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AN ENGLISH TRANSLATION
OF

THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA.
Vol.

l.—SUTRASTHANAM.

AN ENGLISH TRANSLATION
OF

,

Wt

THE'

SUSHRUTA SAMHITA

BASED ON ORIGINAL SANSKRIT TEXT.

EDITED AND PUBLISHED
BY

KAVIRAJ KUNJA LAL BHISHAGRATNA
WITH A FULL AND COMPREHENSIVE INTRODUCTION, TRANSLATION
OF DIFFERENT READINGS, NOTES, COMPARATIVE
VIEWS, INDEX, GLOSSARY
&.

PLATES.

(

IN THREE VOL UMES.

)

Vol.

I.-SUTRASTHANAM.

CALCUTTA
No.
lO,

^
'

KASHI GHOSE'S LANE.
1907.
*

-•

.

f'

srf3
Printed by J. N. Bose.
'

'^

/

College Square, Calcutta.

MW

Riqhtx Rexd'ved)

WAHAMAIlUPAbHVAYA KAVIRAJ DVARKANAIH
(

SEN,

KAVIKATNA.

In Durbar dress

II

w^ff^

II

PREFACE.
--^^B'

Xo
vast

special ^polcfgy

is

necessary for

the publication

of an English translation of the Sushruta Samhita.

The

medical literature of

ancient

India practically

remains as yet unexplored, and any undertaking, which
„has the obiect of making that terra incognita,
thescientific world,
is

known

to

bound

to be

welcomedby the public.

Spasmodic attempts have been made by several scholars and erudite bodies to bring out an English translation of
the Sushruta Samhita, as the most representative the Ayurveda, but

work

of

we

regret to say that such efforts have

hitherto proved abortive.

In spite of incomplete infor-

mation on the subject
?vlateria

many

drugs

of the Ayurvedic

Medica have been adopted by different foreign systems of medicine, and this has afforded us a fresh
impetus to issue an English translation of the book, which
not only deals with the essentials of Indian Therapeutics
but embraces the whole range of the science of A3airveda,
as
it

We

was understood and practised by the Vedic sages. sincerely hope that the English rendering of
which
inquiry

Sushruta,

we have undertaken,
into

will,

when
indige-

completed, supply a long-felt want and help to start
a
fuller

the

properties

of the

nous drugs of
already
started

India.

Many
in

institutions

have been

both

England and Germany with
the
reti(^logy of tropical

the

sole

object

of studying

and of formulating an empirical system of their prevention and cure, and we, hope an I4nglish
diseases,

translation

of the

Sushruta Samhita,

embracing as

it

^11

does the results of researches
Rishis
ill

made by

our ancient

the land of their
of useful

origin(^

may
to

contribute

no

small

amount
have

information

those bodies.

"We

many

things to learn" observes Lt. Col. C. P.
I. M.S.,

Lukis, M.b., F.R.C.S.,
Calcutta,

Principal, Medical
this

College,
in respect

"from the people of

country
five

of medicine and medical science,"
that an accurate knowledge

and

doubt not

of the

contents of this

splendid
it

monument
make
ills

of the

Ayurveda
race

in quarters

where

has

every chance
will

of being

utilised

and improved
equipped too

upon

the Inmian
life.

better

combat the

of

A
tion.

few remarks on the method we have adopted
this

in

editing

work
have

are necessarv carefully

by way of explanaall

We
of

collated

the

available

texts

the

Sushruta

Samhita,
the

whether

printed

or otherwise, expunging from
all

body

of our

work

texts,

which, though
are of

not proved to be wholly
authority,

spurious,

questionable

and putting
of opinion
decision
of

them

in foot-notes as "Different

Readings" or "Additional

Texts."

In cases of doubt or discrepancy

we have

thought

fit

to

abide

by

the

our revered

preceptor,

Mahamahopadhyaya
and
inserted
strictly

Kaviraj

Dvarkanath

Sen,

Kaviratna,

within
literal

brackets explanatory clauses,

where a

translation of texts would not convey

their true

meaning.

In

many

instances

it is

impossible to find in the English
for

language equivalent words
A3'urveda. In

the technical terms of the

such cases

we have

put approximate

English words within brackets, after the original Sanskrit
terms.

For exapiple we have translated the term Ojah

as albumen.
thing,
t

Sut the Ojah of the Ayurveda
like

is

a disputed

It

may mean something
glycogen,

but not exactl)'
largely
to

albumen;

which

contributes

Ill

"^

,

the reproductive activity of tlfe

would appear
cases
like

to be the

body in certaiR)*instances. more correct description. In
not put before
our readers,

this

we

h'ave

any suggestions of our own, but left them free to draw their own inference. And for this purpose we further intend to Append to the last volume of this work an index a,nd a glossary illustrating the possible meanings of the Ayurvedic terms with English and Latin synonyms, wherever possible. The true meaning of the Ayurveda can be better explained or understood
only with the light of moder.n science, and
to our

we

leave

it

European colleagues to carry on the research on the lines we have suggested with regard to this ancient
S3'stem of medicine, which a
principles

better

knowledge of
to do.

its

and methods

will enable

them

By

a lamentable oversight, the terms Vayu, Pittani,

Kaphah and Dosha have been translated as wind, bile, phlegm and humour in the first few chapters. For the sake of convenience we have divided the entire work into three volumes, the first containing only
the Sutrasthanam, the
Chikitsa,

second Xidanam, Sharira and

and the

third

Kalpa and Uttara Tantram.

We have adopted the diagrams of surgical instruments
from that most valuable work of the Thakore Saheb of
Gondal,
called

the
I

History

of

the

Aryan Medical
indebted to His

Science, for which

am

particularly

Highness.
In conclusion,

we beg

to conve\' our sincerest thanks

to our preceptor's son Kaviraj Jogendranath Sen Vidya-

bhusana M.
Professor
for

A., Dr.

U. D. Banerji L. R.

(Lond), and Lt. Col. K. P. Gupta

Janakinath

M. R. C. S. M. D., I. ^l. S., Bhattacharya M.A. B?L., P.R.S.
C. P.,

M.

A.,

having

kindly examined
I

the

different

portions

of the

manuscript.

am

grateful to Dr. Surendranath

<
t

IV
f #

(josvaini

B^A., L. M.

S.

teo, for

the kind interest
of this

he

has
/>i"or

all

'along taken in the publicittion

work and

various

intelhgent suggestions, which haxc been of

consfderable help to me.

My
it

thanks are also due to numerous learned authors,

ancient and

modern 'from whose

writings,

I

ha\e found

necessary to

make

frequent quotcition^.

10,

Kashi Ghose's Laxe.
i.-^t

]

KUNJA LAL BIIISHAGKATNA.
Kaviraj.

TJeceiiiher,

igoy.

\

CALCUTTA.

J

TNTRODTK^TION.
^^
Sushruta :— His
Ayurvedic
outset
to

age

and personality :— A
are

few

preliminary observations regarding the technique of the

system of
correctly

medicine

necessary

at

the

understand thp aim and scope of the

Sushruta

Samhita.
live

Who
and

was Sushruta
?

?

When

and
of

where did he

flourish

These are
to the

questions
readers

that would naturally suggest themselves

the following pages

;

but

the}^

can only be imperfectly
respecting

answered like
of

all

similar

questions
In
a

the lives
India

our

ancient
life

worthies.

country
as

like

where
lives of

itself

was simply regarded

an

illusion,

the

commoners were deemed matters of little moment to the vital economy of the race and all histories and biographies were looked upon as the embodiment
kings or
;

of thLe flimsy vanities

of

life.

Lives of saints and canonised

kings had

been made use of in certain instances

of national epics.

as themes But they were intended more to elucidate

or

enunciate the doctrines of certain schools of Ethics or Metaphysics than to record any historical fact or event.

Authentic history we have none beyond chronicles of state and those which events and royal names in some instances
;

are usually found in the Sanskrit Puranas are strange

binations of

each other.

commyths and legends, which often contradict Hence the utter futility of attempts to explain
of
a

a historical fact by the light

votive

npdal or

tablet

unearthed perhaps
cities.

frorri

the

ruins

of one of sur ancient

Such an endeavour
" darkness

serves, in

most

cases,

only to

make the

visible, "

and the

confusion

more

confounded.

ii

'iNTROniTCTIOX.

Identity of Sushruta and Divodasa :— It
to assert

is

only

safe

that Sushruta was of tl>e raceof Vishvamitra.
f

The

Mahabharatam

i)

represents

him

as a son of that roval sage. in the present
(2) places
first

This coincides with the description given of him
recension of the Samhita.

The Garuda Puranam
on
earti},

Divodasa

as

fourth

in descent

from Dhanvantari, the
whereas

propounder of medical science
apparent

the

Sushruta Samhita describes the two as identical persons. But
this

anomaly
that in

in

the

Samhita can be accounted
parts of India

for, if
still

we consider
the

some

the custom
better identi-

prevails of appending, for the purposes of

fication,

name

of one's father, or of a

glorious

ancestor
that firm

to

one's name,

and

it

is

therefore

not

surprising

Divodasa (the preceptor of Sushruta),
believer
in

who was

a

the

doctrine of psychic transmigration, should

represent himself as
a=.sume his

an

incarnation

of

Dhanvantari,
wav.

and
this

name and meagre genealogy we
life

style in the usual

Revond

possess

no trustworthy information

regarding the

and personalitv of Sushruta, the father of

Indian Surgery.

Age

of the Sushruta

Samhita:— We have no means

of

ascertaining what the Samhita was like as originally written

hv Sushruta, the present being only

a recension, or rather a

Mahahhiralam — Anushasan Parva, Ch.
(2}

W

f^-^rf*T^TC^T<T Tnf^E^T^?i: %<^v.

1

^T5?I^T3I»??T'Pr*T^r:

f^Tr??T^»^^3:

II

Garuda PuranAm, Chap.

139, \'s. 8- 11,

INTRODUCTION*
>>

lil

recension of recensions,

made oy N^garjuna

(i)?

All opinions

concur in identifying hifn ^with
the

the celebrated founder of

Madhyamika

school of
assists

Buddhistic philosophy

—a

fac|

which materially
Samhita.
are
all

us in

fixing the age of the present
(old)

A

few quotations from the Vriddha
are preserved of the
is

Sushruta

that

oViginal Sainhitu.

But

their genuineness

ot a

problematic character,

and we are
attri-

not sure whether
or of ancient

the}-

are the productions of lesser lights,
less

though

renowned commentators,
which
was
quite

buted to the master to invest thciU with a greater sanctity
;ind

authority— a

practice

common
who

amongst the bibliographers of Ancient

India.

Date of Nagarjuna :— At
the fourth

all

events Nagarjuna

redacted the Sushruta Samhita lived about the latter part of

century before

the__Chris£ian

era

;(2)

and the

Dallanas Commentary, Sulrasth^nam, Ch.
Dallana mentions the names of Jejjada, Gayadasa
of the original Samhita,
the
texts
etc., as the

I.

i.

redactors
authority

and

rejects as spurious or of questionable
in

which cannot be found

their editions

of

the work.

Must

probably the authoritative verses are quotations from the Vriddha Sushruta.

Recension or Pratisamsk^ra consists
been made inordinately elaborate,

in

curtaiUng
in dilating

statements

that
lliat

have have

and
the

upon

truths

been very succinctly dealt with

in

original

book.

A

Redactor or

Pralisamaskarta makes an old book new again.

A

Samhita, on the other hand, deals with aphorisms
^

coniained

in

the

Vedas.

t^T^f^lfST?!
(2)
rT^T
VUT^Jf!:

#f%m'TTT: H^lf^cTT:
!

I

SIT^nFff^ qif*!/^:

Rijatarangini

I.

Taranga. Vs. 172-173.

IV

wtroAj CTION.
have been wriUen
which
alone
at

original or V^rtddha Sus|jruta 'must
least

two centuries

earlier in

order 'to
age,*

acquire that hoary

aythority

and prescription of
its

could
Several general

have given
scholars

right

to

a

recension at the time.
a

on the authority of
concerning* the

very vague and
of

statement
in

recension
th'e

the

Samhita
of the

Dallana's

commentary, ascribe

authorship

Uttaratantram
Nagarjuna.
to

(latter portion of '.the

Sushruta Samhita) to

We, on

the other hand, hold the Uttaratantram

be neither an interpolation, nor a subsequent addition,
it

but that

forms an integral portion of the book as
written,

it

was

originally

though not

planned

by

the

Rishi.

In

the

first

Chapter of Sutrasthanani
Science of Ayurveda into

Divodasa formally
eight subdivisions,

divides

the

such

as,

the Shalya (surgery), Sh^iakya (portion treating of
restricted

diseases
eyes,
etc.),

to

super-clavicular

regions such as

the

etc.),

Kaya-Chikitsa (general

diseases such as, fever,
first five

but does not speak anything about them in the
or

Sthcinas

subdivisions

of

the

book.

It

is

only once in

the the

25th chapter

of the Sutrasthanani that

he mentions
in conIt
is

name

of

Netravartma (diseases of the eyelids)
Divodasa would

nection with the classification of surgical operations.
inxpossible

that

fall
all

short

of

his

duties

by omitting to give instructions on
the Ayurveda
as

the subdivisions of

he promises
Samhita,

at

the outset, or that Sushruta
is

would leave

his

which

pre-eminently a work

on surgery, incomplete by
\

banishiiT g_^ophthal mic surgery, ^
his

laryngotomy or fever-therapeutics from
the general plan
I

work.

From

Sushruta dealt
the
first

book we can safely assert that with easier or more elementary topics in
of the of his

five

subdivisions

Samhita

in the

manner

of

our
of

modern progressive readers, reserving the discussion those re^uirmg a more advanced knowledge and skill
Uttaratantram.

for the

The

Uttara*^^antram

has

not been

incluued within the

five original

subdivisions of the Samhita

inasmuch

as

it

embraces and

more elaborately

discusses

INTRODUCl'ION.
>>

J

V
are but»incidentairy
it

lupics

which legitimately beloi^g
in

to, ^or

mentioned

those

subdivisions.

Hence

is

more

ot

the nature of an appendix or supplement, arising out of the^
exigencies of the original
subdivisions.
It is

probable that

Nagarjuna might have redacted
in

this part of the

Samhita

common with its other portions. (i} Western opipions* on the subject :— The
western
opinions
third
is

consensus
the
for
first

of

to

place

Nagarjuna
(2),

in

quarter of the

Century B. C.
of

and

fixing
It

Sushruta as a contemporary
i^

Sakya Sinha Buddha.
in

contended

that

the
of

age immediately

preceding Sakya
;

Muni was

a period

decadence

Hindu thought

and

the Sushruta Samhita must have been the fruit of a
intellectual activity

revived

which usually follows the

advent of a

new creed^an assumption which is in favour of the hypothesis of Greek influence on the Hindu system of
medicine.

Buddha.
of

But great men there had been in India before The age which immediately preceded the age
of decadence properly

Buddha was by no means an age

speaking, the age which followed the downfall of

Buddliisin

shows, on the

contrar}', signs of true decadence.

India had

had eminent philosophers and scientists almost contemporaneously with the great
collected

Buddha.

The

chronological facts

above from the

Mahabharatam, and the Garuda
to

Puranam could have been construed
but
itself

prove that

the

age of Sushruta was prior to that of the Mahabharatam
for

the
to

internal

evidence furnished by
date of
its

the Samhitn

as

the

probable

composition which we
>

shall

have occasion to deal with

later on.
is

Extraneous Evidence :— Sushruta

mentioned

in

the

(i)

MaMmahopadhyaya

Kaviraj Dvaiaka N^lh .^en

Kaviialna
,

of

Calcutta subscribes to this opinion
(2)

— Tr.
Western World.
>

Bael's Buddhistic Records of the

\'ol. II.

P. 212.

Stein's Rdjatarant^uai.
(3)

Lalita-Vistarain

— Raja

R. L. Mitter's Edition, Chaptef

I.

VI

*

INTRODUCTION.
^4

^C.)

V^rtikas

oP'(i)

Katyayana
in

Century B.

and we have

no hesitation
^vritten
at

least

was two centuries before the birth of Buddha.
Sarnhita

saying thatP'^Iie* original

We
the

'f

are
tinal

equally

ready to admit, on the other hand, that

recension of the Sarnhita by Nagarjuna, at least the

form

in

which we have

it,

was made about the second
' ^

Century B. C.

Two Nagarjunas :— Several
of Dallana

scholars,

on the authority
of

(the

celebrated

commentator

the Sushruta

Samhita)
(the

endeavour to establish the identity of Nagarjuna
of
this

redactor

Samhita) with his
of the tenth Century

namesake,
(2).

the
their

celebrated

alchemist
fall

But

contentions
verses
of

ground when we know that many the Sushruta Samhita occur in the works of
to the

Bagbhat (Ashtangahridayam) and Madhava (Nidanam), which are two of the works which were translated by the
order of the Kaliph
(3) in

the eighth century.

The

internal

evidences of the book do not supply us with
material
father of
to compose anything Hindu Surgery.
like

any authentic
this

a

biography of

has formed
scholars
of

Internal Evidence :—The line in the Samhita, which amongst the veritable bone of contention
all

shades of opinion as throwing a light upon
its

the probable date of

composition, occurs ni the Sharira

Sthanam,
trunk that

in connection as

with the development of the
that
it

foetal

body and reads
tirst

"Subhuti Gautama said

is

the

developed."

Conflicting testimonies

and the uncertain indication
:

of materiaSs at our disposal
(l)

— It

is

a

matter of historic

f^^ffll^^^tf"
K;5 lyayana'si V^rlikas lo Panini's

Grammar.

"'

Chakra Dutta
p.

— Rash^yandhikara.

(3)

P. C.

Roy— Hindu

Chcmislry

X\'1II. (1902),

INTRODtTrTIOX.
>•)

'

VU
disciples

certainty
of

that Subhuti was

o^e of, the personal
it

Sakya

Sinha

Buddha, and that

was

customary

amongst the contemporaVy Buddliists to append the appelation of their
(i)

lord

fGautama

or Rodhisattva) to the

"name
the

of a proselyte to accentuate his

wisdom and
of

sanctity in

world.

A

certain section of scholars is'never tired of setting

up

this line as a conclusive evidence
at best, a

the fact that

the

Samhita was,

contemporary production of early
eyes
to

Buddhism.

But they shut their

opinions

of

Shaunaka and others on the subject quoted exactl)' in the same portion of the book, which places the date of its
composition
at

who was

the

direct line of

centuries earlier. Shaunaka, remove from the immortal Vyasa in discipleship, was the author of the renowned
least

several

si.vth

in

Shaunaka Samhita
Sushruta Samhita

of the

Atharvan.

These

facts

lend a

very plausible colour to

our hypothesis that the original
first

which, was

composed perhaps conof

temporaneously with the latter portions
naturally

the

Atharvan,

discussed

the opinions of Shaunaka

and other
of

Vedic

embryologists,

while

Nagarjuna,

at

the time

redacting that book, quoted the opinion of his contemporar}'

Subhuti

for

the purpose of giving him an equal status
if

with

the Vedic Rishis,

for
:

nothing

else.

As regards Hellenic influence on the Hindu system of medicine and on the Sushruta Samhita in special, we must disabuse our mind of all sentiments of

Greek Influence

racial

vanity

and proceed
unprejudiced

to

investigate
before

the case in
giving
a

a

scientific

and

spirit

more

detailed account of the contents of the SushrutaiSamhita.
(i)

Nagarjuna Bodhisattva was well practised

in the art of
all

compoundstones

ing medicine.

N^gSrjuna Bodhisattva by moistening
superior

the

great

with a

divine and

decoction

changed them into gold.

— Bael's

Buddhistic Records of the western world Vol. II.

AnuvSk

19, 45. 46.

5.

iNTRonurrioN.

Su^hrufa and Hippocrates -.—From the very apparent
similarity

which

exists

between jhe contents of

this

Samhita
scholars

•and
are

tjie

aphorisms of Hippocrates,
conclude too

many western

apt ,to

hastily that the ancient Indians

drew

their inspiration in the healing art

from the medical
said

works of the Greeks.
an assertion

But the reverse may be
facts,

of

the Greeks as well with the greater confidence because such
is

supported by historic
of

and confirmed by
(i).

the researches
to
art
all

the scholars of the west

According

accounts Pythagoras was the founder of the healing

amongst the Greeks and the Hellenic peoples in general This great philosopher imbibed his mysteries and (2). metaphysics from the Brahmanas of India. Mr. Pocock
in his Jnt^ia in

Greece identifies him with
it

Buddhagurus

or

Buddha, and
he carried

is

but

an

easy

inference to suppose that

many

recipes

and

aphorisms of his master's

Ayurveda with

him.

The
(3)

sacred

bean of Pythagoras

is

thought to have been the

Indian

Nelumbium

(Utpalam).

We

know

thai simnllaneously with the birth of

Buddhism,
their

Buddhist Sramanas

were sent out to Greece, Asia minor.
distant

Egypt and ether
religion.

countries

to

preach
the the

new
and

They

were
to

known
believe

to

Greeks

Greek Simnoi there is good reason Buddhist Sramanas (4). (venerable) were no other than the
that

Now

a

missionary

usually

teaches

the

sciences

of his

country in addition to the preaching of his gospel. The distant mission stations or monasteries of Buddhism were

(1)

There*1s no ground whatever to

suppose that Sushruta borrowed

his system of

medicine from the Greeks.

On

the

contrary, there

is

much

to tell against
(2) (3) (4)

such an idea— Weber's History of Indian Literature.

The

Origin and Growth of the Healing Art
I

— Bedroe P.
of

162.

Pratt's FloNiering Plants. Vol.

P. 57.

These *Simoi (venerable)
have rendered worship

whom
to

Clemeni

Alexandria

has

narraleil to
tiie relics

a

pjTamid originally dedicated to

of a god, were the Buddhi!»t Arhals (venerables) Sramanas.

Lalita-Vistaram— T\:iia

R^jendra

I.ala Milter's Edition.

Ch.

I.

INTRODUGTION.
the principal centres for
in distant lands,

IX

disseaiinating

Brahm^»nic culture
his'

and Hippocrates, though he did

utmost

to liberate medical sciertce

iVom the thraldom of speculative
it

philosophy,

yet

might have thought

necessary tG>tetain

only those truths of the Ayurveda

which

Pythagoras and
into
his

the Buddhistic brotherhood might have imported

country, and which
of

do not exactly appertain to the domain pure metaphysics. Of course, it is quite possible for men
nationalities
to

of different

arrive

at

the

same truth cr
i'l

conclusion independently. There are coincidences
as
of
in

science

art

and philosophy,
of

(i)

Gravitation and circulation

blood (2)
births

the

were known ta tfite Newton and Harvey

Indians long
in

before
cele-

Europe.

The

brated atomic theory was preached in

the

Gangetic valley
of Christ (3).

some
But
It

five

hundred years before the birth
ask those,

well

may we
stated

who

still

adhere to this Hellenic

hobby, to look

at

the reverse

side of the picture as well.
fear

may be

without the least

of contradiction

that the Charaka

and Sushruta, through
and
Latin

the

Channel of
form the

Arabic,

Persian

translations

still

Siddhanla Shiromani (Bhaskaracharyaya) GolodhyAya.

iT^^TR

^R ^fq

II

???Tg lifqcT'

^^
|

%-^^

^^^i

t%Tr:,

cI^t^

f^q^r

^JTT T\\^^

T.w^^m:

I

VTT^fl^TaiiT

(BhavaprakasUa).
to certain scholars, is

The Hdrita Samhitd, which according
the

older

than

Sushruta SamhitS, refers to the

circulation
is

of

blood

in

describing

I'induroga (Anemia).

The

disease, he observes,

caused by eating clay

which thus blocks the lumen of veins and obstructs the circulation of blood,
Bhcivamisra,
the

celebrated

author of Bh^vaprakdsham,

and who

is

a

century older than Harvey, has the above couplets bearing on the
(3)

sufcject.

Vaiseshika Darshana by Kandda.

X
basis of
all

Introduction.
»«•

sj-stems of s^ienti^c medicines in the

world

(i).

Of

these, the

Sushruta Samhit^

is

the most representative
It

;vork of the

Hindu system

of medicine.

embraces
(2).

all

that can possibly appertain to the science of medicine

Sushruta prior to Charaka :— The general consensus
of expert opinion
is

respect of time.

Charaka prior to Sushruta in Puninas unat^mously describe But the
to place

Sushruta as a disciple of Dhanvantari, the
of medical

first-propounder

The long compounds (samasas) used science. by him, the prose and metrical portions of the Sushruta after the models of Jaimini, Patanjali, and other philosophi,r
writers

cal

who had adopted
or
rationalistic
all

prose or metre

according to

the

e.xegetic

tenor of the subjects in their
a

works, have

been cited to prove Sushruta

contemporary
serve,
i.e.,

of the Darshanas, or of
least, to fix

Buddha.

But these may
but

at

the date of the recension by Nagarjuna,
as

the

Sushruta Samhita

we have

it,

can never help to

determine the chronology of Sushruta, the disciple of

Dhan-

vantari "who was churned out of the primordial ocean in the golden age (Satya Yuga) (3). On the other hand, if
(l)

A,

"The

great works of Charaka and Sushruta were translated into
the

Arabic, under the patronage of Kaliph Almansur, in

seventh century.
of

The Arabic
Latin.

version

of

Sushruta

is

known by

the

name

" Kelale-

Shawshoore-al-Hindi."

These translations

in their turn

were rendered into

The Latin

versions formed the basis of
to

European medicine, which
medicine

remained indebted
seventeenth

the

Eastern

science

of

down

to

the

century."— History
P. 196.

of the

Aryan Medical science (Th^kore

Saheb of Gondal)
B,

For

tljc

indebtedness of Arabic school of Medicine to the works of

Indian masters, see Puschmann P. 162.
C.
(2)

BednVe. Book IV. Ch. IL 286—299.
Dr.

Wise (Hindu system of medicine).

f^>?fT

^?5^^' ^'n?T^T

5B5f5TfT:

II

Garuda PurSnam.

Chip. 142, Vs.

5-6.

INTROniTC?ION.
the testimonies of the

,

xi

Puninas -have

anj-

histor^6al

worth,

we

ca!i safely

at least in

him somewhere in the Satya Yuga, (age) those dim centuries which immediate})' succeeded
place

the composition of the Atharvan.
tion with his discourse

Charaka, too. in coi^necfoetal

on the development of the
(ij

body

has
(tiie

cited the

opinion of Dhanvantaii

on the subject
S'amhita)

same

as

promulgated

in

the

Sushruta

&

referred his disciples to the Dhanvantari school

of surgeons
surgical

(meaning Sushruta and
aid

his school) in
;

cases

where

and knowledge are necessary

this proves that

Sushruta

was before Charaka.

Sushruta as a Surgeon
'•'igeon,
'ok )cal

:

— Stishr'uta
is all

was emphatically

a

and the Sushruta Samhiti
deals with

the only complete

we have which

the problems of practi-

surgery and midwifer}'.

Almost

the other Samhitas
us,

written by Sushruta's
lor are

fellow students are either lost to

but imperfectly preserved.

To Sushruta may
art

be

attri-

buted the glory of elevating the
or
forceps to the status of a

of

handling a lancet
science,

practical

and

it

maj'

not

be out
as

of place
it

here to give a

short history
in

of the

Ayurveda
times
if

was practised and understood
to

Pre-^uhsrutic

only

accentuate

the

improvements which he

introduced in every branch of medical science.

be guilty of ingratitude

We would Commentators of the Sushruta Samhita of our if we closed this portion
:

dissertation without expressing a deep sense of
tion
to

our

obliga-

Jejjada

Achiirya,

Gayadasa, Bhaskara,

Madhava,

Brahmadeva, Dallana and Chakrapani Datta, the celebrated commentators and scholiasts of the Samhitd, 'ji'lio have
laboured

much
(i)

to

make the book

a

repository
I

of priceless

^^i'f*T?fTiaTqKfH ^^^f^:

Charaka, .Shariraslhiinam. Chap.

\'.

I^Tt

EfTcT^T^Tt

ssit^'^^'I^^

">
II
'

Charaka, ChikitshSsth^nam. Chap. V.

xn

INTRODUCTION.
D'allana

wisdom

ancf experienge.
in

has

made

use of

all

the
of

commentaries

revising

and

collating

the

texts

.Sushruta Samhita.

Origin and History of the
of medicine, as in
all

A yurveda
their

:

—In

the science

other branches of study,

the ancient

Aryans claim to have derived
gods through direct
revelation.

knowledge from the
his

Su*shruta in

Samhita

has described the Ayurveda as a subdivision (Upanga) of the

Atharvan

(i),

while according to others
its

the science of the

Ayurveda has
(2).

origin in the verses of the
is

Indeed the origin of the science

lost

Rik Samhita in dim anti-

quity.

Death and disease there had been

in the world since

the advent of

man

;

it

was by following the examples of
that

lower

animals in disease,

our primitive
about
is

ancestors
of

acquired by chance the knowledge

the properties
a

many

valuable medicinal drugs.

There

verse

in

the

Rigveda which shows that the lower animals were the
preceptors of

man

in

matters of selecting food
Individual experiences in

stuffs

and

medicinal simples (3K

the realms

of cure and hygiene were collected, and codified,

and thus
verses in

formed

the

bases of the present Ayurveda.

The

the Vedas clearly

mark each
properties

step in the progress of medical of a

knowledge.

The

new drug were always
which enables us
a

hymned
to put

in a

Vedic verse with

a regularity

our finger upon the very time

when

particular

drug of our Materia

Medica

first

came

to be of service of

man

(4).
(i)

Sushruta Samhita, Sutrasthanam. Ch.

I.

3.

(2)

^jrC^^T^^i? ^qt?:
Charana ^^•uha by \^y5sa.

(3) (4)

jitfwT^*

^w(f[

I

^?^^

«i»

I

^^

I

^a.

A.

ipc: wii:

^gfi'?Tt^5Tifn It^r'^q^rd'T^

1

Atharvan SamhitS
U.

Sec also Ibid

I

2

II. 4. 7. 9. 25,

27 and 36.

INTRODUCTION.

,

Xlil

Discrepancies accounted'
hygiene, and surgery, etc.
lie

for

:

— Verses

q\i

medicine,

scattered throughout the four

Vedas.

most

in the

Those having bearing on Medicine proper occur Rigveda, and perhaps it was for this reasoT^i that

Agnivesha,

who was

a physician, has ascribed the^origin

of

the Ayurveda to

revelations in the Rik Samhitd.

Precepts"

relating to the art anu practice of surgery are found

most
fact

in

the

Atharvan

(i),

which amply accounts
he was pre-eminentl}'

for

the

of

Sushruta's opinion of holding the Ayurveda as a subdivision
of the Atharvan, as
a surgeon himself.

Different
labour

kinds of physicians :— Vedic
followers of the healing art.

India,

like

Ancient Egypt,

recognised the principle of the division of

among the

There were
time of

Shalya Vaidyas (surgeons), Bhisaks (physicians) and Bhisagatharvans (magic doctors), and
{

we

find that at the

the Mahabharatam, which nearly approaches the age of our

J

number of the sects had increased to five which were named as Rogaharas (physicians^ Shalyaharas (surauthor, the
geons),

Vishaharas (poison curers),
(2).

.

Krityaharas

(demon-

doctors) and Bhisag-Atharvans

In the Vedic age (before the age of Sushruta) physicians

had to go out into the open
(3^

streets, calling out for

patients

They

lived

in

houses

surrounded

by

gardens of

medicinal herbs.

The Rigveda mentions
(4).

the names of a

thousand and

one medicinal drugs

Verses eulogising

the virtues of water as an all-healer, and of certain trees and

herbs as purifiers of the atmosphere are not

uncommon

in

the

Vedas.
child

Indeed the rudiments of Embryology, Midwifery,

management
(i)

(pediatrics)

and sanitation were foimu'^]'^T\^

ciwT?^Tre5nf^=^=^

?^Tf*ni5iTW^M
I

1

Rik Samhitfi
(2)

M.

1

16-16.

MahAbhdratam. Shantiparva. Rajadharmanu^hashan Parv5dhydya.
(3)
^cT'

f^^^^

I

Rigveda.
(4)
sifT*

IX M»

112.

>

%

^m^ fm^

^^'^g^f^TT.

Rik.

XIV
lated in thecage of the

INTROgDUCTION.

Vedas

i^nd

Brahmanas, and

we

shall

present^'

see

how

from* these scanty- and confused materials

Sushruta created

a science

and a Sanjhita which
after

inv'ice

the

ddmirs^.ion of the world

even

thousands of years of

human

prc*gress.
:

Origin of A'yurvedic Surgery — In India, as in all other countries, curative spells and hewing mantras preceded and the first man of medicirte in India was medicine (i)
;

a priest, a Bhisag Atharvan,
a surgeon
in

who
first

held a superior position to

society.

The
wars

Aryan setLlements

in

the

Punjab were often
country,

assailed by

the

dark aborigines of the
fre-'

and

in

the

.that

ensued surgeons had
soldiery.

quently to attend to the Aryaa chiefs and
the Rigveda
(2)

So

in

we

find

that

legs

were amputated and
out,

replaced by iron substitutes, injured eyes were plucked

and arrow shafts were extracted from the limbs of the Aryan warriors. Nay we have reasons to believe that

many
But
for,

difficult

surgical

operations
of

were successfully perincredible.

formed, thougli

some
the

them sound almost
often

although
surgeons

aid

of surgery

was constantly sought
to

were

not

allowed

mix

in

the

Brahmanic society of Vedic India. This is hinted at by our author when he says that it was during the wars be tween the gods and demons that the Ashvins, the surgeons of heaven, did not become entitled to any sacrificial oblation
till

they had made themselves eligible for
sacrifice to his

it

by

uniting the

head of the god of
esting, but
(1)

decapitated
is

body.

The
the

story of the progress of
it

Ayurvedic surgery

long and inter-

must

suffice
of the

here to mention that with
Healing Art,

Bedroe"s Origin

and Sir John Lubbock's

Prehistoric times,

(2)

^^ 5igi^i^?5l
t
• «

f^aj^i^^ait

V%

f|fIWfT%
*

flsi^"*f'

II

»

»

Rik Samhita

I

A. 8 Ad. 186 S. 116.

5.

INTRODUCTION.
'

'

XV
>

return of peace, the small Aiynn settlements grew in

number

and

prosperit}-.

And
and

the rich Ar3'an nobles
as there

now

travelled in

stately carriages,

were constant accidents ihere
exclusively devoted tlfemselves

arose a class of surgeons

who

to the treatment of injured animals.

The

surgeons,

now no

longer required in camps and on battle

fields,

had to attend

on the

rich ladies at baronial castles during parturition, the magic doctor (Bhisag Atharvan) who could assuage fever and
(i)

concoct lo\e potions
all.

being held as the greatest of them

But the Vedic Aryans had a regular armoury against pain and suffering, which is in no way inferior to our present

day Materia Medica.
in

But of that we shall speak connection with the therapeutics of Sushruta.
Surgery.

later

on

The scope and nature of Sushruta's Surgery :- So
rnuch for the history of Vedic
(shruta
It
is

in
a

the

Su-

Samhita

that

we

first

come

across

systematic
older

method

of arranging the surgical experiences

of the

surgeons, and of collecting the scattered facts of the science

^fom the vast range of Vedic
desire of

literature.
in

Sushruta had no

abandoning the Vedas

the darkness and pushing

and the
glass,

en an independent voyage of discovery. The crude methods still cruder implements of incision such as, bits of
Samhita,

bamboo skins may bj the
tiiund

etc.,

laid

down and
primitive
ancestors
Practical

described in the

relics of

a

instrumentalogy
long
before

which

favour

vviih

our

the

hymnisation of any Rik verse.
a

surgery

requires

good knowledge of
at

practical

anatomy.

The
(2)'.

quartered
materials

animals
for

the Vedic sacriiices

afforded

excellent

the framing of a comparative
his

anatomy

Sushruta

devoted

whole

life

to the pursuit of surgery proper, to

Rik Samhit5.
(2)

X M.

145 S.

i.

Vide .^itareya Br^hmana

I,

2. II, i±. Ill,

37,

XVI

INTRODUCTION.

which he b/'ought a niyid stored with luminous analogies
from the lower animals.
It

was he who

first

classified

all

.surgical operations into five differe'nt

kinds,

and grouped

them under heads such as Aharya (extractions of solid bodies), Bhedya (excising), Chhedya (incising), Eshya (probing), Lekhya (scarifying), Sivya (suturing), Vedhya (puncturing) and Visravaniya (evacuating fluids). The surgery
of Sushruta recognises a

hundred and twenty-five
after

different

instruments,
birds,

constructed

the shape of beasts and

and authorises the surgeon to devise new instruments

according to the exigencies of each case.

