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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING AND 6340(Print),

, ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 3, Issue 2, May-August (2012), IAEME

TECHNOLOGY (IJMET)

ISSN 0976 6340 (Print) ISSN 0976 6359 (Online) Volume 3, Issue 2, May-August (2012), pp. 532-542 IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijmet.html Journal Impact Factor (2012): 3.8071 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com

IJMET
IAEME

AN EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION FOR PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF FOUR STROKE S.I. ENGINE USING OXYRICH AIR
Prof. N.V. Hargude
Associate Professor, Dean R&D, Department of Mechanical Engineering, PVPIT Budhgaon (Sangli), 416304 Maharashtra, India.

1. ABSTRACT Conservation of fuel is the key to any nations economic success; while on the other hand, limitation of pollution through such fuel combustion is a must for the nations health. At a time when rising fuel costs are bearing on the economy of the country, at the same time rising pollution levels are playing havoc with the health of the multitudes. The focus therefore is continuously on, how best to save fuel with an eye on reducing the elevated emissions levels. The dynamics of combustion of hydrocarbon fuel has forever been a subject of intense research the world over as also the problems associated with it such as decrease in equipment efficiency through incomplete combustion, consequent carbon deposits and high emission levels. Efforts have always been on to achieve the best possible burning and energy output from fuel combustion systems, the aim being, to increase fuel efficiency and to reduce exhaust emission levels. Present study involved with these interactions, is the intensity of the suction air that could effectively alter the combustion characteristics. The aim is to study if such air can alter combustion behavior. Keywords: Four stroke S.I. engine, Oxyrich air, Oxygen enricher, Catalytic conversion, Stoichiometry. 2. INTRODUCTION Over the past century, the need and development of micro-power devices have necessitated the need for studies to look further into mediums that can enhance combustion processes of fuels by optimizing system parameters. This is essential so as to utilize the high specific energy content of liquid hydrocarbon fuels. Magnetic fields can affect fluids that can exhibit paramagnetic and diamagnetic behavior (even if the fluid is not electrically conducting) and, this suggests the potential ability of magnetic control of air flows and also combustion [1].
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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 3, Issue 2, May-August (2012), IAEME

Paramagnetism is a result of unpaired electrons within an atom that can cause a magnetic dipole to form in the presence of a magnetic field and, as a result, in the presence of a magnetic field this effect causes the fluid to be drawn in the direction of increasing magnetic field strength. On the contrary, if the electrons are already paired, the atoms resist the formation of a dipole and this resistance causes the atoms to move in the direction of decreasing magnetic field strength, known as diamagnetism [1]. Paramagnetic behavior is about three orders of magnitude larger than the diamagnetic behavior. Oxygen and air are examples of paramagnetic substance and are drawn towards higher magnetic field strengths. Nitrogen, carbon dioxide and most hydrocarbon fuels are examples of diamagnetic substances and are repelled by stronger magnetic fields. Thus, the behavior of these gases in the magnetic field suggests a new scientific method of analysis and separation in gases, using the magnetic field. Traditional methods have always focused on use of additives to achieve the means which leads to a recurring cost and poor impact on the life of the combustion systems in the long runs.Today Hydrocarbon fuels have a natural deposit of carbon residue, that clogs carburetors and fuel injectors, leading to reduced efficiency and wasted fuel. Knocking, stalling, loss of horsepower and greatly decreased mileage are very noticeable. This results from incomplete combustion of hydrocarbon fuel. In order to promote complete combustion of hydrocarbon fuels , oxygen must saturate the fuel molecules. Hydrocarbon fuels posses large clustering molecules that tends to bunch up into groups, preventing complete oxygen penetration. For this reason 100 percent combustion does not take place [2]. The apparatus of the present invention can best be described as a means for the intensified exposure of an oxyrich air. The apparatus is comprised the oxygen cylinder. The outlet of oxygen cylinder sends to suction of engine. The oxygen sends to the engine suction trough the flow measuring devices like rotameter, orificemeter. The gas rotameter is used to measure the flow rate of oxygen. 3. THE OXYRICH TREATMENT OF INTAKE AIR The oxyrich treatment of intake air represents a new technology. Many attempts by various inventors and scientific investigators worldwide have been far less than satisfactory due to the implementation of what has become known as the blending technique [6]. This is of supreme importance, since it is required to have the necessary power (quantity) to properly excite the electron activity causing the increased oxidation effect. The recent advent of the gas emission analyzer, which is used to enforce state and federally regulated emission standards in accordance with the science of stoichiometry, has greatly aided in the documentation of oxyrich air research results [4]. When the unit under investigation is attached to the suction line of an engine, we see an immediate drop in unburned hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide. This is due to the oxygen conditioning of the air, which makes it more reactive. The purpose of a catalytic converter on automobiles is to oxidize (burn) carbon monoxide into carbon dioxide. As related in stoichiometric charts representing ideal combustion parameters, the highest burning efficiency will be achieved at the highest carbon dioxide level, since carbon dioxide cannot be subsequently oxidized [8]. The purpose of a catalytic converter is to reduce all carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide. The increased combustion efficiency is occurring within the engine due to increased fuel
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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 3, Issue 2, May-August (2012), IAEME

