You are on page 1of 4

Accounting Terms

Accounting - process of identifying, measuring, and reporting financial information of an entity Accounting Equation - assets = liabilities + equity Accounts Payable - money owed to creditors, vendors, etc. Accounts Receivable - money owed to a business, i.e. credit sales Accrual Accounting - a method in which income is recorded when it is earned and expenses are recorded when they are incurred, all independent of cash flow Accruals - a list of expenses that have been incurred and expensed, but not paid or a list of sales that have been completed, but not yet billed Amortization gradual reduction of amounts in an account over time, either assets or liabilities Asset - property with a cash value that is owned by a business or individual Audit Trail a record of every transaction, when it was done, by whom and where, used by auditors when validating the financial statement Auditors third party accountants who review an entitys financial statements for accuracy and provide a statement to that effect Balance Sheet - summary of a company's financial status, including assets, liabilities, and equity Bookkeeping - recording financial information Budgeting the process of assigning forecasted income and expenses to accounts, which amounts will be compared to actual income and expense for analysis of variances Capital Stock found in the equity portion of the balance sheet describing the number of shares sold to shareholders at a predetermined value per share, also called common stock or preferred stock Capital Surplus found in the equity portion of the balance sheet accounting for the amount shareholders paid that is greater or lesser than the capital stock amount Capitalized Expense expenses that are accumulated, not expensed as incurred, to be amortized over a period of time; i.e. the development cost of a new product Chart of Accounts - a listing of a company's accounts and their corresponding numbers

Cash-Basis Accounting - a method in which income and expenses are recorded when they are paid. Cash Flow - a summary of cash received and disbursed showing the beginning and ending amounts Closing the Books/Year End Closing the process of reversing the income and expense for a fiscal or calendar year and netting the amount into retained earnings Cost Accounting - a type of accounting that focuses on recording, defining, and reporting costs associated with specific operating functions Credit - an account entry with a negative value for assets, and positive value for liabilities and equity. Debit - an account entry with a positive value for assets, and negative value for liabilities and equity. Departmental Accounting separating operating divisions into their own sub entities on the income statement, showing individual income, expenses, and net profit by entity Depreciation - recognizing the decrease in the value of an asset due to age and use Dividends amounts paid to shareholders out of current or retained earnings Double-Entry Bookkeeping - system of accounting in which every transaction has a corresponding positive and negative entry (debits and credits) Equity - money owed to the owner or owners of a company, also known as "owner's equity" Financial Accounting - accounting focused on reporting an entity's activities to an external party; ie: shareholders Financial Statement - a record containing the balance sheet and the income statement Fixed Asset - long-term tangible property; building, land, computers, etc. General Ledger - a record of all financial transactions within an entity Goodwill an intangible asset reflecting the value of an entity in excess of its tangible assets Income Statement - a summary of income and expenses Inventory merchandise purchased for resale at a profit Inventory Valuation the method to set the book value of unsold inventory: i.e. LIFO, last

in, first out; FIFO, first in, first out; average, an average cost over a given period, last cost, the cost based on the last purchase; standard, a deemed amount related to but not tied to a specific purchase, serialized, based on a uniquely identifiable serial number or character of each inventory item Invoice the original billing from the seller to the buyer, outlining what was purchased and the terms of sale, payment, etc. Job Costing - system of tracking costs associated with a job or project (labor, equipment, etc) and comparing with forecasted costs Journal - a record where transactions are recorded, also known as an "account" Liability - money owed to creditors, vendors, etc Liquid Asset - cash or other property that can be easily converted to cash Loan - money borrowed from a lender and usually repaid with interest Master Account an account on the general ledger that subtotals the subsidiary accounts assigned to it; i.e. Cash might be the master account for a list of depository accounts at banks Net Income - money remaining after all expenses and taxes have been paid Non Cash Expense - recognizing the decrease in the value of an asset; i.e. depreciation and amortization Non-operating Income - income generated from non-recurring transactions; ie: sale of an old building Note - a written agreement to repay borrowed money; sometimes used in place of "loan" Operating Income - income generated from regular business operations Other Income - income generated from other than regular business operations, i.e. interest, rents, etc. Payroll - a list of employees and their wages Posting the process of entering then permanently saving or archiving accounting data Profit - see "net income" Profit/Loss Statement - see "income statement" Reconciliation the process of matching one set of data to another; i.e. the bank statement to the

check register, the accounts payable journal to the general ledger, etc. Retained Earnings the amount of net profit retained and not paid out to shareholders over the life of the business Revenue - total income before expenses. Shareholder Equity - the capital and retained earnings in an entity attributed to the shareholders Single-Entry Bookkeeping - system of accounting in which transactions are entered into one account Statement of Account - a summary of amounts owed to a vendor, lender, etc. Subsidiary Accounts the subaccounts that are totaled on the financial statement under master accounts; i.e. Cash-ABC Bank might be one of several subsidiary accounts that are subtotaled under Cash Supplies assets purchased to be consumed by the entity Treasury Stock shares purchased by the entity from shareholders, reducing shareholder equity Write-down/Write-off an accounting entry that reduces the value of an asset due to an impairment of that asset; i.e. the account receivable from the bankrupt customer