The

qualifications

and equipments of
are

a

surgeon are practically the sam*^ as
refresh-

recommended at the present time. A light ment is enjoined to be given to the patient before a
operation, while abdominal
operations,

surgical

and operations

m
is

the

mouth

are advised to be performed while the patient

fasting.

Sushruta

enjoins

the sick

room

to be fumigated

with the vapours of
leaves,

white

mustard,

bdellium,

Nimva
fore-

'

and resinous gums

of Shala

trees, etc.,

which

shadows the antiseptic

^bacilli)

theory of modern times.

The
is

number

of surgical implements described in the

Samhita

decidedly small in comparison with the almost
resources of western surgery, and one
to

inexhaustible

may

be naturally led

suspect
to

the

au' henticity of

the glorious

achievements
;

claimed

have been performed by the surgeons of yore

but then their

kno vledge

of the properties
cases,

and virtues of
as

drugs were so great that
surgical nowadays,

which are reckoned

were cured with the help of medicines
"Surgery," says Tantram,
It
is

internally^pplied.

mutilation

not doctoring

(i).

should

only be employed

when the

(l)

Aif^s^qfq* f^5n tf^ si«3f^^

ifT<qi^T

I

].\TKOI)lf?TIO.\,,

xvii

alTected vital energy

is

not strcnig enough to al^lie effect the
is

cure

that

the surgeon

justified to

handle his kniYe.

We
and

find in

the Samhita

that

ophthalmic, obstetric and other
the

operations
caution.

were performed with

utmost
'

skill

Plastic

and

Hirschberg of Berlin ^ys

Rhinoplastic Operations :- Doctor "the whole plastic surgery in

Europe took
of Indian

a new flight when these cunning devices workmen became known to us." The transplanis

ting of sensible skin-flaps

also

an entirely. Indian
It
is

method
a

(Sushruta,
first

Sutrasthanam,

Ch. XV'I).

Sushruta who
of

successfully demonstrated tlie

feasibility

mending

dipt earlobe with a patch of sensible skin-flap scraped from the neck or the adjoining part.

To Sushruta
art
'

is

attributed the

glory

of discovering

the
sur-

of cataract-crouching

which was unknown to the

geons of ancient Greece and Egypt. Limbs were amputated,

abdominal

sections

were performed, fractures were

set,

dislocations, hernia
rind fistula

and ruptures were reduced, hcemorrhoids
in

were removed, and we take pride

saying that

the methods

recommended

in

the Sushruta Samhita some-

times

prove more successful

than those adopted by the
as

surgeons of modern

Europe,

we

shall

have occasion to

observe later on. In tho case where the intestines are injured,

Sushruta advises that "the protruded part should be gently
replaced by following

with
in
it,

the
if

fingevP

A

surgeon should
of a knife.

enlarge

the

wound

necessary, by

means

"m^^

^ffT

fTf%T^^

fm^-^ f^^ftg^

II

Mahanilatanlram, Patola X.
B.

\'~..

72-74.

See the Article on "Ileredily and some of
C.
Til/ell,

its

Surgical Aspects,"

By

F.

m. d.

The

^fediL»al

Advance Vd. LXIV. June iqo6.

Page 357.
\

X

xviii

j\TkMfnnrT[o\,
••

In the
parts

cas% where the intestine

is

severed, the

severed

s'hoLild

be held together by applying living black
ends.

ants

to

their

Then

their

bodies should be cut off

Teaviifg
in

only

the

heads to serve the same purpose which
After this the intestine should
Ct^-ity

moderrt improved European surgery an animal tissue like
is

catgut

expected to

4'ulfill.

be fairly replaced in the abdominal

and the external

opening stitched and properly dressed.

We
of

abstain

here

from

a

lengthy description of the different methods recomin

mended by the Sushruta
peritoneal wounds.
this

cases

abdominal
to

and

We
in

only ask our

readers

compare

Chapter

(II

Chikitsa^thaTiam) of the

Sushruta Samhita

with the Chapter
whicli
plasters

anv work on European chirurgery
subject.
localise

deals

with

the same

Certain

medicinal

were used to be applied to
in the limbs of

the shafts of arrows

embedded

wounded
a plaster

soldiers

and their exact

locations were ascertained from the inflammation caused

bv the application of such

with a precision which
in

would be sometimes welcome even
rays.

these days of Rontgen

Lithotomic Operations instructions have been given
:

-In
for

these

cases,

elaborate
perineal

making
In
a

the

incision,

as well as

about the care and general management
operation.
case

of the patient after the

of Shukra-

shmari
tion

(seminal

or of

spermatic concretion)

the

forma-

and existence

which

have been verv recentlv
Sushruta enjoins that

discovered bv English

pathologists,

the stone,
help of

if

in

the

urethra, should be
urethral

removed with the
extracted

Anyvdsanam and

enematas, failing which
concretion

the penis should be cut open and the

with the help of a hook.
in

Kavinij

I'mesii

Chandra (Jupla
the

the introduction to his Vaidyaka Shavda-Sindhu remarks,

that

he and !>, Durgddasa Gupta M. B. translated

Chapters on lithotomic operations and instrumental parturition «f the Susbrufa

Samhita
of

for

the perusal of Dr Charles,
College,

the

then

Principal

the

Medical

Calcutta.

rNTRODUCTlON.
t >

XIX

''Dr.

Charles

highly

praised

the

pvocess
I

ot

clelivt^ry
all

in

difficult ca^es

and even

coijfessed

hat

with

his great
hdi}

experience
idea
of the

in

midwifery and surgery he never
like

any

heing found in

all

the medical \\;orks that

came under

his observation."
:

Amputation
tics
(i).

— Amputation^
to
rest

were freely
the
the

made

and

medicated wines, were given
Sushruta does not

patients as anccsthe-

These conclusivelv show

thai

surgery of

content with the mere bursting or
of

opening of an abscess, and the healing

the incidental

wound, but

lays

down

processes for major operations as well.
it

The removal

of the cicatrix until

becomes

of

the same

colour with the surrounding skin

and the growth of hair
else.

thereon are suggestions which we find nowhere

Ophthalmic Surgery
ophthalmic
OP*-"
is

:

— Of

the

seventy

six varieties of

diseases.

Sushruta holds that fifty-one are surgical

Tra

Tantram Ch. Vlllu

The mode

of operation

which

tV'

be performed in each

case has been elaborately de-

scribed in the Samhita, and does not unfavourably
in

compare

most

instances

with

modern
angle
of

methods

of

ophthalmic
the angle of

surgery.

Sushruta was aware of the
is

fact that

veHection

equal to the

incidence, and that the

same ray which impinges upon the retina serves the double
purpose of illumining the eye and the external world, and
is

in itself

converted into the sensation of
:

light.

Midwifery
that one

It is

in the region of

practical

midwifery
of

becomes

so

much impressed

with the greatness

Sushruta.

The

different turning, flexing, gliding

movements,
la1:)our

the application of the forceps in cases of difficult

and
and
iirsl

other obstetric operations in\uiving
mutilation
of

the

deslructioJi

the child,

such

as

craniotomy,

were

systematically
before
fillets

described in

the

Subhiuta

Sauihitd
in

lung

and forceps were dreamt of
<

Europe, and

thousands of years before the birth uf Christ. Sushruta,
(i)

who
}

For

llie

use of .Sanmohinis (an,Teslheiics) for surgical purposes, sec
\>v I'.allAla

Hhoia Prabandlia

T'andil.

XX

»

INTKOnUCTION.
iri

advocates Clesarean se^nion
lays

hopeless cases

of

obslruclion,
in

down

that the instrument should be

employed only

those

cases

where the proportion between the child and the
is

maternal passage
fumigations,
etc..

so

defective

that medicated plasters,
a

are not sufficient to effect

natural delivery.

management of the puerperal state, lactation and management of the chijd and the choice of a wet-nurse are substantial!}- the same as are found in modern scientific works of European authors. A feeling of pride and joy moves our heart when we contrast these
His directions regarding
the
glorious achievements of our ancestors with the meanness of
results

which modern Europe has gained
In

in this

department

of midwifer}-.

those old

days perhaps there were no

hospitals to huddle patients together in the

same room and
which are

therebv to create

artificiallv

septicemic
in

poisons

now
with

so

common and
room
of

so fatal
in

lying-in rooms.

A

ne^-'^'

built Iving-in

an open

space

abunduntly
of

suf^s-ea J

the

rays

the sun and heat of the burning
the

f^ie for

each

individual
for

case,

recommendation
of the cord

a

fresh

bamboo-chip
the value

the section the west

are suggestions
to

of which

has

yet

learn

from

the east.

the

Dissection :--Sushruta, himself a practical surgeon, was first to advocate dissection of dead bodies as indispen-

sable for a successful student of Surgery.

The

Paritschittas of

ancient Egypt perhaps learnt their art from the Purusachettas
(Dissector) of ancient India.

among western

scholars

With a candour less common Dr. Wise observes that, ''the
credit of having,

Hindu philosophers undoubtedly deserve the

though opposed bv strong preiudire, entertained sound and philosophical views respecting the uses of the dead to the
living,

and were the

first scientific

and successful cultivator?
all

of the most important and essential of

the departments of

medical knowledge, practical anatomy".
is

A

bungling burgeon
"theorv without

a public
is

danger and Sushiuta savs
like a onc-wingetl bird that

iliat,
is

practice

incapable of flight".

lNTK01)UCT!(ON.
>

»

XXI

>

Study of Practical Surgery :— To
surgical operations, the pupils of

give

effii-iency

in

Dhan^antari(Sushruta
first

etc.)

were asked to try their knives repeatedly

on natural
ofv>

and

artificial objects

resembling the diseased
operation.

parts

the

for body before undertaking an actual example, was practised on Pushpafala /cucerbeta maxima), Alavu (Longenaris Vulgaris) or Trapusha (cucmis pubescuas),

Incision,

evacuating on

leatfier

bags

full of

water and on the

urinary
hides
of

bladders of dead

animals,

scarification

on

the

animals on which the hair was allowed to remain.
tion

Venesec-

was practised on the
:

vessels of

dead animals and on the
stuffing

stalks of the water-lily

the art

.of

and probing on
on

bamboo

reeds etc.

:

extraction of solid

bodies
fruit,

Panasa on

(Artocarpus Integrifolia) and

such like

scraping

wax spread on

a

Shalmali

(Bombox Malabaricum)
or

plank,

and suturing on pieces of
(both actual and potential
terisation
It is

cloth, skin

hide.

Ligaturing

and bandaging were practised on
)

dummies, cauterisation
flesh,
filled

on pieces of
vessels

and cathewith water.
talk of

on

unbaked earthen

almost with a feeling of wonder
excrescences

we hear him

extirpation of uterine

and discourse on the
operating
facts

necessity of observing caution in surgically

upon
be

uterine

tumours

(Raktarvudai.

These
that

should

borne

in

mind

as

thev would help us a good deal in accountare
to be found in

ing for

the numerous anomalies

the anatomical portions of the Samhita.

Study of Practical Anatomy :— We have
fore

stated

be-

that

tb.e

quartered

sacrificial

animals

afforded

excellent materials for the framing of comparative anatomy.

The Aitareya Brahmana
quartering of such
preceptors availed

contains special injunction
(i)

for

the the

animals

and

we

are

told

that

themselves of the religious meetings to

(i)

The Ailaicya

Firaliniana

describes a

)iaitirular
'wliich

wav of

tlividini;

the orgaas

and viscera of the

sirriticjjil

animals
i.

was kepi 'secret

among

the priesls. Aitareya

Brahmana VIII.

XXII
<

INIROniJCTIOX.

deinonslrjiLe the lessons ou^ practical
I.

anatomy.
Rigveda,

We
and

come
the
(Rik)
(

acrosj;

such terms as the heart, stomach, brain,
liver, spleen,

intestines,

anus,
*'

uterus
(i).

etc',

iv
is

the

Aitaj-e3'a

Brdhmana

There

an entire h\inn

devoted* to the subject

and treatment of Phthisis

Knja

Yakshma) which becomes utterly unintelligible in the absence of an accurate knowledge about the structure of lungs, and mechanism of the human heart. The Vtdic Arya fully understood the resultant nature of the human organism. The Rik Mantra, which to this day is recited on
the occasion of a funeral ceremony, ampl}' testifies to the fact
that he used to look upon his mortal frame as
of the

the

product
(2).

combination of the
effects of

five

physical

elements

He
tion

understood the

different drugs

upon
muscles,

digesflesh
It is

and the

office

which the

tendons,

and nerves,
in
at

etc.

respectively

serve in the economy.
a

the

Sushruta Samhita that we find
facts

systematic attempt
observation.

arranging together the
age
of

of anatomical

The

Sushruta,

the

Acharyic age of the Ayurveda,

was a period of
colonists

scientific investigation.

The

sturd}for

Aryan
luxuiy
Jn

exchanged their simple mode of living

and

ease.

The number
A.
fT^T

of

general diseases was great.

(

1

)

^^^ f ?gjnri:«3

f^fsffTTiRii
\'.

Rik Samhita

\'II,

I, -'3,

538.

H.

\ide also .Ailareya BrShmana

I

2.

II 12. Ill 37.

(2)

The

iialuie of the huiiiaii

body as

tile

resulting

efi'ect

of

tlie

C(im-

hinatidii dftlu' live

elementals havcheen clearly described

in the verse.

^Tqt'TTiI^ qf? era
*

n

f%rT?ft^y'l«I^

wfaf^VTTSlf 1»:

I

Rik Samhita
Let his eye go
t(j

X

M. 16

S. 3.

Which

l)eing translated reads :—

the sun,

let his

breaththe

wind nVx with the wind'of the atmosphere,
cereals the parts

and
them.

to
Cvc.

the sky.

earth and

which ha\e

spriint; out of

ixTR'onurTioN. vain
living

»

XX 111

did

the

holy

Narada
simpl'e

(i)

^reacl] the

gospd

of plain

and

high thinking, and exhort them,
to

like

Cato,

to

return

their

mode

of

life.

The

long peace

brought opulence

in its train

and wealth begot indolence
Angira, Yamadagni,

and

disease.

Men

like

Bharadvaja,

Atreya,

Gautama, Agastya, Vdmadeva', Kapisthala,
Bhargava, Kusliika,

Asa-

marthya,
ksha,

Kdpya, Kashyapa, SharkaraAgnivesha,
Charaka,
Paingi and

Shaunaka,

Manmathayani,
Pulastya,
Asita,

Sushruta, Narada,

Chyavana,

Dhaumya
a

etc.

began to write Samhitas. Each hermitage was

College of Ayurveda, and the empirical method of investi-

gation was introduced into each department of the science
of cure.

Anatomical

Anomalies in the Samhita :— Having
of

got so far in our analysis, before passing on to the study

the Anatomical portion of the Sushruta Samhita,
try
to

we must
the
line

account for the

many anomalies and

discrepancies

that have crept into or have been suffered to remain in

present recension of the book.
in

Take, for example, the
to

which Dhanvantari

is

made

speak of three hundred
It is

bones in the

human

organism.

impossible that the

human
of
its

frame,

in so short a time,

has got rid of so

many

of

skeletal accessories simply

through disuse, or because
the altered condition of
to
its

of their

becoming superfluous

in

environments.

More absurd
a

is it

think that

Sushruta,

who

discards

all

authority except the

testimony of positive
the blind
of the
oT^

knowledge, would write

thing which none but

would believe
ill

in a dissecting

room.

The

spirit

a^re

which he

flouri:>lied piecliided

the possibility

such an

crrnr.

Anomalies accounted for
chosen
for

:

-In ancient India, subjects
of practical

the demonstration
(2),

always children
(i)

anatomy were and naturally those bones, which are
13.
is

Vide Aitann'a Br5hmana VII.

(2)

The

injunction of ihe

Hindu

Sllasiras

ihat '-corpse of persons

more than 2 years old should he burned."

Cremation of dead bodies bein"

xxi\-

f

(\'^Roi)rc~Ti().\.

fused or''«'inaslon"iised inlo'one whole durine: adult
been' separately
to

life,

have

enumerated

a

circumstance which
excess in the

may,
of

some

extent,

account for

th'e
(i).

number

bon'es described in this

Samhita

Likewise the theory that

Sushrula might have included the teeth and the cartilages
within
but
It

the

list

of

s'iveletal

bones comes very near the truth,
trtith either.

does not reflect the whole
orignial
;

The

fact

is

that the

Sushruta Samhita

has

passed

through
nor the
light,

several recensions

and we have reasons to believe that the
is

present one by
last

Nagarjuna

neither

the only

one made.

The

redactors, according to their
in'terpbLitions
in

own
and

have

made man\-

the

text,

when
12).

Brahmanas, thev have tried to come
at points of

to a sort of

compromise
the
;-|0

disagieement with the teachings of the Vedas
that

Therefore

it is

we come

across such statements
in

in

Samhita
it is

as ''there are

360 bones

the

human

body,

in the Vedas, but the science of surgery recognises three

hundred

skeletal bones."
is

What

lends a greater colour to the

hypothesis

that Sushruta, who, in the Chapter on

Marma

Shariram, has so accurately described the unions of bones

and ligaments, anastomoses of nerves, veins and
obligatory on Government,
;is

arteries etc.,

well as on private

individuals,

it

was almost

impossible
the
tion
spirit

to

secure a

full-grown anatomical
that the
vvilii

subject in

I'auranic India,

more

so

when we consider
oi

Hindus look upon the non-cremaa peculiar horror as the
it

and mutilation
from purging
to

a

corpse

prevents the

off its

uncleanness in
life.

funeral
in

fire,

and bars

ilf

access

a higher

spiritual

Naturally

later

and more
2

cere-

moniil times the interred corpses of infants,
to

less

than
;

\ears

old,

had

be unearthed and dissected for anatomical purposes
SamliitS

and these portions

of the Sushruta

might have been modified by the subsequent

commentators
(i)

in

order to conform them to occular proofs.— T. R.

See

Tiray's

Anatomy {1897)
vi?i':

p.

2S8 and 301 Figs. 248 and 262.

(2)

"'?f^T*fgtw;

^^rfij^: ^T^?nf" 1"

\ishnu Smriti.

Ch, 96.

55.

(,'haraka. Shfiriraslli^nani.

INTRODUCMON.

,

XXV

must have described their courszs and locations, a,L? otherwise suigeons, it would have been quite impossible for practical
for

whom

it

was intended, to conform

to

the directions of the
limbs^,

Samhita
therein.
classes

in surgically

operating on their patients'

and

to avoid those vulnerable unions or

anastomoses as"'enjo'ned
into

These Marmas have been 'divided
such
as,

three

the Sadya-prana-hara
as

:

Kala-pnina-hara,
to

and Vaikalya-kara, according
proves instantaneously
is

an

injur}'
fatal in

any of them

fatal,

or

course of time, or

followed

b}-^

a

maimed condition
in

of the limb concerned.

The

fact is that

the study of practical the
reig>n

Anatomy was
Ashoka

in

a

manner forbidden
inasmuch
royal
as ail
(i),

of

Pij-adarshi
a

religious

sacrifices

were prohibited by
of the

edict
also

and the subsequent

commentators (who
Sushruta

were

redactors

on

a

small

scale)

jSamhita, in the absence of any positive knowledge
subject,

on the

had to grope their way out
;

in

darkness as best
of texts and of the

they could

hence,

this

wanton mutilation

hopeless confusion of verses in the Sharira

Sthanam

present day Sushruta Samhita, which should be re-arranged

and restored to their proper chapters before any definite
opinion can be pronounced
of the holy Sushruta.

on the anatomical

knowledge
chapter

Sushruta as
of his
Sh.irira
is

a

Biologist

•.

— h^

the

tirst

Sthanani, Sushruta discusses the question.
lies

what

man, wherein

his

individualit v,

why
all ?

does

he come into being,
all

why
to

does he

die

at

Like

Indian

philosophers,

Sushruta

argues

the
factors
in

question
or
its

down from
that
sical aspect,

the

universe

man.
the

The
the

laws,

govern the evolution of
are

universe

phy-

extended to cover

evolution of the

physical aspect of

man

(organic

evolution).

There
fails

is

but

one law and one force which run through
of mind, matter and spirit.
(l)

-the three

plains
loc^k

Physiology, that
i.f

to
26f.

fournal of ihe .\siiiUc Society

CulciUla

\'n\.

\'U.

P.

XXvi
into the iKiLure of

INTRODUCTION.
<•

life

and iU background and
living force as
cells, is

tries to

ex-

plain

t-.iway

thib

intelligent,

the product of
at

chemiQal
all.

action

of
life,

the

organ'ic

no Physiology
Cells

'.Cell is

not

but there
li-fe.

is life

in a cell.

may

be
it

called the true bearers of
is

Dr.

Weismann

insists that

more

correct to sppak of the

continuity
ceils."

of the

general

protoplasm than of "the germ

Professors

Geddes
torches

and Thomson observe

that, "the bodies are but the

which burn out, while the living flame has passed throughout the organic series unextinguished.
leaves which
fall

The

bodies are the

in

dying from the continuously growing
of the

branch. Thus although deafh take inexorable grasp
individual, the continuance of the
life is still

in a

deep sense
recreating

unaffected

;

the reproductive elements

(cells)

have already
with
self,

claimed their protozoan immortality, are already
a

new

body.'"

But

to invest these reproductive cells

immortality, and to deny the same

to

the

individual
is

which directs and controls these protoplasms, and

before

and behind them,
of the

is

like

the statement of Prof. Huxlev
of the

when he admits the chance
organic

physical

transmigration

constituents

of

the

human

body, and yet

denies the possibility of an individual self continuing in

any

other

form.

"It

is

sensibility," observes Sushruta, "that
;

precedes

the senses
all

and

self,

the sensibility proceeds from

the self to which

such conditions are referred as mine."
is

Sushruta's Theory of Cosmogony
old

based

on the

S;inkhya

Duality of Prakriti (Objective) and Purusha

(Subjective).

The two

are coeval

and co-extensive

realities.

Out
the

of

the

Avyakta (unmanifest)
has

or Prakriti has evolved

Mahai, the (inimatcd cosmic matter.
matter
or

Out

of

this

cosmic
dualit\-

evolved Ahamk;ira (the sense of indivicorrectly

more
kinjs

egoism)

which

is

divided

into

thrt-e

such

as

the

Vaikarika

(phenomenal,

ihought-fornii,
In
in
il^e
first

Taijasa

(kinetic),

and Bhut;idi (pertaining
\'"aik;irika

form of matter).

This

Ahamkara
fathered

combination with the Taijasa Ahamkara

has

iNTRonurfioN.
1.1

>

xxvii

the

eleven

sense

organs,

whith.
five

in

combinatiqii with the
or
{iroper

Bnutadi, have produced
sensibles of

the
^

Tanmatras
etc.

touch,

sight,
light,
five

hearing,
taste,

The
etc.,

material
biJ't

principles of

sound,

smell,

are

the

modifications of these
(ethereon),
forms.
as

Tanmatras, of which'* Akisha
and
soui-^d, etc.

Vayu

(ether), light,

are the grosser

the

In other wordfl, these Tanmatras may he defined atomic essences of the material principles of sound,
ether,
etc.

light,

In

addition

to

these,

Sushruta,

Hke

Kapila,

admits the existence of a kind of atom-like units

of consciousness,
of'

which he

calls

Purusha.

The combination
the
latter.

the sixteen aforesaid

categories
of

and
the

Purusha

is

for

the expansion and liberation
(individual),
is

A human
for

being

who

is

the
of the

fit

subject

medical

treatment,

the product

combination of Purusha

with

the

five

primordial material principles (iMahabhutas).
real

The Purushas,
their
all

selves

of

beings,

the

sources

of

vital

energy,

and the controllers and directors of
their

organic or mental actions, are extremely subtile in

essence,

and

manifest seed
It
is

themselves
(paternal

onlv

through
or

the

combination of the
(maternal element).

element)

ovum

the

Karma
be
it

(dynamics of acts

done by
the
wcii

a

person in
of

a prior
it

existence) which deterinines
will

nature
cts

the

body

clothed

with,

as
in,

che nat'Te of the

womb
is

shall

be conceived

in its

next incarnation.
:

Nature of Self
such,
force.
is

v^;

elf

a

simple substance, and, as

immaterial.
It
is

Force

is

substance

and substance,
intelligepce,

is

endued with constructive
any way, disturbing h.
other
words,

and,

like

gravitation or cohesion, can permeate a material body,
in
It
is

without,

adaptative

or

elective, or, in
its

elects that

kind of selves for
its

parents as are best suited to the
is

purposes* of
se.f, a

being.

Man
with
of

the outcome of an influx of a

force, a

dynamis

its

path determined
existence.

by the dynamics of the d^jeds
think
that vitality starts from

its

prior

To

xxviii

,

iNTifoniTCTioN.
••

protoplastfv
is but',

is

insanity.

Cimemically

examined protoplasm
C, O,

C, O, H,

N

anci S.
will

But no amount of
constit<ite
it,

H,

N

afid

S put together

life.

The

idea that

life 'iias

nothing prior to

that the force which controls

the co-ordination of man's
of
his

economy perished with the death
puerile.
is

organism,
and,

is'quite
as

Life
to

is

expansion and
those

not

creation,

such,
its

linked

unseen

realities

which constitute

prior

and future

selves.

We

see only the middle link in

the

chain of existence which

we
is

call life,

but take no notice of the preceding or succeeding
are invisible
(i).

ones which
linked to

The

grosser

material
as

body
So

a finer, imma<;erial one, in as

much

nothing

can exist
at

vvithout

being attached
there
is

to

its

antecedent.

each conception
lifeless

the

influx of a

new

self, for

the
a

constituents

of a

human body can
or

not create

man, no matter how many chemical

physiological

may be postulated to run to their rescue. Ayurvedic Embryology — Before entering discussion of Sushruta's tiieory of conception, we
actions
:

into
shall

the

take

a little

on the subject.
of

more trouble to enunciate fully the Vedic theories "The child is the fruit of the combination
(2'.

sperm and ovum"

It

lies

with

its

head downward
out
of,

inside the uterus, a fact

which
eyes

facilitates its passage

and protects
that
viscus.

its

form from the

effects of

anv

injur}'

done to

(3)

The

of

the

child

a-y

..n^finrtltTi'',

Bhagavat Gita II. 28.
(2)

^f

^wic^t ^ra: ';^»j]3R^5i'^^f^:

1

Astanga llridayam (Vagbhat)
c

ShArira SthSnam.

Ch,

I.

i.

«

*

*
'

^

r\^Tf[
*

^'^^Vh

?clT

1

Aiteriya

Brahmana

\'I.

ic

g(^

introduct?oa.
1.1

i

xxix

as the cephalic portion of the feJal

body
to

is

tirst

,».1eveloped.

The
the

factors,
fetal

which are essential
from
the
of the

the

developme'nt of
to

hody,

time of

fecundation

the

'ippearance

characteristic
of the

sense-organs,
(i).

have '^een
thfe

described in a verse

Rig Veda
is

In

Vedic
the

mythology each organic function
tutelage of
a

'consecrated to

presiding^' deity,

and

a

Vedic Aryan loves
its

to call a thing oftener by the

name

of

divine

custodian
verse

than

by that
as

of

its

own.
:

Rightly

translated, the

would read
Tvashta
bring

follows

— "May
force)

Vishnu

(the

presiding

deity of ether
(the

and nerve
presiding

expand thy uterus,
'of

may

deity

heat
of

and

metabolism)

about

the

full

differentiation

the limbs and the

sex of the

foetus,

may
of

Prajapati
uterus,
lortl

(the

presiding deity

of

the

ovum) sprinkle thy
(goddess
f>1'

and mayst thou conceive
of

through the blessing
Snrasvati

the

human
the

destiny.

May
the

of

intellect)

and

Ashvins,

surgeons

the

gods (the

|iresiding

deity of

fission, etc.)

help thee in taking the seed."

Now, the development
pattern
of
of
its its

of

the

fetal

body takes place
this

after the

father's

species,

and

conformity to the pattern
of

species

represents

an

act

intellection.

Hence, the aid of the
with
the
of

goddess
celestial

of

intellect

has

been

invoked
over

that of the

surgeons,
so

who
its

preside
to

process

of

cell-division,

essential

the

formation
the
verse

the

fetal

limbs.

Divested

of

allegory,

would

mean

(i)

f^^?itf^ ^^?tg, ^^T^qTt% f^sig

I

JTwf

^f% f^5?t^T#,

w ^f?

T?:«^frr

I

rf

Tf 5fIW

^WlH'i ^^fT

*?Tffl fl^f?^
'

II

Rik Samhila X, M. 184,

S.

XXX
that

t

INTfionUCTION.
into a

the •§perm

led

healthy

and

well-developed
activity

uteru5 through
of the-^ local
in
tViat

the agency of the

Vayu

(increased

nerves) meets

the 'maternal element (ovum)

viscus.

Then the impregnated matter undergoes
and takes shape
after the pattern of

a
its

process of fission,
father's
species.
as

When we
the
as

think

of

so

many

idle

speculations

regards

proces%

of fertilisation,

which
i8th

obtained credence so late

the

beginning of the
that

century in Europe, and

the

controversies

arose

between the Ovists, Performists and Animalculists (i), we cannot help regretting that the Ayurvedic Embryology,
which started under such h'appy auspices, could not fully solve the problem of fertilisation even before the advent
of

the

Tantrik age.
the

The fundamental
of

principles

with

which

Embryology
etc.)

the

Acharyayas (Sushruta,
substaritially

Dhanvantari,
as

was started are

the
of

same
the

have now been discovered

by the

researches

Sushruta in his dissertation on the Western workers. illegitimacy which lay at the root of his subject showed the
predecessor's

theory

(

Sharirasthanam Chap.

II.

)

and took

up research exactlv where the Vedic Rishis had left off. He clearly demonstrated the fact thai "by a physiological
process
is

known
in

as

Rasapika (metabolism) the
into

hmph

chyle
in

metamorphosed
carried

sperm
a

in

men, or into ovum

women,
is

the course of

month.

The

catamenial

fluid

down into the uterus through its proper ducts. The sperm or ovum is thus the quintessence of a man's The sperm meets the ovum (Artavam) or a woman's body.
in the ute;-us,

which resembles
is

a

lotus-bud
a

in

shape,
deposit

and
as

whose aperture
soon
as
for

shut

up with

fecundation

takes place.
is

mucous The most

favourable

time

fecundation

between the fourth and twelfth
the
flow

day

after the af)pearance of

(Garbhakala)" as has

(»)

For a short history of
P.

tlie

Theories of Fertilisation, Vide Evolution

of

Sex (Prof.

Geddes and

J.

A. Thompson) Chap. XII. pp.

169— 171.

JNTRODUCT?0\.
I'

>

XXXI
''of

been

lately

demonstrated

by 'the

researches

Prof.

Von

Ott.

(I).

relative

Sexual Diamorphism :— Some light is thrown on the preponderance of the sperm and ovum in the Birth
a

of

female child.
is

"When
female
malfe.
;

the maternal element prepon-

derates the child

when the

'fraternal

element

is

stronger the child
equal, the child
is

is

When
birth

both

the

elements are
least

of

no

sex.'"

In theory at
of
is

Sushruta

admits the possibility of the
single conception.
its

many

children at a

"When
points
is

the seed

divided into
the

two by

inherent force (Vayu), twins are born in

womb" —
multifarious

statement

which

to

the 'irresistible conclusion that

multiplicity of birth
fission

the the

outcome

of

the

of the

seed

in

womb

under certain abnormal
that,
in

conditions.

Sushruta gives
circumstances,

a reason for believing

exceptional
unfertilised

and without sexual union, the
rise

ovum may

give

to perfect oflTspring, thus

giving a prevision of the modern theory of parthenogenesis.
Pathological parthenogenesis has occasionally been
in

noticed
respect

higher animals.

Oellacher has

noted
it

this

in

of hen's eggs, and Janosik has observed of

in

the ovarian ova

many mammals such
the

as

the guinea-pig, etc. (2)
to

Sushruta
certain

extends

probability

the

human ova under
possibility

conditions.

He

admits

the

of

conception
element,
the

without

the

admixture of the male
like
all

germinal

though he observes that

asexual
in

genesis"
case."

development dots not proceed far such a hypothesis it is but one step
enunciates
the
possibility

the

From
proper

to

the

theory which

of conception

withou?

sexual union.

But
(1)

to

understand

his

theory of sexual diamorphism,
prepared by

it

Vide ihe chari of menstrual wave

V*n Ou

given in

ilan and
(2)

Woman '(Havelock

and

Ellis)

Chap.

XL
,

The Evolution

of Sc.k Ch. XIII. P. 1S5.

rn>/. p. r,eihlclfn,(} J.

A, Thnmps.m.

XXxii

«-

INI^RODUCTION.
t

is

necessary thai on^shouFd fully compreliend the meaning

of such

Ayuryedic terms on the subject

as

Ichchha Shakli

(will-force).

Shukra-Vahulyam

(\)

(preponderance of the

male reproductive element) and Shonita-Vahulyam (preponderance of the female reproductive element)
in
etc.

Sushruta,

common

with 'the
distinction

Brahmanic
of sex
h'as

philosophers of Ind,

believed that

evolved from
his

a

pri-

mordial hermaijhroditism.

Manu
in

in

Institutes

has
style.

emphasised the

fact (2),

though

a

highly

poetic

He
of

observes that "the Purusha (Logos), by a stroke of Will,
its

divided

body (animated cosmic matter) into two, one

which was male, and the other female."
''the

The Tantra
an
;

says that,

male part was endued
is

with

energy

(force) of its

own, which

called

Pitrika Shaktl
the
one,
is

and the
is

corresponding female part, with

which

called
;

Matrika Shakti.
•Matrika

Pitrika
a

Shakti

a disruptive force

Shakti

is

constructive
in

energy.
is

Though

the

conception of force

Sanskrit

sciences

but partially

physical, the nearest approach to

the

connotations of the

Pitrika and Matrika Shakti

is

made by the terms Anathe

bolism and KatabolisiU
Sanskrit physiology
vital

of

Western
and
has

physiologists.

recognises

the two opposite not

poles of

force

in

a

living

organism,

taken

inconsiderate pains to determine

their exact locations in

mau

and woman.
the
left

Matrika Shakti,
of a

it

observes, predominates in
is

half

woman's organism, which

negative as
that,
in

regards vital magnetism. {3)
cases

Now, Sushruta
is

says

where female offspring
(l)

desired, the enceinte

should

Shdiiia-sth^iiani Ch. II.

(2)

f^ifi^n«r*^ ^^»TiT
'^i^
sfrff r\f^i

3«i«iT5«^fT
nij11

^

f^?;T5w^5TrT

Manu
(2.)

.Samhili Ch.
1

I.

J2.

^f^^irtar;

*JI

fi:

ijt^ sfmwnflf^S'T'RT;

SfiradS Tilak Tanlrani.

INTRODbCTVJN.
snufF through her
herbals), while the
left nostril

XXXIU

(thq expressed juice Qf certain

her right nostril

same should be administered through where njale* issue would be the object. In
(Piti;}ka)

other words, the anabolic (Mairika) or katabolic
forces

of a

mother's

organism can be so adjusted with the

help of drug-dynamics, as to determine, the sex of the child
in

the

womb.
is

The

b',rth

of a

male child

is

usually pre-

saged by the appearance

of the

milk (which according to
in

Sushruta

metamorphised menstraal blood)
;

the right

breast of the enceinte

and where that has been effected with the help of suitable medicines, it must be presumed that the Katabolic pole of her glife-force has been acted
upon, as desired.

The
of the
clearly

original hermaphroditism,
all

which forms the anterior
energy,

condition of

subsequent sex distinctions, and the character
vital

two opposite poles of
set

have been very
of

forth in

the

Pauranik

allegory

Ardha-

Narishvara(i).
is

The

figure, observes the
;

Pauranik rhapsodist,
(since,

half male, half female
fact,
is
;

half

life,

half death
;

death,

in

the father

of

Hfe)

(2)

half anabolism, half

katabolism
s3'mbol

with the

crescent

of progressive evolution on

moon, the premise, the its brow, is made to sit
the
inmiutable

on the eternal bull, the
law of the universe
(lit
:

representative of

— the four-footed order). The Rishis
fully
at

and Rasasiddhas of ancient India were
the fact that, conception
sacrifice
is

aware

of

effected

only
;

an enormous
the

on the part of the mother
the real manufacturer of
life,

that

Matrika

Shakti

is

and that the Pitrika
into play only

Shakti (paternal element) evokes, or

calls it

through
the
contact.

its

disintegrating or disruptive effect by separating
life-poles, that lie

two opposite

neutralised

through

It is love that
(i)

governs these two complementary
7.

Vishnu PurSnam Ch.

Vs. lo-ii.
«TTJrfff

*

(2)

mm: F?^n ^^^^^ ^t^

^^v.