reactivity with oxygen (increased oxidation), the main factor responsible for increased combustion efficiency. It is a complete waste to allow an engine to run inefficiently and to burn the excess carbon monoxide in its catalytic converter, the wasted heat merely heats-up the exhaust system, instead of providing useful work within the engine. Overall generation of carbon dioxide will drop due to better overall engine efficiency [5]. 3.1. WORKING PRINCIPAL

Fig1: Working principal of Oxyrich Apparatus

A) When hydrocarbon fuel (methane molecule) is combusted, the first to be oxidized are the hydrogen atoms. Only then, are the carbon atoms subsequently burned (CH4+ 2O2 = CO2+ 2H2O). Since it takes less time to oxidize hydrogen atoms in a high-speed internal combustion process, in normal conditions some of the carbon will be only partially oxidized; this is responsible for the incomplete combustion. The optimum combustion efficiency (performance) obtained from the oxygen enricher application on air is first indicated by the amount of increase in carbon dioxide (CO2) produced, which has been validated by state emissions control devices. B) Altering the spin properties of the outer shell ("valence") electron enhances the reactivity of the fuel. The higher energized spin state of hydrogen molecule clearly shows a high electrical potential (reactivity), which attracts additional oxygen. Combustion engineering teaches that additional oxygenation increases combustion efficiency; therefore, by altering the spin properties of the H2 molecule, we can give rise to its magnetic moment and enhance the reactivity of the hydrocarbon fuel and ameliorate the related combustion process. The unit to have the required affect on fluid passing through it, substantially changes the isomeric form of the hydrocarbon atom from its para hydrogen state to the higher energized, more volatile, ortho state, thus attracting additional oxygen. C) It has been technically possible to enhance Vander Waals' discovery due to the application of the oxygen energizer, strong enough to break down, i.e. de-cluster these HC associations. They become normalized & independent, distanced from each other, having bigger surface available for binding with more oxygen (better oxidation). A simple analogy is of burning coal dust and a coal brick. There, where one aims at higher efficiency, during the combustion process, one has to give a molecule the greater access to oxygen. Thus, with our oxygen energizer, the oxygenation and the combustion efficiency increase. Fuel is more active and dynamic, and the combustion process faster and more complete.
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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 3, Issue 2, May August (2012), IAEME May-August

D)The chief function and purpose of a oxyrich air is to convert engine's unburned hydrocarbons convert and reduce by oxidizing (burning), all carbon monoxide (CO) to carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (vapor). An energizer neutralizes exhaust, which has left the combustion chamber of an engine. Such exhaust is less toxic, but the energy from such an after-burning process is not utilized. burning While catalytic converters are designed to function beyond 5 years and 50,000 miles (80,000 kms), there are problems that can occur (trace amounts of oil escaping to the exhaust, etc.) dramatically shorten their life (destroy them). ally 4. OXYGENATED FUEL BURNING Hydrogen, even though it is the simplest of all elements, occurs in two distinct isomeric varieties (forms) para and ortho, characterized by the different opposite nucleus spins [3]. And thus in para H2 molecule, which occupies the even rotation levels (quantum number), the spin state of one atom relative to another is in the opposite direction counterclockwise, anti parallel, one up & one down) rendering it diamagnetic, whereas in the ortho molecule, which occupies the odd rotational levels, the spins are parallel (clockwise, coincident, both up), with the same orientation for the two atoms, and therefore is paramagnetic and a catalyst for many reactions. Thus the spin orientation has a pronounced effect on physical properties (specific heat, vapor pressure), as well as behavior of the gas molecule. The coincident spins render ortho ortho-hydrogen exceedingly unstable [4]. In fact, ortho-hydrogen is more reactive than its para-hydrogen counterpart and the liquid hydrogen fuel that is used to give power for the combustion processes. To secure conversion of para to ortho state, it is necessary to change the energy of interaction between the spin states of the H2 molecule. The aim is to study if such combination can alter combustion behavior. In order study to better understand the combustion interaction; a laminar flow would be established and subjected to a moderate uniform combustion process. Specifically, the study entails the collection of experimental data for the influence on the structure and temperature variations perimental together with the influence on the particle formation.

