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International Journal JOURNAL Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN AND INTERNATIONAL of Mechanical OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING0976 6340(Print), ISSN

N 0976 6359(Online) Volume 3, Issue 2, May-August (2012), IAEME TECHNOLOGY (IJMET)

ISSN 0976 6340 (Print) ISSN 0976 6359 (Online) Volume 3, Issue 2, May-August (2012), pp. 410-415 IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijmet.html Journal Impact Factor (2012): 3.8071 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com

IJMET
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A PARAMETERIC DESIGN STUDY OF SURFACE ROUGHNESS IN DRY TURNING OPERATION OF EN24 STEEL
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Rahul Davis 1* Assistant Professor, Deparment of Mechanical Engineering and Applied Mechanics, SSET, SHIATS, Allahabad -211007 Uttar Pradesh, India *Mbl.No. +91-9935828268, E-mail: rahul.davis@shiats.edu.in

ABSTRACT In machining operation, the quality of surface finish is an important requirement for many turned workpieces. Thus, the choice of optimized cutting parameters is very important for controlling the required surface quality. The focus of present experimental study is to do a study in optimization of cutting parameters (depth of cut, feed rate, spindle speed) in turning EN24 steel (0.4% C) with hardness 40+2 HRC. In this, turning operation were carried out on EN24 steel by carbide P-30 cutting tool in dry condition and the combination of the optimal levels of the parameters was obtained. The Signal-to-Noise ratio and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) were employed to study the performance characteristics in turning operation. As a result of the analysis none of the factor was found to be significant. Taguchi method has shown that Spindle speed followed by feed and depth of cut was the combination of the optimal levels of factors while turning EN24 steel by carbide cutting tool in dry cutting condition. The results obtained by this method will be useful to other research works for similar type of study and can be eye opening for further research on tool vibrations, cutting forces etc. Keywords: EN24 steel, Dry turning, Surface Roughness, Taguchi Method 1. INTRODUCTION The machinability of the materials is determined by surface finish. Surface roughness is an important measure of product quality since it greatly influences the performance of mechanical parts as well as production cost. Optimization of machining parameters not only increases the utility for machining economics, but also the product quality increases to a great extent. EN24 is a high quality, high tensile, alloy steel and combines high tensile strength, shock resistance, good ductility and resistance to wear1. EN24 is most suitable for the manufacture of parts such as heavy-duty axles and shafts, gears, bolts and studs. EN24
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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 3, Issue 2, May-August (2012), IAEME

is capable of retaining good impact values at low temperatures2. Since Turning is the primary operation in most of the production process in the industry, surface finish of turned components has greater influence on the quality of the product3. Surface finish in turning has been found to be influenced in varying amounts by a number of factors such as feed rate, work hardness, unstable built up edge, speed, depth of cut, cutting time, use of cutting fluids etc4. The three primary process parameters in any basic Turning operation are speed, feed, and depth of cut. Speed always refers to the spindle and the work piece. Feed is the rate at which the tool advances along its cutting path. Depth of cut is the thickness of the material that is removed by one pass of the cutting tool over the workpiece5. 2. MATERIALS AND METHODS In the proposed work in order to study the effect of three different parameters (Depth of cut, Feed & Spindle Speed) on the Surface Roughness of the turned specimens of EN24 using L9 Taguchi orthogonal design, the Turning Operations and measurements of surface roughness have been done 9 times on the workpieces in Sparko Engineering Workshop, Allahabad. The workpiece were turned by Carbide cutting tool in dry cutting condition. In proposed work, EN24 steel with carbon (0.4%), Nickel (1.5 %), Chromium (1 %) and Molybdenum (0.23 %) was selected for specimen material. The values of the input process parameters for the Turning Operation are as under: Table: 2.2 Details of the Turning Operation Factors Depth of cut (mm) Feed (mm/rev) Spindle Speed (rpm) Level 1 0.5 1.21 780 Level 2 1.0 1.81 1560 Level 3 1.5 3.63 2340