1

Mahdbhaialam.

xxxiv
forces of
.life

INTRODUCTION.

and death

(i),

(though

in' fact

they represent

the two different
its

aspects of the same energy) and controls

evolutionary

rhythms

through the desire of seeing

itself

many though one

in reality.

Does not modern biology

endorse the same view when it says that the reproductive are the cells, as protozoons,.are immortal, and that bodies
natural appendages which blossom.forth and fall off round these cells for the fructification of their innate purposes
of being (2)?

A
sion

little

more investigation into the

biological

thesis

of the Rishis would be necessary for the clear comprehen-

"Shukra-Vahulyani" and '"Shonita-Vahulyam" of Sushruta and other Tantras (3). iMan is both animal and
'

of

spirit

and the Ayurvedic physiology recognises two distinct sets of apparatus in his organism answering to the different phases of his existence. The one helps him in performing
;

the organic functions, which are so essential to his animal existence, and keeps intact the co-ordination of those internal

functions with the incidents of his environments.
is

The

other

attuned to the finer forces of nature, and responds
(I)

The Evolution

of Sex. Ch.

XVIII.
to a

Prof. P. Gedde/i and J, A. Thomson.
(2)

"The body

or soma'\

Weismann

says,

"thus appears

certain

extent as a subsidiary appendage of the true bearers of the life,— the repro-

ductive cells".

Ray Lankester has again well expressed

this

:— "Among

the

multicellular animals, certain cells are separated from the rest of the consti-

tuent

units

of the body, as egg-cells and sperm-cells
live,

;

these conjugate
it

and

continue to

whilst the remaining cells, the

mere

carriers as

were of
of the

the immortal reproductive cells, die and

disintegrate.
this

The bodies
to carry for

higher aniivals

which

die,

may from

point of view be regarded as

something temporary and non-essential, destined merely
to nurse,

a time,

and

to nourish the

mure important and deathless
in

fission -products

of the

unicellular

egg."— Quoted

the

Evelution of Sex (P. Geddes

and

J,

A. Thompton) 1901. Chap. XVIII.
(3) (a) ^liTf^^T

wtwrf^ ^f<f^ry^: HiTi^

1

Sarada Tilak Tantram.
(15)

Sushrula SamhilA (ShSrira Sthdnam Ch. Ill

)

INTRODUCTION.
to

'

XXXV
self.

the

call

of his higher or
is

psychiq

Tli'e

one

is

organic, the other
to the

psyC^ic
is"

The one

chains him

down

phenomenal, and
;

governed by the laws of growth
region of absolute
to
be.

and decay
realities

the other opens on the

where growth and decay have no room
is

Growth

not

the only condition of
if

life.

Man may

exist

without food (i)or respiration, only

deep into the realities within himself.
of apparatus there
is

he can manage to dive Between these two sets
its

the Jivatma, which, by

own

peculiar

energy (the will-force), can operate in phenomenal or organic the psychic one, thus pl?,in, or recede from thence into
being in
that
is

contact with the world of the senses' and the one

beyond the darkness of death. Death, in fact, is the grand usherer to life, which is only the rise of the curtain over the life's drama, all equipments for which are

made

in the green

room

of death.
at will.

A man
progeny.
life,

can not propagate

No amount
is

of willing

on the part of the parent-animal can help him in creating

The
its

self of

the child,

who

about to come into
the dynamics of
of the lunar Pitris

chooses

own

parents, according to

its

own
(2).

acts or

Karma, from the region

or quiescent

life, if it

be warrantable to use such an

expres-

sion
of of

its

The human father, and
self of

the would-be child mixes with the self

hovers over the reproductive
intensity

cells

the latter's organism, and regulates the

of

its

father's sexual desire, according to

the nature

of the

sex,

determined necessary for the fruition of the purposes of
its

advent

into

the world.

A

greater

intensity
tile

of

its

father's desires

ensures the preponderance of
in

Pitrika

Shakti (katabolism)

the

impregnated

ovum,

which

Skanda PurSnam quoted by Shridhara SvSmi
on the Vishnu Purdnam.
(2)

in

his

commentaries
,

Ch. VI. V.
1

i6.

^^^m ^7m\^m

Shruti.

XXXVl

'

INTRODUCTION.
such a thing,
followed by the

determiiies the male^sex of the child, while

on the part
relative

of the

mother

at

the time,

is

preponderance of the Afatrika Shakti (anabolism)
for

which accounts
tensity

the femininity of the issue.
in

Equal

in-

of sexual desires

both the parents, creating an

absence of the relative preponderance of the Pitrika and

Matrika

Shaktis in the

impregnated ovum, leaves the sex

of the child practically undetermined.

The

relative prepon-

derance of the Pitrikd
the greater or
less

or Matrika Shakti, as evidenced by

intensity of the

sexual

desire

of either

of the parents,

which

results in the speedier emission of the

paternal or maternal element (sperm or
of successful

ovum) during an
by the

act

fecundation,

is

contemplated

term

''Shukra-Vahulyam," or "Shonita-Vahulyam," by the framer
of the

Samhita, as ma}- be fully substantiated by a couplet
(i).

by the venerable Daruvahi

So

far

Sushruta

is

at

one with the modern Western

theory of preponderant katabolism or anabolism in the

ovum

as the

determining factor of the sexual diamorphism
only containing those
its

to the extent that seeds or reproductive cells are the bearers

and not the manufacturers of
categories which foster
life,

life,

and help

evolution into an

organic being.
cal,

To deny
to

this

would be to admit the chemilife,

or

physiological

basis of

which, as a theory, was
of ancient
India.

never

acceptable

the

biologists
cells

The number
cells, as

of reproductive

may be

increased

bv

suitable dietary,

and

to say that the
life,

immortal reproductive
of the mortal, organic

the creators of

come out
is

food

stufll* is

to say that darkness
of

the father of light.

The

question
(I)

of the immortality

the seed (germ plasm) has
^^T^_^

^a«g^:

q^q^ft qgr?^

Uw^r[

\

fl^^qif^flT ^'qi'Sn?!^ l^fl^cTT

II

D5rub5hi (Quoted by Arunadatla

in his

commentaries on Viigbhat).

INTRODUCTION.

XXXVii

been elaborately discussed

in

the Gommentaries on
cells)

the

Sankhya Darshanam(i). The,Pjah Vindus (germ
with the
vibrations (rhythmic

pulsate

movements), which are^the

relics of

the primordial ethereal vibrations,
universe.
; ^

which ,ushered
such,
as

in

the birth-throes of the

As

they are

essential to the evolution of life

and man,

an offspring

of the

universe,

still

retains

them

in his reproductive cells

as the best condition for calling out the life in his

offspring,
in

when

its

seK enters into

the impregnated
the
essence
of

ovum
It

the

mother's

womb.
and

Life

is

self,

and not the
is

prjoduct of influx
;

any chemical or physiological process.
microscopes

an
not

and

spectroscopes
of
birth

mav

expose to view the

hinterlands

and

genesis.

Perhaps

it

was

this

theorv of will-force and intensity of

parental desire as determining the sex in the child, together

with the facts of parthenogenesis observed in lower animals,

from which Sushruta
to the

was disposed to extend the analogy

human

species,

and believed that conception without

sexual union
^j.
J

is

possible in

women.
nature of these

The conception
Shaktis
is

of the

Matrika

and

'.rika

more

clearly set forth in the

Pauranika
;

n jth regarding the origin
relates the story
as

(etiology) of fever
:

Sushruta
of the
in

follows
(or

— Daksha,
quota of

the

father

universal

mother,
the
divine

constructive

metabolism

man)

insulted
bolism),

father,
his

her consort (destructive metasacrificial

by witholding

oblations.

The wrath
of digestion

of the insulted deity broke out in the shape of
is

a morbific heat (hyperpyrexia) which
in

fever.

The
'to

process

man

has been

often

compared
I

an act

(l) (a)

qRHTSTtftS'C^I^T

^"Wl,^^

Sankhya Sutra Ch.
(b)

I.

122.

fT^5TT<T

^^fh

'

Ibid. Ch. III. 3.

(c)

*r%

f%

^^^^^m^^mfn^]^'^^wf^^Tff

x?m^i
I.

^^i*

Sankhya Prabachana Vashya (Vijn^n Bhikshu) Ch.

S.

I.

XXXVni

INTRODUCTION.
< <
f

of

Homa

sacrifice (i)

in

the

Ayurveda.

Stripped

of its

myth may be exp^iined quite in a pathological lin^ It means that when the t*itrika Shakti, the process of destructive metabolism (Pita, father or Shiva in Hindu
allegory the

mythology being the god of destruction or disintegration) of
the

body
its

is

not

properly

served by the

factors,

which

noun'sh
Shakti),

constructive metabolism (Father of the

Matrika

the excrements and excretory process of the body
(b^r

are arrested
in

the wrathful deity), and the heat generated
is

consequence

fever. Fever, then,

is

a disease of defective

digestion and excretion.

Whenever

this Pit rika
is

Shakti,.

is

disturbed or not properly served
is

there

fever,

and heat

one of

its

essential effects.

With

a precision

and love of
literature,

details,

which mark the

best days of

Brahmanic

Sushruta lays down rules

of diet and conduct to be observed

by the enceinte, from
the

month to month, during the whole period of gestation,
and gives medicinal
partiall}^

recipes

for

development

of

a

atrophied child in the

womb.

A

perusal of the

Chapter on
conclusion

Marma Shiriram world
that

leave no doubt for

the

anatomical

kt\psP/,
jr..

ledge was

cultivated

by surgeons and soldiers

alike, la

knowledge about the locations of the vulnerable
nerves,

joints,

iir

or

vein

anastomoses

where
short

a

blow

or
of

a

little

pressure

may

enable him to

make
war

work
often

his

man
at

could not

but

be

dearly

prized

by the soldiery
decided

a

time when

the fate of a

was
system

by
was

the success of a single champion, and
to

we have
of

reasons

belieVe

that

a

scientific

wrestling

formulated in the light of the Sushruta Samhita,
practised

and
like

by the
c

gentry of

ancient

India

much

(

I)

^ffcTTTT «?r q'5fi'q=?T^^flfcT ^:

I

Charaka SamhitS.

INTRODUCTION.

XXXIX

>

the Jiujitsu

(Skr.
(i).

Yuyutsu,

t,he

intending
'

fighter) of

modern Japan,
mired
of
so
it

Sushnita's Physiolo^

."—

But

if

Sushruta

is

adjt!ast

much
is

for

his

practical

and

scientific

mind,

his

writings
as

on

Physiologv,
all

''which

is

practicalh- the

same

the one
,

adopted by
appeared
as

schools

of

the
block

Ayurveda)
to

which

have

a

stumbling

the

intelligence

of

many

a

Western

and

and Eastern
fit

scholar.

European Sanskritists have thought
(the three

to translate

"Vayu," "Pittam'' and "Kapham"
functions)
as
air,

main physiological
B\l\
that.

bile

and phlegm.
of the

nothing could be more misleading, or erroneous than

A

right understanding of the
all its

science

Ayur-

vedic medicine, in
tion of the
to clear

branches, hinges on a right concepso

Vayu. Pittam and Kapham,

we should

like

up the nature of these three physiological
of

factors

before proceeding farther in our enquiry.

Antiquity

the division:— A reference to these and Kapham,
in

three physiological factors of Vayu, Pittam

under the name of Tridhatu.
Rikveda,
(3).

is

first

met with
as
a

the
for

Sayana explains the term

synonvm

Vayu, Pittam and Kapham. The Vedic physicians possessed
at least a considerable

knowledge of the process of
the

diges-

tionf4), the circulation of gas in

human

organism, and of

It is anions that the phonetic and etymological resemblance (i) between Sanskrit "Juyutsu" and Japanese ''Jiujitsu" (would be fighter) should be so close. Perhaps it was the Buddhist missionaries (and they were not always peaceful hermits) who had carried with them a system of scientific wrestling from India, which was subsequently developed in Japan. Compare with the complete Kano, Jiu-jitsu (Jeudo) by H. Irving Hancock and Katsukuma Higashi. Chart I and III.

(3)

*

*

*

f^^rg
it

vm
as

w^ct'

:crw^^

11

Rik. Samhita.

I. 3, 6.

Sayana explains

(4)

^rm:

if!?n^^T

f^^
^:

1

tmrr
1

w.

wf^^v^r^'^j^
!

w^Ict.

5|1»ni5^ 'fiWtf^fT,

^sfT^:

unu:

^^sc.

^^

w^^'.-^m

^sf^Ti

Chhandagya Brihmana.

Xl

^

INTCiODUCTlON.
flesh, fat,

the properties and functioiv> of
ligaments

muscles,

tendons,

and

cartilages.

But

to

the

Acharyas of the
surgeon

Ayurveda belongs the
physiological
did con<;ribute

glor\' of "nrs^.

formulating a systematic
as a

science, to

which end Sushruta
In the
light

no mean

a quo'.a.

of
as

Western
they
are,

science

the actionsr of living matter,
to three
(c)

varied
(a)

may be reduced
{d)
is

categorief, viz.

Sustentative,

Generative, and
not co-extensive

Correlative functions.

The second
of a
living

with

the entire existence

organism, Sushruta

observes some

such distinction

the functions of a living organism

among when he denominates

the living body as the "three supported one" (Tristhunam),

and describes the normal Vayu, Pittam and
its

Kapham
the

as

three

supports.
force,
air,

We
since

wonder

how

the term

Vayu,

meaning nerve
term meaning
to Sushruta,

can be confounded

with

same
former

Sushruta derives

the

from the root "Va," to move, to spread.
is

Vayu, according
sensory

so

called
as,

from the

fact of its

and
in
it

motor functions such
the

smelling, &c. But

the

Vayu

Ayurveda
its

is

not wholly a physical or organic force,

has
fall

spiritual aspect as well

which does not legitimately
enquiry.
It
is

within the scope of our
that
in

safe

to
like

aver
its

however,
sister

the

Ayurvedic

physiology,

science

with the invisible
organism,

modern Europe, is concerned more molecular components of the human
its

than with the workings of

gross members.
of

The

holy Agnivesha

warns the students

physiology
as

against the danger of regarding the

human system
(i).

some-

thing other than the aggregate of molecules

*

Charaka

Saniliit^

ShArirasthAnam, Chap. VII.

INTRODUCTI9N.

xli

The three fundamental principles of Vayu,,Pittam and Kaphah: — The actions of living matter vary and may be reduced to^ three categories. They are so
of the

either— (i), functions which affect the material conipositJDn body and determine its mass, which is the baUnce of
the processes of waste on one hand and t^hose of assimilation

on the other. Or
process
of

(2),

they are functions which subserve the

reproduction
part

which
or

is

essentially the

detach-

ment
into

of a

endowed with the powers
whole,
(3),

of developing

an

independent

they
is

are functions in

virtues of which
direct influence
a

one part of the body
source
of molar

able to
its

exert a
parts as
first

on another, and^ the body, by
a

whole,

becomes

motion.

The

may be termed Sustentative,

the second Generative, and

the third Correlative functions.

The above
of

is

the

sum and
as

substance of the works which a living matter has to perform.

But

setting
for

apart

the

processes

reproduction
shall

a
to

subject

future

discussion,

we

now

try

examine what the other two functions are as understood by Oriental thinkers. In the Mahfibhiratam the Prdna
vayu
is

described as a force, akin to electricity. lightning
(1).

It is

some-

what

like a flash of

This

fact

aHonce shows

the errors of confounding Prana vdyzi with an effete material

— with gases generated
Shushruta describes
it

during the processes of digestion.
as a force, (2)

which
it

sets

the whole

organism into motion.

Self-evolved,

acts as the principal

(i)

HTOSIT^^^ JJcTRt

Mm

?sifvf^?j^

I

MahSbMratam. ShAnti Pa^va
(2)

S. 39.
in

Fo'ce

may be

defined as

ihat which

tends to produce motion
in a

a body at

lesi, or to

produce change of motion

body which

is

movjng.

—Daschanel,
6

xlii

INJRODUCTION.

factor that deLerinines the genesis,

continuance and

disin-

tegration of the
all-in-all

livir-g

body.

It is

the primary cause
as

— an
is

that governs our organic as well
Its special

our cognitive
that

faQulties.

feature

is

that

the vibration,

produqed

in

it,

instead of travelling like light in a transverse

direction, takes a course as the controller of the correlative

functions of the system.

It

maintains an equilibrium between
(i)

the Pittam and Shleshma which are said to be inert,
for this

But
heat

adjustment the living body would stand in imminent
like

danger of being consumed
or
fire.

fuel

by

its

internal

Taking into consideration the various functions the
body has
to perform,

living

Sushruta attempts a

classif.ca-

tion of

Vdyu

into
in

Prana, Udana, Samana,
detail,

Vyana

and

Apana, which,
tic

correspond to the divisions of

functions performed by the Cerebro-spinal and

Sympathe-

nerves of the
in

Western physiology.
descriptions
of

Tintric literature

abounds

the

the

Nadichakras (nerve

plexuses) and contains a
sensory, and
their

more

detailed account of the motor,

mixed nerves according to their differences in functions and relations. In short, the term Vayu may

not only be rightly interpreted to
is

mean

the nerve force, but
or

often extended to include
(as
is

any kind of electro-motor
of the

molecular force

when we speak
loosely

V^yu
to

of the

soil),

though the term
air.

applied

now

signify

gas or

The

Rishis of yore

gave the name of V;iyu to the

bodily force in
little

the

absence of any suitable nomenclature,
it

suspecting
air

that

might be confounded with the

atmospheric

by the foreign translators of their works.

Charaka, Sutraslh4nam. Chap. XII.

Inert

i.s

Pittam, inert

is

Kaphah,
arc!-

inert

are

the

Malas

&

'Jh^lus

Like

clouds, they

go wherever they

carried by the V5yu,

INTRODUCTION.

xliii

Pittam
of organic

:

— The

function

of

the

»Pittam
a

consists

in

metamorphosing
sperm
the
of
in

the

chyle, .through
to a

graduated

series

principles,

protoplasmic
in

substance like
see that

men, and the ovum
But
with

women.

Thus we

Pittam of

the Ayurveda corresponds to metabolism
b}?

Western physiology.

a confounding carelessness

of terms the excreted

portion

of Rasa and blood though

ultimately connected
processes

those

normal

physiological

has been
of

respectively

styled

as the

Doshas or
in

defiling principles
case, of soil,

Kaphah and

Pittam.

Again, as

the

the terms V^yu, Pittam and

Kaphah

are extendits

ed to denote magnetism, kinetic energy and
molecules.

humidity of

The

circulation of blood

is

connected with the

Pittam, while
related to
is

the circulation of lymph chyle fRasa) is Shleshmi the two combinedly forming what

called

the

sustentative

function

of

the Western

Physiology.

The term
the agent
of

Pittam,

which,

by

its

etymology,
loosely

signifies

metabolism, has been

used by our

Ayurvedic physiolgists to
principles from an
functions.

denote

two

different

organic

observed similarity in their nature and
in

Pittam

Sanskrit

means both

bile

and metais

bolism of tissues as

well

as the bodily heat

which

the

product of the

latter.

Hence

a

few
is

commentators lean
incarcerated
in

towards the
in

view

that Pittam

the heat

the

bile,
(i).

and

the principal agent
real
five

performing

digestion

The

import of
sub-divisions
to

the
of

term
the

Pittam,

may be gathered from the made by our Rishis
'

according
called the
(l)

their

functions and locations, and which are

Pachaka, Ranjaka, Sadhaka, A'lochaka and
fqfl^ ^^WT^Sf'af?;f?I
'*

5^^: ^g^Rim^^lfq

Madhukosha.

Xliv

'

INTRODUCTION.
processes
in

Bhr^jaka. All metabolic whether constructive or
wljich
is

the

organism,
Pittam,

dj^structive, are

called

said

to

be

in

the

products of those processes

whether serum,

bile,

blood, albumen, etc.,
of

which are either

essential to the substance

the

body, or to the proper

performance of any organic function.

Pittam

is

latent
etc.,

in

Lasika (Serum),
in

blood,

Hence we learn that lymph chyle,
and sight.
In

albumen

and

the

organs of touch

other words, metabolism goes
regions of the

on
(i)

in

those principles and
sustentative

human organism

either as a
First,

or as a cognetic physiological process.

we have
is

,,the

Pachakagni or the heat of digestion, which
being a liquid
or fluid heat
it

situated in
;

the region between the stomach and the intestines
fire

(2)

and

incarcerated

in

the secre-

tions of the liver

(bile),

is

primarily concerned in digesting

the four kinds of food (as they

meet

it

in

the abdomen).

Thus we see that the Pachakagni of our Ayurveda is the same as the bile of Western physiology, its other function
being to differentiate (precipitate) the nutritive essence of
the food from
its

unutilisable
It
is

portion,
this

and to act

as

an

excrementitious matter.

Pittam,

which makes
(3)
b)'

metabolism

in

other

parts of

the

bodv

possible,

helping the organism in acquiring fresh energy.
(1)
iTfv(?:i9f?j:

^^ft^^t^T^'PfT' Tw.

I

l^rsjafil"

^

fqtrw TlfHT^ f^^r\

II

Bdgbhat (Sutra Sihinam
(2)

ch. XII.)

The

bile

assists

in

emulsifying

the

fats

of

the foods, and thus
*.

rendering them capable of passing into the lacteals by absorption
bile has b*een considered as a

The

natural

purgative * * *

The

bile

appears

to

have the power of precipitating the gastric proteoses and peptones,
is

together with the pepsin, which

mixed up with them.

* * *

As an
separa-

excrementitious substance, the bile

may

serve as a medicine for the

tion of certain highly carbonaceous substances from the blood.

Kirk's Physiology Ch. XIII. pp
^

377-378.

(3)

tT«f^iR^fqrTrr^t ^EfjiiTfitgg^T^'T

1

^i'lfh ^sT?T%ii ^\'^'^

siTfl

rTfTnr.fTfl;

11

Bagbhat Sutra

ch.

XII.

INTRODUCTION.
»

'

xlv

The second kind
Pittam

of Pittam i^'called

RanjakaoV pigment
its

from

the

circumstance

of

imparting
it

the

characteristic colour to th'e

lymph chyle
liver

as

is

transformed

into blood
it is

by coursing through the
(i).
r.f

and spleen, u^here
the

located

The
heart,

third kind

Pittair.

(Sadhak'a)
the

is

situated in

and

indirectly

a5s*\sts in

the performance of cognitive

functions in

man by keeping up
(2).

rhythmic cardiac
of the
heart's

contractions

Perhaps

it

is

this

view

contraction that predisposed
*

many

of

our ancient
derived from and

physioclosely

(l) A.

The colouring matter
that

of the

Ijilc is

is

related

to

of

blood, since the qualities of the bile pigment secreted

are markedly increased by the injection of substances into the veins
are capable of setting free haemoglobin

which

Kirk's Physiology
B.

— (Metabolism
'

in the liver.)

Ch. XII.

p. 505.

There seems

to

be a close relationship between
'

the colouring

matters of the blood and of the bile, and

between these

and

that

of

urine (urobilin) and of the feces— Ibid Ch.
c. It

\ III. p. 376.
is

seems probable that the spleen, like the lymphatic glands,
in

engaged
tl

the

formation of

blood

corpuscles.

For

it is

quite certain,

at the

blood of the splenic vein contains an unusually large number of
t
i"

white corpuscles, t
less

In Kottikor's opinion, the development of colourcorpuscles
of the
l)lood, is

and

.also

coloured

one of the

essential

functions of the spleen, into the veins of which the
pass,

new formed

corpuscles

and are conveved into the general current of the circulations.
Ibid.

Ch. XII.

(2) A.

The

contraction

(of

the

heart)

can

not

be long maintained
fluid.

without

a
is

due supply of blood or of a similar nutritive
at present taken of the action of the heart
is

* * *

The
heart

view that

* *

that in

muscle, as in protoplasm generally,

the

metabolic processes are those of
the
heart

anabolism or building up. which takes place during diastole of
* * *

and the katabolism or discharge which

is

manifested in

the

contrac-

tion of the heart.

Kirk's Physiology (metabolism of the heart). Ch. VI.

*1T^ f ??t"

ffTffl

•»
II

,

BSgbhat Sutra.

Ch. XII.

13.

xlvi

'

INTRODUCTION.
as

logists

to

hold
(l)

it

^

iWe

seat

of

cognition

( Viiddhi

Sthanam).

The- fourth, which
sight; indicates

is

the

Albchaka
rise

or the Pittam of

the

metabolic

process in the substance of
to visual sensation. (2;

the retina (Drishti) which gives

The

fifth is

the

Bhrajakagni
In short
it

or the Pittam in the skin

which produces perspiration or hefps exudations from the
skin by evaporation.
active,
is

the Pittam which keeps

under certain circumstances, the secretions from the

sweat and sebaceous glands of the

human

skin.

Kaphah
"the animal

:— Sushruta

is

oie

in in

holding with Foster thgj
the sense
is

body dies
part
of

daily,
its

that at every

moment some
is

substance

suffering decay,

undergoing combustion."'

The

etymological significance
wither
up) testifies to

of the term
his

Shariam

vSkr.

Shri, to

knowledge of the combustion that goes on within the
system. Three kinds of
fire

human

are detected in the bod}',
principles
in
air.

which are sure to feed upon
the absence of proper
It is

its

constituent

fuel

in

the shape of food and

food and the fundamental brdily principle of Shleshma,
is

which

cooling

or

watery

in its

essence,

that

fly

to

the
ii

rescue of the organism, the latter

(Sleshma) surcharging

with

its

own

essential
its

humidity

and

keeping intact

the

integration of

component molecules.
chyle which
the
is

The

Rasa, or lymph

formed out of the
bodily
fire-

ingested food,

prevents

internal

from

(i)

The
at

seat of the

moon

is

at
;

the root of the

palate ami

thai of
is

the

sun

is

the

root of the navel

the place of the air (or breath)

above

the sun,

and mind dwells above the moon,
spiritual soul) dwells

Chittam above

(or

the

passage

between the mind and the
dwells above the moon.

the

sun.

and

life

Jn4na Sankallni Tantrani, International Journal
Tdntrik order
(2)
It is

of

(New York)

Vol.

V'.

No.

5 p. 109.
falls

supposed that
is in fact

the

change effected by the

light,

which

upon the

retina,

a chemical alteration in the protoplasm,

and

that

this stimulates the optic nerve-endings.

Kirk's Physiology Ch,

XVII,

INTRODUCT.PN.
preying

xlvii

upon the

vitals

by coursing freely th;'Ough the
thus g^enerated,
portion

whole organism.
a

The

Rasa,

undergoes
called
suc^>9

sort

of purification,

the

»

purified

being

Prasddabhuta, and the excreted portion Malabhttta,
are found as effete

as

products
or

deposited in certain
is

pores of

the body.
fills all

Kaphah
in a

Sleshmd

that pprtion of Rasa which

the intercellular^ spaces of the body,

thus holding
(Skr. Slish to

them together
would

kind of cooling embrace
(il

embrace) and prevents
otherwise

the dreadful

combustion which
organic
five

have been caused by
classified

heat.

Our Acharjas have
kinds such
as

the

Kaphah

into

diflFerent

the Kledaka,
to

Avalanwaka,
different

Vodhaka
functions

and
and

Shlcsmaka according
locations in the

their

economy.
born of the digested food,

Dosha
the

:

— The lymph chyle,
build

and which courses through the body, potentially contains
elements which
organism.
the
diflferent

tissues

of

the

human
it

Under the
OJah.

influence of metabolic heat
flesh,
fat,

is

progressively

transformed into blood,
In

bone,
the

marrow, semen and

other

words, under

process of physiological

metamorphosis, the lymph chyle

sets free that part of its constituents (2)

which possess blood-

(i)

A

^wftl*lK*!:

— Bagbhat.

Charaka Chikitshasth,<.nam. Chap.
(2)

15.

A.

%^Ttg ?}^Tli^T:

TJ^f^rf

f^f^«(*ft;
II

I

fi^^^n:

^Tg^^ ^f^T*i

^t^^ K^:

Bh^va Mishra.

Chakra Datta's commentary on the Charaka Samhit^.
Cr.

SutrasthSrjani.

XXVIIl.

xlviii

int;roduction.
properties,
(its

making
blood

and are ultimately
portion

transformed

into

unuiilised^or excreted

being eliminated

through the natural apertures of the body), and so on,

thrqugh the progressive
Dhd.iu.>

series

of

metabolism

to

Oj'a/i

Thus with ihc derangement f)f the bodily Vayu which causes the fr^e coursing oi the lymph ch3'le through
its vessels,

the Pittam
of the

imetabolismj,of tissues), in any partiis

cular part

body,

also affected

by reason
or
is

of

its

incarceration,

and thus

causes

an

increase

diminuanother

tion in the excreted portion of the

Rasa, which

name for Kapham during the progressive metabolism. Thus we see that Vayu, Pitta^i, and Kaphah, which, in their
normal
state, are

the three supporting principles of the body
into

are transformed

morbific

diathesis

by increasing or
are

diminishing the bodily heat, secretions, or excretions.

Thus congestion and
gists,

inanition

(atony)

the

two

main forms of disease recognised by the Ayurvedic Patholothe

former being

held

amenable to resolution or
not better conclude
a

elimination, and the latter to local feeding or nourishment.

Agni and Dh^tvagnis
two about Agni. Sushruta
is

:

— We can

this portion of our dissertation than

by speaking

word or
the

raises the question

whether there

any kind of
;

fire in

the

human organism

other than

Pittam
is

or are they identical ? Sushruta holds that the Pittam
fire

the only

present in the system, in as

much

as all acts

from the digestion of food
within

to the disintegration of tissues are

performed with the help of the
its

Pittam,

which includes

signification

what

is

connoted by Anabolism and

Katabolism of Western

Physiologists.

But Agnivesha and

certain sections of the Ayurvedic Acharyayas hold that there

^fTf^=5WWri^ «?^ ftqi

5f?T «I,?TI:

II

Bh^vaprakeisha Part

I.

Charaka Sutrasthinam Chap.
/'

I.

,/

/

rxTRODrcTfoN.
are
five Anjali-fuls
is

,

xlix

of

Agni

(i)'

in

the

human

t)rganism.

This discrepancy

best

explained
-

away by including one
ferment) in
the
five
•'

Yava

measure

of

Agni

(enzymes,

Anjali-measures of Pittam.

The

A'yurvedic

Physiology recognises the exist'ence of
is

another kind of Agni, which
plasm) and which
it

called

Dhatvagni
different

(proto-

cL\ssifies

into

seven

kinds,

Arunadatta, the celebrated commentator of the Ashtanga-

hridayam, holds that there are as
constituents of the body. (2)

many Dhatvagnis

as the

'(i) q'g fiiTT^— Charaka
(2)

Samhita.

A

q^ qT^vftffi^i

'5Bra?f:—

v^

^^^ift?:.

^'^tt^^^I

^rg<fl[inr

flfq

qigi?rfcT^(9rn

fT(?Tfq

qTf?f^T3I^r«Io|:

1

^g

qif^^Till'flirw

3»r:

qi^:

I

Arundatta.

q^g
r.

?Tt€q3?^ 5I?Tq

-^

q'^rfusrcrr^ffT

II

Ibid.

^

T^TTf ^^^^\ ^ig^TTit 'g^=^%

1

fqrnWl!;

^ \W^ '^m

T^R^^^f^^ffT

II

fm'^'e^

HM

*Tf« ^TfT

^"^^1 q^^^fl?T

II

l^a

T?^f|c5J^ 5fT?r^Sf^ f^^t?^T*T

I

^frf?T fT^

^Tf^^T^j

TW
f\-n\

^kli:
riff:

II

ii^ffTOifir 1^55^
cHJiTri f{'^m,
f\\

#^
:

w,?t:
fT?f:
11

i

#f

5[r^'

fr5iTg?T

^iaT^T9?lf^fvwiq

9^fq^'

^qHsf^g

I

Charaka SamhiiS, ChikitsSsthSnam^ Chapter X\'.
I).

^f«f¥

mJTTft >^?Tfr f^f^^

^:

I

q^T»^*Tf^f«:

qi^

gif'Tf

ff ?

q^l^rf:

"
I!

Vid

lljid

Chap.

XX.

1

intr6duction.

The tommeniator
In
fact
it

of

the

Chhandagya Bhasyani has
faith

emphasised the identity of the Pittani and the solar heat.

was

a

doctrine

of

among
is

the Rishis that

the solar heat pent
organic
heat

up
the

in

the

solids

transformed into

(Bhutagni)

which, becoming liberated in the
heat
of digestion, (i)
"^

stomach,
are

produces
different
lie

All

these

but

forms
inert

of solar
in

heat.

The

Dhatvagni
the

and Udaragni
that sets

the organism.

It is

Vayu

them

free

and makes them operative.
(protoplasm) of the
of the
arteries.

The Dhatvagnis
the

muscle are not of

the same kind as that

We

cannot

resist'
<

temptation of

quoting a

few

lines

from

Foster's

physiology on the subject.*
(I) A.

flra:

^«< ^^\ M^m-^^ ^%^^\ « ^f ^*

^q?")^r?T

^.^

ChhAndogya Upanisliad.

Chh^ndogya Bh^syam.
"

These facts and other considenitions, which might be brought
tl\e

forward, lead to
substance
(if

tentative

conception of protoplasm as being a

we may use

the word in

somewhat

loose sense)

not only

unstable in nature but subject to incessant change, existing indeed as
the expression
cliange,
ver3'

of incessant

molecular,
is

i.

i.

chemical

and physical
of incessant

much
of

as

a fountain

the expression
to

replacement
<:'hange.

water.

We may

picture

ourselves the total

which we denote by the term "metabolism," as consisting
stair

on the one hand, of a downward series of i,Katabolic changes) a
of

many
the

steps in which
setting
free

the more complex bodies are
of energy
into

broken

down

with

simpler

waste bodies, and,

on the other hand, of an upward series of changes (anabolic changes)
also

a stair of
or into

_

many

steps,
is

by which ihe dead food of
with further

varying

simplicity
built

complexity

assumption of energ}-

up

more and more complex bodies.
call

The summit
of that

of the

do'uble stair

we

''protoplosm"
.'in

whether we have right to speak
sense

of

it

as a single

hodv

the

chemical

word or

as a

INTRODUCTION.

,

ll

From whal
tions
it

has

and

significations of the

now been sUted regarding ihe funcVayu, l*ittam and Kaphah,
sets

will

appear that the Achai*yayas of the Ayurveda contemthree
different

plated

of principles in the

domains of
are

Biology and Pathology.
mixture
it

Vayu, Pittam, and Kaphah
bodies.

in

some way of several
either

Whether we should regard
or as

as

tlie

very summit of the double
in

stair,

embracing as well
not
at

as the

topmost steps
if this

side,

we can

present

tell.

Even
its

be a simple
is

substance forming the

topmost summit,
it is

existence
it is

absolutely

temporary, at

one instance

made,

at

the next

unmade matter,
o

which
t«5

is

passing through the phase
top and

of

life, rolls

up the ascending step
o

the

forthwith

rolls

down on

the other side *

Further the dead food
stable in character,
It

itself

fairly, but far

from being wholly
reaches the sum-

becomes more and more complex living material.
it

becomes more and more explosive and when
is

mit its equilibrium

over-thrown and

it

actually explodes.

The whole

downward stair of events seems in fact to be a series of explosives by means of which the energy latent in the dead food and augmented
by the touches through which
protoplasm,
is

the
of

dead

food becomes

living

set

free.

Some

those freed

energy
tliis

is

used up

again by the material

itself, in

order to carry on

same

vivification

of dead food, the rest leaves the body as heat or motion.
If this be admitted
it

almost inevitably follows, that

what we
:

have called protoplasm, can not be alwnys the sumo thing
tliere

that

must be many

varieties of

protoplasm

witli dilVcrcnt

qualities

and with corresponding
varieties of protoplasm

different molecular strncturL'
in

and composition.
oi'vious that the

Using the word '"protoplasm''
are

this sense,

it is

numerous indeed, almost innumerable.
whicli

The molecular protoplasm,
state

brings forth

a
is

contractile katain

must

difEer in

nature, in

composition, that
wliere

construction

from glandular
ferment.

protoplasm

kata-state

is

a

mother

of

Fur* her the protoplaspi of a swiftly contracting striped
fibre

muscular

must

differ

from that of the

torpid, smooth, unstriatcd
differ

fibre, the protoplasm of a

human muscle must
aaine

from that of
differ

a sheep or a frog, the

protoplasm of one muscle must

from

that of another

muscle, in the

kind of animal, and the pro-

toplasm of Smith's biceps must differ from that of Jone's— Foster.

Hi

,,

INTRODUCTION.
principles of the

Called

D/iaius

or

fundaraental

economy,

when
tions,

in virtue of their

correlative

and sustentative func-

or

with the help of their subservient processes of

metabolism and lymphatic circulation, they ensure an equipoise
in

among
u'hole

the

diflferent vital

and physiological processes
is

the

economy which
of

essential

to

its

perfect

health.