Fig The two distinct types of Hydrogen Fig2:

Fig Oxygenated combustion reaction Fig3:

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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 3, Issue 2, May-August (2012), IAEME

The application of oxyrich air converts fuel molecules to a positive charge and sets them in order, which increases the attraction of negatively charged air molecules, boosted by the charged air to compensate for the improper fuel/air mixture of the non-efficient sensor., which is placed in automotive vehicles on the air duct before the air filter to allow for the optimum combustion and further reduction of toxic substances [8]. This significantly improves the process of oxidation. As a result the corrosion and scale deposits are dissolved and the new ones do not form in the whole cooling system, engine gets back 100% of its heat transfer ability and can be exploited longer (no deformations of cylinder blocks, head cracking and high oil temperatures).

Fig4: Para and Ortho state of Hydrogen molecule

Whenever a this system is placed on gaseous hydrocarbon fuels such as propane, gasoline etc., the air/ fuel mixture becomes fuel rich, and the flame oxygen starved. The Fuel/Air ratio must be adjusted. In most cases, increasing the air feed will bring the combustion efficiency into proper stoichiometric balance [7]. The unit increases gas mileage and performance and is a fully permanent device. This unit can easily be transferred from car to car, with almost no labor. Converters can't. These units have low cost as compare to the catalytic converter system. The unit is totally friendly to the environment.

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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 3, Issue 2, May-August (2012), IAEME

5. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION 5.1. EXPERIMENTAL SET-UP

Fig5: Flow Diagram of Experimental set-up and photograph for performance analysis of 4stroke S.I. engine using Oxyrich air To study the performance of 3 cylinders, 4 stroke, Petrol engine connected to Hydraulic dynamometer in manual mode following specifications have been noted down. Table1: Engine Specifications
Engine (Make Maruti, Model Maruti 800, Type 3 Cylinder, 4 Stroke, Petrol (MPFI), water cooled, Power 27.6Kw at 5000 rpm, Torque 59 NM at 2500rpm, stroke 72 mm, bore 66.5mm, 796 cc, CR 9.2) TYPE NO. OF CYLINDERS PISTON DISPLACEMENT MAXIMUM OUTPUT (STD.,AC) MAXIMUM TORQUE (STD.,AC) DYNAMOMETER PROPELLER SHAFT FUEL TANK TEMPERATURE SENSOR TEMPERATURE INDICATOR 4 stroke cycle, water cooled SOHC (1C2V) 3 796 cc 37 bhp at 5000 rpm 59 Nm at 2500 rpm Type Hydraulic With universal joints Capacity 15 lit with glass fuel metering column Thermocouple, Type K Digital, multi channel with selector switch

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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 3, Issue 2, May-August (2012), IAEME
SPEED INDICATOR LOAD INDICATOR OXYGEN ROTAMETER OXYGEN CYLINDER OVERALL DIMENSIONS SPACE EXHAUST Digital with non contact type speed sensor Digital, Range 0-50 Kg, Supply 230VAC 0-150 LPM For O2 Flow measurement 140 Pounds Wt. W 2000 x D 2750 x H 1750 mm 3500Lx4000Wx2000H in mm Provide suitable exhaust arrangement (Exhaust pipe 32 NB/1.25 size) Petrol @ 10 liters, Oil @ 3.5 lit. (20W40)

FUEL, OIL

5.2. PERFORMANCE PARAMETERS 1. Indicated thermal efficiency (t): 2. Brake thermal efficiency (bth): 4. Volumetric efficiency (v): Table 2: System measurements and constants.
System constants. Engine make Orifice diameter (m) Dynamo. arm length (m) Coefficient .of discharge for orifice,Cd Ambient temperature (Deg C) Fuel density(kg/m^3) Fuel Calorific value (KJ/kg) Maruti 0.035 0.2 0.6 30 740 44000 Air density (Kg/m^3) Cylinder diameter (m),D Stroke(m),L No of cylinders No. of rev./cycle Sp .heat limit min.(Kj/Kg.DegK) Sp. heat limit max.(Kj/Kg.DegK) 1.16 0.069 0.073 3 2 1.4 1.8

