190x50 190x90x85 Tolerances for dimensions (mm) 50 ± 2 85 ± 3.80 kcal mh C 0.20 1.80 1.5 3 2 25 25 λ Unit wt (max) (kg/dm3) 1. Mean (MPa) 20 12 8 15 10 6 3.4) Solid clinker brick (DOK/30) Clinker brick with holes (DEK/30) - 0.75 8 268 .34 0.6) Brick with horizontal holes (YDT/2.5 12 8 4.6 2.32 0.80 1.20 1.80 1.8 0.80 1.50 1.2 Comp.4 30 30 Min (MPa) 16 9.75 Absorption max (%) Solid Brick (DOT/20) Solid Brick (DOT/12) Solid Brick (DOT/8) Brick with vertical holes (DDT/15) Brick with vertical holes (DDT/10) Brick with vertical holes (DDT/6) Brick with horizontal holes (YDT/3. Str.20 0.

It is a labor demanding and slow process Concrete is filled into a mould (die) and a dynamic presshead compacts the concrete into the die. 7. TS 406 classifies them into strength levels of 2. Maximum unit weight is not to exceed 1.Concrete Units Used in building partition in houses since 1920s Concrete unit is poured into a mould and vibrated and demoulded after setting. 5. 10 and 15 MPa.60 kg/dm3 269 . 150x200x400 (mm) They contain usually two large vertical holes. Then.5. green concrete is ejected on to a conveyer system and taken away to cure either in air or after in stream Thus solid and hollow bricks and blocks are produced either in dense concrete or as a porous open structure by using gap-graded aggregates and not compacting fully Block sizes are 200x200x40 (mm).5.

While high absorption units need a sloppy wet mortar Walls and columns are built by laying out a plan at foundation level and masonry rises up layer by layer The foundation layers are horizontal It is essential to maintain the verticality Thickness of mortar joints must be kept constant Joint color and shape influence the appearance 270 .Masonry construction Basic method of construction. units are laid one on top of another in such a way that they form an interlocking mass in at least the two horizontal dimensions Mortar needs to be firmly dry for dense low absorption units.

shuttered then filled with concrete to bond in the reinforcement (a) (b) (a)Bed joint reinforced (b)Reinforced pocket walls 271 .Reinforced and post-stressed masonry forms Reinforced pocket wall Pockets formed as built.

Ties at 5/m2 Bars either bonded in with mortar as the brickwork is rasied or grouted in with concrete in lifts Vertical or horizontal or both rebar reinforcement Concrete grouted cavity Width = 2 x cover +bar (c) (d) (c) Grouted cavity (d)Quetta bond 272 .

Bond patterns Bond (interlocking) between units is achieved as Stretcher bond or half bond Third quarter bond Soldier course Stretcher or half bond Soldier course Quarter bond Half brick bonds 273 .

Typical block/brick cavity wall 274 .

Flat shear ties at 5/m2 Collar-jointed brick wall Mortar filled collar joint < 25 mm 275 .

Bonded wall types Header a) English Closer Stretcher b) Flemish garden wall c) Heading d) Rat-trap 276 .

A factor of safety is applied to allow for statistical uncertainty in the material characteristics and loads. reinforced masonry is good also at resisting tension forces Any masonry under compressive stress also resists bending since the compressive prestress in the wall must be overcome before any tensile strain can occur Most of small masonry structures are still designed using experiencebased design rules. moderate to bad at resisting shear forces very poor when subjected to direct tension However. Strength of masonry elements are predicted from strength and/or other characteristics of materials used in masonry construction Then check is made against worst loading conditions obtained from past data.Structural behavior Unreinforced masonry is. Relatively high (3-5) safety factors are used due to high variability and brittle failure mode 277 . good at resisting compression forces.

Forces on walls Compressive Tensile Lateral (flexural) Shear (in plane) Shear (normal) 278 .

due to wind load Restoring force Generated by mass acting at centre of gravity Generated by tension stresses in the bed joints Crack Gravity mechanism Flexural resistance 279 .Mechanisms for resisting bending forces in masonry cantilevers Disturbing force e.g.

it would logically spread or toward from the point of application in a stretcher bonded wall since each unit is supported by the two units below it. Such a compressive force causes elastic shortening (strain) of the masonry. As a result of Poisson’s ratio effects. 280 .Compressive loading Masonry is most effective under compressive load If a load or force is put on a wall at a point. a tension strain and hence a stress is generated normal to the applied stress.

if ratio of height to thickness (h/d = slenderness ratio) is small. Other factors that affect the strength of masonry are • Degree of workmanship • Thickness of joints • Type of arrangement of bricks 10 190 90 90 10 190 1 1 brick length column 2 281 . then the strength will depend largely on the strength of the constituent materials.Stability: slender structures For masonry wall and columns.