Biologically considered they are

but

the

primary
it,

subtle

djniamics

organic

life,

or as

Sayana expresses

the three fundamental principles of the body.*
this

But when
through the

healthy equilibrium

is

disturbed either

agency
of

of any extrinsic or idiopathic factor,
is

when any one
the

them

abnormally

augmented

or dominates the other
in

two, thus altering their mutual

relation

economy,

naturally certain pathological conditions

arise

which form

the esse of a disease

;

t

or in the parlance of the

Ayurveda

they are

said

to

have been

transformed into Doshas or
which, according to our

morbific diathesis.

Even

blood,

Acharyayas, forms one of the fundamental principles (Dhatu)
of the organism,
diathesis),

organ or
in
its

may be designated as a Dosha (morbific when owing to its congestion in any particular member of the body, it brings about a disturbance
vascular

general

system and produces pathological
its

conditions

which are offshoots of

own

deficient
as

or
\

disturbed circulation.

They

are

denominated
superficial

MalaS,

when observed
the

still

in grosser

or

principles

of

organism

producing

those

excretions,

or

organic

lesions

which appertain to the sphere of morbid Anatomy.

Thus we see that the Ayurvedic principles of Vayu, Pittam and Kaphah embrace both the biological and pathologi-

.Sayanas Commentary Rig ^^

1

A.

Chanika.

INTRODUCTION.
»

.

Hli

cal

principles

of

the

organism

or

in

other

wOrds, the
the

Ayurvedic physiology

elucidates

and

investigates

causes through which the 'same principles,
life

which sustain
dynari\*ics

and the organism, are transformed into the

of disease, lastly pointing out the grosser excretory changes

and organic lesions
existence,

in

the external or "superficial plane of

which form thi subject of morbid anatomy and are sometimes confounded with the disease itself. In the Vayu, Pittam and Kaphah of the Acharyayas we have
at

once a complete picture of the
the

finer

sustentative forces

of

human economy

as well as their antithesis, the construcforces*

tive as well as the expulsive

of

the

inner

man,

to-

gether with an exhaustive analysis of their grosser products

which legitimately
tomy.

fall

within

the

sphere of morbid

ana-

knowledge of the nature and functions of the Vayu, Pittam and Kaphah may be useful in giving a
real
It is

A

deeper and clearer insight into the principles of true biology
or pathology.

incorrect to translate Vayu, Pittam and

Kaphah

as air, bile

and phlegm, except under certain
air,

cir-

cumstances.

Viyu, Pittam and Kaphah are
are

bile

and
or

phlegm only when they
grosser
so

transformed into
are

Malas
to

organic

excretions

which
with
air,

supposed

be

very

intimately

connected

factors,

pathogenetic
in

or pathological, but they are not

bile

and phlegm

those planes of their functions which determine the genesis,

growth and continuance
death,

of

the

organism,

as

w-ell

as

its

decay

and disinteg ation. -The knowledge of
its

a

region without that of

antipodes

is

but a half knowledge,

one of

and the principle of Vayu, Pittam and Kaphah is the only its kind that tries to embrace the whole sphere of
organic existence.

Ojah-Dh^tU
it

:

— From

what

has

been stated

before

will

appear that during the process of tissu'e-formation,
or
chyle,
is

the

Ivmph

under the influence of Pittam, or
the

metabolic heat,

transformed in^o
it

same,
off

the

refuse

or un-utilisable portion of

being

passed

through the

liv

.

IN*rRODUCTION.
f

apertures of

ihe body, is excretions.

The Ojah-Dhatu
lies latent in

is

present in the reproductive energy that
organic principle,
ma"Vro\v,
viz.

every

lymph, blood, muscles, bone (synovia),

and in the *male
is

&

female reproductive elements.

Hence

it

not a matter of

si.irprise

when we

find

in
as

Ayurlying

vedic works this
diffused in the

Sbma, or Ojah-Dhatu mentioned
blood,

human organism
chyle,

aiVd described as the
(i).

essence

of the

lymph

&c.

The terms Rasagata
in

Ojah, Raktagata
sense of modern

Ojah are therefore used perhaps

the

serum-albumen, blood-albumen, &c.

The

male

&
is

female reproductive elements,

according to this

view, form the essence of 'the body as a whole, and the Ojah,

which

abundantly found in these protoplasmic

cells,

is

the quintessence of a quintessence.
heart alone, according to Charaka,
this
is

The muscle
of a

of the

chiefly associated with

energetic

substance,

which

is

bloody yellowish
(2)

colour &. possesses both cooling

&

heat-making virtues.
it is

In diseases caused by

defective assimilation

said to

be ejected through the kidne\'s and to pass off with the urine
(as in certain

types

of

Prameha)

(3),

whereby the patient

gradually loses strength, flesh, and healthy glow of complexion inasmuch
(l)

as these are

but the accompaniments of
I

its

^T\^

^Wt^Tfprt ^^JflTlt RT'^^fW

Vagbhal

=^3f: aift?

^wm'

tT^mrar ftfjpfw

n

Charaka (Sutra StMnam) Ch. XVII.
(3)

A.

^?:mfJ?ll7T^ft^ ^I^T?I

JI^ff?f

I

^]
•^

-^fm'

tT^

§f^ ^^^%: ffWn

II

Charaka (Sutra Sthinam) Ch, XVII.

Charaka (ShSrira SthSnam) Ch. IV.

INTRODUCTieN.

,

Iv

healthy continuance in the humi^n organism.
strength," observes our Rishi,"
reside

"Health and
the Ojah-

latent in

dhatu, as butter (Ghritam)4ies latent in milk, (i)

Dallana

Mishra,

the

celebrated

commentator
as

of the

Sushruta Samhita, has defined
completely

Ojah

a fatty

su6stance
in

combustible

in

its

character.

Thus
is

the

course of tissue combustion
especially
in

its

excess quantity
as
f.it

deposited

the female body

which produces that
presence of Ojah

peculiar
in urine

softness
is

and elegance.

(2)

The
(3).

said to induce

Madhumeha
is

Taking
to

this fact

alone
that

into

consideration one

inclined
"of

the

belief

Ojah must be something
a

the nature of

sugar.

As

consequence

of these

diflFerent

interpretations of
is

Ojah the question
either of these

arises

whether there

present in

the

human organism any such
and sugar.
It
is

common element

that produces
viz.
fat

two important oxidising
in

materials,

a

demonstrated
found
in

fact

modern

Physiology that

glycogen
in

is

other
of

tissues

and organs besides
of

the liver.

Tissues

embryos and

young animals
said

as well as

newly formed pathological growths may be
glycogen.

to contain

The

activity of the heart, as well as

the development of the
(i)

fetal

body

(4)

is

largely
f^ciH

dependent
I

A. '^]w. 'FT^at^T'??'

%^

aftct*

f^T

Bh^VaprakSsha. Part

I.

BhSvaprakSsha.

Dallana Mishra.
(3)

See Note
(4)

3

(B) Page

iiv.

»

^r\

^TTmfl "wsf ^Tr^'Tff^m?^:
^?^'
?1HlTr^^rrf

1

^TFr^TT-ffT'T'

m ^X\

II

Charaka SutrasthSnam, Chap.

XXX.

Ivi
,

IN-TRODUCTION.

upon

this
in-

Ojah-dhatu which may be best translated
the parlance
of

as

glycogen

Western physiology.
is

In

fact,

our Acharyayas have used tke term ''ojah" to denote that
xitzl

principle

in

the organism which

essential to the

maintenance of a healthy combustion
matter whether that principle

in its tissues

and to the

due performance of their normal functions and
is

activities,

no

patent in the form of proto-

plasm, protoplasmic albumen, glycogen or mucosin (Prakrita

shleshma)* in accordance with the difference of their functions, geneses,

and conditions of protoplasmic metabolism.
fat

In short, the}- were cognisant of the fact that
are evolved out of a
as

and sugar
N.

common
M.

basic principle in the organism

has

been very eruditely
A., L.
S. in his

demonstrated by Dr.
treatise

S.

Goswami, B.
It is far

on Pumsavanam t
the

from our intention to thrust this opinion on an^'
stated our

one
and

;

we have simply
welcome the

conclusion in

matter

will

result of fresh enquiries

on

this subject.

Charaka SamhitS Sutrasth^nain, Chap. XVII.

Chakiadattas Commentary
1^

S.

Samhit^, Sutrasthanam Chap. XV.
still

"From

these

extracts

ii

appears to us
like

more

vividly

that our

countrymen
fat

did
in the

also

discover,

Dr.

Pavy,

the

importance of
in

and sugar

animal economy, as well as the mode

which they

can be elaborated from one
study of the

common

principle.

(76-78).

A
and
are

comparative

two systems of medical science, Indian
;

European,
inclined

has led us to arrive at this conclusion
to identify

if

we,

therefore

not

Ojah with albumen, as

it

has
to

been done by some modern
believe
that

Indian

commentators,
yet

we have
received

reasons

the

aforesaid

extracts have not as

sufficient

consideration
;

from

them,

as

forming the nutri'ive basis of the procreative elements
has hitherto been neglected or,
at least,

in short the subject
in

been placed

the back-ground,
it

rom want of attention on

the part of those

whose business
is

was
in
its

to investi-

gate into the truths of Science.

To

hold that Ojah

kept

deposit

in

the heart, as a reserved food material, for the maintenance of

own work

INTRODUCTld^'.

»

Ivii

Space does not permit us to giVe here even something
like a satisfactory synopsis
It is

of the
if

physiology of Sushruta.
create for our readers

enough

for our

purpose

we can

an interest

in the various

physiological

problems discuss'ed
description
essential

by our author
to the healthy

in this part of his work, or in his

of the various physiological processes,

which are

continuance
is

of

human economy.
in
its

But

if

Hindu physiology

startling

demonstration of the
is

as well as for the production of germinal seed,

to

admit that efficiency of
of this

reproduction depends entirely upon
stantt in the body."J

the

efficiency

important sub-

(76)

^?5%7>JT^SigTUT'?rf?T*TT^'

Tfl^tTmj

(77)

?fT'

21^ fifW€tT#^:

(78)

^??tSt2IT^?l' '^^W.

q^TRTTRTW

—Ibid.
76.
salts,

of

Those who partake of heavy and cooling food abounding new rice, and beverages, or constantly enjoy sleep and

in acids

and

luxuries, or

neglect the exercise of body and mind, or

who

hal)itually

abstain from

the

use of corrective
bile,
fat

medicines,
;

help to accumulate in their bodiej phlegm,
interfere with the
its

and

flesh

and these
to

functions

of

the

\'Ay\i,

which causes the Ojah

be displaced from

proper place

down

in

the

bladder and produces glycosuria,
77.
all

As Ghee pervades
Teja (Ojah) too
it

the whole of milk,

so Teja (f^yah)

permeates

the tissues of the body.
78.
is

combustible

:

in

course of tissue-combustion, the

excess quantity of

gets

deposited

especially in the female

body

as

fat

which

produces softness

and elegance.

Iviii

ifiTRonucTioN.
c

fact tha'L

growth is somewhat independent of the physiological processes, that the inner man, with the he4p of Yoga, can long survive
ty
is

not the only condition of Ufe, that vitali-

even without food and respiration,* and
decay" may be arrested
to
a

that

death

and

considerable degree

by comin

pletely stopping nfany of

those

physiological processes
to
is

the body,t which are considered ^j very essential

living

by the savants of the West, then Hindu pathology
in its

unique

conception of the nature of disease.
:

Sushruta's Pathology
ruta, that falls sick
?

— What
or

is it

in a

man, asks Sush?

What
?

is

that that

we

treat medicinally

The body
afflicts

or the

mind
its
it

'Sushruta says that, "anything that
(self

the

nmer man
has

Purusha)
in

is

disease!

and

that

disease

primary seat
flows
in

the

inner

spring of

vitality

from which
In

out to the surface, the external
the
universe,

body".

man,
of

as

everything else in
force
is

the direction

the

inherent

from the centre to
at the

the circumference.
vitality,

The shock
is

is felt first

centre of

whence

it

transmitted outwards and

thus affects

the energy which holds the molecules together, Dvyanuks and

Tryanuks (Binary and teriiary atoms) of which the gross body is composed, and further opposes the dissolution of
those molecules into their elemental constituents in the living

organism.

Even

in cases of external injuries
is

such as snaketo

bite, etc. the potency of the virus

carried at once

that

centre from whence

it is

almost instantaneously transmitted
its

through the external channels of the body to

surface,

ff^TTUr

*^^«

1

Palanjala Uarshanani X^ibhudpAda 29

— 30 A.

Pcitanjala

Daishanam.

Vibhutipada. 21. A.

Sushruta samhitA.

Sulra.

Chap.

1.

INTRODUCTION.
>

,

lix'

Otherwise what purpose does the \iyu (nerve force),5erve in

the

human economy
?

?

What do
the
"I

those myriads of Chaitanyaexist
for

vahini

Nadis (sensory
In
all

ne,ivt^s)

in

the

human

system
first

diseases

subjective sensations are I'he
ill,"

to be experienced.

am

"I feel hot," etc. are the
disease.

voices of sensations, which form the "esse" of the

Disease then

is

a force ar^d not matter.*

Pathology of Tridosha :— Sushmta, though adopting
the Vedic pathological dictum of Tridhatu,
a very clear opinion on the subject. relation
force),

has expressed

He

observes that the

between
system),

a disease

and the deranged Vayu (nerve

Pittam (metabolism) and
not

Kapham
but the
it

(unutilised product
lie at

of the

and the pathogenic factors which
is

the

root of that disease,

real

contingent.

These

morbific

principles

may permeate

whole
only
in

organism

without creating any discomfort, and
find a distinct

is

lodgment, and are centred
they

when they some distinct

part or tissue of the body, that
factors of disease.

become the exciting
which naturally
is

Drug Potency :— The
arises in

next

question

connection with

such a

theory of pathogeny,

what
that

is

medicine, or in other words,
!

what

is it

in

the
all

drug
the
it

cures

Sushruta, after closely

investigating

theories on the subject, inclines towards the opinion that
is

the potency of the drug that

is

curative,

though he observes
of a
practical purposes

that inasmuch as potency

cannot exist independently
for p11

drug, a drug
in therapy.

is

of

primary interest

that cures a
*

Drug-Dynamisation :-"It is the potency of a drug The potency is administered best disease".
That

Hahnemann's

theory

of

disea.se

was

long

before

fore-

.shadowed by Sushruta,

will

appear
that,

from the above extracts from

his

works.

Hahnemann
primarily

observes

when a person
dynamic

falls

ill,

it is

only

this spiritual

self-acting vital force,

everywhere present
the

in

the
of a

organism,
morbific

that

is

deranged by
life

influence

agent inimical to

— Orgenon.

Ix

INiTRODUCTIOK.
c

when the

physical

or
"is

chqjmical
best

properties

of

a

drug are
it

annihilated.

This

performed by subjecting
n^edicated

to

heat or pressure.

In

the

Ghritas

or oils of

ouv.pharmacopoea, which are prepared by successively boiling
or

cocking them with drug-decoctions, we cannot
of its

even
still

detect the trace of /Miy

component drugs, but

we know how potent and
hands of our Vaidyas.
process of

efficacious

they prove in the

When

Sushruta formulated the
oils

preparing
of

mediciual

and Ghritas, and
water

laid

down
a

the use

Shatadhautam Ghritam
washed
with
oil,

(clarified butter,

hundred

times

in

succession),

Sahasrapak

Tailam (medicinal
or

successively

codked a

thousand times),
a

hundred years

old)

Kumbha-Ghritam (clarified butter, it may be fairly said that he was in

sight of the principle of drug-dynamisation.

Principles of A yurvedic Treatment:— Ayurvedic physicians piacticallv recognise
in

two

dififerent

sets

of

principles

the domain of practical therapeutics, which

in the terms of ::heir western colleagues as

may be stated Laws of Similars
has

and Contraries.*
fully

This apparent
for

contradiction
in

been

accounted

and

explained
it

the

writings of
fall

the latter day commentators, but

does not

within

our province to enter into these disquisitions.
to those, Sushruta, in

In addition

common

with the Acharyayas of his
in

time,

never

fails

to

emphasise the value of psycopathy

* Similar in ch.iracter

to the exciting factors

character to the £sse of a disease
actors and
£i>\se

of a disease — Similar in — Similar in character both to the exciting

of a disease.

Contrary

in character to the exciting factors of a disease.

Contrary
Contrary

in character to the £sse of a disease.
in character

both to the exciting factors and Esse of a disease.

M^dhava NidSnam Ch

I.

V,

8.

INTRODUCTION.
those

^

1X1

forms of mental or nerv;ous distempers fgr which
rightly

Mesmer

now

receives

so

n\uch

honor.
has

Since

the creation of man, the tput'h of the
credited with the virtue
of curing

"Saintly"
sick
;

been

the

and Av^feha
of ciairvoyof healing

(auto-hypnotism) and
ance) have achieved
in India,

Samadhi (higher phases
miracles
in
.

many
the,

the

art
it

which was

first

country where

was

first

successfully practised for the welfare of

man.
kinds of
as

Samshodhanam and Samshamanam :— All treatment may be grouped under two heads such
shodhanam and Samshamanam,
i.e.

Sam-

either the body should

be cleansed (Samshodhitam) of the morbific diathesis with
the help of emetics or purgatives, or steps should be
to restore the deranged

taken

Vayu, Pittam and Kapham to their

normal condition with the help of proper medicinal drugs
without resorting to any eliminating process.

But

in

cases

of inflammation, Sushruta enjoins that, instead of

any Samparts

shamanam
In cases

remedies, diaphoresis should be

first

resorted to.
in

where counter-irritants are indicated and
accessible,

which are directly

leeching and

cauterisation

should be practised with a due regard to the season of the
year and the requirements of the case.

We

find

in

his

Samhita

a detailed

account of the several species of leeches

with their habits and habitats.

Forms
as well as

of medicine: — Powders, lambatives,
oils,

decoctions

medicated
in

Ghritas, confection and

wines are

the

forms

"-hich,

according to

Sushruta, medicines
leaves,

should be given.
etc.

The
soil

different di ugs such as roots,
in

should

be culled

the

seasons

proper

to

each.

Reclassified the
of

into five different kinds for the purpose
of
different

growing

drugs

therapeutic

properties.

Even the
ascertained

virtues

of different

flavours

and colours

were

with

regard

to their respective actions on the

deranged morbific principles of the body.

Rasayanam

:

— The Ayurveda
at

being the science of

life

and health, the holy Agnivesha,

the very commencement

Ixii

,

INTRODUCTION.
porticMi

ot

the

th-erapeutical

of

his

work,

*

has described

several medicinal

compounds, which improve general health
'

and

arrest the ravages of time.

Theoretically speaking the
limit to

sciehrce of

the A3'urveda recognises no preordained
Life

human

fexistence.

can

be prolonged

with

the

help

of suitable

medicines.
Rishis

By

dint of observation

and patient
elements

researches our

devised

maay

such adjuncts which
vital

can rejuvenate an old man, and supply those
to

an

old

and exhausted human
progress
of
years.

body,

which ebb away

with

the

Hence,

we

find
for

rejuvenating medicines to
health which

have been prescribed
decay and guard
the

many men in
the
vital

would

arrest
b}'

against

approach of senility
principles
of the

increasing

fundamental

body and preventing Vayu, Pittam and
into morbific diatheses.
diet
in

Kapham from being transformed Diet — "A good and proper
a

disease

is

worth

hundred medicines and no amount of medication can do
a patient

good to
diet.''

who

does not observe a

strict

regimen of

Our

A'jairveda, instead of being content with specify-

ing the nature of diet in diseases in

general,

mentions the
be

names
any ^J

of articles,

which should, or should not
Pittam or Kapham.
of a

taken

in

specific

malady, judged by the light of their properties

of aggravating

Vayu,

The
of

dietic or

therapeutic

properties

large

number

articles

of

human consumption,
undergo
in the

as well as the chemical

changes they

digestive

apparatus of

diflferent

mammals,
in

have been studied and analysed, and so we find
physique,
corns

our

medical

Samhitas,

such injunctions that barley_

passed

undigested

with

the

fceces

of

a

cow or

flwi^ii' J?^t[z^^^'

^^^n

^^' ^x

w

Chaiaka

Sanihit^t Chikitsrt

Slli4nam

Ch

I,

)NTKuDUC'?ioN.
>

>

Ixiii

horse, should foiiu

the diet of

'a

Prameha
be given

patielit

*

that

the

milk of a she-camel

should

to

a

patient
flesh

suffering

from a cutaneous

aflFection,

and that the
'

of

any carnivorous beast or bird should be given to 'one so on. It suffering from pulmonary consumption and
was
a cardinal

doctrine
a

with Ayurvedic
for

dietisls

that

the

longing

of

patieni

any particular kind of food

in a certain disease, emphatically
is

shows that

his

organism
into

in

want of those
of

elements
article

which

enter

the

composition
dietetics

the

offered.

Hence

elaborate

were formulated,

which cannot but be acceptable
'

to the

most fastidious patient.
or

Therapeutics:— The exclusiont
the food of an
ascites

of salt

and water from

anasarca patient as laid
a

down

in

our

Samhitas shows that our Rishi possessed

higher

chemical

knowledge regarding the

effects of organic

matter

on

the

human system than many

of us

are

ready to

accord to these pioneers in medical science.

Medical Botany;— After
of Medical Botany.

therapeutics comes the subject

Sushruta divides the whole vegetable

Charaka Samhiti, Chikiisa Sthanam, Ch.
t

\'I. 23.

The

efficacy of such

exclusion

has

been lately demonsU-ated by the
(Lectures,

researches of Dr. Benjamin

Horniman

Sanitarium,

Park

si.

London.)

Charaka Chikitsha Sthanam Ch, XIIL

^bid Chap.

13.

Charaka Chikitsha Sthanam Chap,

1

2.

Ixiv

f

INTRODUCTION.
Gultlia,

kingdom into Vriksha,
classification has

Vanaspati and Virudha. This
in

been minutely worked out
find
si!ich

works on
as

Hindu Botany where we
r

nice

subdivisions

Agravija (whose

toplings are only planted), Mulaja

(whose

roots only are planted), Parnayoni, Skandaja, Vijaruha (ger-

minated from seeds) ^nd Sannurudhaja.
/

But the botany

of

Sushrnta
a

/

is more of the nature of a" Materia Medica than work on Botany proper, though sometimes he mentions

the habitat and describes the
that they
species.
,
^

foliage

of certain

plants

so

may

be distinguished

from others of a cognate

The

uses of metals and 'minerals

for

therapeutical
* itself.

pur-

poses in India

are

as

old as the

Rigveda

Sush-

ruta describes the

methods

of preparing

oxides,

sulphates

or chlorides of the six metals as the case

may

be.

Mercury

has been only once mentioned in the Samhita and then very

vaguely too.

Processes
of ashes

for

the preparation of alkalis and
very
elaborately
of

the

lixiviation

are

described.

Beyond these the chemical knowledge
extends.

Sushruta scarcely

Hygiene and Public Health:— A?
and public health,
of cleanliness of

a writer of

Hygiene

Sushruta emphasises the importance
both
sririt

and

body.

Water whose
in

disinfecting virtues have

so

often been
of

hymnised
of

the

Vedas t forms the

subject

discussion

an entire

chapter of the Samhita.
attributed to contrary
^/\

Outbreaks of epidemic have been
to

seasons,

the

floating
air,

of

minute

particles

of

poisonous flower

pollen in the

and to the

sin or unrighteous

conduct of the community.

Earthquakes,

famines, and physical phenomena, which are at present attri-

buted to magnetic disturbances of the earth, have been
*

Lead crystal (including diamond) gold and mineral poisons arc menI. i6. I. 29. I 55.

tioned in the

and IV

10. of the

Atharva SamhitA.

Rik Samhiti

I.

23

s.

19,

INTRODUCTION.

'

IxV

described by Sushi ut a as the usual precursors of devastating

epidemics

sucli as jilague etc.

Mortality

among

birds and an

unusual death

among

rats

and other burrowing rodents hav^
a
visi-

been iricluded aiuo.ig other presaging indications of
tation by

Providence.

Interrogated as to the cause of such

outbreaks, Dhanvautari observes that, the

Viyu

(molecular

energy) of the

soi' is

disturoed or affected by

earthquakes,

and seasons of unnatural drought or deluge, deranging their Pittam (kinetic energy) and Shleshma (humidity) which
produce morbific factors that
Sushyuta, as
a true physician,

affect

a

whole community.

has elaborately dealt with the

regimen of

diet

and conduct during the different seasons

of the year (Ch. 24
act as a

-U. T.

64) which, strictly followed, should

good prophylaxis against attacks of many epidemic
being framed
life

diseases,

with a

most careful regard
in
it,

to the

conditions of

which obtain

and ward

off those sad

breakdowns
result of

in

health, which are, in

many
is

instances,

the

an unsuitable mode of living in this country.
a

Twofold division of Time &C :— It

fundamental
the

dictum of Sushruta that in a case of medical treatment
In his Samhita

then prevailing season of the year should be taken into
account.
of

we

find

two

distinct classifications

seasons,

one based on

the

peculiar

physical pheno-

mena which distinguish the

different seasons of the year, a fact

which emphaticall}' proves that Sushruta was an inhabitant of the sub-Himalayan Gangetic Doab, the other is for the
purpose of showing the respective accumulation, aggravation and subsidence of morbific

diatheses

(Doshas).

In

the same manner the

different

quarters

of the to

day and

night have been minutely charted or set

down

show the
The!

spontaneous aggravation and subsidence of the deranged

Vayu, Pittam and
such

Kaphah during the 24
scarlet

l^ours.

,

influence of planets as to the production of certain
as small-pox, measles,
fact.

diseases

fever,

&c.

is

almost a

proved

As
of

it

governs the' prevalence
maladies,

and

non-

prevalence
9

certain

the

aggravation

and

Ixvi

INTRODUCTION.
of certain

non-aggravation

existing disorders as
factor.

well

owe

much

of tb.eir origin to this potent

The
is

vegetable

kingdom from which we glean our
in selecting

daily food

also subject

to thi? influence, and hence the discrimination

we exercise

our food on certain davs of the lunar month.

Countries

have been divided into Jangala or A'nr.pa ac-

cording as their physical features partake of the character
of a dry plateau or
of
a

one possessing features, which are

swamp or marsh, a Sadharana common to both. Diseases,
in

which are natural or are spontaneously relieved
insight

each of

these kinds of countr}- have been treated with that scientific

which marks modern medical works on sea-side

or spring sanitariums.
rivers of India

The

virtues of the waters of different
for the

were ascertained

purposes of practical
of

therapeutics.

The

therapeutic

properties

the milk of
as

a she-goat, she-buflFalo, mare,

cow-elephant, or woman,

well as of any of their modifications such as curd,

whey

&c.

together with the properties of the flesh
several

and urine of the
the

groups of she-animals,

which are indigenous to
at

the land,
disposal
different

were studied and analysed, thus placing
practical

of a

physician

a

list

of
of

dietarv in

diseases

to

soothe
is

the
at
is

taste

the

most

fastidious patient,

and which

the same

time potent

enough

to cure
anj?^

the distemper he
special medicine.

suffering from without
it is

the help of

Vaid\'as prescribing" the flesh of
as a diet in

Thus many

that

we

find

our

carnivorous animals
in

consumption, goat's

meat

phthisis,

goat's

milk in

colitis

and

Tittira's flesh in fever &c.

Diseases of the Kidneys and Bladder: — In treating of the diseases of the kidneys, blatlder and the urethra, Sushruta has described the symptoms and the colour of
the urine
irii

each specific variety without laying

down any

mode

of testing the urine.

enjoined his readers at
to other
allied

But we know that Sn^hruta has the ver}- outset of his work to refer
information
in

branches of the science for
his book.

which

is

not

contained

In the

same manrier

INTRODUCTION'.

Ixvii

we can account
in

for

the

absence
p'j'>se

of.^

any instiuctions

as

regards the feeling of the

as

an

important auxiliary

making

a correct

diagnosis.

We

need but repeat

-.the

statement that the readers of this Samhita
this information in the

must look

for

Kanada's Nadi Vijnanam, which has

made our Vaidyas

such expert sphygmologists.

Kalpa: — In the Kalpasth:inam of his Samhita, Sushruta has described the symptoms of hydrophobia and snake bites,
etc as well as those developed in cases of vegetable poisoning,

together with their therapeutical treatment and

remedies,

wkich,

if

rightly studied and investigated,

may

yet

throw

a

new

liglit

upon the

subject.

Sushruta as an Observer :— It has been lately discovered by a German physiologist that tubercular bacilli do The importance of goat's milk not thrive in goat's blood.
in
colitis as

an efficient agent

in

checking ferment
of a

in

the

intestines, or of the close contact

goat
first

as

a

powerful

auxiliary in curing tuberculous phthisis was

demonstrated
of the

by

Sushruta.

Not
tend

onl}' this

— but

the inhalation

air of a

cattle-shed and especially the fact that exhalations
to

of

goats, bodies
fail

destroy

the

phthisis

germs did
;

not

to attract the attention of

the

Indian Rishis

the

fumigation
such
as

of

tlie

sick-room with

antiseptic preparations
is

isT^T^wq

(Asthanga

dhupas)
to the

purely

Indian

in its origin

and in no way inferior

modern introduction
q^'lsj

of Cogghill's respirators.

The
to

microscopic germs that are said
^^^crrfvf

to propagate septic fever otherwise called
are

f^^^j^
Indian

found

very often

disappear

under

this

device where no medicines

produce any impression. Thus
Manj'
truths

many
in

a

wonderful discovery like the above hails from the
a

dimness of
the vast

bygone age.

lie

embedded

medical literature of the Brajimanas which

claimed close attention

and devout study, even by the
in

western savants.
pages can help a

We

have not laboured

vain

if

these

little

to reviVe the old

genius of the

Ayurveda, or help the progress of human Science one step

onward towards the attainment

of its goal.

PLATE

No.

I,

1.

An^uli yantra.

Z.Arsho yantra.

M^HP^^PKf^^P^^H^

i

'^

3 Ashmaryaharna yantra
.

4.

Basti yantra.

S-Bhrin^amuklia yantra.
6 Darvyakritislialaka.
.

7.

Garbhashanlcu yantra.

8.

Jalodar yantra.

9

.

Kakamuklia yantra.

10

.

Kankamukha

yantra.

^
ILMuclititi yantra.
12.

Nadi yantra.

13 Riksliaraukha- yantra.
.

14-.

Sadansha yantra.

SEE CHAPTER

VII.

PLATE

No.

II.

15

.

Shamipatra yautra.
16.

Shalaka vanira.

17.

Sliarapunka ixmkha.
18. Sinliainiiklia yantra.

19.

Shvanaraukha y antra.

20.

Shanku

yantra.

21.

Snuhi yantra.
22. Tila yantra.

23 .Tarakshumukha.

24.Vrikaiimkha yantra.

25 Vrinapraksii.alana yantra,
.

26 Yya^hramukha yantra
.

27. Yugmaslianku yantra.

- %k

,,^M
VII.

Yofljaveksliana yantra.

SEE CHAPTER

PLATE

No.

III.

l.Ardhadhara shastra.

Z.Atimukha

shastra.

S.Ara

sliastra.

4.

Badisha. shastra.

S.Dantaslianku shastra.

^
7.

<!>-

Karapatra shastra.

^

'

6. Eshani shastra.

8.

Antarmukha kartarika.
J^aSKrJsniKU

SEE CHAPTER

VIII.

I

PLATE

No. IV.

1E^&£

lO.Kushapatra shastra.
9.Kritharika sTiastra.

ll.Manda.la^ra shastra.

12.Mudrika shastra.

.

<5' -^

13.Na.kiia shastra.

14.

Sliaianmuklia shastra.

'^—J=
iS.Trikurchaka shastra.

17.

Utpalapatra shastra.

J'j|

18. Vetaspatra shastra.

15.

Suchi shastra.

ZO.Vndhipatra shaslra.
19 Yrihimukha shastra.
.

SEE CHAPTER

VIII.

CONTENTS.
CHAPTER
Origin of the Ayurveda
:

I.

and the characteristic features of each of them
and
its

— The eight divisions of the Ayurveda — History of Surgery
exteiisi(jn

primary importance
of

Definition

Purusha

— Gradual — Classification

of the Ayurveda

of the mobile

and the im-

— Definition and classification of disease — Classification of Oshadhis —^The four factors to be employed in successfully coping — 15 with disease —The four stages of a disease
mobile
'a
...

...

1

CHAPTER
Initiation of a student of the

n.

student
preceptor

of

medicine

and his disciple
...

— ]\Iode of — Proliibited
... ...

Ayurveda :— Qualifications of a Initiation — Compact between the
periods of
...

the study of the
...

Ayurveda

16

— 20

CHAPTER
Classification of the

III.

Ayurveda &c. :— The
the

distribution of

its

hundred and twenty chapters among the Samhita
each of

five subdivisions

of

.this

—A
its

synopsis of the contents of
subdivisions

cliapters

allotted

to

— Skilful

and

unskilful

phj^sicians

— The —
.^2

mode

of studying the Ayurveda

— Duties

of a pupil
...

after
...

having
21

finished the study of the

Ayurveda

CHAPTER. IV.
Ayurveda
Necessity of a clear exposition of tlie General explanations Defects which flow from nonexposition of the same
:

Duties of a student of the Ayurveda

...

...

33

— 35

ii

'

(

ONTRNTS.
V.

CHAPTER
Preliminary surgical
ope^-ations

measures
are

:

— Classification
be
collected
at

of

surgical

— Accessories
of

which

to

the outset

—Qualifications
parts of

—The
of

a surgeon — Modes of incision, etc. at the different — Measures to be adopted after surgical operations prophylactic Mantra — Directions for dressing wounds and

the body

removing bandages according
the year

to tlie nature of

the prevailing season
to
a

— Acts
wound

and

articles

proliibited

patient
in a
...

with a
surgical

granuliiting

— Measures
...

for

removing the pain
...
...

wound

...

30

— 44

CHAPTER
Characteristic features of

VI.

the different seasons of the year
:

Time and its traitsand their influence on health and drugs Etymology of the term Kala (time) — Divisions of time and classification

of the

seasons of the
of
the

year,

witli

Iheir

respective features.

Classification

seasons of

the
or

year for the purposes of the
subsidence of
the deranged the prevailing

Ayurveda

— Inception,

aggravation

Vayu, Pittam and Kapham according
season of the year

to the nature of

— Aggravation or

subsidence of the same in the

dilferent qiuirters of the

phylactic measures

— Causes of epidemics — Pro— Features of natural or unnatural seasons 45 — 55
day and night

CHAPTER
Surgical
of surgical

YII.

appliances,
instruments

their

use

and construction

:

— Number
56

— Names,

dimensions^

use and functions of

surgical appliances with points of their respective excellence or defect

— Minor

siu'S'ical

accessories

— Excellence of Kankaraukha

...

— 03

CHAPTER
tion
:

VIII.
use and construc-

Surgical instruments, and their names,

— Mode of

handling th^ different surgical instruments.

— Their
of

commendable features

— Sharpening, edging and

tempering,

etc..

CONTENTS.
surgical instruments and enumeration

'

111

of cases where they »should be
... ...

employed

...

...

...

64

—70

Practice of

surgery

CHAPTER — Ti'iichiiig
:

IX.
siir^^ery
...

oi'

on

(iiiiniiiies
...

ami

suitable fruits, etc.

...

,

...

71—73

CHAPTER
Essential qualifications
cntirs his profession:
in

X.
before he formally
to be observed

of

a

physician

— Means

of diagnosis

— Things
...

making

a diagnosis

— Cure, palliation and incurability of

diseases
...

Prohibited conduct of a physician

74

— 77

CHAPTER
Mode
as
of preparing alkalis,

XI.
their comparative excellence

and

incising, excising

or scraping agents

:— Alkalis

for external

application or internal use

—Cases
for

where

alkalis

prove injurious

three

potencies

of

alkalis

external

application
its

—The —Commendable
and
after-

or defective features in an alkali

— IMode
alkalis
...

of

application,

measures— Symptoms
should
not

of satisfactory

cauterisation— Persons

who
its

be
...

treated
...

with

— Dangers
...

which

attend
••

abuse

78—87

Actual cauteries
liminary

:

CHAPTER — Accessories to
is

XII.
an act
of
cauterisation

— Prethe

measures— Symptoms which manifest themselves
cauterised

as

skin, or flesh, or a vein, or joint
in different

— Seats

of caifterisation

diseases— Different modes of cauterisation— Characteristic

symptoms of burns and scalds, etc.— Rationale of treating a burn or a scald with heat— Medical treatment of burns and scalds, etc.— Symptoms which appear when the nostrils, etc. of a person is choked
with

smoke— Its treatment— Medical
...

treatment of sun

strikes,
...

and

scorchings by hot Avind, etc.