( ( ( / / ) ) ( )

) ( ( / / ) )
*100

100

3. Mechanical efficiency (m): Brake Power / Indicated Power

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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 3, Issue 2, May-August (2012), IAEME

5.3. OBSERVATATIONS Table 3: PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF ENGINE


Brake power (Kw) BMEP (Bar) Torque (N.m) BSFC kg/kwH BTh.eff. (%) Air flow (kg/hr) Vol eff (%) A/F Ratio Heat Equi.of work (%) 25.5 26.9 28.0 28.4 24.4 22.4 21.1 Heat by cool water(%) Heat by exhaust (%) Radiation (%)

1. Performance of engine Without Oxygen Blending 11.4 15.1 18.6 20.5 20.9 23.5 25.4 8.34 8.83 9.07 8.77 7.78 7.72 7.54 53.2 56.3 57.9 55.9 49.6 49.2 48.1 0.321 0.304 0.293 0.288 0.335 0.365 0.388 25.49 26.88 27.95 28.37 24.40 22.39 21.10 54.4 69.5 83.0 94.2 103.6 123.2 140.4 95.2 97.1 97.0 96.1 92.2 96.6 99.4 14.9 15.1 15.3 15.9 14.8 14.3 14.2 26.1 24.9 22.7 22.5 20.4 18.8 19.3 28.4 27.9 30.0 34.5 30.7 35.8 35.5 20.1 20.4 19.3 14.7 24.6 23.0 24.2

2. Performance of engine with 6.0 LPM Oxygen Flow 8.2 9.3 10.0 11.0 11.8 6.15 6.77 7.38 8.00 8.61 39.2 43.2 47.1 51.0 54.9 0.356 0.327 0.306 0.292 0.281 22.97 25.05 26.75 28.06 29.08 62.8 63.6 61.2 62.0 62.8 112.3 110.9 107.8 107.6 109.2 21.4 21.0 20.0 19.3 18.9 23.0 25.0 26.8 28.1 29.1 32.5 34.6 31.1 29.6 28.6 42.3 34.5 31.9 32.9 30.4 2.2 5.9 10.3 9.4 12.0

3. Performance of engine with 15.0 LPM Oxygen Flow 12.3 13.7 14.9 16.2 17.5 6.15 6.77 7.38 8.00 8.61 39.2 43.2 47.1 51.0 54.9 0.366 0.342 0.331 0.329 0.317 22.34 23.91 24.74 24.90 25.79 81.2 80.0 78.2 74.9 73.6 96.9 94.8 92.4 88.3 86.6 18.0 17.1 15.8 14.1 13.3 22.3 23.9 24.7 24.9 25.8 21.1 20.4 17.4 17.9 17.1 40.6 32.8 29.8 28.4 25.8 16.0 22.9 28.1 28.9 31.3

4. Performance of engine with 25.0 LPM Oxygen Flow 20.5 22.6 24.8 26.9 29.0 6.15 6.77 7.38 8.00 8.61 39.2 43.2 47.1 51.0 54.9 0.288 0.261 0.245 0.231 0.219 28.40 31.30 33.46 35.49 37.41 115.3 114.9 114.0 113.6 113.2 82.5 82.0 81.3 80.8 80.3 19.5 19.4 18.8 18.3 17.8 28.4 31.3 33.5 35.5 37.4 16.1 17.7 15.7 15.4 15.0 53.8 46.0 43.8 45.3 41.6 1.8 5.0 7.0 3.8 6.0

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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 3, Issue 2, May-August (2012), IAEME

Table 4: MEASUREMENT OF EMISSION PARAMETERS Sr. No. 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 Load in kg. Time in sec. CO HC CO2 1. Measurement of Emission Parameters without Oxygen Blending 27.1 73 2.4 1470 4.8 28.7 58 2.3 1460 4.6 29.5 79 2.4 1475 4.8 28.5 45 2.3 1460 4.6 25.3 38 2.1 1440 4.2 2. Measurement of Emission Parameters with 6.0 LPM Oxygen Flow 20 91 2.2 1460 4.6 22 88 2.2 1455 4.5 24 87 2.2 1460 4.6 26 83 2.1 1450 4.5 28 80 2.1 1450 4.5 3. Measurement of Emission Parameters with 15 LPM Oxygen Flow 20 59 2 1400 4.9 22 57 1.9 1380 4.9 24 54 2 1400 4.8 26 50 1.9 1390 4.7 28 48 1.8 1380 4.6 4. Measurement of Emission Parameters with 25.0 LPM Oxygen Flow 20 45 1.6 1320 5.2 22 45 1.6 1320 5.2 24 44 1.5 1310 5.1 26 43 1.4 1300 5.1 28 42 1.3 1280 5 O2 15.4 15.3 15.4 15.3 15.2 15.5 15.4 15.5 15.3 15.2 15.6 15.6 15.6 15.5 15.4 16 16 15.9 15.8 15.7

Following graphs can elaborate the results more effectively and efficiently.