In this experiment, the assignment of factors was carried out using MINITAB 15 Software. Using the L9 orthogonal array the trial runs have been the conducted on Lathe Machine for turning operations. Table 2.3: Results of Experimental Trial Runs for Turning Operation Experiment No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Depth of Cut (mm) 0.5 0.5 0.5 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.5 1.5 1.5 Feed Rate (mm/rev) 1.21 1.81 3.63 1.21 1.81 3.63 1.21 1.81 3.63 Spindle Speed (rpm) 780 1560 2340 1560 2340 780 2340 780 1560
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Surface Roughness (m) 55.83 6.08 6.66 33.33 28.33 33.8 38.8 41.66 16.16

S/N ratio

-34.9374 -15.6781 -16.4695 -30.4567 -29.0449 -30.5783 -31.7766 -32.3944 -24.1688

International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 3, Issue 2, May-August (2012), IAEME

The workpieces were turned in accordance with the experimental design and surface roughness was measured around the part with the workpiece fixture and the measurements were taken across the lay, while the setup is a three-jaw chuck. The total length of the workpiece (250 mm) was divided into 6 parts and the surface roughness measurements were taken of each 41.6 mm around each workpiece. Table 2.4: ANOVA Table for Means Parameter Depth of Cut Feed Rate Spindle Speed Error Total DF 2 2 2 2 8 SS 167.91 906.70 1041.30 91.74 2207.66 MS 83.96 453.35 520.65 45.87 F 1.83 9.88 11.35 P 0.353 0.092 0.081

Table 2.5: ANOVA Table for Signal to Noise Ratios for the Response Data Parameter DF SS MS F Depth of Cut 2 109.29 54.64 5.40 Feed Rate 2 123.40 61.67 6.10 Spindle Speed 2 137.34 68.67 6.79 Error 2 20.22 10.11 Total 8 390.25

P 0.156 0.141 0.128

Table 2.6: Response Table for Signal-to-Noise ratio of Surface Roughness Depth of Cut Feed Rate Spindle Speed Level (A) (B) (C) -22.36 -23.74 -32.64 1 -30.03 -25.71 -23.43 2 -29.45 -32.39 -25.76 3 7.67 8.65 9.20 Delta (max-min) 3 2 1 Rank From Table 3.22, Optimal Parameters for Turning Operation were A1, B3 and C2. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is utilized to measure the deviation of quality characteristic from the target. In this experiment, the response is the surface roughness which should be minimized, so the desired SNR characteristic is in the category of smaller the better. Table 3.22 shows the SNR of the surface roughness for each level of the factors. The difference of SNR between level 1 and 3 indicates that spindle speed contributes the highest effect (max-min = 9.20) on the surface roughness followed by feed Rate (max-min = 8.65) and depth of cut (max-min = 7.67). Therefore the Predicted value of S/N Ratio for surface roughness p (Surface Roughness) = -27.28+ [-22.36-(-27.28)] + [-23.43-(-27.28)] + [-23.74-(-27.28)] = -14.97

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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 3, Issue 2, May-August (2012), IAEME

3.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Comparing the F values of ANOVA Table 2.4 of Surface Roughness with the suitable F values of the Factors (F0.05;2;2 = 19.0) respectively shows that the all these factors are insignificant.
M inE a ffectsP t fo M s lo r ean
D M ata eans
D of C (m ) epth ut m 40 Feed R te (m /rev) a m
-21 -24 -27 D thof Cu (m ) ep t m