88

— 97

IV

,

UONTENTS.

Leeches and their
of extracting the

CHAPTER XIII. use — Persons who may
:

be leeched

—Mode

vitiated

blood

in'

such cases

— Mode
...

of apply-

ing the ing
the

leeches

leeches
...

measures

—Classification, and mode of collecting and keep— Bad leeches and their characteristics — After98 — 105
,,..
...

...

CHAPTER
Origin and characteristic
location,

XIV.
of

features

lymph

chyle .-—Its
blood

course

and metamorphosis into blood

— Menstrual

— Successive .metamorphosis of the fundamental principles of the body — Etymology of the terra Dhatu — Blood Swellings which should not be bled — Two kinds of blood letting— \'enesectioii, mode and different aspects — ]\Iischief created by the vitiated blood not extracted from the system — Causes of excessive bleeding and effect upon the system — Symptoms of satisfactory l)leeding and benertcial results — Measures to be adopted in cases of excessive or scanty bleeding — Medical treatment of excessive bleeding — Various instructions 106 — 110
and
its

nature

its

its
its

...

...

...

CHAPTER
Development
of the

XV.
locations

or

non-development of the excrements and

constituent principles of

thebody:— Nature,

and functions

Normal Vayu, Pittam and Kapham,
their

as well as

of the lymph

chyle, blood, fat,

marrow, semen, and ojah (albumen), and the sympincrease,

toms which mark

decrease,

or disiodgment in the
...

human system — Etiologies

of obesity and thinness

120

— 140

CHAPTER

XVI.
t

Piercing and bandaging of the lobules of ears
attend the acc\dental hurting of a local vein
lints

— Evils wliich
unguents and
of
a
...

— Medical

— Different

processes

of

bringing about the adhesion
141

bifurcated ear-lobe

— plastic and rhinuplastic operations

— 154

CONTENTS.'

«

V

CHAPTER
Distinction between suppurat\ng

XVII.
and non-suppurating swelltheir

ings

:

— Different
actions

types

of
,

intiammatory swellings produced by the

deranged Vayu, Pittani, etc
respective
in

and the symptoms which mark

each type
or

— Characteristic

symptoms of

a
in
its

suppurating, suppurated,
cising

non-suppurated !5welling

— Hints

on
at

suppurated swellings-r-Evils of opening an abscess

inflammatory stage
lancing
otf

an

connection with

— Feeding and anftsthetising of a patient before abscess — Classification of surgical operations in an abscess 155 — 161
... ... ...

CHAPTER
plasters according to their

XVIII.
:

Dressings and bandages of ulcers
thickness,

— Classification

of medicinal

of the different types of plasters

and
lint

their

names and
of

— Use — Articles of bandaging— Bandages applications — Tow — Mode of introducing a
application

and function

— Renewals

bandages according
of the year

to the

nature

of the ulcer

— Evils of non-bandaging prohibited — Hints Benefits of bandaging — Cases where bandaging on the proper lubrication of the lint — Incidental remarks on the 162 — 175 bandaging of fractured or dislocated bones
and the prevailing season
is
...

...

CHAPTER
Nursing and management
against monsters and
patient
... ...

XIX.
:

of

an Ulcer-patient
and
conduct
...

bed and chamber— Articles prohibited to an ulcer patient

— Nature ot his — Prophylaxis
of
...

demons

— Diet
...

an

ulcer-

176—182

CHAPTER XX.
Salutary
fication
(if

and Non-salutary
all

effects of

regimen,

etc.

:

— Classi-

articles

of

fare

according as they are wholesome or

unwholeseme
or

to

the

human

system, or are relatively wholesome

otherwise

— Foodstuff'— Incompatibility
through

through

combination
pre-

Injuriousness

combination- Incompatibility through

VI

.

"CONTENTS.
winds on the human system

paration,' quantity or Havour-rEffect of

as they blow

from

the'ditierent quarters of the

heaven

...

183—193

CHAPTER
The deranged
ulcers
:

XXI.
as
the

Vaf/u,

Pittam,

etc.,
in,

the exciting causes of

—Seats of Vayu,

Pittam, etc.

human body, and
nature

their

functions— Different kinds of Vayii, Pittam and Shleshma, and their
functions and locations in the

economy

of

— Factors
and

which
their

aggravate the deranged
periodicity

Vayu, Pittam

and

Kapham,

—Symptoms of the deranged Pittam,
etc..

Kapham and
body

blood
to
its

Expansion of the deranged Vayu, Pittam,
their

and diseases dye

incarceration in the difterent parts

of the

— Disease—
in
all
...

development and occasions which necessitate the calling
aid

of medical

— The

nature of medical treatment in the case where two or

of

the Vayu, Pittam and

Kapham

are involved

...

194

— 211

CHAPTER
Secretions from boils and ulcers
etc.

XXII.
:

— Symptoms

of bad ulcers

— Shapes and seats of boils — Secretions from ulcers— Presumption
from the nature of the
secretion
...
... ...

as to the derangement of Vayu, etc.

— Different

kinds of pain wliich mark the different types of ulcers
...

Colours of Ulcers

212—219

CHAPTER

XXIII.

an ulcer— SympPrognosis toms of an ulcer which readily granulates— Symptoms of difficult — or incurable types, as well as of those which admit only of palliation
in ulcer cases -.—Easy curability of

Symptoms

of a purified, granulating or healed ulcer
...

— Factors

which

lead to the reopening of a healed ulcer

220—227

CHAPTER
Classification
of

XXIV.
as

diseases according as they are medical or
uf diseases according
mental,
physical
or

surgical

:— Further

classitica'tioii

they arc

congenital,

etc.— Diseases due

to

providential

CONTENTS.
causes

»

— Diseases
...

due to the derangeinent
the
...,

of
'

lymph
Vaj'u,

chj-'je,

etc.

Relation

between fever and
...

deranged
...

Pittam
...

and

Kapham

228—237

CHAPTER XXV.
Eight
different

forms of surgical operation

:

—Cases

where
be

incision, excision, scarification, aspiration, extraction, etc., should

respectively resorted to
tive

— Mode

and conditions of suturing
wliich

— Defecas

surgical

operations

— Symptoms
tlie

mark

tiie

injudicious

hurting of a vein, artery,

lig.'iment, joint or lione,

as

well
is
...

those

which are manifested when any of
hurt
'

other Alarmas
...

accidentally

...

...

...

238—246

CHAPTER XXVI.
Exploration of splinters, deep-seated in the organism
nition of a

Shalyam

— Clpssification
or

of the of

shafts of arrows

— Defi— Flights
:

of arrows

— Characteristic symptoms
the
shaft

arrow-wounds— Localisation

of a shaft of arrow lying imbedded in the body

— Symptoms which
lie

show

that

the

splinter does not

imbedded

in the

wound a wound

— Evils cf not extracting the
...

shaft

of
...

an

arrow from such
...

...

...

247— 2.o5

CHAPTER XXVII. Extraction of splinters — Fifteen different
:

processes

of extrac-

'1—

Two recognised modes of extracting splinters from all types mds— Measures to be adopted after the extraction — Mode
acting
'inter

of

of

splinters

from

veins,
...

etc.— Dangers of not
...
...

extracting

from

a

wound

2^6

— 265

CHAPTER
avourable

XXVIII.

vourable or unfavourable prognosis of an julcer:

— Fatal

symptoms Advisability of abandoning ihe patient 266 269 hese unfavouraole symptoms appear ... ...

VIU

,

•"CONTENTS.

CHAPTER XXIX.
Favourable or unfavourable prognosis in diseases as known

from messengers, omens, birds same predicted from dreams, etc.

of

happy or

evil

augury

:

—The

—Remedies for inauspicious

dreams

under the circumstance— Description of auspicious dreams

270

—283

CHAPTER XXX.
Prognosis that can be obtained from the perverted functions
of the five sense organs
:

— Arislitas
in

or unfavourable

mental

symp-

toms

— Unfavourable

symptoms

connection with the faculties of
... ...

hearing, touch, taste, smell or. sight

284—287

CHAPTER XXXI.
Prognosis
features
:

to

be

gathered from the altered condition of

— Other

Aristha

symptoms
...

in

connection
...

with
...

Asthma,

Cough, and (Edema. &c.

288—292

CHAPTER
of the

XXXII.
...

Prognosis based on the perversion of the external appearances

body and other Arishta symptoms

...

293

— 297

CHAPTER
nection

XXXIIf.

Incurable diseases, and Incurable symptoms developed in con-

with diseases of the nervous systems, morbid urethral
Leprosy,
DitKcult

discharges,
concretions,

Haamorrhoids
labour,
Ascites,

:

— Fistula
...

in

ano

— Urinarj'
Phthisis,

Fever, Dysentery,

abdominal glands,
Epilepsy
...

Abscess,
...

Chlorosis, Ha?moptysis,
...

Insanity
...

and

298—302

CHAPTER XXXIV.
Mode
the
of preserving the Ii<e of a
:

march

—The four

factors of

medical treatment

king whose soldiers are on Good which

CONTENTb.
lebiiUs

from a

butitifuolory coiiibinaliun oi

all

tlieso

lour facloib

Commendable
nurse
...

features
...

in

a

physician,
...

yatient,
...

medicine
...

and

303

— 307

CHAPTER XXXV.
Clinical Observations
or
:

— Cliracteristic

features of

a

long lived
life

short lived

man, or of one with an average duration of

Physical temperaments and
of
the body

dimensions of the limbs and members
or

— Curable,
Primary
stages

incurable
diseases

suppressible

diseases

— Sym-

pathetic

and

capacity

— Three

of

— Different kinds of digestive man — Relative preponderance of Vayu,
different

Pittam and

Kapham

during

stages

of

life

Classification

of countries according to their physical features

...

308

— 328

CHAPTER XXXVI.
Miscellaneous remedies for swellings
ing suppuration in swellings
:

—Piasters

for establish-

— Plasters for

bursting, pressing out the

— Aseptic pastes — Fumigating com—Compounds which favour granulation or 329 — 335 destroy the supergrowths around an ulcer
pus from, or asepsising swellings

pounds—Healing pastes

in,

...

...

CHAPTER XXXVn.
Destructive traits of the different kinds of soil

commended
of

for
the

the growth or culture of medicinal
soil

herbs
to

:

— Examination
traits in
...

from which medicinal drugs

are

be gathered

— Examination
a

of drugs

— IMode of collecting drugs — Commendable
...

room

to be used as a drug-store

...

336

— 341

CHAPTER XXXVni.
A
tical

General Classification
properties;

o^rdf^?'^^

according to

tl^eir

therapeu^^^

rhirty umer^^ — Enumerh^^jl^.^^ yU'irty
II

seven different groups of

medicinal

drugs— Their US' y^jygj. Pro^"'' ••• "?yametc.-Pix)^"«.ption of the Vel'uoi.

-

•••

^^^-f^^
group

—^^^

^ lesh

X

CONTKNTS.

CHAPTER XXXIX.
Purgatives

EmeticsDrugs possessed of cathartic or soothing effects Drugs possessed of lirith emetic and purgutive properties
:

^.Errliines

— — Drugs

whicli

respectively soothe the

der inged

Vayu,

Pittaiu and

Kaphaui

— Mode of administering medicines.,.

358

— 363

CHAPTER
Drugs and their flavours,
actions
or
:

XL,
potencies,

virtues,

and chemical
of drugs, of
in

— Disquisitions as regards
flavours,

the primary importance

their

potency',

or

chemical

reaction

respect

curing diseases
as

— Causes
...

of

different kinds of

digestion

—Conclusion
curing
a

regards
...

the

primary

importance
...

of
...

drugs

in
...

disease

364

— 374

CHAPTER
Specific properties of drugs
to
:

XLI.
according

—Classification of drugs

the preponderance of the virtues of elemental matter in them
features

Characteristic

of drugs of dominant earth

matter, etc.

Periodicity of drug action

— Reasons why purgative
Kapham— Potency of

drugs move the
of

bowels

—Factors which lead to the aggravation or subsidence
drugs...

the

deranged Vayu, Pittam and

375

— 381

CHAPTER
Specific properties of flavours
of
ff

XLII.
for the

:— Reasons

classification

a voms— Relation of the elemental earth matter with the flavours

—Reasons for the primary derangement of Vayu, Pittam, etc— Symptoms and aggravating factors of the deranged Vayu, Pittam
and

Kapham— Virtues of
of

the different kinds of ^iavour, such as sweet,
~
*

etc.— Enumeration

groups of

drugs,
•••

etc.— Sixty-three
•••

different combinations of fiavoi^rj?

XXXI
king

3^2

393

Moae
the

>..

,

life
.

of a

w.>

march

j

—Tnc

^actors of

medical treatuicnt

— Good

whw

COMLMS.

XI

CHAPTER
Mode
of administering emetics
••»
:

XLIII.

— Compounds of
...

Madana
...

fruits

Gompounds of Jimutaka

394

— 399

CHAPTER XLIV. Choice of purgatives — Most efficient purgatives— Purgative compounds — Purgative soups — Asavas, wines, Sauviras, and Tushodakas, etc. — Instructions as to the way of administering purgative
>
:

compounds of Danti,
Trivrit

etc., in

the

manner of

Trivrit
fruits

compounds
and
milky

Ashtakam — Mode of

using

purgative

exudations of trees— Administration of purgative medicines through
the media of wine, etc.
... ... ...

400—417

CHAPTER XLV.
Rules to be observed in respect of liquid substances
group
etc.
:

— Water

— Modes

of purifying different kinds of water and their virtues

— Milk group—Virtues of the different kinds of milk —Curd — Virtues of the different kinds of curd —Takra group — Modes of preparing different kinds of Takra, and their attributes — Properties of butter, Kilat, etc. — Different kinds of Ghritas (clarified butter), and their properties — Oil group and the properties of different kinds of
group
oil— Properties of the fat obtained from aquatic or domestic animals

— Honey group — Classification of the different kinds of honey and their properties — Sugar-cane group, and the properties of the different preparations of sugar-cane juice, such as treacle, sugar, — Wine group —Properties of the different kinds of animal urine... 418 — 468
etc.,

CHAPTER XL VI.
Different kinds
of for

and drink :— Descripti^^ns

of

Sliali

Dlianyam, Shasht''
Barley, Wheat, Sp
to their jnatui'ity
' ,

"Ah

.

udhanyam, Vaidal, Mudga, Sesamum,

..nanyametc.

— Properties of
Vei'udha

Dlianyas according

— Description of the

Dhanyas— Flesh group

Xll

CONTENTS.
tlesh— The Vishkira group

— Classiticutiou of

the flesh' of Vishkira, animal^

— General properties of — Etymology of the term Pratuda

Enumeration of the animals of the Pratuda group— Cave dwelling,
and hole dwelling animals— The Prasalia group of animals
use of flesh of the Prasaha group in, Phthisis

— Beneficial

—Detailed

classification

of animals with the etymology of their generic names, and properties

of their flesh

— Frvit group, and the properties of
salts

different fruits

— Group

of pot herbs, and their properties

group o£ edible leaves of plants, and their
bulbous plants
potash, etc.

— Flower groups —The properties — The group of
of nitrate of

—The group of
beverages

— General properties
diet

— Properties of gold,
causes of

iron, silver

and other metals

— Deter-

mination of the properties of drugs other than those herein mentioned

— Drinks and meal — General
types of

— Rules of

— Rules

of

serving out the
the
different

indigestion— Symptoms of
treatment of

indigestion
acts of

— Medical

the same

— Symptoms
469

which mark
a

over or insufticient eating, or an act of eating
is

meal before a previous one

digested

— Reason

of one's feeling
...

hungi'y even

when

suffering

from indigestion

—571

^

THE SUSHRUTA SAMHUA
SUTRASTHANAM.
CHAP T E R
Well,
I.

we*

shall

now

describe the origin of the Science

of Medicine, as disclosed
disciple Sushruta.

by the holy Dhanvantari

to his

(Vedotpattimadhyaryam).
when
the holy Dhanvantari, the

Once upon
greatest of the

a time,

mighty

celestials,

incarnated in the form

of Divodasa, the king
in his hermitage,

of Kasi,

was

blissfulh^

seated,

surrounded bv a concourse of holy
Paush-

Rishis

;

Aupadhenava, Vaitarana, Aurabhra,
Karavirya,
Gopura-rakshita,
as follows
:

kalavata,

Sushruta and
Sire,
it

others addressed
us

him

— "O

grieves

much

to find

men, though otherwise well befriended

"

The

present

work which

originally

formed the subject of a discourse
Sushruta,
is

by the holy sage Dhanvantari
in its present

to his disciple

has been

compiled

form by the venerable Nagarj una, and

accordingly designated

as the Sushruta Samhila.

2
b)' the'ir

THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA.
kin

[

Chap

I.

and

relations,

falling a

prey to diseases,

mental, physical, traumatic,
wailing in agony
earth
;

or natural,

and piteously
on

like

utterly

friendless creatures

and we supplicate thee,
with
the
truths

O

Lord, to illumine our
Eternal
faithfully

minds

of

the

Ayurveda
discharge

(Medical Science) so that
the duties
sufferings

we may
in
life,

allotted to us

and

alleviate
in

the

of

humanit)" at large.
is

Bliss

this life

and
and

hereafter,
for this,

in

the

gift of this

eternal Ayurveda,

O

Lord,

we have made

bold to approach
thus replied
all

thee as thy humble disciples."
the
to
hoi}'

To them,
to

Dhanvantari

:

— "Welcome
All

of

you

this

blissful

hermitage.

of

you are

worthy

of the honour of true pupilship or tutelage."

The A'yui'veda
sections of the

(which forms the subject of our
formed one of the sub;

present discourse), originally
Athar\'a

A'eda

and even before the

creation of mankind,
it

the

self-begotten

Brahma strung

together into a hundred thousand
into

couplets (Shlokas),

divided

a

thousand

chapters.

But then
life

he

thought of the small duration of

human

on earth,

and
found
into

the failing
it

character

of

human memory, and

prudent to divide the whole of the Ayurveda
different

eight

branches

such

as,

the

Salya-

Tantram, the Salakya-Tantram, the Kaya-Chikitsa, the
Bhuta-Vidy.i, the KauniHr-Bhrityci, the Agada-Tantram, the Rusa\"ana-Tantram and

the

\'ajeekarana-Tantram.

Chap.

I.

]

SUTRASTHAN'AM.
the
characteristi'c

^
of each
:

Xow

about

features

of

these branches of the Science of the Ayurveda

The Salya-Tantram*— The
branch of Medical Science
is

scope

of this
ulcer)

to

remote from an
as,

any extraneous substanx:e such
particles of stone, dust, iron or
hair,

iTagments of hay,
;

bone

splinters,
(as

nails,

clotted blood,

or

condensed pus
out of the

the

case

may

be

,

or

to

draw

uterus
in

a dead
cases

foetus, or to

bring about safe parturitions

of

false

presentation,

and

to

deal with the principle and
surgical

mode

of using

and handling

instruments in
(cautery)

general,

and with the application of

fire

and

alkaline (caustic) substances,
sis

together with the diagno-

and treatment of

ulcers.

The Sha'Ia'kya-Tantramt— embraces
object the treatment of those diseases
to the

as

its

which are

restricted
fissures or

upward (lit:

—region above the clavicles)

cavities

of the body,

such as the ears, the eyes, the

cavity of the mouth, the nostrils, etc.

The Ka'ya-Chikitsar
treats
*

(General

diseases!

of

diseases,

which, instead of being

simply
painful

Any
is

foreign mailer, lodged in a

human organism and proving

10

it,

called a Shalya.
is

t

The name
use

derived from the Sanskrit term Slialak^, a probe or a rod,

the

and application of the instrument being primarily jincluded within

the scope of this branch of the Ayurveda.

J The term K^ya literally signifies the vital heat or fire which runs through the entire system, and hence the II5ya-chikits6 deals with diseases

which may gradually invade the root-principles of a living human organism.

4
restricted to

THE SUSHRUTA
an}^

SAATHITA'

[

Cliap.

I.

specific organ, or to

any

particular
as Fever,

part of the body, affect the entire system,

Dysentery, Haemoptysis, Insanity, Hysteria,
unnatural discharges from the urethra,
etc.

Leprosy,

The Bhuta-Vidya'
lays
evil

'Demoniacal diseases)

down
spirits

incantations

and

modes

of
to

exorcising

and

making

offerings

the

gods,
for

demons,
cures

Gandharvas,
diseases

Yakshas,

Rakshas,

etc.

of

originating

from their

malignant

influences.

The Kauma'ra-Bhritya
children)

Management

of

— deals
milk,

with the nursing and healthy bringing

up of

infants,

with

purification
deficient
also with

and
in

bettering

of
its

mothers'

found

any
for

of

characteristic traits,

and

cures use

diseases
vitiated
stars

peculiar to infant

life

and due

to the

of

mother's milk or to the influences of malignant

and

spirits.

The Agada-Tantram
with
bites

Toxicology— deals
and

from

snakes,

spiders

venomous
antidotes.

worms, and
It

their characteristic
its

symptoms and
elimination

hai

also for

object

the

of poison

whether animal, vegetable, or chemical (resulting from
incompatible combinations) from the system of a man,

overwhelmed with

its effects.

The

Rasa'yana-Tantram
,

Science
object

of

Rejuvenation

—has

for

its

specific

the

Chap.

I.

]

SUa^RASTHA'NAM.
of

5

prolongation

human

life,

and

tl^e

invigoration
It

of

memory and
recipes
or

the vital organs

of man.
retain

deals with

which enable a man to

his

manhood

youthful vigour up to a good old age,

and which
invuhierable

generally serve to
to disease

make

the

human system

and

deca}'.

The Varjcckarana-Tantram
Aplarodisiacs,

(Science of

—treats
of

of measures b}' which the

semen
quality
if

of

a

man

naturally

scanty
its

or
;

deficient

in

becomes

shorn

defects

or

is

purified,

deranged by the
wind, etc.
(if
;

^•itiated

humours of the body (such

as

or

is

invigorated and increased in quantit}'
;

pure and healthy)
'

or acquires

its

health}'

and normal

consistence
of youth\

if

thinned and enfeebled by indiscretions
it

[In short,

deals with things

which increase

the pleasures of youth and
to a

make a man doubly endearing

woman].

Thus the

entire science of the

Ayurveda

is

classified

into the eight preceding branches.

Xow
in

tell

me, which
?

of

them

is

to be taught

and to which of you
all,

Said the

disciples

:

— "Instruct us
Shalya
)

O

Lord,

the science of

surgery

(

and

let

that

be the chief subject

of our study."
vantari
said
:

To
it

which replied the
so."

holy Dhanagain
matter,

:

— "Be
are

Then
one

the

disciples
in

— "We

all

of

mind

the

O

Lord, that Sushruta shall be our spokesman aiid .ask

6

THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA'
to the general

[

Chap.

I

you questions conformably
purpose.

trend of our
will

All of us will attentively hear

what you

be pleased to discourse to Sushruta, [and that will save

you the trouble of teaching us
replied

individuall)']".
it

To which
listen,

the venerable

sage — ",Be

so.

Now

Sushruta, m}-

dear child.

The

object or utility of the

science which forms the subject of our present discussion,

ma}' be gi^ouped under two distinct sub-heads such

as (i) the cure of diseased persons,
tion of health in those

and

(2)

the presetva-

who

are not

afflicted

with any

sort of bodily distempers."

The etymological
veda"

meaning

of the

term

"Ayurin

may be

interpreted to denote either a science
life

the knowledge of which

exists,

or

which helps a

man

to enjoy a longer duration of

life.

The primary position
[As regards time and importance

of

surgery:—
the other allied

among

branches of the Science of Medicine]. Hear

me discourse
is

on the Science of Surgery
the oldest of
all

{

Shalya-Tantram) which

the other branches of the Science of
is

Medicme (Ayurveda) and

fuither corroborated
viz.,

by the

four classes of testimonies,

Perception, Inference,

Analogv
primary

and

Scriptural

Truths

(Agamas).
of the

The

position

of this

branch

Ayurveda,

(as regards its

time or

origin),

may

be inferred from the

fact that

Surgerv lends her aid materiallv towards the

Chap.

I. ]
«

SUTRASTHANAM.
up
for

7

healing

of

traumatic

mlcers.*

The
be

'second

reason

such

an

intWence

may

deduced

from the replacement of the severed head of Yajna.
It
is

told

that the god of Sacrifice

Rudra, severed the head of

the

God

(Yajna).

Whereupon the gods
and
lords,

approached

the
:

celestial

Ashvins,
twins,
all,

addressed

them
to

as

follows

— "You
of us

O

who

are

be the greatest

connect the

head of
replied

\''aj?ia

with his decapitated trunk."

To them,
do,

the

divine

Ashvins
us to

:

— " We shall
Then the

O

lords, as

you

command

do."

celestials

propitiated

the god Indra
offered in

in order that a

portion of the oblations

the

course

of a sacrifice, might be allotted

to

those

heavenly twins.
of Yajna to

The Ashvins
his

reunited the

severed head

body

as

prayed
is

for.

[Hence

this

branch of the Ayurveda (Shalyanga)
its

the

oldest of all

subdivisions].

The primary importance Shalyam —All hold this Tantram
:

of
to

the
the

be

most imnortant
Mi^o See/'
^^
'f
'

of
suc^w

all

the

other

branches of the

"^^^ ^^

^receptacle
'

ofheauff

iustantaueous actious can be
^

r/VPQ ^

3
,

^^

^^^^^^

appliances

as,

Jb|*/£^getable world belongs
T

t

Ve|*Op
^
^^^

o^ locomotion, belong to since

^Jnav be areued here,
tllQ
to

nd sword-cuts had

to

be dressed and
long before
;

iuindamental material the gods and the denwns,

ff dQ^f]^ 'ippearance Oir) ], it is not ct' idiopathic maladies such-^ as, fever, etc. ad Smgery contruvofold attril/ was demanded of her towards the healint;
"-•

up of those
the allied

u'cers.

li>.

But

s'

branch of the Ayurveda

is

the oldest of

all

IP

brawhes of

thu-se in.ng art.

8
surgical

THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA
operatioi|s,
etc.,

[

Chap.

I.

external

applications

of

alkalis,

cauterisation,

and -.secondly
the

inasmuch

as

it

contains

all

that can be found in

other branches
the superior

of the science

of medicine as well, with

advantage of producing instantaneous effects by means
of surgical

instruments and appliances.
of
all

Hence

it

is

the highest in value
eternal

the medical Tantras.
piety,

It

is

and a source of
gates

infinite

imparts fame
its

and opens the

of of

Heaven

to

votavies,

prolongs the duration

human

existence on

earth,

and helps men

in

successfully

fulfilling

their missions,

and earning a decent competence,

in life.

Gradual extension

of

the
was the

Ayurfirst

vedic Knowledge :—Bramha
learned the
it

to

inculcate the principles of the holy Ayurveda. Prajapati

science from him.

The Ashvins learned
the knowledge
)

from Prajapati and

imparted

to

Indra,
entire

who

has

favoured
thereof.
it

me
I,

(

Dhanvantari

with an

knowledge

for

the good of mankind,

am

ready to impart

to those ^;-}-i^antram)-M^i^ earth.

anches of the Sci

The King
supreme and

of

Kar?^,ther corroborate'^^
i._^

ac'^^

count Of himself
original
is I

pe,ception,

Inft'^^

god

i^^^^j^^

(Agam?'
f
tl

*^"^^ ^^

Dhanvantifri. It

who warde
^o
I

,

disease

and

decay

fi-on\

the celestials,

-

Kg
.

j,-,^

was an inmate
on earth

of the region of heaven,

now

a

^

.carnated

Chap. I.]

SUTRASTHA'NAM.

9

with the view to teach the Science of SurgeiV with
all its allied

branches of study to men.
(self-

In the present science (Ayurveda), the Piirusha

conscious oro:anic individual)
of the combination
material principles.
operations,

is

described as the resultant

of the

soul

and the
such

five primar>as,

All medical acts

surgical

administration of alkaline

of medicinal

remedies and
cauterisation,

applications
etc.),

substances,

or

are restricted to the Piirusha alone.*
so

Why
created

is it

?

The answer
composed
of

is,

simply because the

world

is

two

distinct

classes,

such as the mobile and the immobile. f
classes,
in

These two

their

turn,

are

further sub-divided for the

purposes of the
orders,

science

of

medicine

into

the two

Agneya
is

hot

and

Saumya
fi^'e

(cool.

Hence

the

world

composed of

material

principles,

though characterised by the
(hot)

twofold virtues,

Agneya

and Saumya
may be

(cool).i

* It

questioned

why

they

should be

confined to the
that

Puiusha

?

Such a query may be
alone
is

successfully

met by the statement
and disease
in

the

Purusha
to

the receptacle

of health

contradistinction

the

Self or Ego.

t

The
It

vegetable world belongs

to the

latter

category,

while 'animals,

possessed of locomotion, belong to the former.

X

may be argued
(ether)

here, since everything in
[

the

universe
water,

is

composed
(heat),
is

of the five
air

fundamental material principles
],

of earth,
assert

fire

and sky

it is

not

competent

to

that

the universe

possessed

of the

twofold

attributes

Agneya (heated

or fiery)

and Saumya
predominates

(cool or watery), alone.

But since

fire

(heat) or water (cold)

in all things in the universe in juxtaposition with ihe

primary virtues of the

10

THE SUSWRUTA SAMHITA.

[Chap.

I.

Further cliassification of the mobile and the immobile :- The animated world may
be divided into four subdivisions, such as the Svedaja
(born
of sweat or heat

and moisture
oviparous

?'.

e.

abiogenous'

the

Andaja

(

egg-born or

),

the

Udbhijja

(vegetable) and the

Jarayuja

(placental or viviparous j.

The Purusha
greatest

or the subjective personalit}'
all,

(man)

is

the
are

of

them

because

all

other forms of

life

made

to minister to his

wants on Earth.

Disease
(man)
is

:

Sts Definition :— The Purusha

the receptacle of any particular disease, and that
or pain to him,
is

which proves a source of torment
minated as a disease.*

deno-

There are four

different types

of disease such as, Traumatic

or of extraneous
jNfenla]

origin

(Agantuka),

Bodily (Sharira),

(Manasa)

and

Natural (Svabhavika).

A

disease clue

to an extraneous

blow

or

hurt

is

called

Agantuka.
or

Diseases

due
to

to
a

irregularities

in

food

drink, or

incidental

deranged state of the blood, or of the bodily humours
acting either
singh'
or
in

concert,

are

called Sharira.

Excessive anger,
miser};,
])ride,

grief,

fear, joy,
lust,

despondency, envy,
malice,
etc.

greed,

desire,

are

other fundamental material

principles,

it

is

not

improper

to

classify

all

under the head of hot or cold, a third factor being non-existent. world (^Trf)
*
is

Hence

the

possessed of the twofold virtues, hot and cold.

A

disease

may

be

defined as

something whicli

affiicts

the

Purusha
to

(self-conscious personality),
afflict

or those things

or incidents which

combine

the Purusha are usually interpreted to connote that meaning.

Chap.

I. ]

SUTRASTHANAM.
within
;

1

included

the

category
hm7.ger,
etc.

of^ mental (Manasa)
thirst,

distempers
imbecility,

whereas
death,

decrepitude,

sleep,

are

called

the natural

(Svabhavika)

derangements of the body.

The Mind

and the Bodv are the

seats of the abovesaid distempers

according as they are restricted to
affect

either of them, or

both of them

in unison.

*

Samshodhanam
(Pacification of the

(Cleansing),

and

Samshamanam
and

deranged or agitated bodih' humours

giving rise to the disease^ and the regimen of diet

conduct

are

the four fectors

which should be duly

emplo3"ed in order to successfully cope with a disease.!

Food

is

the principal factor which materially contri-

butes to the strength, complexion and vitality (Ojah) of

animated beings. Food consists of
* The Self or Ihe feevitma of a person
as such, can never be affected
t Cleansing
is

six

different tastes

above

all

human concerns

and,

by any
is

disease.

(Samshodhanam)

of

two kinds,

viz.

External and Internal.

External purification consists
operations,
cauterisation

in

employing such
affected

measures as surgical
use
of

of the

part

or organ, external

alkaline preparations

and medicated

plasters,

the

internal

one

including
of

such measures as exhibition of purgatives and
intestinal

emetics,

application

enemas (Asthapanam) and blood-letting.

Diet comprises four

different factors such as, food, drink, lambative, etc., which, for the purposes

of the
the

Ayurveda, are again grouped under three different heads,

such as

pacifier of the

deranged bodily humours (Dosha-prashamanam), thera-

peutical

(VyMhi-prashamanam)
to

and

health-giving

(Svastha=Vrittikara).

Achara (conduct) appertains

three different

factors,

such as the body,

the speech, and the mental acts.
arc

The abovesaid measures, duly employed,
all

potent

enough

to

combat
case

sorts

of bodily distempers,

if

the

special exigencies

of each

arc

carefully taken into consideration.

12

THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA.

[Chap.

I.

(Rasa) '[which

capnot exist independently of the subsinherent.

tances] in which they are

These substances
into

which are called the (3shadhis may be di^ided
classes

two

such as the mobile and the immobile.
in their turn,

The

immobile Oshadhis

admit of being grouped
the
^'"anaspatis,

under four sub-heads

such

as,

the

Vrikshas. the Virudhas and the Oshadhis proper.

Those

trees

which bear

fruit
as,

without blossoming
the Plaksha and the
fruits

are called the Vanaspatis

such

Oudumvura).

Those that bear both

and flowers
trail

are called the \'rikshas.

Shrubs and creepers that

on the ground are called Virudhas, whereas those plants

which

die with

the ripening of their
.

fruits,

are

called

Oshadhis proper such as cereals

The mobile Oshadhis

or animals

are

divided into
the

four classes such as the viviparous,

the

oviparous,

sweat-begotten, and those that are born of decomposed
vegetable matter.

Man and
etc.

other

mammals belong
reptiles

to

the

first

group
ants,

;

birds, snakes,

and

belong to the
;

second

;

worms,

belong to the third
fourth.

while frogs

and Indragopas belong to the
poses,

For medicinal purbulbs, the

bark, leaves, flowers,

fruits, roots,

ex-

pressed juice, and milky or resinous secretions of plants,
etc.*

are .obtained

from

the

vegetable

world.

The
iheir

* The use of

oil

expressed oui of diutjs and

seeds, as

well

as of

ashes or alkaline preparations are likewise indicated.

Chap. I.]

SUTRASTHAWAM.
wool, blood,
flesh,
fat.,

I-^

skin,

nails,

marrow,

bones,

are procured from the animal world.
JMetals

and minerals such as gold,
i

silver,

gems, and
clay

Manahshila

Realgar),
etc.

as

well

as

pearls,

and
of

Kapalas (bones^,

should be
*

included in

the

list

the earthy substances.
Gale,
ness,
»

windfall,
cold,

sunshine,
rain,

shade, moonshine, darknight,
fortnight,

heat,

day,
etc.

month,
as the

seasons,

and

solstices,

should be

deemed

works of eternal time, which, by virtue of
effects,

their natural

contribute to the
or

accumulation, augmentation,
of
.

pacification

diminution

the

deranged

bodilv

humours (such

as,

wind,

etc.

Authoritative verses on the subject
:

— Physicians should look upon these
,

four factors

of ffood, conduct, earth and time

as the

accumulators,

aggravators and pacifiers of the deranged bodilv humours

and of the diseases resulting therefrom
due to causes which
affect the

in

man.

Diseases

are

extraneous to the bodv ma\'

mind

or the body.

When

it

would

affect

the

body

in the

shape of any traumatic disease (such as an

inflammation

due to a blow or a sword cut

>,

it

"should

be treated medicinally like the rest of the physical maladies,

while the remedy should consist in the enjovmentof
Iron,

*

Oxide of

sand, yellow sulphurale of
earth),

arsenic

(Orpiment),

sail,

Gairika

(ferruginous

Rasdnjana (antimony) should be regarded as

appertaining to the class of earthy substances.

14

THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA.

hap.

I.

pleasurable sound?, touch, sights, taste or smell where the

mind would be found
Thus
I

to be the seat of the distemper.

have

briefly dealt with

the Purusha, Disease,

Medicine, Appliances and the Specific Time.

The term
its

Purusha should be interpreted to include within

meaning the combination of
ponents,

its

five

material

com-

and

all

things resulting therefrom, such as the

limbs and members of the body, as well as the skin,
the
flesh,

the blood, the veins and the
signifies
all

nerves, etc.

The term Disease
to the several or

distempers incidental

combined actions of the three deranged

bodily humours and blood.

The term Medicine
tastes,

signifies

drugs
efficacy

and

their

virtues,

potency,

inherent

Prabhava and reactionary properties
denotes such processes

Vipaka

.

