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INTERNATIONAL of Mechanical OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING AND International Journal JOURNAL Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print),

, ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, Sep- Dec (2012) IAEME TECHNOLOGY (IJMET)
ISSN 0976 6340 (Print) ISSN 0976 6359 (Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, Septmebr - December (2012), pp. 44-56 IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijmet.html Journal Impact Factor (2012): 3.8071 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com

IJMET
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ACTIVE INSTABILITY CONTROL IN DUCTED AXIAL FAN USING C PROGRMMING


Manikandapirapu P.K.1 Srinivasa G.R.2 Sudhakar K.G.3 Madhu D. 4
1 2

Ph.D Candidate, Mechanical Department, Dayananda Sagar College of Engineering, Bangalore. Professor and Principal Investigator, Dayananda Sagar College of Engineering, Bangalore. 3 Professor, Mechanical Department, K L University, Vijayawada, AndraPradesh. 4 Professor and Head, Mechanical Department, Government Engg. College, KRPET-571426.

ABSTRACT Performance of axial fan is found to reduce drastically when instability is encountered during its operation. Performance of an axial fan is severely impaired by many factors mostly related to system instabilities due to rotating stall and surge phenomenon experienced during its operation. The present work involves developing the active instability control in ducted axial fan from stall region to jump the unstall region in 10 seconds automatically by using c programming. Objective of the experiment is to develop the algorithm and simulate the code from stall region flow parameters to stable region flow parameter by using C Graphics and Programming through active control. Keywords: C Graphics, Flow Chart, Stall Region, Stable Region, Active Control, Pressure Measurements, Throttle position, Rotor speed. 1.0 INTRODUCTION Mining fans and cooling tower fans normally employ axial blades and or required to work under adverse environmental conditions. They have to operate in a narrow band of speed and throttle positions in order to give best performance in terms of pressure rise, high efficiency and also stable condition. Since the range in which the fan has to operate under stable condition is very narrow, clear knowledge has to be obtained about the whole range of operating conditions if the fan has to be operated using active adaptive control devices. The performance of axial fan can be graphically represented as shown in figure 1.

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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 ional 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, Sep Dec (2012) IAEME Sep-

Fig.1 Graphical representation of Axial Fan performance curve 2.0 TEST FACILITY AND INSTRUMENTATION Experimental setup, fabricated to create stall conditions and to introduce unstall conditions in an industrial ducted axial fan is as shown in figure 2 to figure 5.

Fig. 2 Ducted Axial Fan Rig

Fig. 3 Side View of Ducted Axial Fan Rig

A 2 HP Variable frequency 3 phase induction electrical drive is coupled to the electrical 3-phase motor to derive variable speed ranges. Schematic representation of ducted fan setup is d shown in figure 6.

Fig.4 Variable frequency Drive for speed control

Fig.5 Automatic Throttle controller

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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, Sep- Dec (2012) IAEME

Fig. 6 Ducted Axial Fan - Schematic The flow enters the test duct through a bell mouth entry of cubic profile. The bell mouth performs two functions: it provides a smooth undisturbed flow into the duct and also serves the purpose of metering the flow rate. The bell mouth is made of fiber reinforced polyester with a smooth internal finish. The motor is positioned inside a 381 mm diameter x 457 mm length of fan casing. The aspect (L/D) ratio of the casing is 1.2. The hub with blades, set at the required angle is mounted on the extended shaft of the electric motor. The fan hub is made of two identical halves. The surface of the hub is made spherical so that the blade root portion with the same contour could be seated perfectly on this, thus avoiding any gap between these two mating parts. An outlet duct identical in every way with that at inlet is used at the downstream of the fan. A flow throttle is placed at the exit, having sufficient movement to present an exit area greater than that of the duct. 3.0 ACTIVE INSTABILITY CONTROL ALGORITHM Stall phenomenon experienced in ducted axial fans which is experimented and analysed through simulation specifically with an aim to control the instability avoidance programming with the help of an algorithm developed for the purpose. The main objectives are to examine the stall signal characteristics as a function of variations in pressure rise, velocity, sound level, rotor speed and throttle position. The algorithm is also helpful in comprehending the following

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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, Sep- Dec (2012) IAEME

Examination of the stable signal associated with pressure rise, velocity, sound level, rotor speed and throttle position. Establishing the functional relationship between performance curve of pressure rise and throttle position as a function of speed. Examining the possibility of moving the stall region to unstall or stable region in 10 seconds that too automatically. The active control phenomenon can be graphically represented as shown in fig.7.