5 for poor workmanship 282 .Some empirical formulas for masonry design for h/d ≤ 10 Brocker formula σ max = 3 σ mortar 2 σ unit Graf formula σ max σ mortar ⎛ σ unit ⎜ 4 + 10 ⎝ = h 16 + 3( ) d ⎞ ⎟ ⎠ +e σ : in kgf/cm2 e : + 10 for good workmanship 0 for medium workmanship .

0 Comp.7 0.0 3.2 1.2 3.6 2.2 3.4 0.6 1.2 3.2 1.6 1.0 0.0 1.5 0. Slender walls with h/d > 20 are not permitted for masonry.4 0.0 1.2 0.5-10 15 25 0.2 1.7 0.0 1.4 0.2 3.4 0.5 0.6 2.3 0.0 0.2 1. 283 .6 0.9 1. strength of stone (MPa) 20 30 50 80 0.3 0.0 4.8 1.2 0.6 2.0 Brick Walls Lime Mixed Cement Allowable stresses in this table are acceptable for h/d ≤ 10.0 35 _ 2.6 2.6 0.0 1.6 0.6 0.2 120 0.0 1.5 0.5 5 7.6 2. If 10 < h/d ≤ 20.7 0.2 0.2 1.0 0.9 1.6 2.6 0.6 0.2 0.2 1. strength of bricks (MPa) 2.5 0.6 1.0 4.3 0.3 0.3 0.2 1.8 1.0 5.9 1.8 1.2 1.7 0.0 1.6 1.8 0.9 1.6 2. reduced allowable stresses for slender walls should be used (Table b).Allowable Stresses for Masonry (DIN 1053) Type of wall Walls with irregularly shaped natural stones Walls with natural Stones with horizontal joints Walls with stones with more than 3-plane faces Walls with matural stone blocks Type of mortar Lime Mixed Cement Lime Mixed Cement Lime Mixed Cement Lime Mixed Cement Comp.2 0.Table a .2 1.

0 0.4 1.3 0.4 0.0 0. in N/mm2 h/d 12 14 16 18 20 0.0 Linear interpolation for intermediate values permitted Allowable stresses for slender walls h/d > 10 284 .0 4.5 0.Reduced allowable stresses for slender masonry.6 0.9 1.7 0.4 1.5 0.0 3.5 0.2 0.8 1.3 0.6 0.0 1.4 0.3 0.2 1.7 0.4 0.0 1.3 0.2 1.6 0.6 0.6 2.3 0.8 0.5 0.3 0.0 3.0 2.4 1.0 2.4 0.7 0.3 Allowable stress of unslender wall (MPa) 0.7 5.3 0.6 0.7 0.8 1.Table b .3 3.5 4.0 0.2 1.0 2.1 1.4 0.5 0.4 0.

07 0.01 0.0.02 Irreversible moisture movement (%) .03 – 0.02 – 0.06 .0.12 8 .0.1 .01 – 0.05 – 0.06 0.09 .04 0.12 8 8 – 14 5-8 Reversible moisture movement (%) 0.10 Modulus of elasticity E (N/mm2) 20 – 60 10 – 80 35 3 – 80 10 – 35 20 – 35 10 – 25 4 – 16 3–8 14 – 18 4 .02 – 0.05 0.02 – 0.06 0.03 0.26 285 .01 – 0.10 3-4 4-6 7 – 12 9 – 11 10 – 13 6 .02 – 0.06 .0.0.02 – 0.Movements and elastic moduli of masonry materials Masonry component material Granite Limestone Marble Sandstone Slate Mortar Dense concrete brick/blockwork LWAC blockwork AAC blockwork Calcil brickwork Clay brickwork Thermal expansion coefficient α (per ºC x 10-6) 8 .04 0.04 – 0.02 – 0.

3 × 10 6 N / m 2 × (0. Determine the maximum load that could be permitted on a 1m length of this wall.9 MPa (for σbrick = 7.Example.9 MPa for unslender wall and h/d=16) Mixed load on 1m length of wall h 304 = = 16 > 10 d 19 Pmax = σ all ⋅ A = 0.3 MPa (for σall = 0.04 m height will be built of solid bricks DOT/12 according to TS705 and mixed mortar C-3 according to TS2348. Slenderness ratio = from Table a σall= 0. Solution.5 – 10 for mixed mortar) from Table b σall= 0. A masonry wall of 190 mm thickness (1 brick length) and 3.19 × 1m 2 ) = 57 kN / m 286 .

Overall Outline • • • • • • • • Introduction Concrete Bituminous materials Masonry Polymers and polymer composites Cement-based fiber composites Metals Timber 287 .