Appliances (kriya

as, surgical

operations, injections, emulsive
etc.

measures, lubrications,

The term Time

signifies all

opportune moments

for

medical appliances.

Authoritative
:

verses

on the sub-

ject —The primary principle of the Science of medicine
has thus been briefly stated and will be fully dealt with
in the'following

one hundred and twenty chapters
fi-\e

distri-

buted among
of the present

the

main sub-divisions or Sthanas
These
hundred

work.

and

twenty
discussed

chapters will be found to be

elaborately

according to the specific import or significance

of their

denominations under the sub-heads of Sutra- Sthanam

Chap. I.]

SUTRASTHANAM.
Aphorisms
^Etiology",
,

15
principles,

(Definitive

or

Fundamental

Nidanam

Sharira-Sthanam (Anatomy
(Therapeutics)

and
and

Physiology

Chikitsa-Sthanam
.

Kalpa-Sthanam (Toxicology

Subjects
in

other than the

preceding ones will be discussed
of the

the closing chapters

book by wa}- of an Appendix (Uttara-Tantranv.

Authoritative verse
ject
:

on the subScience of
self-

— The
(

man who

reads this Eternal
)

Medicine
origined

Ayurveda-Shastram

discoursed

by the

Brahma and propagated by the King
for his piety,
is

of Kasi,

becomes noted

honoured by the kings

on earth, and attains to the region of Indra (the lord
of the celestials) after death.

Thus ends the

first

chapter of the Sutra-SthSnam

in

the

Sushrula

Samhitd which deals with the origin of the Ayurveda.

CHAPTER
Now we
with the
science
shall

II.

discuss

the

Chapter

which

deals

rites

of formal

initiation of a pupil into

the

of

Medicine

(Shishyopanayaniya-

madhya'yam).
Such an
initiation should be

imparted to a student,

belonging to one of the three twice-born castes such
as,

the Brahmana, the Kshatriya, and the Vaishya, and

who

should be of tender years, born of a good family,
of,

possessed

a desire to learn_, strength^ energy of action,

contentment, character, self-control, a good retentive me-

mory,

intellect, courage, purity of

mind and

bod)',

and a

simple and clear comprehension,
into
tlie

command a clear insight

things studied,

and should be found to have

been further graced with the necessary qualifications of
thin lips, thin teeth

and thin tongue, and possessed of a

straight nose, large, honest, intelligent eyes, with a benign

contour of the mouth, and a contented frame of mind,

being pleasant

in his

speech and dealings, and usually

painstaking in his efforts.
attributes

A man

possessed of contrary

should not be admitted into

the

sacred

precincts of) medicine.

lYlode of Initiation :— A Brahmana preceptor
sliould initiate a disciple or student in the following

way

— A square sand cushion or

platform, measuring a cubit

L"hap.

11.

I

SUTkASTHANAM.
f

j-

in length

and breadth, should be

laid out

on

a

plot

of
in-

smooth,

level

and

sacred'

ground under the benign

fluence of

any auspicious phase of the moon
as,

or astral
a direc-

combination such
tion of the

the "Karanam,"
is

e»tc.

and

in

compass whifch
cusliion or

held most auspicious to that

end.

The

the jilatform

should be plastered
;

over with a solution of water and cow-dung

and blades of
the gods, the

Kusha

grass should be strewn over
ph5''sicians

it.

Then

Brahmanas and the

should

be worshipped

with oblations of flowers,
dried
rice.

fried

paddy, gems and sunstraight
lines

Then having drawn
so
as to

across

the Sthandilara

meet the top of the

furthest

side of the square,

and having sprinkled them over with

holy water, the preceptor should lay

down

a blade of
as the

Kusha

grass tied up in the form of a knot,

known

Brahmana, along the
right,

side of the sacred cushion to his
fire

and kindle the sacred

close to his seat.

Then
of

having soaked the twigs of the
Khadira,
Palasha,

four

sacrificial trees

Devadaru and Vilva, or of Vata,
in curd,

Oudumvara, Ashvattha and Madhuka
clarified

honey and
of

butter, he

should perform

the

rite

Homa

according to the rules of a Darvi

Homa
Maha

ceremony^ Then

libations of clarified butter should be cast into the sacrificial fire

with a repetition of the

Vyahriti Mantras

preceded by the mystic Omkara.
clarified butter

After that, libations of
fire

should be cast into the
(celestial

in

honour of

each of the gods and Rishis
3

physicians) invoked

1

THE SUSHRUTA
repeating the

SAMHITA'.

1

Chap.

11.

b}^

Svaha Mantra, and the disciple should
*

be made to do the same.

A Brahmana

preceptor

is

competent to

initiate a

student belonging' to any of the three twice-born castes.

A

Kshatriya

preceptor can
the
Vaish3'a
a

initiate a

student of
a

the

Kshatriya or
preceptor
alone.

caste,

while

Vaishya
caste
T.nd

can

initiate

student of his
of

own

A

Shudra

student

good

character

parentage

may

be initiated into the mysteries of the
the Mantras

A5'urveda by omitting

enjoined

to

be

recited on such an occasion.

Then having
fire,

thrice

circumambulated the
to bear

sacrificial

and having invoked the firegod
fact,

testimony to

the

the preceptor should address the initiated disfollows

ciple

as

:— "Thou

shalt

renounce

lust,

anger,

greed, ignorance, vanity, egotistic feelings, envy, harshness, niggardliness, falsehood, idleness,
soil

ndij all acts that

the good

name

of a

man. In proper season thou

shalt

pair

thy

nails

and

clip

thy hair and put on the sacred
live the life

cloth,

dyed brownish yellow,

of a

truthful,

self-controlled

anchorite and be obedient and respectful
in rest, or while

towards thy preceptor. In sleep,

moving
all

about— while
"^

at

meals or

in

studv,

and

in

acts

The

libations

should

he

oftered as

follows -Svah^

(obeisance)

to

P,i-ahm4,

Svah.4

to

Praj^pati (the lord

of the created beings), SvahA to

Ashvins,

.Svaha to

Indra, Sv.nhA to

Dhanvantari,

Sv^hA

to Bharadv^ja,

and SvAh^

to A'treva.

Chap.

il.

I

SUTRASTHA'NAAl.

19 Thcju shalt

thou shalt be guided by

my

directions.

do what

is

pleasant and beneficial
sin and' all

to

me, otherwise

thou shalt incur
shall
fail

thy study and knowledge

to bear their wished for fruit,

and thou
hand,

shalt
treat

gain

no

feme.

If

I,

on

the

other

thee
in full

unjustly

even

w'ith

thy perfect

obedience and

conformity to the terms agreed upon,
equal
sin
futile,

may

I

incur

with thee, and

may

all

my

know-

ledge prove
or
display.

and never have any scope of work
shalt

Thou

help

with thy professional
thy
elders,

skill

and

knowledge,
friends,

the the

Brahmanas,

preceptors and
anchorites, to

indigent, the honest,
shall

the

the

helpless

and those who

come

thee (from

a distance;, or those

who

shall
[to

live close

by,

as well as thy

relations

and kinsmen

the best

of thy knowledge

and

ability],

and thou shalt give them
it

medicine

[without charging for

any remuneration
that.

whatever], and
shalt

God

will

bless thee for

Thou

not

treat

medicinally a professional hunter, a

fowler, a habitual sinner, or

him who has been degradshalt acquire
for objects
,

ed

in

life

;

and even by so doing thou
piety, wealth

friends,
in life

fame,

and

all

wished

and thy knowledge

shall gain pubhcity."

Prohibited periods of the study of the Ayurveda — The day of the new moon, the
:

eighth day of the moon's wane, the fourteenth day of the

dark fortnight, as well

as

the corresponding days in

20

tHE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA.
tlill

I

Chap.

II.

the brio^ht one, the day oi the
ings

moon, and the meet-

olday and night such

as

(morning and evening) are

occasions
Similarly,

when
a

the study of the

Ayurveda
heard
at

is

prohibited.

clap of thunder

an

improper

season (months of Pousha,

Phalguna and Chaitra), or a
a'

Hash of lightning occurring at

time when such pheno-

mena

are naturall)' rare, or an evil befalling one's country,
or

relations,

king,

should be
of the
in a

deemed

as

occasions

jnohibiting

the

study
it

Ayurveda.

Moreover,

one should not read
riding

cremation ground, nor while
or

(an

elephant,

horse,
in

any) conveyance, nor

in a battle-held,
^

nor

a place of execution.

A

festi-

al

or

the appearance of inauspicious omens,

and the

days of the fortnight usually avoided by the Brahmanas
in

studying the

Vedas,

as

well as

an unclean state of

the

body, should be regarded as occasions prohibiting

the studv of the Avurveda.

riuis lmhIn llic

sccijiul

clinitlci'

ul

ihc

.SuLiasLhanaiii

in

llit;

SublmiUi.

Sanihila which Ireals oflhc foniuil

inil.i;Ui<jn

of a .sUulunl intM ihc Aviiivcda.

C

H A

P T E R

in.
deals

Now we

shall discuss the

chapter which

with
[in

the classification

of the

Ayurveda and the order

which the venerable Dhanvantari discoursed on them
his pupils].

to

Adhyayana-Samprada'niyam.
among
in

It

has been stated before, that a hundred and twenty
the
the
five

chapters have been distributed
or subdivisions (of the present

parts

work,

following-

order

:— Forty

six
;

in

the part of Definitive
in

Aphorisms

(Sutra-Sthanam)

sixteen

the part dealing with the
;

Etiology of diseases (Nidanam)
ing the

ten in the part explainof the

Anatomy and physiology
in

human body

(Sharira Sthanam); forty
Ciiikitsitam
;

the part of Therapeutics

and eight

in the part dealing

with poisons

and

their antidotes

(Kalpa-Sthauam).

In addition to

these the

Uttara-Tantram consists
:

of sixty-six chapters.

Metrical texts
in

The Sutra-Sthanam which
is

contains tbrty-six chapters,

so called because

it

dis'jusses

the form of hints,

arranges in the form of aphorisms
topics

and connects by
Chapter
i

links

relating

to

longevitv.

Describes
2

the origin

of the science of the
inipil

Ayurveda.
into

Relates to the formal initiation of a
of

the

science

medicine.

'

;

Deals

with

the

22

THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA.

I

Chap.

III.

classi^cation

and order of the study of the Ayurveda.

4

Dwells on general interpretations and explanations
5

of subjects studied,

Treats of preliminary preparations
6

for surgical operations.

Deals with seasons and their
7

influence

on health and drugs.
8

Treats

of surgical
9

appliances.

Describes

surgi(l:al

instruments.
10

Gives

practical instructions for surgical operations.

Dwells
their

on the

duties

of medical
practice.
1 1

men

preliminary to
of

commencing
(potential

Pharmacy
Cauteries
use.

alkalies

cauteries).
in

12

and

the rules

to

be

observed

their

13

Leeches
15

how
on

and

which

to

use).

14

Blood.

Dwells

the study

of development and non-development of the

humorous constituents of the body and excrements,
1

The ceremony

of piercing the lobules of

the

ears.

17

How

to

distinguish
swellings.

between suppurating and non18

suppurating
of ulcers.
etc.

Dressings

and

bandages

19

The management
salutary
etc.
?.i

of patients with ulcers,

20

The

and

non-salutary

effects
in

of

regimen,

The
22

decisive

modes

the

treatment of sores,
etc.

etc.

The opening

of abscesses,

2S
of

General rules to be observed in
curable

the

treat-

ment
24

and

incurable

(surgical

diseases.
(eight

The nature
ways
of

of diseases in general.

25

The

different)

of using surgical instruments.
splinters
lost

26
in

The
the

exploration

(deep
of

seated;

body.
to

2J

The

extraction

splinters.

28

How

know

favourable'

and unfavourable

terminations

Chap.

III.

]

SUTRASTHANAM.
29

o-

in surgical diseases.

The
as'

favourable or unfavourable

prognosis

in

diseases

known from
Prognosis
31
etc.

messengers,
the
per-

omens
version

and

dreams.

30

from

of sense

perception.

Prognosis based on
32

the altered condition of features,

Prognosis based
of the

on the perversion
body.
34
33

in

the external appearances

Palliative

treatment
to

of incurable diseases.
(against

The
as
for

precautions

be taken
water,
a

dangers,

such

poisoning
the safety
35

of of

etc.

by a

medical
is

man

king whose army
observations
subjects

on

the march.
sicians.

Clinical

made

b}'

phywith

^6

Miscellaneous
of
injuries

connected
surgical
for
it

the
^y

treatment

and

diseases.

The

examination

of the soil

the
to be

selection

of vegetable

products growing
Classification
uses.;

on

used as

medicines.
their

38

of

drugs

according to
classes

therapeutical

39

The two

of

drugs

which cleanse the system [by evacuating
irritated

bad

humours] and drugs which pacify the
40
41

humours.
maturity.

Drugs,

their

flavours,

properties

and

The

properties

of

drugs

specially

considered.

42

Flavours.
of

43

The choice
45

of

emetics.

44

The
and

choice
drink.

purgatives.

Liquids.

46

Food

From

their

investigatmg the
diseases,

(pathological)
'are called

causes

and symptoms of

they

Nidananij

(etiology) and are sixteen in number.

24
»

THP: SUSHRL'IA SAiMHlTA.
Chapter
i

[Chap.

III.

Causes and S5''niptoms of diseases caused
3

b}'

wind.
5

2

Hoemorrhoids.

Urinaiy
6

calculi

4 Fistulas.
discharges.

Skin diseases

Kushtha),

Urethral
8

7

.Abdominal tiVmours and dropsy.
labours.
1 1

Abortion
ErN'sipelas

and
and

unnatural
Carbuncles.

g

Abscesses.
12 Scrotal

10

Tumours
14

tumours. 13 Fractures

'and disl(>."ations)

Diseases

of the male
15

organ of
mis_

generation

caused

by

Shuka.

Minor .and
mouth.

cellaneous diseases.

16 Diseases of the

The

great

sage

has

devoted ten chapters to the

subject of
for

Anatomy and Physiology (Sharira-Sthanam)

medical

men and

contemplative saints to learn the

component
Chapter
healthy)

parts of the

human body. They
2

are

:


un3

i

Cosmology.
of

Healthy

and

condition

male and
foetus.

female germs.
Analytical

Development of the
tion of the fetus.
5

4

descrip-

Component

parts of the
7

body.

6

Investigation of each vital part.
veins.
8

Description
10
in

of the

\'enesection.

g

Arteries.

Pregnancy
child-birtli

(child-birth

and management of womt.-n

and of

children).

The

division of Therapeutics, (Chikitsitam) includes

(amongst others; the

modes

of treating

diseases
rites,

by and

medicines, expiatory ceremonies, propitiatory
tranquillizing efforts.

Torty chapters have been devoted
i

to this division. Chapter

'Prcatment of two varieties

Chap.

III.

J

SUTRASTHANAM.
2

25
ulcers
4

of ulcers.
resulting

Treatment of instant wounds and
3

therefrom,
5

Fractures and dislocations.

Diseases of wind.
6

Grievous maladies caused by wind.

Haemorrhoids.

7

Urinary
9

calculi.

8

Fistulas.
11

9

Skin diseases.
discharges.
12

10 Grievous

skin diseases.

Urethral

Warts,

pustules

and sores caused by
14

urethral discharges,
15

13 Diabetes.

Abdominal Dropsy.
16

Abortions
17

and

unnatural

hibours.
18

Ab-

scesses.

Erysipelas and Carbuncles.

Tumours.
diseases.

19 Scrotal 21

tumours and Syphilis.
of the

20

Minor

Diseases
22

male genital
of

organ
2^

caused

bv

Shuka.
24
2=)

Diseases

the

mouth.

Swellings.
in general.

Prophylactic treatment against diseases

Miscellaneous diseases. 26 Tonics for
for general debility.

virile

debility.

27 Tonics

2S Remedies for increasing
life.

mental powers and duration of
innate maladies. 30
31

2g

Remedies

for

Means

for

removing wordly

distresses.

Treatment of diseases where oleaginous substances
^^2

are useful.

Treatment by diaphoretics.
J4 Treatment
for

33 Emetics

and Purgatives.

mishaps from the
35

injudicious use of emetics

and purgatives.

Nozzles

and

pipes,

and enema apparatus.
37

^6 Mishaps

from

injudicious use of enemas.

Enemas and

injections.

^S Clysters.

39 Treatment of complications in general.
etc.

40 Inhalation, fumigations, gargarismata,

From

their proposing remedies against poisons,

they

are called Kalpas,
4

and are eight

in

number.

46
ChUpter
inorganic
4

THE SUSHRUTA
I

SAMHITA'.
2

I

Chap.

ill.

Preservation of food.
3 5

A'egetable

and

poisons.

Poisons from

organic

creation.
6

Snake poison.
and
its

Treatment of snake-bites.
7

Ratol

bite

treatment.

Emitting the sound
8

kettle-drums
for

(for

the eh'mination of poison).
insect-stings.

Antidotes

and treatment of venomous

Thus a synopsis of one hundred and twenty chapters
has been given.

Now
its

here follows

the supplementary

division called after

own name (Uttara-Tantram).
diseases
is

The Chapter on Sympathetic
as this division has for
its

placed

first,

main object the description
2

of such diseases and their treatment.
joinings

Diseases of the
eyeball.
3 Dis5

(margin of the eyelids)
4

of the

eases of the eyelids.

The

Sclerotic of the eye.
7

The

Cornea.
pupil.
tic

6.

The

eyeball, as a whole.

Diseases of the
9

8

Treatment of eye

diseases.

Prophylac-

and curative treatment of wind affections of the eye
10

and ophthalmia.

Treatment of Bile affections of the
1 1

eye and ophthalmia.
tions of the eye
affections

Treatment of Phlegm
1

affec-

and ophthalmia.
eye.
is

2

Treatment of Blood
aftections
in

of the

13

Treatment of

which

scarification
is

needed.
15

14 Treatment in

which

paracentesis
16

needed.

Treatment by
17

incisions.

Entropium and
of the

ectropium.

Treatment of the
18

diseases

pupil

and

vision.

General

rules

regarding ophthalmic medicine

and surgery.

19 Treat-

ment

of traumatic affections of the eyeballs.

20 General

Chap.

III.

I

SUTRASTHA'NAM.
ear
diseases.
2
1

27
Treatment
nose

signs
ol

and s3nnptoins of
diseases.
2},

ear

22

Signs

and S3'mptoms of
affections.
ai^d

affections.

Treatment of nose
catarrli.

34 Treat-

ment
cranial

of nasal
diseases.

25 Signs

sj'mptoms of
affections.

26

Ti;eatment of cranial
ciiapters)

These

(twenty-six

form the

end

of the

eight divisions of the A^'urveda, called

Shilikyam.

Chapter
grahas.

2-]

Signs

of diseases

caused by the Nava-

28 Prophylactic

treatment of diseases caused
of convulsions

by Skandha.
Skandha.

29 Treatment

caused by
31 Treat-

30 Treatment of Sakuni affections.
affections.
},2

ment of Revati
33

Treatment of Putana.
34 Treatment of
of

Treatment

of 35

Andha Putana.
Treatment
i"]

Slueta-Putana.

Mukhamandika.
of the

36 Treatment of Naigamesha.

Origin

nine

Grahas.

38 Diseases of the Vagina (and internal female

genital organs).

These twelve chapters together

Vvith

what

is

included in (the last chapter of the division on

anatomy,
called

form the

fifth

division

of the

A5'urveda)

Kaumara Tantram.
39

Chapter

Fevers
its

and

their

treatment.

40

Enteric Catarrh and
its

treatment.

41

Consumption and

treatment.

42 Diseases of the abdominal glands and

their

treatment.
etc.

43

Diseases of the heart
allied

'Angina

Pectoris

44

Anaemia and

diseases

and
their

their treatment.

45 HfCmorrhag^c affections and

treatment.

46 Apoplectic diseases and their treatment.

2-8

THE SUSHRUTA

SAMHITA'.

1

Chap.

ill.

47 Diseases from excessive drinking and their treatment.

48 Symptoms, causes, and treatment of excessive

thirst.

49

Causes, S5'mptoms and treatment of vomiting. 50 Causes,

s5^mptoms and treatment of Hiccough.
toms, and treatment of Dyspnoea.

5

1

Causes, sympCauses, symp-

52

toms

and
55

treatment
Causes,

of

cough.

53

Aphonia.

54
of

Entozoa.
retention

symptoms
56

and treatment

of excrements.

Causes,
Choleric
58

symptoms and
diarrhoea.'

treatment of Dyspeptic

and

57

Anorexia and

its

treatment.

Causes,

symptoms
59

and treatment

of cystic

and urethral

affections.

Causes and treatment of urine diseases.

These twenty
diseases

one

chapters
;

describe

the

remaining
third

of

Kayachikitsa

(which forms the

division

of the

Ayurveda \
Chapter
diseases

60

Causes,

symptoms

and treatment of
61

caused by

superhuman

powers.

Causes Mania.

svmptoms

and

treatment

of Epilepsy.

62

These three chapters form the Bhuta Vidya
division of the Ayurveda).

(the fourth

Chapter 63
64
(leneral

on

the
for

different varieties

of

flavour.

rules

the preservation

of health.

65

Deductions and
study
bid

inunctions drawn from
66

tbe

texts

and

of the Ayurveda.
(h^^mours;.

On

the varieties
four

of morare

elements

These

chapters

to be

understood as being supplementary, and as ornathis division.

ments to

Chap.

III.

j

SUTRASTHANAM.
last

20
over
the

This
others,

division

from

its

superiority

the

great

sages

have called
it

the
gives

Excellent

(Uttarani).
subjects,
last.
it

From
is

the

information

on varied

called the best, the

permanent and ihe

In

this division

which

is

called the

last,

there

are

included four divisions (of the Ayiirveda)

viz,

Shalakyam,
above
the

(treatment
clavicles), 2
3

of diseases

of parts

situated

Kaumarabhrit^'am (management of children),

Kayachikitsa general diseases)

and

4

Bliuta-Vidya.

The

division (named)
virile

Vajeekaranam (on the strengthetc.)

ening of
preserving
(fourth
)

power,
etc.)

and Rasayanam remedies
included
in

vigor,

have been

the

division (of this treatise

called Chikitsa.

The

doctrine of antidotes
this treatise

comes under the head of
is

Kalpa of
ally

and Shah'am surgery

incidentare the

treated throughout the book.

Thus these
Science

eight

limbs

divisions,

of

tne

of Medicine

proclaimed

to the

world

by the

original god.

Those,

who

stU'ly

them with due care and make use of the
shall

knowledge with caution,

preserve

the

li\'es

of

men on

this earth.

It

is

imperatively necessary that

the book should be read

;

and

after

having read
.

it

one

should

attend

to

the practice

(of the science
is lit

The

physician

who

has learnt these both,

to be honour-

ed by kings,

30

THE SUSHKUTA

SAiMHlTA.

f

Chap.

III.

Authoritative verses on the subject :— A ph^'sician, well versed in the principles of
the science of medicine (Ayurveda), but unskilful in
art his

through

want of

practice,

loses

his

wit
is

at

the
his

bedside of his patient, just
wit's
first

as, a

coward
do

at

end

to

determine

what
in

to

when

for the

time he finds himself

the ranks of a contending
physician, experienced in

army.

On

the other hand a

his art l)ut deficient in the
is

knowledge of the Ayurveda,
as
a

condemned by
capital

all

good men
at

quack,

and

deserves
king.

punishment

the

hands of the

Both these classes of ph3^sicians are not to be
th}-

trusted, because

are

inexpert

and half educated.

Such men are incapable of discharging the duties of
their

vocation, just as a one-winged bird
in

is

incapable of

taking flight

the

air.

Even

a

panacea or a medicine of
b)'

ambrosial virtues administered

an unpractised or
baneful as

ig-

norant ph)^sician,

will

prove

j^ositively

a

draught of poison, or a blow with a weapon, or a thunderbolt.

A

physician, ignorant of the science and art of sur-

gery and emollient measures
a killer

Sneha-karma

,

etc.

is

but

of

men

out of cupidity, and
trade

who

is

allowed to
in-

carry

on

his

nefarious

only

through the
--ersed in
in

advertence of the king.
principles

A
and

physician well

the

of surger}-,
is

experienced

the

prac-

tice of medicine,

alone caj^able of curing distempers,
in

just as
field

only a two- wheeled cart can be of service

a

of battle.

Chap.

III.

SUTRASTHANAM.
hear me,

31

Now

O

child, describe the

mode
The

of st'adying

the present science of the Ayurveda.)

pupil having

worshipped
calmly
mind,
of the
sit

and
near

recited
his

his

daily

prayers

should

preceptor,

pure in
full

body

and

who

should teach

him

a

i^hloka or couplet

Ayurveda), or a half or a quarter part thereof,
his
full

adapted to

intellectual

capacity.

Then he should
of

make

a

and

elaborate
thereof,

paraphrase

the

recited couplet or

any piwi
the

and ask
the

his pupils

individually to do

same.

When

pupils have

paraphrased the same to the satisfaction of the preceptor,

he should again recite the same stanza or couplet.
or

The passages
hastily, nor

shlokas

should

not

be recited too

drawled out

in a

timid or faltering voice, nor

with a nasal intonation. The voice should be neither too
loud, nor too weak,

but each

sound should be clearly
lips,

and

distinctly uttered,

and the
etc.

the

eyes, the
lifted or

eye-

brows, and the hands,
to

should not be

moved

keep time with the recitation.

Xo

one should be

allowed to pass between the pupil
at the time of study.

and the preceptor

Authoritative verses on the subject — A pupil who is pure, obedient to his
:

preceptor,

applies

himself steadily

to

his

work, and

abandons laziness and excessive

sleep, will arrive at the
.

end of the science (he has been studying
.\

student or a pupil, having 'finished

tire

course

ol.

32
his studies,
fine

THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA.
would do well

L

Chap. III.

to attend to the cultivation
in

ol"

speech and constant practice

the art he has

learnt,

and make

unremitting

efforts
art).

towards

the

attainment of perfection (in the
Thus ends
the
ihird

Chapter uf the Siilraslhanani
tlie

in

the Sushrul.i

Sanihila wliich deals with the Classification of

Ayurveda.

CHAPTER
Now we
with
shall

IV.
Chapter

discuss

the

which

deals

General

Explanations

(Prabha'Saniya-

madhyaryam).
The endeavours
Ayurveda
of a

man who has
make

studied the
a clear

entire

(shastra) but fails to

exposition
ass

of the same, are
carries a

vain like the efforts of an
sandal

that

load
its

of

wood

(without

ever being

able to enjoy

pleasing scent).

Authoritative verse on the subject — A foolish person who has gone through a large
:

number

of books without gaining

any
is

real

insight into

the knowledge propounded therein,

like

an ass laden

with logs of sandal-wood, that labours under the weight

which
virtue.

it

carries

without being able to appreciate

its

Hence the preceptor
or a
half or a

will clearly explain

each shioka
in

quarter

part

thereof as contained
a hundred and

the present work, divided into chapters
(as

twenty
of
the

well

as in the concluding portion
it)
;

Uttara-Tantram appended to
the disciple shall
or discoursed
difficult

and the

student or

attentively hear everything explained

on by the preceptor.
classify

Since

it is

extremely
(Guna),
effect

to

drugs,

ta^te,

virtue

potency (Virya), transform at ory or reactionary

34

THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA.
principles
(
i

[

Chap. IV.

(Vipaka), fundamental bodily

Dhatu) bodily

excrement (Mala), hollow viscera

Ashaya), vital parts

cMarma\

veins (Sira),

nerves (Snayu), joints (Sandhi),

bones (Asthi; and the fecundating principles of semen

and ovum, and to extricate any foreign matter lodged
an
ulcer),

in

or to

ascertain the nature or

and position of

ulcers or

fractures,

the palliative, curable or incur;

able nature

of a disease, etc.

and since these subjects
intellects

perplex

even

the

profoundest

though

a

thousand times discussed and pondered over, not to
speak of

men

of
it

comparatively
is

smaller intellectual

capacity, hence

imperatively obligatory on a pupil
of each

or a disciple to attentively hear the exposition

shloka^ or a half or a quarter part thereof,

made by

the

preceptor (while studying the science of medicine).

For explanations of truths and principles quoted
from
other branches
of (science
or philosophy)

and

incidentally discussed in the present work,
is

the

student

referred to expositions

made by
it

the masters fof those
is

sciences or philosophies;, since

impossible to deal
a single book (and

with

all

branches of science,

etc. in

within so short a compassX

Authoritative verses on the subject
:

— By the study of a single
(

Shastra,

a

man

can

never catch the true import of this Science of Medicine).
Therefore a physician
should study as
as

many

allied

branches of (science or philosophy)

possible.

The

Chap.

IV.

]

SUTRASTHANAM.
who

35

physician
h"ps

studies the Science of Medicine from the

of his preceptor, and practises medicine after having
art

acquired experience in his

by constant

practice, is

the true physician, while any other
art,

map

dabbling in tne

should be looked upon as an impostor.

The

Shalya-Tantras (surgical

works)

written

or

propagated by Aupadhenava, Aurabhra, Sushruta and
Paushkalavata, are the bases of the works or Tantras
written

by others
the

{^Karavirya, Gopura-rakshita, etc,
chapter of the

i.

Thus ends

fourth

Sutrasthanam

in

the Sushruta

Samhit^ which deals with General Explanations.

CHAPTER
Now we
shall

V.

discuss the
in

Chapter which treats of

Preliminary measures

connection with the curative

remedies of a disease).*

(Agropaharaniyamtreatment in connec-

adhyaryam).
The
tion
entire course of medical

with a

disease

ma)?'

be grouped

under

Ihree
;

subheads, as the Preliminary measures (Purva-karma)

the

Principal

therapeutical
;

or

surgical

appliances
(Paschat-

(Pradhana-karma'>

and the After-measures
will

karma).

These measures
as

be discussed under
shall

the

head of each disease
deal

we

have occasion to
treatise
principall)'-

with

them.

As the present
hold
that
acts

* Several

authorities

such as fasting,
the

administration
;

of purgatives, etc. should be

included

within

preliminary measures

application of absorbent (Pachana) or healing medicinal agents, within

the

second

or

the

principal

measures

;

and the administration of tonics or
group.
Others,

restoratives

within the third or the after-measure

on the

contrary, lay
(pacification

down

that measures

adopted

for

the

absorption,
or

lubrication

by the application of

oily substances)

elimination

of the

deranged
the
first

bodily

humours

Ijy

sweating
the

should

be

grouped

under

subhead
etc.,

(

Purva-karma),

administration of

active purgatives,
rice

emeticsr

under the second (Pradhana-karma) and the giving of
last
;

meal, etc. to the patient under the (Paschat-karma)
to others the active medicinal agents

while according

employed

to

cope with the deranged
till

humours
first

in the incubative stage of a bodily disease

the appearance of

its

characteristic
;

symptoms, should be denominated as the Preliminary
in its patent or

measure
fully

measures employed for the subjugation of a disease

developed stage as the Pradhana-karma, and measures employed to
for

guard against the recrudescence of a disease and
health in a
patient
is

the

restoration

of

the sequel treatment or the Pasch^t-karma.

Chap.^ V.

1

SUTRASTHA'NAM.
we
shall

-^7

treats of surgical acts or operations,

discourse

on them and their accessories at the outset.
Surgical
different

acts or operations

are

divided

into

eight

kinds such as

Incising (Chhedya),

Excising

(Bhedya), Scraping

(Lekhj^as

Puncturing
Extracting

(Vedhya),
(Abarj'-a),

Searching or

probing (Eshya),
(Visravya)

Secreting fluids

and Suturing (Seevya).

A

surgeon (Vaidya) called upon to perform any (of the eight
preceding kinds) of operations, must
first

equip

himself
instru-

with such accessories as surgical appliances and
ments,
alkali,
fire,

probe or director (Shalaka), horns,

leeches, gourd (Alavu),

Jamvavoushtha
its

(a

kind of pencil

shaped rod made of slate with
shape of a Jamboline
fruit),

top-end cut into the
lint,

cotton,

thread, leaves,
lard, milk,
oil,

tow(Patta),
Tarpanara
tions

honey,

clarified

butter,
in

(powdered wheat soaked
,

water), decoc-

Kashaya

medicated

plasters,

paste (Kalka), fan,
etc.,

cold water, hot water, and cauldrons,

and moreover and strong-

he

shall

secure

the

services

of devoted

nerved attendants.

Then under the auspices
tions, etc.,

of blissful astral coi-Qbina-

and having propitiated the
gifts

Brahmanas and
rice, cordials

the physicians, with

of curd, sun-dried
offerings

and gems,

etc.,

and having made
benediction,
etc.,

to the gods

and

uttered
his

the

surgeon

should

commence
light

work.

The

pa'dent

should be given
to
sit

food

(before the act),

and

made

with

38
his face

THE SUSHRUTA
turned towards the
fastened (so
as

SAMHTTA'.

[

Chap. V.

east.

His limbs should be
against their
least

carefully

to guard

movement during
Then the
surgeon,

the continuance of the operation).
sitting

with his face towards the
parts

west, and carefulh' avoiding the vital

(Marmas),

Veins, nerves (Snayus), joints, bones and arteries of the

patient,should insert the knife into the affected part along
tlie

proper direction

till

the suppurated
it

part

would

be reached and swiftly draw
suppuration, the

out. In case of

extended

part opened (length of incision) should
finger's
is

be

made

to

measure two or three
incision

widths

in

length.

An

(Vrana) which

wide, extended,
best.

equally and evenly divided, should be

deemed the

Authoritative verses on
ject
:

the subextended, well
etc.

— An
and
its

incision

which

is

wide,

divided,
patient,

does not involve any vital part,
is

of the
is

well-matured as

regards

time,

the

best of
ing,

kind*.

Courage, light handedness, non-shakself

non-sweating, sharp instruments,
self

confidence

and

command
engaged
or three

are

what should be possessed by
boil or

a surgeon

in

opening a

an abscess.

Two

incisions should be

made

if

a

single

opening does not seem large enough for the purpose.
*

Certain

commentators interpret
is

the

couplet defined

as
in

follows
its

:

A

boil

or an abscess

which

wide, extended,

well

shape, equally
of the

suppurated
is

in all its parts

and does not involve any

vital

part

body

the

fittest

thing for a surgeon's knife

— Tr.

Chap, v.]

SUTRASTHANAM.
verse
a

39

Authoritative
ject
:

on the 'subfreely

— The
a

knife
fissure,

(lancet)
sinus, or

should be
cavity

used

wherever
in

would appear
flowing out of

a boil, so

as to ensure
it.

a complete

the pus accumulated in
Lateral

(tirjak) incisions

should be

made

in regions

of the eye-brows, temple, forehead, cheeks, eyelids, lower
lip,

gums, armpits,

loins, belly

and the

groins.

An

incision

made

in the region of

the hand

or

root

should be

made

to resemble the disc of the

moon, while
be

those about the anus and the penis should
semi-circular half-moon
!

made

j

in shape.

Authoritative verse on the subject —An incision in any of the abovesaid regions not
:

made

as directed,

may

give rise

to extreme pain,

pro-

longed granulation (healing) and condylomatous growths
in

and about the
local

ulcer,

owing

to an inadvertent cutting

of the
or

veins,

or

nerves.
in

In

a

case

of
in
in

artificial

instrumental

parturition,
fistula

ascites,

piles,

in

stone in the bladder, in
affecting

in ano,

and

diseases

the cavity of the mouth, the patient operated
thS^act).

on should be kept on an empty stomach (before

Then sprays of
the face and the

cold

water should be dashed over

eyes of the patient to relieve the pain

and the sense of exhaustion incidental to the operation.

The
to

sides of the incision should be firmly pressed fso as

ensure a good outflow of the accumulated pus) and

40
the the

THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA.
margins of
fingers

[Chap. V.

the
that

wound
they

should

be

rubbed with

(so

may

have a level surface

and be of uniform structure throughout.)

Then the

wound should be washed with an
(of

astringent decoction

Nimba, Triphala,

etc.)

which should be wiped and
a piece of clean linen.

made thoroughly dry with

Then

a lint plug 'Varti) plastered over with the (paste) Kalka of sesamum, hone)'
disinfectant
(lit
:

and

clarified

butter,

and soaked
such

in

— purifying
that,

medicines

as

Ajagandha,
of

etc.

i

should be inserted deep into the cavity
After
a

the

wound.

poultice

made
it

of

offi-

cinal

substances should

be

applied over

and the

whole should be bound up with thick layers of tow
(Kavalikas— such as the leaves and bark of the Indian
figtree
etc.)

which are
;

neither

too

irritant

nor too
linen

cooling in their effect

and

finally scraps of clean

should be

wound round them. The

limb, [or the affected

part] should be subsequently fumigated with the

fumes

of

pain-killing

(anodyne)

substances and also with
off all

those of drugs

which are supposed to ward

malignant

spirits

(from the bedside of the patient.)*

Then
as

it

should be fumigated with

the drugs,

known

Guggulu,

Vacha,

white

mustard,
tree,

Saindhava
in

and the leaves of the Ximva
butter.

soaked

clarified

The

residue

of the

clarified

butter

[dripped

*

Even

the bedsheels, etc. of the patient should be fumigated as above.