Fig.7 Graphical Representation of Active Control

3.1 ACTIVE INSTABILTY CONTROL PROGRAM FLOW CHART The program developed for the purpose is schematised with the help of a flow chart shown in fig.8.

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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 ional 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, Sep Dec (2012) IAEME Sep-

Fig.8 Flow Chart of the Algorithm 3.2 ACTIVE INSTABILITY CONTROL PROGRAMMING USING C The objective of the developed algorithm written in C Language is to extend the stable operating range of the axial fan based on an active control technique. #include <stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int Tp,Sp; printf("Enter the Tp in cm and Sp in Rpm"); tf("Enter scanf("%d \n %d ", &Tp,&Sp); n if(Tp==2&&Tp==3&&Tp==4) { if (Sp ==2400&&2700) { Tp=5; Sp=3000; printf("Tp is changed to %d and Sp is changed to %d",Tp,Sp);

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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, Sep- Dec (2012) IAEME

} elseif { Tp=5; printf("Tp is changed to %d",Tp); } } else if(Tp==5 && Tp ==6 && Tp==7) { if(Sp==2400 && 2700) { Sp=3000; printf("Sp is changed to %d",Sp); } else { Printf(" No Changes in Tp and Sp"); } } } 3.3 PROGRAM OUTPUT Case1 > Enter the Tp in cm and Sp in Rpm >3 >2700 >Tp is changed to 5and Sp is changed to 3000 Case2 > Enter the Tp in cm and Sp in Rpm >5 >3000 >No Changes to Tp and Sp Case3 > Enter the Tp in cm and Sp in Rpm >5 >2400 49

International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, Sep- Dec (2012) IAEME

> Sp is changed to 3000 Case4 > Enter the Tp in cm and Sp in Rpm >3 >3600 > Tp is changed to 3000 3.4 ACTIVE INSTABILITY CONTROL PROGRAMING USING C GRAPHICS #include <graphics.h> #include <stdlib.h> #include <stdio.h> #include <conio.h> #include <dos.h> #include<iostream.h> voiddrawXY(); voiddraw_line(); void plotXY_1(float[],float[]); voiddraw_graph(int); void case3(float,float,float,float); int main(void) { intch; clrscr(); do { clrscr(); printf(" \n Options \n"); printf(" 1 - Default \n"); printf(" 2 - Case 3 \n"); printf(" 3 - Exit \n"); printf("\n Enter choice \n"); scanf("%d",&ch); switch(ch) { case 1:draw_graph(ch); break;

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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, Sep- Dec (2012) IAEME

case 2:draw_graph(ch); break; case 3:exit(0);break; default: printf(" Please enter correct option \n");break; } }while(ch!=3); return 0; } void case3(float x1,float y1,float x2,float y2){ int X1,X2,Y1,Y2; X1=40+50*x1; Y1=430-100*y1; X2=40+50*x2; Y2=430-100*y2; sleep(3); moveto(X1-3,Y1-3); outtext("*"); sleep(3); moveto(X2-3,Y2-3);outtext("*"); sleep(5); line(X1,Y1,X2,Y2); } voiddraw_graph(intch){ /* request auto detection */ intgdriver = DETECT, gmode, errorcode; float X[]={1,2,3,4,5,6,7}; float Y2400[]={0.4,1.8,1.8,1.5,1.6,1.5,1.3}; float Y2700[]={1.3,2.0,2.2,1.9,2.0,1.9,1.8}; float Y3000[]={1.45,2.2,2.65,2.25,2.4,2.3,2.15}; float Y3300[]={1.55,2.55,2.95,2.65,2.9,2.62,2.4}; float Y3600[]={1.93,2.85,3.3,2.75,2.85,2.7,2.5}; clrscr(); /* initialize graphics and local variables */ initgraph(&gdriver, &gmode, "C:\\TC\\BGI"); setcolor(getmaxcolor()); 51

International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, Sep- Dec (2012) IAEME

drawXY(); if(ch!=1) { setlinestyle(DOTTED_LINE,1,1); line(240,430,240,20); setlinestyle(SOLID_LINE,1,1); } //plotXY(1,0.4); setcolor(4); plotXY_1(X,Y2400); if(ch==2) { //sleep(10); setcolor(getmaxcolor()); case3(2.2,1.8,4.3,2.4); case3(3.3,2.3,5.2,3.0); case3(3.5,1.6,6.5,2.8); } /* clean up */ getch(); closegraph(); } void plotXY_1(float x[],float y[]) { intX,Y,yi; int i; float X1=40,Y1=430;

for(i=0;i<7;i++) { X=40+50*x[i]; 52

International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, Sep- Dec (2012) IAEME