They can be either thermoplastic or thermosetting. 288 . Gas is released and causes polymer to expand. produced by adding a blowing agent to molten resin. the material tends to become more brittle 2) Thermosetting polymers Epoxies and phenolics are principle examples cross linking exists between chains 3) Foamed polymers Two-phase system of gas dispersed in solid polymer. However. 4) Elastomers Long-chain polymer molecules made of coiled and twisted chains. Flexible material that undergoes very large deformations.Polymers and polymer composites Polymeric materials produced by combining a large number of small molecular units (monomers) by polymerization to form long chain molecules 1) Thermoplastic polymers Long chain molecules held together by weak Van der Waals forces cycle of softening by heating and hardening by cooling can be repeated almost indefinitely. Small gas cells increase the volume of resin many times. with each cycle. Volcanization provides rigidity and hardness.

1) Glass fibers Manufactured by drawing molten glass from an electric furnace through platinum bushings at high speed. boron fibers are examples of amorphous and crystalline fibers used in polymeric matrices. highmodulus material. Molten glass Platinum bushing 204 filaments Sizing process Winding 289 Strands . Filaments cool from liquid state at about 1200ºC to room temperature in 10-5 seconds. carbon.Fibers for polymer composites Load transfer from matrix to fibers results in high-strength. Glass.

A-glass of high alkali content (previously used in aircraft industry) .S2-glass fiber used for extra high strength and high modulus applications in aerospace 290 .Z-glass developed for reinforcing cement-based materials because of its high resistance to alkali attack .Four types of glass are used for fibers .E-glass of low alkali content (most used one in composites in construction industry) .

Kevlar) Most successful commercial organic fiber developed by DuPont Comp.2) Carbon fibers Previously produced from pitch obtained by destructive distillation of coal Synthetic fiber polyacrylonitrile is spun and concurrently stretched so that molecular chains are aligned parallel to the fiber axis. Higher stiffness is obtained through greater heat energy given to carbon filament 3) Aramid fibers (Tradename . Carbonization starts when polymer is heated in inert atmosphere. Fiber is then heated under tension to 250ºC in oxygen environment where it gains strength. Poly-parabenzamide fibers E=130GPa 2 forms of Kevlar fiber Kevlar 29: high strength and intermediate modulus Kevlar 49: high modulus and same strength as Kevlar 29 (preferred for high-performance composite materials) 291 .

Curing process determines the length of cross-linked chains.Mechanical properties Polymer properties Mechanical properties are highly dependent on network of molecular units and on the lengths of cross-link chains. Composites are heat cured to maximize mechanical properties Mechanical properties of thermoplastics arise from properties of monomer units and high molecular weight 292 .

96 Ultimate tensile strength (GPa) 45 – 90 90 – 110 45 – 59 58.0 17 – 62 48 – 83 30 .3 2.28 1.0 – 7.15 0.Mechanical properties of common thermosetting and thermoplastic polymers Specific weight Thermosetting Polyester Epoxy Phenolic Thermoplastics Polyvinylchloride (PVC) Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) Nylon Polyethylene (highdensity) 1. GPa 2.03 – 2.82 1.30 1.35 .0 5.5 – 8.4 – 2.35 Modulus of elasticity in tension.8 0.69 – 2.0 3.1.37 1.10 – 1.5 – 4.30 Coefficient of linear expansion 10-6/ºC 100 – 110 45 – 65 30 – 45 50 60 – 130 80 – 150 120 293 .05 1.13 – 1.75 1.76 1.

75 1.21 2.55 2.0 64 127 294 .4 88.Fiber properties Composite materials have high specific strength and high specific stiffness achieved by the use of low-density fibers with high strength and modulus values Specific weight Carbon fiber Type I Type II Type III E – Glass S2 – Glass fiber Kevlar fibers 29 49 1. (GPa) 345 241 200 72.00 2.40 4.70 2.65 Modulus of elasticity in tension.65 2.47 1.41 2.45 Ultimate tensile strength (GPa) 2.6 2.92 1.44 1.

Polymer composites Mechanical properties of polymers can be greatly enhanced by incorporating fillers and/or fibers into resin formulations For structural applications. such composites should 1) Consist of two or more phases 2) Be manufactured by combining separate phases such that dispersion of one material in the other achieves optimum properties of the resulting material 3) Have enhanced properties composed with those of individual components 295 .

high-modulus composite. primary phase (the fiber) uses plastic flow of secondary phase (the polymer) to transfer load to fiber. Fibers are usually brittle. Interface between fiber and matrix plays a major role in physical and mechanical properties of composite material Load is transferred from fiber to fiber through the interface and the matrix 296 .In fiber-reinforced polymer materials. High strength and high modulus properties of fibers are associated with very fine fibers with diameters of 7-15μm. This results in a high-strength. Polymers may be ductile or brittle and generally have low strength and stiffness By combining two components a bulk material is produced with a strength and stiffness dependent on fiber volume fraction and fiber orientation.