This foreshadows the germ theory of the modern days— Tr.

Chap. V.

]

SUTRASTHA'NAM.

41

down

and collected
above],

from the fumigating corftpound
should

described

be

rubbed

over

the

region of the heart and other vital parts of the patient,

and the

floor

of the

chamber should be washed and
of water previousl)^ kept
in

sprinkled over with drops

a (new) pitcher for the purpose.

The

rites

of protection

from the influences of baneful
performed
follows
:

spirits,

should then be
runs
as

by

reciting

the

Mantra which

— "I am about to practise the prophylactic incanthy person
against the malignant
of Rakshas and

tation for guarding
influences

conjured demonesses,

and

may
of
its

the god

Brahma be

graciously pleased to approve

performance.
of grace

May

the Gods and deities and mini-

sters

disperse

and

confound the

hosts

of

wrathful Nagas (celestial serpents), Pishachas, Gandhar-

vas

and

Pitris

that

might

be maliciously disposed

to strike thee in thy sickly confinement.

May the

spirits,

which

stir

abroad in the night and roam about

in

the
of

sky and on earth, defend thy person thy fervent devotion to them.

in recognition

May

the

concourse of
the saintly

Brahma-begotten sages 'such

as,

Sanaka,

etc.),

and canonised kings

(Rajarshis) in

heaven and the sacred

mounts, streams and oceans of the earth protect thee

from

evil.

May

the

fire-god

guard thy tongue
;

;

the

wind-god

protect thy

breath

and the Moon-god,

Parjanya, Vidyut lightning) and the spirit of the clouds

preserve the healthy coursings
th}'

of»

those

vital

winds

in

organism which are respectively known as Vy^na,

6

42

THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA
May
Indra,

[

Chap,

v

Apana; Udana and Samana.
deity of
all

the presiding

physical energies, keep

thy bodily strength

immaculate.
at

May Manu
of

defend the two side tendons
facult)^ of

the nape
;

thy neck, as well as thy

intellect

the

Gandharvas, thy
;

faculty

of
of
;

desire

;

Indra, thy fortitude
tion
;

Varuna, thy faculty

cogni-

the Ocean,
;

thy region of umbilicus

the Sun;

god, thy eyes

the Quarters of the Heaven, thy ears
;

the Moon-god, thy mind the Night, thy shadow

the

Stars,

thy complexion thy vigour
;

;

;

the Water,

the

Oshadhis, thy hair
is

;

Infinite
;

Ether, the space which
\\isundhara,

imprisoned

in

thy body
;

thy body

;

Vaishvanara, thy head

Vishnu, thy

moral courage

;

Purushottama (the foremost of beings), thy energy of
action (dynamical action of purposes);

Brahma, thy

self;

and

Dhruva (immutable

being),

thv eyebrows.
in

May
thou gods

these divinities, which perpetually reside

thy body,

ensure thy

safe
life

continuance in being and

may
the

enjoy a long
such
as,

through their grace.
etc.,

May

Brahma,

confer blessings on sages

thy head.

May

the Sun, the

Moon, the twin

Narada and

Parvata, the fire-god, the wind, and the other celestial

helpmates of Indra, bring thee good.
phylaxis devised by

May

the pro-

Brahma keep thee from
witness the return of
earth.

evil.

Mav
a long

thou be spared to

many

and happy year on
cal

May

such

abnormal physi-

phenomena
rain,

as,

droyght, deluge, excessive

downpour
wholesale

of

and

excessive

germination

(or

Chap, v.]

SUTRASTHANAM.
of such

43
mosquitoes,
flies

.,

extinction

vermin
portend
as

as) rats,
evil

which invariably

and
feuds

mortality in

a

community,

as

well

bloody

among
all

kings,

abate and cease.
misery.

May

thou be relieved of

pain and

We

close the prayer with a

"Svaha" (obeisance\
an
occult

The

present Vedic mantra exercises

power

in relieving

ailments which are due to the malignant

influences of conjured up she-devils.

May

thou acquire a

long

life

through the protective
(lit

energy of the proread by me.

phylactic prayer

:— incantation; now

Then having protected the body
the recitation of the
shall see his

of the patient with

above Vedic Mantra, the surgeon
to
his

patient taken

own chamber, and
and
diet accord-

prescribe the proper course of medicine

ing to

the exigencies of each case.

The

old bandage

should be loosened on the third day of the operation,

when

the

wound

or

the

ulcer should

be

washed, and

a fresh bandage should be

wound round

as before.

The

bandage should not be loosened on the day following
the lancing of a
rise to

boil,

as

such a measure might give

a sort of excruciating pain and formation of knots

in

the

wound and

retard

the

process of granulation

(healing).

On

the third day, the surgeon (Vaidya) should
diet,
etc.

prescribe the proper medicated plaster,
fully considering the strength of

after

the patient, the nature

of the disease, and the then prevailing season of the year.

A

wound should not be

tried to

be healed up, as long as

44

THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA
its

[

Chap. V.

the least morbid matter, or pus remains in
it

inside, as

would lead

to the formation of fresh
health}^
tissues,

cavities

in

the
to
a

surrounding

and

ultimately

recrudescence of the disease.

The authoritative
subject
of
its
:

verses on

the

— Accordingly a wound or an
and
exterior

ulcer should

be made to heal up after the perfect purification of both
inside

has

been

fully

brought
the

about.

Even

after

the

healing of the
all

wound

patient should studiously avoid
indigestive

sexual connections,
exercises

viands,

fatiguing

physical

and

indulgence in emotions of grief or fright, or in ecstasies
of joy, until the cicatrix has acquired enough toughness.

The

dressings

and bandages should be untied and

changed

ever}' third

day

in

winter, in spring and in the

season of Hemanta, and on each alternate day in

summer

and

in the

rains.

But a physician (surgeon) should
in cases

not be guided by these rules

where there would
in

be reasons to apprehend imminent danger, and
cases

such

the

wound

or

the ulcer, like a house in flames,

should be checked as speedily as possible.
Clarified

butter
a

boiled

with

Yashtimadhu,
to

and

applied tepid to
operation,
is is

wound,

incidental

a

surgical

sure to alleviate

the excruciating pain that

usually experienced in such an affected part.
Thus ends
llie fifih

chapter, of the Sutiasthanani in ihc

SushnUa Sanihita

which

treats of Preliminarv nieasiues.

CHAPTER
Xow we
year
shall discuss the

VI.

Chapter which treats of

the characteristic features of the differetit seasons of the

and

their

influence

on

health

and

drugs

fRitucharya'dhya'yam).
The Eternal Time
self-l/egotten,
is

without origin, middle, or end,
all

and the lord of

attributes. Contrariety

or

non contrariety of the natural
endued
etc.,

attributes

of drugs or
tastes,
;

substances
as
is

with

characteristic

such

sweet,

are brought about

by time

and time

the principal factor that controls the births or deaths

of beings.

Etymology of the term
The Kala
fact of its

Ka'Ia (t^me): —
so
its

or

the

Eternal

time

is

called from the

not suffering even one
subdivisions

of
to

own minutest
perish,

particles

or

(Kala)

though
itself
;

perpetually moving, and in constant motion in
it

or

derives

its

epithet from the. fundamental quality
all

of

its

destroying

beings and laying their dead remains in

heaps in succession.
to

Some

assert that the
(

name

is

due

the fact that time blends

kalanam )

all

beings with

misery or happiness according to their respective acts,
or to
its

leading

all

beings to destruction
his

(

kala).

The
eternal

Sun-god, by

peculiar

motions,
(

divides

time which

is

measured by years

Samvatsaras)

I
46
into

THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA.
'increasingly progressive
as,

[

Chap. VI.

but smaller subdivisions)
in closing the eyelids^,

such

Nimeshas

(lit

:

—time taken

Kashthas^ Kalas, Muhurtas, days and nights, fortnights,

months, seasons,

solstices,

years and Yugas.

Time taken
(such

in articulating
is

any of the short vowels
Akshi-Nimesha.
Fifteen

as A. etc.),

called an

Akshi-Nimeshas make one Kashtha.

Thirty Kashthas

make one Muhurta. Thirty Muhurtas make one day
and night.
night.

Fifteen
fortnight
is

days and nights make one
either dark or
bright.

fort-

A

Two

fortas,

nights

make one month.
etc. are

The twelve months such

Magha,
Spring,

divided into six seasons such as. Winter,

Summer, Rains, Autumn and Hemanta, each

consisting of

two months.
as

The two months known
(Magha and Phalgunai
Spring consists
of

Tapas

and Tapasva

constitute

the season of winter.
called

two

months
.

Madhu and
is

Madhava

(Chaitra and Vaishaka
as Shuchi

Summer

marked by
and

two months known
Ashadha
'.

and Shukra
is

Jaistha

The

rains or the rainy season

marked by

two months
Bh^dra\

called

Nabhas and Xabhasya (Shravana and
as

The two months known

Isha and Urja
is

(Ashvina and Kartika) constitute what
season of Autumn.
called

called

the

Hemanta
'

is

marked by two months
Pousha).

Sahas and Sahasya
six

Agraha5^ana and

These

seasons are respectiveh^ characterised

by

cold,

heat, rains, etc.

Chap. VI.

1

SUTRASTHA'NAM.
are ushered in

47
afid the

The two Ayanams

by the sun
in the

moon changing

their respective courses

heavens
as the

(passing over the tropics of Cancer

and Capricorn)

measurers of time.
follow

The
in

rains,

autumn and Hemanta

one another
Tropic of

succession
is

when
in

the the

sun

is

over the
Solstice

Capricorn or

Winter
in

(Dakshinayanami
in this

and

the
year.

moon

gains

strength
sap)

part

of the
saline

Rasas (Serum or
tastes,
is

possessed of acid,

and sweet

grow
over

strong and become

dominant when the sun

the Tropic of Capricorn ^Dakshinayanam) and
gain in

all

beings

strength

and energy more and more.

Winter,

spring and

summer mark the
Solstice
'

passing of the sun over
.

the

Summer

Uttarayanam

The sun grows
i

stronger in heat and light, and saps rasas of bitter, pun-

gent and sour tastes increase

in intensity,

and

all

animals

gradually begin to lose strength and energy.

Authoritative verses on
ject :— The moon
dity
his

the subin

imparts the
is

moisture and humi-

to

the earth which
course,

soaked up by the sun
the

daily

while

wind

in

conjunction

with

the

sun

and the moon, contributes towards the
life.

preservation of animal

The

successive change of

the two solstices marks a year.

Five such complete years count as a Yuga. The subdivisions of eternal

time from the- minutest Ximesha to

a complete Yuga, are constantly revolving like a wheel_,

48
and

THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA.
this constant or perpetual

[Chap. VI.

revolution
1

is

called

the

wheel

or

C5Tle

of

time

^,Kala-Chakra

by

certain

authorities.

The

six

seasons such as, the Rains,

etc.,

have been

again adverted to in this chapter for the purpose of fully
describing the accumulation, excitation aggravation)
pacification

and

of the bodily humours, such as wind, etc.

According to some, the rainy season consists of two

months known
of the

as

Bhadra and Ashvina
of Kartika

;

Autumn

consists
;

two months

and Margashirshya
of

He;

manta

consists of the

two months

Poushaand Magha
of Phalguna
;

spring consists of the

two months

and

Chaitra
of

;

summer, of Vaishakha and Jaistha

and

Pr^^Tit,

Ashadha and Shravana.
Oshadhis
'

Medical

plants

and
in

cereals
their

sprout

during the rains and are enfeebled

properties.
is

Water

becomes

muddy

or

turbid

and the earth

covered over with fresh deposits of washed off or silted

mud.

The sky becomes

overcast

with

clouds,

and

the wind, charged

with an excess of humidity, dulls

the

appetite

and organisms of beings.

Hence the

food of beings

which principally consists of tender

and new-grown vegetables of feeble potency, considerably vitiated by the turbid water partaken of as drink
during the season, proves acid
in
its

digestive reaction,

and germinates
In

exce-ssive

bile in

the

human

system.
is

autumn the skv becomes

cloudless, the mire

dried

Chap. VI.

]

SUTRASTHA'NAM.
bile originated

^g

up,

and the
is

and accumulated during the
the

rains,

liquefied

by the

,

rays of

sun

and gives

rise to bilious

diseases*

Plants and vegetables (Oshadhis) tlmt grow or sprout

during the rainy season, are matured in course of time

and ripen

in their virtues

and potency

in

the season of
cool and heavy

Hemanta.

The water becomes

clear,

in this season.

The

sun's

rays

become
frost

feeble

and mild

;

and the winds moistened with
the

and snow, make
heavy.

human system

a

little

numb and
of in

Hence
are

water and vegetables partaken

Hemanta

divested of their properties of acid reaction
assimilated
in

after being

the

human

system,
in

but they
the

give

rise

to an accumulation of

phlegm

body owing

to

their heaviness, sliminess,

and cooling and

oily character.

In spring, the

phlegm thus accumulated

in the

body

is

hquefied and ushers in diseases due to a deranged state
of that bodily humour, t

The

said

plants and vegetables,

in

their turn,
in

lose

their sap, moisture

and nutritive element
light.

summer,
the same

and become dry and extremely

In

manner water becomes drought-making
state of parchedness in the
virtue,,

[produces a
in
its

organism
its

— Ruksha]

and considerably

loses

natural

coolness and

*

This should be regarded as the excited, aggravated or agitated

state

of bile (Pitta) in the parlance of Ayurveda.
i

This

is

called the excited or agitated state of

phlegm

(Kafa).

50

thp:

sushruta samhita.
The
sun's rays dry

[

chap. vi.

nutritive properties.

up the natural

moisture of the

human

system,

and accordingly water
of in summer, give rise

and vegetables

largely partaken

to an accumulation of
lightness,

wind

in the

system owing to their

dryness,

or

expansive and drought-making

properties.

Subsequently wind thus accumulated in the
agitated

summer,

is

by the

rains

and cold winds

in

the
is

'^Cr^V^rt of the rainy season (V^^vrii)

when the ground

flooded witii water and thus gives rise to diseases \v^hich
are incidental to a deranged state of the bodily wind.*

The fundamental bodily humours such
bile,

as,

wind,
rains,

etc.

augmented and accumulated during the
should

Hemanta and summer,
as

be

checked as

soon

they become aggravated

(manifest

themselves) in
rainy season

autumn,
(Pravrit;.

spring, or in the forepart

of the

Diseases which
of bile,

owe

their origin to a

deranged state
amelio-

phlegm

and wind, are

respectivel}'-

rated

in

Hemanta, summer, and autumn by natural

causes, [such as the variations of atmospheric or earthly

temperature, the

rainfall, etc.].

Thus

far

we have

discussed
or

accumulation,

excitation

and

pacification

alleviation of the

deranged bodily humours.
features,

Likewise
the
different

the

which

specifically

mark
to

seasons of

the year are

observed

*

This

is

called the excited state of

wind (Vayu).

Chap. VI.

]

SUTRASTHANAM.

^

i

characterise the different parts of a
night, [or in other words] .traits

complete day and

peculiar to spring time
;

exhibit themselves in the

morning

the noon
r,

is

marked

by

all

the characteristics of
;

summer

the evening by
of

those of the rainy season

the midnight by those

autumn

;

and the hours

before

dawn by

those of

Ilpmiinta

And

similarly, like the seasons of the year,
-/x«.rked b"^

the diffeieftypkiLs'of the day and night arc
variations

of heat,

cold,

etc.

[or

in

other words] the

deranged bodily humours such as
naturally

wind,

bile,

etc.

and spontaneously accumulate, aggravate, or

subside during the different parts of the
in

day

as they

do

the different seasons of the

year

[represented by

those parts of the day and night as stated above].

Water and vegetables

retain

their natural properties

when
trary

the seasons are natural, and do not
features,

exhibit con-

and they
strength,

then tend

to

increase the

appetite, vitality,

and power

of the
are

human

system.

Contrary or unnatural seasons

but the

consequences of sin committed by a whole community

and

portend

the

workings
unnatural

of
or

a

malign destiny.
contrary features,

A

season, exhibiting

affects

or reverses the natural properties of water

and
of,

vegetables

peculiar to

it,

which, drunk or partaken

cause dreadful epidemics in the country.

The

best safe-

guard

lies in

not using such defiled water and vegetables
out in the country.

when an epidemic breaks

52

THESUSHRUTA SAMHITA,
Sometimes a town or a
city
is

[

Chap. vi.

depopulated by a

curse, anger, sin, or

by a monster or a demoness conjured
Sometimes the pollens of
etc.,

up by a

spell or incantation.

poisonous
winds,
sort
fever,

flowers

or

grasses,

wafted

by

the

invade a town
of

or

a village,

and produce a
catarrh, or

epidemic
of

cough,
all

asthma,

irrespective

constitutional

n^^nii-vit^^c

kDr'^dei'Un^::!

bodily humours agitateS'l^/Lkll^^,
are

fTowns
through
animals,

and

villages

known

to

have

been

depopulated
or

through

malignant
beds,

astral
seats,

influences,
carriages,

houses^ wives*,

riding

gems and precious stones assuming

inauspicious features.

Prophylactic measures:— In
migration
to a

such cases

healthy or unaffected

locality, perfor-

mances of

rites of pacification

and atonement, (wearing

of prophylactic

gems and

drugs), recitations of mantras,

libations of clarified butter cast into
offerings

the

sacrificial fire,

to

the gods, celebration

of sacrificial

cere-

monies, obeisance with clasped
practice of penances, sell-control
spiritual
initiation;

palms to

the

gods,

and charity, kindness,
to

obedience

one's

elders

and

preceptors,

and devotion to the gods and the Bramhanas,
like rules of

and observance of such

conduct

may

prove

beneficial to the affected

community.

*

Marriages with

girls

of prohibited

description

have

been

known

as well to have ushered

in

an epidemic which devastated a whole town or

a country.

Chap. VI.

]

SUTRASTHANAM.

53

The characteristic features of the
seasons Avhich
winds
from
the

c|o

not exhibit untexts) -Cold
the

natural traits (Metrical
north

blow
of the

in

season

of
in

Hemanta.

The

quarters

sky are enveloped

smoke and assume a dusky
in

aspect.

The sun

is

hid
lie
ice.

the

frost,

and lakes and pools are frozen
with
flakes,

or

covered
Cro\^'s,

over

or

thin

layers

of

rhinoceroses,

buffaloes,

lambs and

elephants
;

become

excited and sprightly in this

part of the year

and the Lodhra, Priyangu, and Punnaga trees begin to
blossom.

Winter exhibits the same features as above, only
in a greater

degree of intensity
agitated

;

and the quarters of

the

sky are

by strong gales of wind and

showers of

rain.

In spring,
are

when

the summits of the

mount Malaya
of the

besmeared red with the moist
of the
in

foot-prints

brides

Siddhas and

the

Vidyadharas, and are

perfumed

contact with the sweet-scented sandal

forests, the lively south- wind is

roused up from his

lair

and winnows gladness to damsels burning with

desires,

and kindles up the flame of love and appeases the

amorous anger of the beloved
fancies to

pairs

by turning

their

themes of

love.

The

quarters of the sky are

cleared

up and look

joyful.

The woods

are decked
lotus,

with the full-blown flowers of the Kinshuka,

54
Vakula,

THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA.
mango and Ashoka
the
skies.
trees.

[Chap. VI.

The bee hums and
to

the notes of

Cuckoo

are

heard

reverberate
this

through the

The south wind

fans

king of

the seasons, and the forests are

hung with the festoons

of tender and sprouting leaves in his honour.

The
summer.

sun's rays

become stronger and more intense

in

Unhealthy winds blow from the south-east.
is

The

earth

heated
;

;

the rivers run narrow and shallow
of the

in their beds

the

quarters

sky glare with a
with their mates

blazing light, the birds Chakravakas

roam about
water
with
;

in

quest of cool

ponds and reservoirs of

herds of deer are tormented and overwhelmed
;

thirst

trees, plants

and creepers are scorched by
off

the intense heat, and withered leaves drop
the trees which alone serve to
of their parents possible.

from

make

the

identification

In the forepart of the rainy season

(Pravrit',

packs

of detached clouds, spangled with lightning and driven

before the gales of the west-wind,

come thundering over
is

and envelop the

skies.

The Earth

robed

in

green

with luxurious growth of
there

corn, enlivened

here and
insects

by the dark crimson of the cochineal
and Kadamva,
Nipa,
Kutaja,

(Indragopa),

and

the

Ketaki trees begin to flower.

During the rainy season, the
banks, tumbling

rivers

overflow their

down

the

trees

which grow on them.

Ponds and lakes are decked with the full-blown

Kumud

Chap. VI.

]

SUTRASTHANAM.
flowers.

55

and Nilotpala
vegetation.
resers^oirs

The

earth

is

covered with firofuse

All

distinction

between dry lands and

of water

becomes impossible, and the sun
enveloped in dark clouds that
roar.

and the

planets

are

shower torrents of rain but do not

In autumn the sun's rays assume a mellow golden
tint.

Masses of white clouds are seen to

sail

the dark deep
full

blue of heaven.
lotus

Ponds are decked with the
by
the

blown
diving

flowers, agitated

wings of

the

swans
lands
plains

The high grounds become
still

dry, while the

lowlevel

retain

their

muddy

character.

The

are

covered

with shrubs and undergrowths,
such
as,

and

plants

and

trees

Vana,
in

Saptahva,

Vandhuka, Kasha and Asana, flower

abundance.

The bodily humours such

as wind, etc. aie disturbed or
vari-

and aggravated by the contrariety, excess
ations
in
it

the
is

characteristic

features

of

the

seasons.

Hence

prudent to check the deranged phlegm

in spring, to

conquer the deranged

bile in

autumn, and

to subdue the deranged bodily

wind

in the rains, before

they develop themselves
bodily ailment.
Thus ends
the

in

any

patent or manifest

sixth

chapter of

the

Sutrasthanam

in

the

Sushruta

Sanihit^ which treats of the characteristic features of the seasons and their
influence on health and drugs.

C

H

APT E R

V

I

I

Now we

shall discuss the

Chapter which treats of
Construction.

Surgical Appliances, their Uses and

(Yantra-VicJhimadhya'yam).
Surgical instruments
in
all,

number one hundred and one
is

*

of
as

which the hand
(all

the most important, inasfor

much

of

them
and
it
;

depend on the hand
as

their

principal

auxiliary)

none

of

them can
all

be
sur-

handled without
gical

and further

because
its

operations pre-eminentlj^ require
foreign
in

co-operation.
finds

Any

or

extraneous substance, which

a

lodgment

the Inunan system and becomes painful to
is

the body and the mind alike,
surgical

called a

Shalyam

;

and
it

instruments
seat or place

are

the means
it is

of extracting

(from

its

where

embedded

(Surgical Appliances

may be

divided into six different

groups or types, such as the Svastika, the Sandansha,
the Tala, the

Nadi Yantras, and the Shalakas,

besides

those that are called the minor or accessory appliances

(Upa^yantras).

The Svastika instruments

(forceps) in their turn, are
;

divided into twenty-four sub-classes

the

Sandansha
Yantras
for

instruments

(tongsi

into

two

;

the
here

Tala

* According to certain authorities hundred a large number.

is

indefinitely used

Chap. VII.

]

SUTRASTHA'NAM.

;

5into twent)^
;

into

two

the

Nadi Yantras

tubular)

;

and the Shalakas

(bougies; into twenty-eight

while

the Upa-yantras admit of being divided into twentyfive

different types.

These instrumeijts are
be
substituted
for

all

made

of

iron

which
or

ma}"

any other
would
be

similar

suitable

substance

where

iron

unavailable.

The mouths

of these appliances

are usuall}'

made

to

resemble those of birds and beasts, and hence they should

be

made
in

to resemble the

mouths of some

particular

animal

shape, or otherwise, according to the advice
-

of old and experienced ph3"sicians
ing
to

surgeons;, or accordin

the directions

as

laid

down

the

Shastras

(Medical books
to the

of recognised authority,

or according

exigencies

of the case, or after the shape and

structure of other appliances used on similar occasions.

Metrical texts:
neither too
or
large

— Appliances should be
their

made

nor too small, and
be

mouths

edges

should

made sharp and
a

keen.

They

should

be

made with
and

special

eye as to strength

and

steadiness,

they

should be provided with

convenient handles.

Appliances of the Svastika class should be
to

made
their
lions,

measure

eighteen

fingers

in

length

;

and

mouths should be made
tigers,

to

resemble those of
cats,

wolves,
;a

hyenas,
species

bears,

jackals,

deer,

Erv^rukas

of

deer,

crows,

cormorants,

58
Kururas
vultures,
(a

THE SUSHRUTA
la species of birdi,

SAMHITA'.

[

Chap. Vll.

Hasas
kites,

(a species of

sparrow

falcons,

owls,
bird
,

herons,

Bhringarajas

species

of

Anjalikamas,
like

Avabhanjanas,
birds.

Nandimukhas, and such

beasts

and

The

two blades
together
pulse
1

or halves of a Svastika should be welded

b}-

means of

a

bolt

resembling

a

Masura

lentil; in size,

and the handles should be turned

inward
ances

in

the shape of a mace, or an Ankusha.
this

Apph-

of

type

should

be used

in

extracting

an}' thorn or foreign

matter which

may have

entered

into the bones.

Sandanshas tongs are divided
thev
are

into
or

two

classes

as

soldered together with
to

without a bolt.
in

They should he made
length,
like

measure sixteen fingers
to

and should be used
from

withdraw any thornskin,
tlesh_,

substance

below the

veins or

nerves.

The Tala Yautras which measure twelve
in

fingers

length,

mav

be divided into
the

two
Tala.

classes

as

the

siiigle

Tala

and

double
fish

The
the

former
latter,

resemble the scales of

in

shape, while

according to certain authorities, are
the entire

made

to

resemble

mouth
are

of a fish of the Bhetuli species.
in

These

Yantras

used

extracting

splinters

from inside

the nose, ears and other external channels or passages
ot the

body.
tubular instruments like syringe,s

The Nadi Yantras

Chap. VII.

]

SUTRASTHANAM.
etc,

^o
aperture

enemas,
through
a

with a
entire

passage
.length^

or

running
in

their

are
for

constructed
various

variet}'

of

shapes
are

and
at

purposes.

Some

of

them

open

one end, while

others
for the

are open at both.

These instruments are used
that

purpose of extracting any shalyam

has pricked

into the external canals or passages of the body, or for

inspecting the seat

of affection as in piles,

etc.,

or for

sucking (blood,

etc.

from any affected part

,

or simply as

accessories to other surgical appliances.

The length and

circumference

of a

Nadi Yantra should be made to
'Srota'i

commensurate with those of the passage
of the

or outlet

human system

into

which

it

is

intended to be

introduced.

We

shall describe, later on, the types of

Nadi Yantras which are to
with
in
in

be
in

used
ano,

in

connection
etc.

such

diseases

as

fistula

piles,

or

tumours and

ulcers,

in
(

Mutradvriddhi (Hydrocele)

Niruddha

Prakasha
of

Phimosis
rectum)

),

in

Niruddha
in
ascites,

Guda
as

'Stricture

the
to

and
the

well

as

those

be used for
the
urethra,

purpose

of

injecting anything

into

the bowels,

the

vagina and the uterus, or are used in

connection

with

medicated inhalation, or with those that are known
as the Alavu Yantras (gourd used for cupping).

The

Shalaka- Yantras

bougies

are

of

various

shapes and serve a variety of purposes.

The lengths

and

girths of these

instruments

should be determined

6o

THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA.
the
necessity

:

Chap. vil.

according to

of

each
in

individual case.

Four probes or directors
used for
in a

shalaka
of

two

pairs,

are

the

purposes
part
or

searching
or in

Eshana

pus

suppurated
cutting
it

limb,

connection

with

uplifting,

and thereby withdrawing a shalyam
has pricked into, or with a view to

from the part
transfer

such
,

a
or

body
for

from
the

one place
of

to

another
it

Chalanam
i

purpose

extracting

Shalyam from the

affected part.

The mouths

of the

two types
of a

of these directors respectively resemble those

Gandupada earthworm
Pers

and of a Sharapunkha
the
a

Tephrosia Purpurea,

while

other

two

are

respectively headed like the
fish

hood of

serpent and a

hook.
of

A
in

couple of directors are used for the pura
foreign

pose

withdrawing

matter

'Shalyam;
).

imbedded

any outer canal of the body (Srotas

The
and

top-ends of these directors are bent

down

a

little,

they resemble a

lentil

seed in

size.

Six types of directors

or probes are used in cleansing the pus from an affected

part of the

human organism and
;

their top-ends are fitted

with caps of loose cotton.

The

three sorts of directors
are

used in applying alkaline medicines,
ladles,

shaped
of

like
little

and their mouths resemble the

cavities

stone mortars (Khala.)
in

Of the

six sorts of directors

used

connection with the process of

cauterisation

(Agnifruit,

Karma) three are mouthed

like the

Jamboline
or
a

while the other three are faced like a mace
(^Ankusha.
.

spear

A

kind of director used

in

removing nasal

Chap. VII.

]

SUTRASTHANAM.
is

6l

tumours,

mouthed

like the half of the kernel 'found

in the inside of a Jujube-stpne,

with a

little

dip

in

the

middle,

its

lip

or

end having a keen or sharp edge.
type of probe
collyria

The ends
Anjanams

of

the

used in
the

applying
are

medicated

to

eyelids

wrought into two small round lobes
pulse

like the

Matara
probe

and

are

blunted,

while
is

the

sort

of

used
of

in cleansing the urethra,

made round

like the

end

tht;

stem of a Mdlati flower.

The Upa-yantras or minor surgical
accessories — include
such
substances
as

rope,

the Venika (braided hair;, silk thread,

the bark and the
,

inner-skin of trees, creepers, linen, Ashthila 'stones large

oval shaped pebbles, a

hammer, the palms of the hands,
tongue, the teeth, the nails, hair,

the soles of

feet, fingers^

the
fire,

mane

of horses, branches of trees, a magnet, alkali,
acts as
spitting, straining

and medicine, and such

(kunthanam;, exhilaration and intimidation.

IVIetrical

texts —These
:

accessories should be

applied to the entire

body of

a patient, or to

any part

thereof such

as,

the

arteries, the ^'iscera, or

the joints,
case
to

according

to

the necessities

of

each

be

determined by the surgeon.

The Functions of Surgical Instruments — are striking out Nirghatanam-lit — with:
:

drawing
mjection

a
or

Shalyam
filling,

by

moving

it

to

and

fro),

binding,

up-lifting,

cutting

and

62

THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA.

[Chap. vii.

thereby withdrawing a Shalyam, resetting by means
of a twirling motion, removing of a
another,
twisting,

Shalyam

from

one place to

expanding, pressing,
attracting, bringing

purifying of a passage, drawing
to

off,

the

surface,
all

uplifting,

lowering

down, applying

pressure

round a

part, or

an organ, agitating, sucking,

searching, cutting or cleaving, straightening, washing or
flushing, stuffing the

nose and cleansing.

They number

twenty-four in

all.

IVIctrical
exercise his

texts :— The

intelligent surgeon shall

judgment and determine the nature of the
each individual case, for

surgical operation required in

surely the shalj^as requiring a surgeon's aid are infinitely

varied in their character.

An
inferior

appliance A^antraUvhich

is

too thick, or.

made

of

metal and hence) not substantially made, or too
or does not admit of being
easily

short or too long,

handled

and

is is

incapable

of

taking

in

the entire

Shalyam, or
loosely
surgical
tied

curved, loosely fitted, or soft-bolted, or
in

up with cords, 'should not be used

operations).

These are the twelve defects of a

surgical instrument.

Metrical texts
fingers in length,
is

:

— The

use

of an

instrument

devoid of the abovesaid defects and measuring eighteen

commended

in

surgical

operations,

Shalyas which are manifest and visible to the naked
eye, should be

extracted

with the instruments

of the

Chap. VII.

]

SUTRASTHA'NAM,

6^

Sinha-mukha (lion-mouthed) type, while those that can
not be seen, should be removed with the help of the

Kanka-mukhas

(

heron-mouthed

)

instruments,

etc.,

according to the directions laid

down

in the Shastras

medical

or

surgical

works of recognised authority).
are the best of
the}'-

The Kanka-mukhas

all

other types of

instruments, inasmuch as

can be inserted and taken
of drawing

out without the least difficulty, are capable

out a'Shalyam with the greatest ease, and are applicable
to
all

parts of the

human body

'be

they an artery or a

bone- joint.)
Thus
end.s the sevenih

chapter

"( ihc SiUiasthSnam

of the Sushruta

SamhitS which
appliances.

treats of the shape, construction

and dimensions of surgical

C

HA

PT E R

V

I I I.

Now we

shall discuss the

Chapter which treats

of

instruments used in connection with a surgical operation.

(Shastrarvacharaniyamaclhya^am).
These instruments are twenty
in

number such

as,

the Mandalagram, the Karapatram, the Vriddhipatram,

the

Nakhashastram,

the

Mudrik^, the Utpalapatram,
Suchi,

the Arddhadh^ram, the

the Kushapatram, the
the Antarmukhanij

Atemukham, the Shardrimukham,

the Trikurchakam, the Kuth^rika, the Vrihimukham, the
Ar^i,

the Vetasapatrakam, the Vadisha,the Dantashanku,

and the Eshani.*
The
the

MandaMgram

measures

six

fingers

in

length
is

and

is

provided with a round or circular face.

The Karapatram
signifies

the

same

as

modern saw.

The term Vriddhipatram
in
is

a razor.

A

Vriddhi-

patram measures seven fingers
five fingers.

length,

the
as

handle alone measuring
the

The Nakhasastram

the

same

modern

nail-clipper,

the

blade of the instrument measuring a
in

finger

in breadth.

The Utpala(lancet)
at

patram resembles a lotus leaf
measures eight
middle,

shape.
length,

The Arddhadhfiram
being one
finger
is

fingers' breadth' in

broad

the

and two

fingers

at

the blade.

The

Suchi.

the

same

as the

modern needle.
Ate
species.

blade of a Kusha-grass.

The Kushapatram is so called from its resemblance to An Atemukham resembles the bill of a bird of The blade of an Atemukham measures two fingers
five

the
the
in

length,

the

handle measuring

fingers

and thus

giving an

entire

length of seven fingers.

The SharSrimukham

(scissors) is so-called

from the

resemblance of
like

its

blades to the bills of a Shariri bird and
its

looks somewhat
length
is

a modern black-smith's clipper, the measure of

entire

being

twelve fingers.

The Antarmukham

is

semicircular in shape and

provid(trocar)

ed with a toothed edge like that of a hand-saw.
is

The Trikurchakam
in

provided

with

three separate blades.

The

intervening space between
length,

the couple of blades attached to a handle measuring five fingers
is

equal to ihe width of a Vrihiseed,

its

entire length being eight fingeis.

Chap. VIII.

]

SUTRASTHANAM.
the

65

Of the abovesaid instruments

Mandalagram and

the Karapatram should be 'used in incising and scraping.

The Vriddhipatram, the Nakhasastram, the Mudrik^,
the Utpalapatram, and the

Arddhadharam, should be
)

employed

in
;

incising

f

Chhedanam

and

excising

(Bhedanani)

and the Kushapatram, the Shuchi, the

Atemukham,
the

the Shararimukham, the Trikurchakam and

Antarmukham should be made use

of in exudating

or secreting (Visravanam.i

The Kutharika, the Vrihimu(needle)

kham, the Ara, the Vetasapatram and the Suchi
should be used
in

puncturing.

The Vadisha and the
in extracting
in

Danta-Shanku should be used

sohd bodies.

The Eshani

1

probe or director)

probing or search(in

ing the course or direction of the pus
part),

a suppurated
in suturing.

and the Suchi (needle; should be used
have
explained

Thus we
tions
ol

the eight different

func-

the

instruments in

connection

with surgical

operations.

The kutharika
cow.
its

(small, blunt axe) measures seven
is

lingers

and a half

in liic

handle, the blade

half a finger in width
six

and

is

blunted like the tooth of'a
in
is

The Vrihimukham measures
is

fingers

its

entire length

and

top

like

that of a Vrihi seed,

and the edge

cut into

small thorn-

like

projections.
fingers in
its

The Ar5 resembles
entire length,

the awl of a cobbler

and measures
seed of
a

ten

the

blade

is

wide as the

sesamum and has
in length,

the girth of a

Durva

(grass) stem.