Y=430-100*y[i]; moveto(X-3,Y-3); outtext("*"); if(i!=0) line(X1,Y1,X,Y); X1=X; Y1=Y; } } voidplotXY(float x,float y) { int X,Y; //y=y-90; X=40+50*x; Y=430-100*y; moveto(X-3,Y-3); outtext("*"); } voiddrawXY() { // HEAD moveto(100,20); outtext("Presure Head versus Throttle Position"); //setlinestyle(DOTTED_LINE,1,1); line(40, 20, 40, 430); line(40, 430, 430,430); outtext("0"); } 3.5 PROGRAM INPUT AND OUTPUT USING C GRAPHICS The input format for the program using c graphics is shown in fig.9, whereas the output clearly indicating the location of the stall region is shown in fig.10. 53

International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, Sep- Dec (2012) IAEME

Fig.9 Input Details

Fig.10 Active Instabilty Control Output 54

International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, Sep- Dec (2012) IAEME

4.0 CONCLUSION In this paper, an attempt has been made to develop the active instability avoidance control in ducted axial fan from stall region to jump the stable region in 10 seconds automatically by using c graphics and programming. This methodology also helps to completely avoid the stall region in ducted axial fan. Further, this work can be extended by working on real time simulation of active instability control in ducted axial fan. The results so far discussed, indicate that active instability control in ducted axial fan using c programming is very promising. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The authors gratefully thank AICTE (rps) Grant. for the financial support of present work. NOMENCLATURE = Whirl velocity in m/s = Pressure ratio N = Tip speed of the blades in rpm p = Pressure rise across the fan in N/m2 d = Diameter of the blade in m air = Density of air in kg/m3 L p = Sound Pressure Level in db REFERENCES [1] Day I J (1993),Active Suppression of Rotating Stall and Surge in Axial Compressors, ASME Journal of Turbo machinery, vol 115, P 40-47. [2] Patrick B Lawlees (1999),Active Control of Rotating Stall in a Low Speed Centrifugal Compressors, Journal of Propulsion and Power, vol 15, No 1, P 38-44. [3]C A Poensgen (1996) ,Rotating Stall in a Single-Stage Axial Compressor, Journal of Turbomachinery, vol.118, P 189-196. [4] J D Paduano (1996), Modeling for Control of Rotating stall in High Speed Multistage Axial Compressor ASME Journal of Turbo machinery, vol 118, P 1-10. [5] Chang Sik Kang (2005),Unsteady Pressure Measurements around Rotor of an Axial Flow Fan Under Stable and Unstable Operating Conditions, JSME International Journal, Series B, vol 48, No 1, P 56-64. [6] A H Epstein (1989),Active Suppression of Aerodynamic instabilities in turbo machines, Journal of Propulsion, vol 5, No 2, P 204-211. [7] Bram de Jager (1993),Rotating stall and surge control: A survey, IEEE Proceedings of 34th Conference on Decision and control. [8] S Ramamurthy (1975),Design, Testing and Analysis of Axial Flow Fan, M E Thesis, Mechanical Engineering Dept, Indian Institute of Science. 55

International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, Sep- Dec (2012) IAEME

[9] S L Dixon (1998), Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics of Turbo machinery, 5th edition, Pergamon, Oxford Press. [10] William W Peng (2008), Fundamentals of Turbo machinery, John Wiley & sons.Inc. AUTHORS Manikandapirapu P.K. received his B.E degree from Mepco Schlenk Engineering college, M.Tech from P.S.G College of Technology, Anna University,and now is pursuing Ph.D degree in Dayananda Sagar College of Engineering, Bangalore under VTU University. His Research interest include: Turbomachinery, fluid mechanics, Heat transfer and CFD. Srinivasa G.R. received his Ph.D degree from Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. He is currently working as a professor in mechanical engineering department, Dayananda Sagar College of Engineering, Bangalore. His Research interest include: Turbomachinery, Aerodynamics, Fluid Mechanics, Gas turbines and Heat transfer. Sudhakar K.G received his Ph.D degree from Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. He is currently working as a Professor in Mechanical Engineering department, Koneru Lakshmiah University,Vijayawada, Andrapradesh. His Research interest include: Surface Engineering, Metallurgy, Composite Materials, MEMS and Foundry Technology.

Madhu D received his Ph.D degree from Indian Institute of Technology (New Delhi). He is currently working as a Professor and Head in Government Engineering college, KRPET-571426, Karnataka. His Research interest include: Refrigeration and Air Conditioning, Advanced Heat Transfer Studies, Multi phase flow and IC Engines.

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