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Problem Solutions — Chapter 2 Problem 2.2.1 Solution (a) We wish to find the value of ¢ that makes the PMF sum up to one. e/a" PM =) 9 Therefore, Y7_) Py(n) =e +e/2 + c/4 = 1, implying c = 4/7. (b) The probability that NV <1 is PIN = 1] = P(N =0] + PIN =1]=4/7 42/7 =6/7 Problem 2.2.2 Solution From Example 2.5, we can write the PMF of X' and the PMF of R as 1/8 x=0 3/8 x=1 Py(x) =) 3/8 x=2 Pa(r) 1/8 x=3 0 otherwise 0 otherwise From the PMFs Py(x) and Pa(r), we can calculate the requested probabilities (a) PLX =0] = PO) = 1/8. (b) P[X <3] = Py(O) + Py(1) + PyQ) = 7/8. (©) P[R > 1] = Pe) =3/4. Problem 2.2.3 Solution (a) We must choose c to make the PMF of sum to one, Yor ty co 42848 4) 300 =1 Hence ¢= 1/30 (b) Let U = fu2Ju = 1,2, ...} so that 1 eo PW eU=PO+ Ms +5 =— (Veu) w+ (4) 30 +30 = 30 37 a @ a a @) (©) The probability that V is even is, PLY iseven] = Pry 2) } Py (4) == + =? 3) LV is even] = Py (2) + vA = 35 7 QB) (€) The probability that 7 > 2is P[V > 2) = Py (3)+ Py (4) = @) Problem 2.2.4 Solution (a) We choose c so that the PMF sums to one. Ypres a Thus ¢ = 8/7 © PIX =4)= Pra) = = 2 @) Wagers Ap=5 Q) (©) Pir <4j=PrQy= a4 ° TINO TF @ P[3 =X =9] = Py (4) — Py (8) @) Problem 2.2.5 Solution Using B (for Bad) to denote a miss and G (for Good) to denote a successful free throw, the sample tree for the number of points scored in the | and I is a i From the tree, the PMF of ¥ is, lap ys Py =} PUP) v=) w P y=2 ° therwise 38 Problem 2.2.6 Solution ‘The probability that a caller fails to get through in three tries is (1 — p)*. To be sure that at least 95% of all callers get through, we need (1 — p)° = 0.05. This implies p = 0.6316, Problem 2.2.7 Solution In Problem 2.2.6, each caller is willing to make 3 attempts to get through. An attempt is a failure if all m operators are busy, which occurs with probability g = (0.8)". Assuming call attempts are independent, a caller will suffer three failed attempts with probability g° = (0.8)**. The problem statement requires that (0.8)"" = 0.05. This implies > 4.48 and so we need 5 operators. Problem 2.2.8 Solution From the problem statement, a single is twice as likely as a double, which is twice as likely as a triple, which is twice as likely as a home-run. If p is the probability of a home run, then Ps(4) =p Pg) =2p Py Q)=4p — Py (1) = 8p a Since a hit of any kind occurs with probability of 300, p +2p +4p + 8p =0.300 which implies p =0.02. Hence, the PMF of B is 0.70 b=0 0.16 b=1 0.08 b=2 Ps) =) oo4 pa 2 0.02 b=4 0 otherwise Problem 2.2.9 Solution (a) In the setup of a mobile call, the phone will send the “SETUP” message up to six times. Each time the setup message is sent, we have a Bernoulli trial with success probability p. OF course, the phone stops trying as soon as there is a success. Using r to denote a successful response, and 1” a non-response, the sample tree is, ee ee ee (b) We can write the PMF of K’, the number of “SETUP” messages sent as =p ka12...5 Pc) =) Upp 4p) =p k=6 o 0 otherwise Note that the expression for Px (6) is different because K = 6 if either there was a success ora failure on the sixth attempt. In fact, K = 6 whenever there were failures on the first five attempts which is why Pg (6) simplifies to (1 — p)’. 39