Assumptions made for the analysis of composite materials The matrix and the fiber behave as elastic materials Bond between fiber and matrix is perfect and consequently there will be no strain discontinuity across the interface Material adjacent to fiber has the same properties as the material in bulk form Fibers are arranged in a regular or repeating array Properties of interface region are very important for fracture toughness of the material Weak interface → low strength and stiffness → high resistance to fracture (ductile) Strong interface → high strength and stiffness → low fracture toughness (very brittle) 297 .

Elastic properties of continuous unidirectional laminae 3 E22. σ22 2 E11. σ11 1 Basic laminate 298 .

1) Longitudinal stiffness The orthotropic layer has three mutually perpendicular plane of property symmetry. obtained from E11 ν21 = E22 ν12 If line of action of a tensile or compressive force is applied parallel to fibers of a unidirectional lamina.e. characterized elastically by four independent elastic constants. strains produced in direction 2 when specimen is loaded in direction 1. G12= longitudinal shear modulus ν21 = Poisson’s ratio. εm = εf provided bond is perfect As both fiber and matrix behave elastically then σf = Ef εf and σm = Em εm where εf = εm 299 . E11= modulus of elasticity along fiber direction E22= modulus of elasticity in the transverse direction ν12 = Poisson’s ratio i. i.e.

As Ef > Em. stress in fiber must be greater than stress in matrix Thus fibers carry major part of applied load Composite load Pc = Pm + Pf σc Ac = σm Am + σf Af 3 σ c = σ m V m + σ f Vf where A = area of the phase V = volume fraction of the phase 2 Vc = volume of composite = 1 for perfect bond σ11 1 εc = εm = εf From above equation Ec εc = Em εc Vm = Ef εc Vf Ec = Em Vm = Ef Vf Ec = E11 = Em (1-Vf) + EfVf (law of mixtures) 300 .

3 σf = σm εf = σ22/Ef and εm = σ22/Em ε22 = Vf εf + Vm εm or ε22 = Vf σ22/Ef + Vm σ22/Em (substitute σ22= E22ε22) E22 = Ef Em / [ Ef (1-Vf) + EmVf ] 1 to take into account of Poisson contraction effects σ22 2 E22 = Em`Ef / [ Ef (1-Vf) + Em`Vf ] where Em`= Em / (1-νm2) 301 . therefore.2) Transverse stiffness Applied load transverse to fibers acts equally on fiber and matrix.

Elastic properties of short-fiber composite materials As aspect ratio (l/d) decreases. effect of fiber length becomes more significant When a composite containing uniaxially aligned discontinuous fibers is stressed in tension parallel to the fiber direction there is a portion at the end of each finite fiber length and in surrounding matrix where stress and strain fields are modified by discontinuity Efficiency of the fiber to stiffen and to reinforce the matrix decreases as the fiber length decreases 302 .

Diagrammatic representation of the deformation field around a discontinuous fiber embedded in a matrix Uniform load Resin Fiber Uniform load Deformation of matrix σf.max Shear stress at interface Tensile stress in fiber lc/2 lc/2 The critical transfer length over which fiber stress is decreased from maximum to zero at the end of fiber is referred to as half the critical length of fiber 303 .

To achieve the maximum fiber stress, fiber length must be equal to or greater than the critical value lc

Reinforcing efficiency of short fibers is less than that for long fibers. Orientation of short fibers in a lamina is random and therefore lamina is assumed to be isotropic on a macro scale. Rule of mixture for long-parallel fiber case is modified by inclusion of a fiber orientation distribution factor n

Ec = E11 = ηEf Vf + Em Vm

η = 0.375 for a randomly oriented fiber array = 1.0 for unidirectional laminae when tested parallel to fiber = 0 for unidirectional laminae when tested perpendicular to fiber = 0.5 for a bidirectional fiber array


Failure of the fiber composite
σ σfu

σ σfu
) Vf (1

σf σcu σc σmu σ′m σm ε εfu

composite matrix

σmu σ′m ε

σ cu

d lle tro + n co Vf r σ fu be Fi =

σ′ m

σcu = controlle σmu (1 d -Vf )

mat rix

0 Vmin cr V


′ σ mu − σ m Vcr = ′ σ fu − σ m


′ σ mu − σ m = ′ σ fu + σ mu − σ m

- If failure is due to breaking of fibers (fiber controlled, Vf > Vmin, then σcu > σmu) σcu = σ′m Vm + σfu Vf = σ′m (1-Vf) + σfu Vf - If failure is due to matrix flow (matrix controlled, Vf << Vmin, then σcu < σmu) σcu = σmu (1-Vf)

when Vf < Vmin, fiber content in the composite is so small that fibers break before ultimate strength of matrix is reached; fibers act as if there are voids in place of them and in fact decrease strength of matrix by a factor equal to (1-Vf). when Vf > Vcr, fibers become effective in increasing the strength of composite above that of matrix. From practical point of view, there is no meaning to use a fiber ratio less than this critical value.