Graph1: Measurement of Emission Parameters without Oxygen Blending

Graph2: Measurement of Emission Parameters with 6.0 LPM Oxygen Flow

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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 3, Issue 2, May-August (2012), IAEME

Graph3: Measurement of Emission Parameters with 15 LPM Oxygen Flow

Graph4: Measurement of Emission Parameters with 25.0 LPM Oxygen Flow

6. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION In this study the influence of the oxyrich air on the fuel behavior was assessed by investigating the following changes in the fuel structure i.e. the luminosity and shape, the non-dimensionless numbers governing the interaction, variation in the temperature distribution within the fuel, and morphology studies of smoke produced in these combustion. The study methodology involved collecting the requisite set of data for normal air with oxygen blending and comparing the data to a case of normal air (without oxygen blending) supplied. The comparison of all observations and results are studied without oxyrich air and with oxyrich air. 1. It is well understood that combustion temperature of fuel is increased in oxyrich air condition. The measurements of HC, CO are studied under the influence of oxyrich air. This result shows the enhancement in combustion characteristics of fuel flow through the oxyrich air. 2. As a result of the fusion of fuel and air, the engine works more efficiently generating greater power, reducing the consumption of fuel, and also the hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon monoxide (CO2) which eliminate from the exhaust. 3. As the fuel and air molecules get charged with the opposite polarity, they dissolve the carbon in the combustion chamber and the fuel injectors and help keep the engine clean while improving its operating capacity, which constitutes another important advantage. The combustion of the fuel-air mixture is better under the influence of oxyrich air. 4. These results shows that there is increase in exhaust gases temperature due to more burning temperature of fuel there is reduction in harmful exhaust gases. These results show that the effect of oxyrich air on fuel burning will improve the efficiency of the engine and reduction in harmful gases such as HC&CO. 5. The proposed technology provides reduced heavy post-ignition, Prevents plugs from constantly fouling, reduces paraffin build-up for great cold weather starting, gives a cleaner, longer life to engine and oil burner, gradually cleans out the carbon build-up in cylinder and reduces harmful exhausts contributing to air pollution.

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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 3, Issue 2, May-August (2012), IAEME

7. CONCLUSION The invention is related to the technical investigation where the effective utilization of fuel by internal-combustion engine and reduction of ecologically harmful exhausts at their work is required. The offered design has a concrete purpose. The purpose of the invention is to increase the efficiency of fuel combustion of fuel in the S.I. with improvement of their ecological characteristics. The end result is a more efficient & complete combustion, saving fuel up to15% consistently. The main aim of increasing the output from 10-25% in S.I. engines, reduces hotspotting inefficiency, cutting out missing and stalling, and reduction in low-octane pinging and stabilizes vapor problems is considerably achieved. 8. REFERENCES 1. Heywood, John B McGraw-Hill Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals. 2. Obert E.F., Internal Combustion Engines Analysis and Practice, International Text Books Co., Scrantron, Pennsylvania. 3. Colin R. Ferguson, Allan T. Kirkpatrick, Internal Combustion Engines: Applied Thermo sciences, 2nd Edition. 4. N. Nedunchezhian, "Heat release analysis of lean burn catalytic combustion in a fourstroke spark ignited engine. International Journal of Combustion Science and Technology. 2000 vol.155. pp. 181-200. 5. S.V.Saravanan, Investigation of pollution monitoring and its control for the Indian petrol light duty vehicles applications to meet emission regulations. International Journal of Enviromedia, vol.4 pp.821-826 2006. 6. Erjavec, Thomson, Automotive technology: A system approach, learning series. 7. Electronic fuel injection system for a single cylinder spark ignited four- stroke enginedevelopments, experimental and theoretical investigations 2006. . Y. Robinson. 8. Investigation of pollution monitoring and its control for the Indian petrol light duty vehicles applications to meet emission regulations. International Journal of Enviromedia S.V.Saravanan. vol.4 pp.821-826 2006.

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