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Some Properties of Morphisms of Schemes

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Denition

Preliminaries
Let A be a ring. Pn = ProjA[T0 , T1 , , Tn ] A Let S be a scheme. It is a Z-scheme ina unique way. We set Pn S = Pn Z SpecZ S

Let f : X Y be a morphism of schemes. The morphism (IdX , IdX ) : X X Y X is called diagonal morphism of f where (IdX , IdX ) is induced by IdX : X X. We denote it X/Y . We say that X is separated over Y if X/Y is a closed immersion of schemes.
IdX mmmm

where Pn SpecZ S is the bered product of schemes. Z This is an S-scheme via the projection Pn S. If S = SpecA is ane, then Pn S S coincides with Pn because Proj(B D C) ProjB SpecD SpecC (where B be a A graded D-algebra, and C an D-algebra) Let A be a ring. We say that a morphism f : X SpecA is projective if it factors into a closed immersion X Pn followed by the canonical morphism Pn SpecA. A A X / SpecA oo7 ooo ooo o  oooo
f

mmm mmm mm / X Y X X QQQ QQQ QQQ Q IdX QQQQ Q(  X

6X mmm O

Let X be a scheme. If U and V are open subsets of X, we have a canonical homomorphism OX (U ) Z OX (V ) OX (U V ) dened by f g f |U V g|U V The following proposition gives a simple separatedness criterion using this type of homomorphism. Proposition3.2 Let X be a scheme. Then the following properties are equivalent: (a)X is separated. (b)there exists a covering of X by ane open subsets Ui such that for all i, j, Ui Uj is ane and OX (Ui )Z OX (Uj ) OX (Ui Uj ) is surjective. Proposition3.3 1. Closed immersions are separated morphisms. 2. The composition of two separated morphisms is a separated morphisms. 3. Separated morphisms are stable under base change. Example We can cover X=Pn with the ane open subsets Xi =SpecZ[ Tj ]0jn , 0 i n. Z i
Ti Then OX (Xi Xj ) = SpecZ[ Tj , Tj Tk Ti , Ti ]0kn .The T

Pn A

In this poster, we introduce some properties of morphisms of schemes and, very important property of projective morphisms.

Morphisms of finite type


Let (X,OX ), (Y ,OY ) be schemes. Let f : X Y be a morphism of schemes.

Denition We say that f is quasi-compact if the inverse image of any ane open subset is quasi-compact. A morphism f : X Y is said to be of nite type if f is quasi compact, and if for every ane open subset V of Y , and for every ane open subset U of f 1 (V ), the canonical homomorphism OY (V ) OX (U ) makes OX (U ) into a nitely generated OY (V )-algebra. Proposition2.1 Let f : X Y be a morphism of schemes. Let us suppose that there exists a covering {Vi } of Y by ane open subsets such that for every i, f 1 (Vi ) is a nite union of ane open subsets Uij , and that OX (Uij ) is a nitely generated algebra over OY (Vi ) for ever j. Then f is of nite type. The following properties are useful. Proposition2.2 1. Closed immersions are of nite type. 2. The composition of two morphisms of nite type is of nite type. 3. Morphisms of nite type are stable under base change.

condition(b) of Prop3.2 is sat

ised. Therefore are saparated.

Pn Z

is separated.Moreover, by Prop3.3, any projective morphisms

Proper Morphisms
We say that a morphism f : X Y is closed if f maps any closed subset of

Denition X onto a closed subset of Y . We say that f is universally closed if for any base change Z Y, X Y Z Z stays a closed morphism. Denition We say that a morphism f : X Y is proper if it is of nite type, separated, and universally closed.

Example By Prop2.1 and, by construction, Pn is of nite type over Z. Therefore, by Z Prop2.2, any projective morphism is of nite type.

Closed immersions are proper morphisms.But besides this case, there is no obvious example.A fundamental example of proper morphisms is that of projective morphisms. Theorem Let S be a scheme. Then any projective morphism to S is proper.

Separated Morphisms
The underlying topological space of a scheme is almost never separated. Nev-

ertheless, we will dene the separatedness of schemes by drawing inspiration from the following proposition. Proposition3.1 Let X be a topological space. Let : X X X; x (x, x). We endow X X with the product topology. Then,X is separated(i.e. Hausdor space) if and only if (X) is closed.

[1] Liu , Algebraic Geometry and Arithmetic Curves, OXFORD