For discontinuous fibers
lc = rσ fu

τ my


σ fu lc = d 2τ my


l α= lc

for which tensile strength in the fiber will be reached at the same force as the yield strength of matrix on the interface If α > 1, then matrix will yield first before fiber breaks in tension


Average value of tensile stress in the fiber is found as

σ f = σ f (1 −

1− β



σf = η = fiber efficiency factor σf

where β is related to stress distribution on fiber. β= 0.5 for fully plastic stress distribution β = 1.0 for fully elastic distribution


Strength of composite for discontinuous parallel fibers

σ cu = σ fuV f (1 −

1− β


) + σ ' m (1 − V f )

for Vf > Vmin

If α > 5 and β = 0.5 then

σ cu


σ cu

≥ 0.9

If fibers are not too short, their discontinuity may be neglected


Properties of matrix and fiber materials for a glass fiber reinforced composite with continuous fibers of 30% volume fraction are as follows

Polymer matrix Glass fibers

E (GPa) 2 140

σfu (MPa) 200 2800

εu 0.10 (yield) 0.02

a) Determine the modulus of elasticity of the composite for tension parallel to fibers b) Assuming linear elastic behavior of fibers until failure and elastic-plastic behavior of matrix, determine ultimate tensile strength of composite c) What minimum fiber volume ratio should be used to obtain a reinforcing effect


Durability of polymer composites Polymer composites change with time and most significant factors are Elevated temperatures Fire Moisture Adverse chemical environments Natural weathering when exposed to sun’s ultra-violet radiation 311 .

calcium carbonate can improve mechanical properties. the composite becomes brittle. Difference in coefficients of thermal expansion of glass and resin may cause debonding. Exposed to high temperatures a discoloration of the resin may occur composite becoming yellow. Both polyster and epoxy show this effect. Fire A composite material must meet appropriate standards of fire performance Some mineral filler. Aluminum trihydrate and antimony trioxide are used as fillers to enable flame-retardant properties 312 . As a result of exposure to high temperatures.Temperature Fluctuating temperatures have a greater deterioration effect on GRP.

Water will also cause some surface flaws on fibers and reduce strength.Moisture Cross-linked polymers absorb water which may cause a decrease in strength and modulus of elasticity. Absorption of water by polyesters and epoxies leads to swelling of the laminate. long-term water absorption may cause weakening of the bond between fiber and polymer 313 .

Because weathering is a surface effect. UV absorbers and stabilizers are added to resin formulations. loss of light transmission occur. A rise of temperature accelerates chemical reaction and hence degradation. while 10mm laminate shows only ~ 3% reduction after 50 years exposure 314 . As a result of discoloration. 3mm thick laminate shows 12-20% reduction in flexural strength after 15 years exposure. Weathering can affect mechanical properties of GRP composites through surface debonding. Sunlight degrades both polyester and epoxy resins.Weather Natural weathering causes some deterioration of GRP composites. thickness of laminate becomes important.

bearing Unreinforced polymers Semi .load – bearing Load .bearing Fiber – reinforced polymers 315 . Non .load .Use of polymers and polymer composites Use of polymers and polymer composites in construction industry falls into three categories.

Selection of most appropriate resin should be done considering particular end use since every material does not possess all the following characteristics High light transmission Infinite texture possibilities Minimum maintenance requirements Infinite design possibilities Resistance to water and corrosion High specific strength High impact resistance 316 .

oil and gas 317 .Disadvantages of polymers in construction are High cost of materials. low density and reduced foundation size make them competitive Low stiffness and strength (use in composites) Poor scratch resistance Degradation under UV light (stabilizers used) Low resistance to fire and high temperatures (additives used) Non-load bearing thermoplastic polymers such as polyethylene have been used to manufacture pipes for transportation of water. However.

aramid or glass fiber in a polymer sheath of a low-density polyethylene or a resin. Fibers are the load-bearing elements in geotextiles and framing technique determines the structure and physical and mechanical characteristics of the system Manufactured in impermeable sheet form from thermoplastic polymers or bituminous materials either reinforced or unreinforced. Fiber provides strength and deformation characteristics and matrix protects fiber and provides bonding with the soil Geomembranes • Geo-linear elements • 318 . polyester and polyamide. polypropylene. Matrix can be reinforced by textiles. Long.Thermoplastic polymers known as geosynthetics are used in soil environment in five categories Geotextiles • Main fibers used in geotextiles are polyethylene. slender strips or bars consisting of a unidirectional filament fiber core made from a polyester.

They form a quasi-composite system in conjunction with soil grid structure in fiber and soil is assumed to be the matrıx • Two forms Geocomposites • Hybrid systems. They form a drainage passage along the water course with polymer core as drainage channel and geotextile skin as the filter – Cross-laid strips – Punched thermoplastic polymer sheets 319 .Geogrids • Grid-like structures of thermoplastic polymer material. Two or more different types of thermoplastic polymer systems.