M inE ctsP tfo SNra s a ffe lo r tio


D M s ata ean
FeedR (m /rev) ate m

Mean of SN ratios

30

Mean of Means

-30 -33 0.5 -21 -24 -27 1.0 S ind S (rp ) p le peed m 1.5 1.21 1.81 3.63

20 0.5 1.0 1.5 Spindle Speed (rpm ) 1.21 1.81 3.63

40 30

-30 -33 780 1560 2340

20 780 1560 2340

Sig al-to-n Sm is better n oise: aller

Figure 4.1: Main Effects Plot for Means

Figure 4.2: Main Effects Plot for S/N ratios

Table No. 2.5 shows the results of Signal-to-Noise ratio for Surface Roughness. Comparing the F values of ANOVA Table No. 2.4 of Surface Roughness with the suitable F values of the Factors (F0.05;2;2 = 19.0), shows that all these factors are insignificant factor. From Table 2.6, Fig 4.1 and Fig 4.2, optimal parameters for Surface Roughness are first level of Depth of Cut (A1) i.e 0.5 mm, first level of Feed (B3) i.e 3.63 mm/rev and second level of Spindle Speed i.e 1560 rpm (C2). So the combination of the factors not found in any given trial in table No.2.3 gives the optimum result. Table 2.8: Results of the Confirmation Tests of the optimal levels of the factors Specimen 1 1 1 Trial Run 2 2 2 Depth of Cut (mm) 0.5 0.5 0.5 Feed Rate (mm-rev) 1.21 1.21 1.21 Spindle Speed (rpm) 1560 1560 1560 Surface Roughness (m) 22.56 21.91 21.03

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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 3, Issue 2, May-August (2012), IAEME

4. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS A parameter designs yielded the optimum condition of the controlled parameters, as well as a predictive equation in each case and comparative study was done. A confirmation tests was then performed which indicated that the selected parameters and predictive equation were accurate to within the limits of the measurement instrument. Therefore the above results can be recommended to get the lowest surface roughness for further studies. In this research work, the material used is EN24 with 0.4% carbon. The experimentation can also be done for other materials having more hardness to see the effect of parameters on Surface Roughness. In each case interactions of the different levels of the factors can be included and study can be extended. The research can be extended by using tool nose radius etc. as factors. REFERENCES

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1. Website: http://www.westyorkssteel.com/en24.html 2. Website: www.kvsteel.co.uk/steel/EN24T.html 3. Diwakar Reddy.V, Krishnaiah.G, A. Hemanth Kumar and Sushil Kumar Priya(2011), ANN Based Prediction of Surface Roughness in Turning, International Conference on Trends in Mechanical and Industrial Engineering (ICTMIE'2011) Bangkok 4. S.S.Mahapatra, Amar Patnaik, Prabina Ku. Patnaik (2006), Parametric Analysis and Optimization of Cutting Parameters for Turning Operations based on Taguchi Method, Proceedings of the International Conference on Global Manufacturing and Innovation July 27-29 5. B. S. Raghuwanshi (2009), A course in Workshop Technology Vol.II (Machine Tools), Dhanpat Rai & Company Pvt. Ltd. 6. Adeel H. Suhail, N. Ismail, S. V. Wong and N. A. Abdul Jalil (2010), Optimization of Cutting Parameters Based on Surface Roughness and Assistance of Workpiece Surface Temperature in Turning Process, American J. of Engineering and Applied Sciences 3 (1): 102-108. 7. C. A. van Luttervelt, T. H. C. Childs (1998), Present situation and future trends in modelling of machining operations, CIRP Ann. 8. Daniel Kirby (2010), Optimizing the Turning Process toward an Ideal Surface Roughness Target. 9. D. Philip Selvaraj, P. Chandramohan (2010), optimization of surface roughness of aisi 304 austenitic stainless steel in dry turning operation using Taguchi design method Journal of Engineering Science and Technology,Vol. 5, no. 3 293 301, school of engineering, Taylors university college. 10. E. Daniel Kirby (2006), Optimizing surface finish in a turning operation using the Taguchi parameter design method Int J Adv Manuf Technol: 10211029. 11. Guey-Jiuh Tzou, Ding-Yeng Chen (2006), Application of Taguchi method in the optimization of cutting parameters for turning operations. Department of Mechanical Engineering, Lunghwa University of Science and Technology, Taiwan, (R.O.C.). 12. Hari Singh (2008), Optimizing Tool Life of Carbide Inserts for Turned Parts using Taguchis design of Experiments Approach, Proceedings of the International
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