Effective in replacing wood Truck and automobile systems Sports – car bodies and truck cabs Strength. However. toughness. The Westland helicopter rotor blades are made from carbon fiber composite material 320 . stiffness. corrosion resistance and highquality finish are physical and mechanical properties that must be satisfied. economy is the crucial consideration Aircraft and space applications Used for making components in aircraft industry The fin of European airbus is a component made from a sandwich construction with carbon fiber/epoxy resin face material.Marine applications Dominant materials for pleasure craft.

with either steel or reinforced concrete structural system and GRP composite as load-bearing infill panels In 1970.Pipes and tanks for chemicals Critical consideration is the corrosive resistance and ease of fabrication of complex shapes Applications have started with GRP structures A dome structure erected in 1968 in Benghazi. Covent Garden Flower Market etc. Libya Roof structure in Dubai Airport built in 1972 1970-1980 prestigious buildings in UK Civil engineering structures (Morpeth School. a classroom system.) These buildings are built as a composite system. In 1980’s more ambitious structural elements were produced 321 . by folding flat plates into a folded plate system so that stiffness is provided by the structural shape. Mondial House. using only GRP.

Mondial house (clad with FRP panels) FRP radar dome (25m diameter. factory made FRP sandwich panels are bolted together on site) FRP modular classroom 322 .

55 1.7 0.5 5-15 3-5 3-7 2-4 5-10 0.86 Diameter thickness ratio (microns) 300-5000 Length E (mm) (GPa) 10-30 20-40 164 Tens.0 1.96 0. (MPa) 1-10 1-4 200-1800 600-2700 600-2500 200 > 400 700-1500 700-2000 Failure strain (%) 0.4 2.3-2.5 900 20-50 20-100 3-8 100-600 5-40 3-cont.01-0.2 2-3 0.6 >4 3-5 Volume in composite (%) 85-97 97-99.96 0.95 2. Str.0 10000-20000 0.8-2.02-30 7-18 12. 5-20 2-6 10-60 70 5 10-30 4 12-40 200 Performance is controlled by vol.4 3. 30-390 10-50 3-5 Cont.16-1.02 2-3 0.01-0.91 1-3 7.5-2.05 0.8-2.1-0. fraction of fibers properties of fibers and matrix bond between the two 323 .MATERİAL Mortar matrix Concrete matrix Asbestos Carbon Glass Polyethylene HDPE filament High modulus Polypropylene (Monofilament) Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) Steel Relative density 1.

or limestone dust) should be used 324 . Hence matrix cracks before fiber strength is approached Most organic fibers have modulus of elasticity less than five times that of the matrix. To avoid shrinkage.Table shows that elongations at break of all fibers are two or three orders of magnitude greater than strain at failure of matrix. woven meshes or networks of fibers are necessary for efficient composites. at least 50% by volume of inert filler (aggregate. Large Poisson’s ratio of these fibers may cause debonding and pull-out. fly ash. Steel fibers of varying cross-sections or bond ends provide anchorage. Dmax > 20mm is never allowed. Low modulus fibers are used in situations where matrix is expected to be uncracked. glass fiber bundles may be penetrated with cement hydration products to give effective bonding Dmax of mortars or concrete affect efficient fiber distribution Concrete with a Dmax = 10mm is preferred.

directly in contact with fiber b) Massive Ca(OH)2 layer c) Porous zone (up to 40 microns) consisting of CSH and some ettringite 325 . a) Very thin (less than one micron) Ca(OH)2 rich rather discontinuous.Structure of fiber-matrix interface Properties of fiber reinforced cementitious materials depends on microstructure of interface Interface is initially water-filled zone which develops to a microstructure different than bulk matrix There are 3 layers in interface.

Limited volume fraction of low modulus fibers do not contribute to the modulus of elasticity of the composite 326 .Structure and post-cracking composite theory In hardened cement-based composites. fibers bridging the cracks contribute to the increase in strength. failure strain and toughness.

=σ σ cu σfu σcu σ ′f fiber σcu σfu σfuVf composite fu f V σ cu = σm (1u f Fiber controlled σcu ′ Vf + σf V) cracked) ed) σcu = σ′f Vf rack (unc σmu σ′ fVf σmu σ′f = σmu σ′f < σmu matrix 0 εmu εfu ε 0 Vmin Vcr Vf 1.0 Vf σmu (1 – Vf) + σ′f Vf 327 .

Modulus of elasticity of the composite 1) Where the matrix and fibers behave elastically Ec = Ef Vf + Em (1-Vf) 2) After the point where the matrix starts cracking ⎛ dσ f Ec = ⎜ ⎜ dε ⎝ f ⎞ ⎟.V f ⎟ ⎠ 328 .

This occurs under the condition that Vf < Vcr σcu = σmu (1-Vf) + σ’f Vf (uncracked) σcu = σ’f Vf (cracked) σ’f = stress in the fiber when matrix cracks (ε = εmu) 2) Matrix fails and later composite carries stress at an increased level.Ultimate tensile strength 1) Matrix fails and later composite carries stress at a decreased level. σcu = σfu Vf Then the critical volume fraction for fibers is found as Vcr = σ fu σ mu + σ mu − σ ' f 329 . This occurs under the condition that Vf > Vcr. This mode of failure is called “fiber controlled” failure. This mode of failure is called a “matrix controlled” failure.

there is a fiber volume ratio that determines the strengthening effect of fibers in the composite Vmin σ mu = σ fu It is observed that Vcr is a function of σ’f If σ’f = σmu. then Vcr = Vmin If σ’f < σmu. then Vcr < Vmin 330 .On the other hand.

r = radius of fiber υ = Poisson’s ratio of fiber c = cohesion φ = Angle of fraction between matrix and fiber n = normal pressure exerted on the surface of fiber due to shrinkage of matrix 331 . fibers will break rather than pull-out ⎛ σ fuν tan φ ⎞ r Lcr = ln⎜ ⎜ c − n tan φ ⎟ ⎟ υ tan φ ⎝ ⎠ where. that is.When discontinuous fibers are used there is a critical length for fibers so that critical bond shear stress along the fiber-matrix interface does not lead to bond failure.

Determination of critical length of discontinuous fibers is done through experimentation When discontinuous fibers of short length are used (L < Lcr) Then we may have a third mode of failure which is due to reaching the bond strength at the fiber-matrix interface. In this case the strength of the composite is determined not by fiber strength but the adhesion between the fiber and matrix 332 .

plot stress-strain diagram of composite in part b) For a continuous use of above fibers.2 MPa. Assuming constant bond shear stress distribution along the interface. calculate critical fiber length If discontinuous parallel fibers of 40mm length are used and a composite tensile strength of 11MPa is required. what fiber volume ratio will be necessary? In this case what will be the failure mode? If the moduli of elasticity of concrete and fibers are 20GPa and 50GPa. and for the purpose of obtaining a reinforcing effect of the fibers for any volume ratio. Calculate critical fiber ratio for value of Ef in c 333 . Fiber tensile strength is 80 MPa and fiber-matrix bond strength is 0.25mm.Example It is planned to reinforce a concrete matrix of tensile strength σmu = 8 MPa with polymer fibers to increase its tensile strength. Fiber diameter is 0. respectively. what should be the lower limit of fiber modulus of elasticity.

Overall Outline • • • • • • • • Introduction Concrete Bituminous materials Masonry Polymers and polymer composites Cement-based fiber composites Metals Timber 334 .

5 %) Structural steel (C ≈ 0.7 %) Steel (C < 1.Metals. their differences and uses Metals in Civil Engineering Ferrous (iron + carbon) Non-ferrous Cast iron (C > 1.25 %) Aluminium Copper 335 .

008 % carbon are classed as irons.3 % ≤ C ≤ 0. Amount of carbon within the lattice determines the properties of the steel.6 % ⇒ medium carbon steel.1) Cast irons Major consumption in pipes and fittings In civil engineering for tunnel segments and mine shaft tubing Carbon content is greater than 2 %. 2) Steel Steel is obtained through carbon reducing operations.25 % ⇒ mild steel. Carbon steel is an alloy of iron and carbon.0 % C ≤ 0. Hard and brittle. Steel has a carbon content less than 2. low carbon steel (structural steel is in this category) 0. carbon steel C > 0. Mn and S are added to steel during production If elements other than Mn and Si are added ⇒ alloy steels If elements like Cr and Ni are added ⇒ stainless steels 336 .6 % ⇒ high carbon steel Normally. Alloys containing less than 0.

1 Structural steel Four grades of structural steels Grade Min. no use in structural engineering 337 . For higher grades care is needed in welding 2.(MPa) 40 400 43 430 50 500 55 550 All structural steels are readily weldable.2 Heat treated steels Properties of steel (C > 0.st.3 %) can be varied by heat treatment Heating to high temperature Fast cooling by quenching in oil or water Followed by reheating to about 650ºC (tempering) Fast cooling produces ⇒ hard.2. brittle microstructure (known as martensite) Used only for cutting tools.ten.

Austenitic: 18% Cr and 8% Ni.2. Chromium produces a stable passive oxide film. weldable 338 . unweldable 2. low carbon. hard. Ferritic: 13% Cr.3 Stainless steels Ferrow alloys: containing at least 12% Cr and some Ni and Mo. Three basic types (grouped according to metallurgical structure): 1. low carbon. low carbon. unweldable 3. Martensitic: 13% Cr. most resistant to pitting type of corrosion. used for cutlery.

specific moduli (E/ρ) is comparable (E/ρ)al = 20. Such as roofs. window and door furniture. footbridges and long span structures High durability of aluminium makes it usable in polluted and coastal areas High cost limits its use High initial cost maybe offset by reduced maintenance Structural sections are produced by extrusion Eal = 70GPa & Est = 210 GPa ⇒ Aluminium deflects more under same load However. (E/ρ)st = 29 339 . Aluminium and alloys Used both structurally and decoratively in cladding. roofing. Lightness of aluminium is an advantage in structures with high selfweight / live load. window frames.3.

heating. copper – zinc alloys ⇒ enhanced strength and corrosion resistance 4.4. Copper and alloys Used in applications where high thermal and electrical conductivity needed such as domestic water services.1 Brasses. sanitation 4.2 Bronzes. copper – tin alloys ⇒ high corrosion resistance 340 .

x is a unit of length 341 .Design for minimum weight To find what is the least amount of material needed to carry design loads P Consider a cantilever beam of length L End deflection is PL3 δ= 3EI P = Applied load L = length of beam E = modulus of elasticity I = second moment of area PL3 δ= 3Ex 4 .

W is minimized by minimizing ρ E1/ 2 342 .weight is W = ρAL = ρLx2 A = area of the cross-section ρ = density of the material of which the beam is made W2 x = 2 2 ρ L 4 ⎛ PL W =⎜ ⎜ 3δ ⎝ 5 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 1/ 2 ρ E 1/ 2 for a given set of design condition (P. δ). L.

Materials in decreasing order of efficiency in bending Timber Aluminium GFRP Titanium Steel Concrete Copper 4. racing cars.25 12. golf clubs.55 10. squash rackets. sailing dinghies.86 17.0 11. small-scale building.82 25. tables and chairs) 343 .60 Timber is oustanding Then comes Al and GFRP These compete in applications where weight is costly (aircraft.17 21.

Overall Outline • • • • • • • • Introduction Concrete Bituminous materials Masonry Polymers and polymer composites Cement-based fiber composites Metals Timber 344 .

60 % cellulose (C6H10O5)n 28 % lignine (C41H36O6) 12 % pectine (C6H8O6)n & some others 345 . Today it has been largely superseded by concrete and steel. However. Wood – A Nature Made Composite Wood contains. the use of timber remains extensive.TIMBER Timber has been one of the basic materials of construction since the earliest days of human kind.

differences in internal structure result in differences of properties.398 – 0. Even though chemical composition is the same.720 kg/dm3 and flexural strengths between 65 – 110 MPa. ash etc. that look like a group of thin pipes. cedar and cypress 2) Hardwoods with diffused vessels or pores like maple.Internal structure of wood is made up of groups of long and slender cells. fir. The walls of the cells are made up of “ligno-cellulose” and they are bonded to each other with “pecto-cellulose”. called “grain”. the trees may be separated into three groups. poplar 3) Hardwoods with ring-porous structure like oak. 346 . 1) Softwoods without any vessels or pores for the sap like pine. Unit weights vary between 0. spruce. The length of the cells is between 1-6 mm and their diameter is about 1/100 of their length Depending on internal structure. beech.

431 0.515 0.436 0. (MPa) (MPa) 41 69 36 71 31 69 38 65 45 77 48 110 38 73 55 94 53 105 Even though chemical composition is the same.523 0.690 0. 347 . Mechanical properties of trees in Turkey in air-dried condition and parallel to grains Type of tree Poplar (kavak) Fir (köknar) Spruce (ladin) Yellow pine (sarıçam) Cedar (sedir) Black pine (karaçam) Red pine (kızılçam) Oak (meşe) Beech (kayın) Unit weight (kg/dm3) 0. str.398 0. differences in internal structure result in differences of properties.577 0.720 Compressive Flexural str.Table 1.568 0.

fiberboard. are manufactured and used to a great extend 348 . Wood has to be protected by coatings and poisonous preservatives Its anisotropical nature and the limitations of size make its use difficult.Properties of timber change with . wood is affected by the moisture in the atmosphere.direction . etc. by the ultraviolet rays of sun and deteriorated by parasites such as fungus or worms. To correct those deficiencies.moisture content Largest properties are obtained in the direction parallel to grain and in dry condition which is the condition in which wood is usually utilized Being an organic material. artificial wood products like plywood.

100 (MPa) 90 80 70 Composite strength – moisture relation for soft .woods with unit wt = 0.420 kg/dm3 60 50 40 30 20 10 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 w (%) 349 . Str.Comp.

0 2.5 GPa ⊥ 0.0 11.0 1st class Pine Oak 10.0 2nd class Pine Oak 8.0 8.5 10.0 Strength (MPa) Tensile // Compressive // Compressive ⊥ Modulus of elasticity Pine: // 10 GPa ⊥ 0.0 3.5 11.0 2.0 3.5 10.6 GPa 350 .0 12.0 2.3 GPa Oak: // 12.Timber specification (TS 647) Allowable stresses 3rd class Pine Oak 6.0 7.0 3.

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