The Vetasapatram
is

(knife) resembles the

leaf of a Vetasa plant.
in width,

The blade
the

four fingers

one finger
in

and

is

keenly edged,
is

handle measurlike

ing four fingers
fishing hook.

length.

The Vadisha

shaped

a

modern

The Danta-shanku

(pincers for extracting

teeth)

somewhat
(probe)
is

resembles the Vrihimukham in shape.
like that of a

The

face of an Eshani

Gandupada (earth-worm).

9

66
No^v
the

THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA.
we
shall

[

Chap. Ylll.

deal

with the

mode

ol

handling

abovesaid

instruments. — The
for excising
at

Vriddhipatram and

other instruments

(Bhedanam; should be
between
the

caught

hold

of

a

part

blade

and the handle.

In acts of scraping the Vriddhipatram

and the

MandaUgram

should

be handled with the

palm of the hand
for

slightly turned up.

The instruments

secreting

should be

caught hold of at the roots
in

of their

blades at the
of a
a

time of using them, while an
old

the

case

king,

man, a timid

or

a

delicate person,

child, a

woman and

specially in the

case of a

prince of the royal

blood, the Trikurchakam
operaVrihi-

should be used
tion

when any

secreting or exudating

would

be

necessary.

The handle

of a

mukham

should

be

kept concealed within the palm
caught hold of
(Pradeshini).

of the hand and the blade should be

with the thumb

and

the

index finger
first

The Kuth^rika should be

supported on

the

left

hand and then struck with the thumb and
of the
right.

third

finger

The

Ara,

the

Karapatram

and

the

Eshani,
rest

should be caught hold of at their roots.
the
surgical

The

of

instruments should

be grappled

according to requirements.

The abovesaid instruments
which
their

are

shaped

like

things
al-

very

names

imply, as

ha^^e

been

ready described.

The

Nakashastram and the Eshani
in

measure eight fingers

length.

The Suchi

(needle)

Chap. VIII.

]

SUTRASTHA'NAM.
The top-ends

67
of the Vadisha
are
to

shall

be described later un.

and the Danta-Shankhu pental
bent
sharp

pincers';

a

little

down

and
or

their

faces

are

made

resemble
a

thorns,

the

newly sprouted leaves of
of

barley plant.

The top-end

an

Eshani
Tlie

closely
lenj^th

resembles the
of a Mudrika

mouth

of

an earth-worm.

should be
the

made

equal to
'of

that

of the

top phalanges of
avera'ge height.)
in

index

finger

a

man

of

A Shararimukham
rest

measures ten fingers

length.

The

of the

instruments are

mostly

made

to measure six fingers in length.

Commendable features
cal

in

a Surgifitted

instrument

:

—Instruments that are
grip

with handles of easy

and are made of good and
with

pure iron, well shaped, sharp, and are set
that are not jagged and
tops, should

edges

end

in

well

formed points or

be deemed as the best of their kind.
bluntness
(

Curvature,
cutting
hair
,

Kuntha— lit :— incapable
the edge,

of

unequal sharpness of

rough-

edgedness,
ness,

over- thickness,

over-thinness,

over-lengthitraits in

and over-shortness are the defective

a

surgical instrument.

Those possessed of contrary Karapatram
set

features

should be used.

But a

with a very

rough (dentated) edge

may

be used for the purpose of

sawing the bones.

A

surgical instrument

meant

*'or

excision

'Bhedanann

should be set with an edge as thin as that of a Musura

68
pulse
'lentil

THE SUSHRUTA
seed
,

SAMHITA'.

[

Chap. VIII.

while an

instrument used in scraping

should be set with an edge half as thin as that of
the former.

An

instrument used either in connection

with the measures of secretion or cutting by uplifting

(Vyadhanam) should be

set with

an edge as

fine as the

human

hair,

while an instrument of incision should have

an edge half as thin as that of the former.

Surgical instruments should

be tempered with
water, and

one
oil.

of the three substances such as, alkali,

Instruments used
foreign

in cutting

an arrow, a bone, or any
into

matter (Shalyami pricked
alkali,

the

human

body, should be tempered with
are
flesh

whereas those that

made

use of in cutting, cleaving, and lopping off the

from an affected part), should be tempered with

water.
a

Instruments
(Shira)
or
in

used

in

opening

Vyadhanam)
.Sna)^!:

vein

cutting
oil,

open a nerve

should be tempered with

and should be whetted

upon

a species of stone-slab

resembling a

Masha

pulse in

colour,
it

and

their set- edge should

be protected by putting

in a

sheath

made

of Sh^lmali

wood.

Authoritative verses on the subject :— An instrument, well-ground, well-shaped, fitted
with
a

convenient handle and capable of (laterally)
in

cutting a hair
laid

two and made according to measures
alone used in a

down

in

the Shastras, should be

surgical operation.

Chap. VIII.

]

SUTRASTHA'NAM.

6g

The ments
leeches,
Goji,

Inferior or substitutive instru(the

Anu-Shastras

:

— The skin of bamboos,
crystal"*

crystals, bits of glass,
fire, alkali,

Kuruvindas Ca sort of
the leaves of trees

nails,

known

as

Shephalika

and Shakapatra, the tender sprouts

of corn, hair, and the fingers, should be included within

the category of the minor instruments of surgery and

(which
for

may

be used

in certain instances in substitution

the principal and usual ones.

Metrical texts :— The
strips of

four

articles

such as

bamboo

skin, crystals, bits of glass,

and the rock
intellii

known

as Kuruvinda,

should be used by an

gent physician
tions,

in incising or excising

Bhedanam
to

opera-

where the patient would be found

have a dread

of the knife, or too

young

to be surgically operated

upon

with

it,

or

where the proper instrument cannot be pronails of fingers should be used in operations

cured.

The

of incising, excising or extracting in (substitution for the

instruments enjoined to be used for the purpose),

when

such a course would appear feasible.

The

processes of

applying

alkalis, leeches

and cauterisation

will be dealt

with later on.
cavity
of the
or

In Diseases

affecting the eyelids or
for

the

mouth, operations
evacuating
'the

the purposes of

secreting

accumulated
with
the

pus
leaves

or of

phlegm),

may

be

performed

Shakapatra,

Shephalika or Gojis.

In the absence of

a probe or director, searching

may

be done with the help

^o
of a

THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA.
finger, or

L

Chap. vili.

with

a

hair,

or with

a

corn
it

sprout.
his

An
by

intelligent

physician
to

should
surgical

deem

im-

perative
a

duty
skilful

get

his

instruments

made
of

and experienced
steel
>.

blacksmith,

and

pure, strong
in

and sharp iron

A

physician, skilled
is

the

art

of using surgical
in

instruments,

always

successful

his

professional practice,

and hence the
at the

practice

of surgery

should be

commenced

very

outset of medical studies.

Thus ends the eighth chapter of the Sutrasthiinam
SamhitS which
treats of Surgical|Instruments.

in

the

Sushruta

CHAPTER
Now we
Sutra).
The preceptor should
practice of surgery even
if

IX.

shall discuss

the Chapter which treats of

practical instructions in surgical operations

(Yogya-

see his

disciple attends

the

he has already thoroughly

mastered the several branches of the science of Medicine,
or has perused
it

in its entirety.

In

all

acts connected

with surgical operations of incision,
of
oil, etc.

etc.

and

injection

the pupil should be fully instructed as regards

the channels

along or into which the operations or
to

applications are

be

made (Karma-patha\

A

pupil,
(ol'

otherwise well read, but uninitiated into the practice

medicine or surgery)

is

not competent to take in hand
>

the medical or Surgical treatment of a disease
of

.

The

art

making

specific
in

forms of incision should be taught by
a Pushpaphala
(a

making cuts
gourd
art of
,

the body of

kind of

Alavu, watermelon, cucumber, or Ervaruka.

The

making

cuts either in the

upward

or

downward
making

direction should be similarly taught.

The

art of

excisions should be practically demonstrated

by making
the

openings

in

the

body of

a

full

water-bag, or in
the
side

bladder of a dead animal, or

in

of a

leather

pouch

full

of slime or water.

The

art of scraping

should

be instructed on a piece of skin on which the hair
has been allowed to remain.

The

art

of venesection

72
c

THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA.

[Chap. IX.

(Vedhya) should be taught on the vein of a dead animal,
or with the help of a lotus stem.

The

art

of probing

and

stuffing should

be taught on

worm (Ghuna) eaten

wood,
dried

or

on the reed of a bamboo, or on the mouth of a

Alavu (gourd).

The

art

of extracting

should

be

taught by

withdrawing seeds from the kernel of
Jack
fruit,

a Vimbi,
ing teeth

Vilva or

as

well as by extract-

trom
or

the jaws of a

dead animal.

The

act

of

secreting

evacuating

should be taught on the

surface of a

Shalmali plank covered over with a coat

of

bee's

wax, and suturing on pieces of cloth, skin
Similarly the art

or hide.

of bandaging

or

ligaturing

should be practically learned by tying bandages round
the specific limbs and
of stuffed linen.
(severed ear-lobe)

members of
art of tying

a full-sized doll

made

The

up a Karna-sandhi

should be

practically demonstrated
flesh,

on a
of a

soft

severed muscle or on
lily.

or with the stem

lotus

The

art

of cauterising, or applying

alkaline preparations \^causticsj should be demonstrated

on a piece of

soft

flesh

;

and

lastly the art of inserting

syringes and injecting

enemas into the region of the

bladder or into an ulcerated channel, should be taught
(by

asking the pupil) to insert a tube into a lateral
full

fissure of a pitcher,

of water

_,

or

into

the

mouth

of a gourd (Alavu).

Authoritative verses on the subject :— An
intelligent

physician

who

has

tried his

Chap.

IX.

]

SUTRASTHANAM.
in surgery ion

73

prentice
as,

hand

such articles of experiment
art

gourds,

etc.,

or has learnt the
,

with the help of

things as stated above

or has been instructed in the art

of cauterisation

or blistering (application of alkali)

by

experimenting on things which are most akin, or similar

to

the parts or

members

of the

human body they
his

are

usually applied to, will never lose
in his professional practice.

presence of

mind
>

Thus ends
Samhit^ which

the ninth

chapter

of

the

SutrasthSnam

in

the

Sushruta

treats of Instructions in Surgical operations.

10

C

HAPTER
of

X.

Now we
the

sliall

discuss the

Chapter wliich treats of
a

essential

qualifications

physician

before

he

formally

enters

his

profession

(Vishlkha'-

nupravcshaniya-madhya'yam).
A physician
haying thoroughly studied the Science of
medicine, and fully pondered on and yerified the truths

he has assimilated, both by obseryation and practice, and
haying attained to that stage of (lucid kno^vledge, ^yhich
)

\yould enable

him

to

make

a clear

exposition
his

of the

science (^vhene^er necessary), should open
career

medical
of

conmience

practising)

with

the permission

the king of his country.
habits

He

should be cleanly in his
his

and well shaAed. and should not allow

nails

to grow.

He

should

wear white garments, put on

a

pair of shoes, carry a stick and an umbrella in his hands,

and walk about with

a

mild and benignani
all,

look

as a

friend of all created beings, read}- to help

and frank

and friendly
ing the
to be in
full

in his talk

and demeanour, and neyer allow-

control of his reason or intellectual powers
interfered with.

any way disturbed or
haying met

A

physician,

with

a

messenger

of

happy augury,

or having been encouraged on his journey
birds or sights, should go

by the notes of auspicious
the house of his patient.

to

[Then, haying entered the

Chap.

X.

]

SUTRASTHANAM.

>jz^

sick room], the physician should \ie\v the
patient,

bod>' of his

touch

it

with
.

his

own

hands,

and enquire

(about his complaint

SeNcral authorities hold that these

three, (inspection, touch

and questioning; largely form
disease.

the

means of our ascertaining the nature of a
is

But that

not

correct,

inasmuch

as

the

five

sense-

organs of hearing, sight, etc. and oral enquiry materially contribute to a better diagnosis.

Diseases,

which are to be diagnosed with the help of

the organ of hearing, will be fully treated, later on, in the Chapter on Vrana-Srava (secretions from an ulcer).

The wind

(Vayu), making the blood ebullient, forces

it

up

with a distinctly audible report and thus affects the sense
of hearing.

But

this will

be dealt with

later

on

in

the

abovesaid chapter.

The heat and coldness

of the body,

or the gloss, roughness, hardness, or softness of the skin

of the affected part as in fever,
swelling of the body,

or in

an

oedematous

are perceptible

by the sense of

touch.
state

Fullness or emaciation of the body (cachexia),
^itality,

and indications of

strength, complexion,

etc. are

perceived by the sense of sight.

Secretions or

discharges

(from

the

inflamed mucous
etc.,

membrane

of

the urethral in
the

Prameha

should be tested with

organ of taste.*

The

characteristic smell emitted

*

The
the

.-jwecl,

ur an}' olher
iheir

ta.'^lc

of

ihe

dibcharj^eb

should
wiili

Ijt;

inleiicd

from
or

fad of

bting or

not being

swarmed

hosts

of ants

flies, etc.

76

THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA.
ulcer
in
its

[

Chap. X.

by an

critical stage

f Arishta)

should be

determined with the help of the organ of smell.

While such

facts as the

time or season

(of the

first

appearance) of the disease, the caste which the patient
belongs
bring
or
as
to,

and things

or

measures which tend

to

about a manifest amelioration of the
comfortable
as

disease,

prove
well

to

the

patient

(Satm3'ami

the

cause

of the disease, the aggravaof

tion of pain,
state
stool,

the strength

the

patient,

and

his

of

digestion

and

appetite,
or
their

the

emission

of

urine
of

and
the

flatus,

stoppage,

and

the

maturity

disease

as

regards

time,

should

be specifically ascertained by directly interrogating the
patient (on those subjects).

Though the abovesaid

five

organs of sense, like the three fundamental vital humours,
help
still

us to

make

the

correct diagnosis

of a

disease,

the

objects

locally
left

perceived

by

these

senses

should not be
specific nature.

out of account

in ascertaining its

Authoritative verse on ject — A disease wrongly observed
:

the subor

incorrectly

described, or wrongly

diagnosed,

is

sure to

mislead

a

physician.

Ha^'ing

made

these observations the
are
curable,
is

physician

will

try to cure diseases that

adopt palliative
only remedy
is

measures

in cases

where

palliation

the

that can be offered, and give up a case which

beyond

Chap.

X.

]

SUTRASTHANAM

.

^7

all

medical treatment, and mosth' those which are of more

than a year's standing. Diseases affecting a Br^hmana
well versed in the Vedas_, or a king, or a
infant, or

woman,

or

an

an old man, or a timid person, or a

man

in the

royal service, or a cunning man, or a
to possess a

man who pretends

knowledge of the science of medicine, or a

man who
irascible

conceals his disease, or a

man

of an excessively

temperament, or a

man who
in

has no

control
cir-

over his senses, or a

man

extremely indigent
to

cumstances of
him,
are

life

or without into

any one

take

care

of

apt to run

an incurable type though

appearing in a

common
who

or curable

form at the outset.
with a regard to
all

The

physician,

practises his art

these facts, acquires piety, wealth, fame and
for objects in life.

wished

Authoritative verse on the subject — A physician should abjure the company of
:

women, nor should he speak
joke

in
is

private

to

them

or

with them.

A

physician

forbidden

to take

anything but cooked

rice

from the hands of a woman.

Thus ends
Samhiti which

the

tenth

Chapter of the Sutrasthanam

in

the

Sushruta

treats of the essential qualifications of

a physician.

CHAPTER
Now we
pharmacy
shall discuss the

XI.

Chapter which treats of the

of alkalis or potential cauteries

(KshaTa-

pa'ka-vidhi-madhya'yam).
In cases that require incising, excising and scraping,
alkalis or alkaline preparations are of greater

importance

than surgical instruments and appliances (both principal

and secondary or substitutive,
the virtues
of subduing

as they are possessed of

the

three

deranged bodily

humours

such as wind, bile and phlegm).
of the

The etymological
(alkalis) is

signification

term
i

Kshara

based on their property of corroding the skin

or the flesh of an affected part of the body), or on their

peculiar quality in destroying the skin

and

flesh

where

such an effect

is

desired

.

Since a variety of substances
,

enter into the composition of Kshara alkalis

they are

endued with the virtue of subduing the three deranged
bodily humours.

Owing

to their white colour,

Ksharas

should

be included within
(

the

category of cooling

substances Saumya'.

But since many drugs or substances of a hot or
nature
(alkalis)
(

fiery

Agneya) enter into
are

their composition, KshiCras
blistering,

endued with the properties of

burning,

suppurating

Pachana

>,

opening

etc.,

without

Chap,

XI.

1

SUTRASTHA'NAM,
contradiction to their generic
the}- are

79
iSanimya)
list

involving any

nature, and lience

included within the

of

those substances which are both hot and cooling (Saum^^a

and Agne^'a
taste,

in

their

^'irtues.

The}'

are

pungent

in

of

a heat- making

potency,

irritant,

digestive,

corrosive,

absorbent,

liquefacient,

improve unhealth}'
as

sores

and

granulation,

and

act

styptic

and
action

paralysing agents.

They They

exercise
are

destructive

on aaimal

tissues.

antitoxic,

anthelmintic

and possess the
lations in

propert}-

of curing

mucous accumuto reduce fat

the intestines.

They tend
^'irtue

and

phlegm and they have the
diseases.

of destroying skin

In

large doses,
virile

'alkalis)

have the

effect

of

destroying the

potency of a man.

Kshara (caustics

may be grouped under two
mode

distinct

heads according to their
as the Pratisaraniya
i

of administration \ such
application)

for
.

external

and the
should

Pania

i

alkaline

potions

Alkaline preparations

be externally

used

in

such

skin
in

diseases as Kitima,

Dadru, Kilas, Mandala, Fistula
ulcer fDushta Vrana', sinus,

ano, tumour,

bad

Charma-kila,
external

Tilkalaka,

Nacchya,

Vyanga,

Mashaka and
In
cases of

abscesses

and hoemorrhoids.

worms and poisoning
which
affect the

as well as in the seven forms of diseases

cavity

of

the

mouth, such as Upajihva,
in

Upakusha,
of Rohini,
substitutive

Danta-Vaidarbha, and
external
applications

the

three types
act
like

of

alkalis

go
surgical

THE SUSHRUTA
instruments.

SAMHITA'.

[Chap. XI.

Alkaline potions or any other

internal use

of alkalis,

should be prescribed in cases
glands;,

of

Gulma

(abdominal

Ascites,

loss

of

appetite, indigestion, flatulent distension of the

abdomen
calculi,

with suppression
stone in the
intestines

of stool and urine,

urinary

bladder,

internal abscesses,

worms
for

in the

and hcemorrhoids, as well as

subduing

or eliminating

any

sort of poison

from the system.
will

Alkalis

or

alkaline

potions

prove

positively

injurious to a patient laid

up with fever or hsemoptysis,

to a

man

of bilious temperament, to an infant, or to an

old man,

and they

will

work

similar mischief in a

weak

person, or in a
bility,

patient

suffering

from vertigo, insensivision).
in

syncope and Timira (darkness of
should be
;

These
one and
full

preparations of Alkalis
the

made

same way

b}-

filtering

and we reserve the

description of this process for another occasion.

Alkalis

for

external

application
;

are

prepared

in

three

different

potencies

the

mild,

middling and
wishing
his

strong (extremel}'
to

irritant'.

A

physician
first

prepare

such

an

alkali,

should

purif^^

body and mind, and observe
marked
by
auspicious

a l^st on a day in

autumn

astral

combinations.
hill,

Then

having ascended the brow of
full

a

he should select a
i

grown Ashita-mushka (Ghanta
and growing on
soil

parul tree of middle
in

age,

recommended
affected.

the works

on pharmacy and not anywise

Then having

Chap.

XI.

SUTRASTHANAM.
invoked
the
spirit

8l
aforesaid
tree,

formally

of

the
the

which bears no
fell it

white

flowers)

physician should

on the day following,
:

— reciting the Mantra which
virtues,

reads as

—" O

thou possessed of mighty
potency,

O

thou endued with fiery

may

thy

potency

never decrease or vanish. Stay here,

O

thou

blissful one,

execute

my

work, and after the performance thereof
be at
libert}-

thou shalt
regions."

to

ascend to the heavenly

Then

haA'ing

performed the

Homa
flowers,

ceremon}' with
the physician
tree
into

thousands

of

white

and red
of

should cut the
small
pieces

wood
and

the

abovesaid
in

put

them

a

place

pro-

tected from

the wind.

Then having placed

pieces

of

unslaked limestone over them, the physician should

burn them to ashes with the lighted faggots of dried

sesamum
burnt

plants.
out,

Then

after

the

fire

has

fairly

itself

the ashes of the limestone and the

Ghanta-parula

wood
Similarly

should be separately collected
the
of

and

stored.

wood
Kutaja,

as

well

as

the

leaves,

roots

and

fruits

Palasha, Ashva-

karna,

Paribhadra,
Snuhi,

Vibhitaka,

Aragvadha,

Tilvaka,
Vrisha,

Arka,
Kadali,

Apamarga, Patala, Naktamala,
Putika,
Indra-Vrilvsha,

Chitraka,

Asphota,
Gunja,

Ashvamaraka,

Saptachchhada,

Agnimantha,

and the four species of Koshataki, should be burnt

down

to ashes.
II

S2

THE SUSHRUTA
Then
a

SAMHITA'.

[Chap. XI.

Drona measure of the ashes thus prepared*
in six

should be dissolved and stirred up
of

Drona measures
be
filtered

pure

water

or
in

cow's

urine,

and

twenty-one times
filtered as abo\-e)

succession.
])e

The
in

('alkaline

water

should

kept

a

large
it

caldron

over a
ladle.
.

fire

and boiled by gently
should be taken

agitating

with a

It

down from

the

fire

when bv

gradual

stirring, the

saturated

water

would appear
It

transparent,

slimy,

red

and
a

irritating.

should
linen,

then

be
the

filtered

through

piece

of

clean

and

dregs thrown

away.
12

After this a
of

Kudava

measure
saturated

and a
or

half

Palas)

the (abovesaid)

alkaline

water

should

be

taken

out

of the caldron, and the rest should

be again kept boilsubstances laiown
limestone

ing over the
as

fire.

Following
the
ashes

this,

Kata-Sharkara,

of

the burnt
(fresh

pre^iously obtained, Kshirapakas

water oysters)
red

and

Sankhanabhi,

should

be

burnt

hot

in

equal proportions,
in
set

and then immersed
of alkaline

and

pressed

the

Kudaba measure
in

water previoush"

apart

an

iron

basin

as

above

described.

Then having immersed
substances

eight Pala measures
etc.,

of the
in

known

as

the Shankhanabhi
the

the

abovesaid alkaline
it

water,

physician
stirring,

should boil
care being

by

continuous

and

steady

*

Two

piuia of tht
n^Ic.

buinl ashes of Ghanla-panila and

one pari of ihc

ashes of Kuiaja,

Chap. XI.

]

SUTRASTHA'NAM.
make
it

8o

taken not to
a
consistency.

of too

thin nor of tod thick

Then

the

basin

or

the
its

caldron contents
its
is

should be taken

down from

the oven, and
carefully
alkali

poured into an iron

pitcher,
it.

covering

mouth

after

filling

The

thus prepared

called the Kshara (alkali
if

of middling

potency, which,
addition
etc.,
(lit
:

prepared

without

the

subsequent

throw-over) of the ashes of Katasharkara,
the

goes by

name

of mild alkali

'IVLi-idu

Kshara). Similarly, alkali

prepared with the addition of the powders of the drugs

known
Pravala

as Danti, Dravanti, Chitraka, Langulaki, Putika-

Talpatri, \'idha,

Suvarchika,

Kanaka-Kshiri,
of

Hingu, Vacha, and Visha, or with as
available, each

many
is

them

as are

weighing four

tolas,

called

the strong

Kshara (extremely

irritating alkali).

These alkaline pre-

parations of different potencies, should be severally used
in cases

where

their adnn'nistrations

would be

clearlv

indicated.

An

alkaline preparation, any
it

way weakened,
alkaline water

should be strengthened by adding to

(water saturated with an alkali) as before described.

Authoritative verses
ject
;

on the suban
alkali

The commendable
its

features in

are

based on

whiteness, on
its

its

being neither too mild nor

too strong, on

gloss

and

sliminess,
its

on

its

sticking to

the place of application, and on

power of secreting
its

(Abhisyandi

the morbid
its

fluid,

and on

rapid

effect.

On

the other hand,

defective traits consist in

its

being

8^
too
m'lld,

THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA.

|

Chap. XI.

of excessive whiteness, excessive strength of over-sliminess,
insufficient

or

irritability,

excessive

stickiness

or

thickness,

boiling,

and

insiifiiciency

of

component

ingredients.
laid

A

patient

up with

a disease

amenable

to

an

application of alkali potential cautery or caustic) should

be kept

in a spacious

chamber, and should not be ex-

posed to draughts and to the hot rays of the sun,

[Then the physician
appliances etc, as

having secured]

the necessary the Chapter V,

already laid

down

in

should view the part of the patient's body to which
the alkali
is

to

be applied.

The

affected
alkali,

part

should

be then* rubbed or scarified t with an
overt

and covered

with a piece of linen.

The

alkaline prepara-

tion should be applied with a rod or director*

and kept

undisturbed for a period needed to articulate a hundred

long letter sounds).

Metrical texts
tering, should be inferred

:

The

perfect

burning

(blis-

from the black colour of the

skin of the affected part.

Madhuka and

the substances
of acid drugs)

included within the Amla-varga (group

pasted with clarified butter, should be applied to allay
the incidental burning isensation).

A

plaster

composed

In a case brought about by (Pitta) ascendency of the deranged bile.
t
It

sliould

be scraped with

the

alkali

where the skin would appear
vital

hard and benumlied owinp; In ihc action of the deranged

winds (V5yu).
being marked

i In a case of deranged phlegm (Kafa) the affected part

by itching and swelling.

Chap.

XI.

]

SUTRASTHA'NAM.

g^

of the shreds of Amla-Kaiijika,

sesamum and Madhiikam

taken

in equal parts,

and pasted together, should be
;

applied to the part burnt with an alkali

in

the event
effect

of the latter having failed to produce the desired

owing to the disease being
and the Kalka

deepl}" seated.

Madhukam

paste of sesamum mixed with clarified
incidental; ulcer to heal.

butter would cause such an

Now
its
is

you may ask the question how can an acid
which
is

subst'ance,

fiery in its virtue

and heat-making

in

potency, tend to subdue the effects of an alkali which
possessed of similar virtues and properties, instead
?

of augmenting them, as can naturally be apprehended

Well

my

child,

the question can be fairly

answered
into

by

stating, that

substances of

all

tastes enter

the

composition of an alkali except

the

acid

one.

The

pungent (Katu

:

taste

is

the principal taste of an alkali,
its

while the saline :Lavana forms
flavour
tion

minor or accessory
in

LAnurasa).

Xow
one

this

saline taste
its

conjunc-

with

the

acid

renounces
is

extremely

sharp or irritating property and

thus transformed into

one
is

of

sweetness or of soothing virtue.

Hence

it

that an acid taste tends to alla)^ the burning incidental

to

an application

of alkali

(potential
fire.

caustic)

in

the

same way

as water tends to put out

An

operation of perfect cauterisation with an alkaline

application brings about an amelioration of the disease,
or

the disease

is

entirely

subdued, accompanied by

86

THE SUSHRUTA
limbs
;

SAMHITA'.

[

Chap. XI.

Hghtne^ss of the

and absence of secretion from
[of

the affected part the
part]
is

while an insufficient burning

generally
of

attended by
also

symptoms
gives
rise

of
to

aggravation
local

the malad}' and

pain,

itching

and numbness,
[of

[On
part]

tire

other

hand], excessive

burning

the

with

an

alkaline preparation
is

may

ha^'e a fatal

termination,

and

attended by such symptoms as burning, suppuration,
secretion
in

redness,

and from the seat of and fatigue

affeqtion.

A

feeling

of languor

comes

upon

the

patient accompanied with thirst, swooning and an aching
sensation.

An

ulcer

incidental to a burn

by an

alkali

should be treated with a special eye to the nature of the
disease

and the deranged bodily humour

specifically

involved in the case.

A weak
dropsy

person, an infant, an aged

person, a

man

of

timid disposition, a patient suff'ering

from abdominal
haemoptysis,
a person
urethral

with

general
a

anasarca or from
in

a pregnant
suffering

woman,

woman

her menses,

from an attack of high fever or
or

discharges,

emaciated
or

with

chronic
to

inflammation
fits

of the
ing
or

lungs,

a person subjected
thirst,

of faintsuffering

abnormal

or

a

person

from

virile

impotency, or whose testes ha^'e become

deranged either upwards or downwards, or a
suffering

woman
of

from

retro\'ersion

or

introversion

the

uterus or prolapsus

of the

vagina, should be

deemed

Chap. XI.

]

SUTRASTHANAM.
being
cauterised
is.

87
alkalis.

unfit

for

with

More-

over

their

application
nerves,

not to be sanctioned over
gristles

the veins,
cartilages,

joints,

or tender

bones or

sutures, arteries,

throat,

umbilicus, genitals,
parts covered

regions

of Srotas

(external

channels),

over with

a thin layer

of flesh, inside of the

the
in

nails

and

other vulnerable parts

body, nor

diseases

of the eyes, excepting those which affect the eyelids.
Alkalis
fail

to

produce any beneficial

effect in a

patient suffering from oedema of the

limbs, or suffering

from bone- ache, or laid up with a disease affecting the
joints or the heart, or
in a

person of impaired appetite
food,

who
is

has

lost

all

relish

for

even when their use

otherwise indicated.

Authoritative
ject
sician
:

verse

on the subby an ignorant phvfire,

An

Alkali adnn'nistered

is

to be

dreaded more than poison,
death

blows
;

with a weapon, thunder-bolts, or
in the

itself
it

while

hand of an

intelligent
all

physician

is

potent

enougli to speedily subdue
its

serious

diseases in

which

use

is

indicated.

Thus ends

the eleventh Chapter of the
treats of the

Suliasthanam

in

the

Siishiuta

Samhita which

Pharmacv of AlkaHs.

C

H A PT

E'R

XII.
treats of

Now we
cauteries

shall discuss the

Chapter which
in

and the rules to be observed

their

use

(Agni-Karma-Vidhimadhyayam).
A
fire

(cautery

)

is

better

than an Alkali as

far as its

healing property
fire, is

is

concerned.

A
the

disease

burnt with
;

cured for good and

knows no recrudescence
baffle
skill

and

diseases

which ordinarily

of a surgeon

or a physician,
to medicinal or to
fire
I

and never prove themselves amenable
surgical
.

remedies,

are found

to yield

cauterisation

The

following drugs, articles and

substances should

be understood as accessories to an act of cauterisation,
viz.,

Pippali, the excreta of goats, the

tooth

of a

cow

I

Godanta'', Shara, a rod, the surgical

instrument

known

as the Jamvavaustha, articles

made

of copper or silver,

honey, treacle,

oil,

or

any other

oily substance.

Out of

these, Pippali, the Godanta, Shara

and the rod should be
the affected part
skin
as
;

(made red hot and) used
in

in cauterising

a

disease

which

is

restricted

only to the

similarly

the

surgical
as

instsument
as

known

the
of

Jamvavaustha,
copper or
is

well

the

appliances

made

silver

should be used in a disease which

seated in

the flesh.

Honey,
in

treacle

and

oil

should
disease

be (boiled and

employed

cauterising

the

Chap. XII.

]

SUTRASTHANAM.
any of the
veins,

89
bones or'bone-

which
joints.

affects

nerves,

Cauterisation

is

admissible

in

all

seasons of the

year except summer and autumn; but no such distinction
should be observed in cases of impending danger,
it

when

should be practised with the help of such appliances
(cooling)

of a contrary

nature,

[as

wet

sheets, cooling

drinks and cooling plasters, etc.]

In

all

diseases

and

in all seasons

of the

year,

the

patient should be fed on

a diet of slimy (mucilaginous)
;

food before actually applying the cautery
patient should be kept on an
act

while the

empty stomach before the

where the complaint would be a case of Mudagarbha
presentation), fistula in

rfalse

ano,

haemorrhoids or a

disease affecting the cavity of the mouth.

According to certain
cauterisation

authorities

the processes

of

may be grouped under two
is

heads according
present

as the skin or the flesh

cauterised.

The

work

does not lay an}^ injunction against the cauterisation of

any nerve,

vein,

bone or bone
is

joint (as stated before).

A

burning of the skin

accompanied by a peculiar

bursting or cracking sound.

The

skin

becomes conin

tracted and emits a fetid smell.

Similarly,
affected

a case

where the
a

flesh

is

burnt,

(the

part)

assumes

dove color of (blackish
little

brown), marked by pain

and a
dr)'

swelling,

and the incidental ulcer becomes
nerv^e or a vein

and contracted. In the case where a

12

90
is

THE SUSHRUTA
ulcer presents

SAMHITA'.
a

[

Chap. Xll.

burnt, the

raised (elevated)
all

and

black aspect with the stoppage of

secretions

;

while

an ulcer incidental to the cauterisation of any of the

bone

joints

has

a parched red hue and becomes hard

and rough.

The

regions of the eye-brows, forehead

and templeaffecting

bones, should

be cauterised
in a

in

diseases

the

head as well as
In
diseases

case of

Adhimantha (Ophthalmia).
ej'elids

affecting

the

the eye should
(a

be
thin
feet

covered over with a moist piece of Alaktaka

pad of red pigment principally used
of ladies)
cauterised.

in

d3'eing

the

and the roots of the eyelashes should be duly
Cauterisation
is

specificall}'

enjoined to

be resorted to incases of glandular inflammation, tumour_,
fistula in ano, scrofula, elephantiasis,

Charmakila, warts,

Tilakalaka, hernia, sinus hoemorrhage, and on the occasion of cutting

a vein or a bone joint, as well

as

in

the event of the vital wind (Vayu)
agitated

being extremely
nerves

and lodged

in the local skin, flesh, vein,

and

the

bone-joints

and giving

rise

to

excruciating

pain in and

about the ulcer which in consequence

presents a hard, raised and inert surface.

The modes
seat of the

of cauterisation

vary according to the
four in
all,

disease,

and

number

viz.,

the

Ring,

the

Dot, the Lateral or Slanting

lines,

and the

Rubbing modes.

Chap.

XII.

]

SUTRASTHANAM.

91
:

Authoritative verse on the subject —
A
physician, after having tarefully

considered the seat the patient's
the vital
resort

of the disease and judiciously

ascertained

strength and
parts

the situations
patient's')
e3''e

of the

Marmas
should

of

the

body,

to

cauterisation with an

to the nature of the

malady

and the then prevailing season of the year.
>

The

part, after being properly cauterised, should

be

rubbed with an unguent composed of honey and
butter.

clarified

A man

of bilious

temperament or with a quantity

of bad blood lying stagnant and locked up in

any part

of his bod}', or of lax bowels, a person with any foreign

substance (such as a thorn
his body), a

or a splinter

still

lodged in
or

weak

or an old

man, an

infant,

a

man
from

of timid disposition, or a person afflicted with a large

number

of ulcers, as well
in

as

a

patient

suffering

any of the diseases

which

diaphoretic

measures

are forbidden, should be regarded as a
cauterisation.

subject unfit for

Now we
caused
(for

shall

describe

the

characteristic

sym-

ptoms of the several kinds of burns other than those
surgical

purposes).

Fire
oil

feeds

both

upon
etc.].

fatty

and hard

fuels,

[such as

and logs of wood

Hot

or boiling oil has the property of permeating

or

entering into

the minutest

nerves and veins, and

g2
hence,
it is

THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA.
capable of burning the skin,
to
etc.

[

Chap. Xli.

Accord(scald) is

ingly an ulcer incidental

such

a burning

characterised

by extreme

pain, etc.

Burns

may

be grouped under four distinct heads

viz.,

the Plush tam, the

Dur-Dagdham, the Samyag-Dagdham

and the Ati-Dagdham.
discolouring of
its

A

burn characterised by the

seat

and extreme burning and markblister,
is

ed by the absence of any vesicle or

called the

Plushtam, from the root "plusha" to burn.

A

burn,

which

is

characterised

by the eruption of large

vesicles or

blisters,

and assumes a red colour, and is characterised by and a kind of drawing pain, and which
is

excessive burning

suppurates and takes a long time to heal,

called the
is

Dur-Dagdham (bad burn
deep
fruit,

or scald).

A

burn, which
ripe

not

(superficial)

and assumes the colour of a

Tala

and does not present a raised or elevated aspect
is

and develops the preceding symptoms,

called

the

Samyag-Dagdham
the
flesh

(fully

burnt one).

A

burn in which

hangs down, and where the veins, nerves and
fever, burn-

bones are destroyed, accompanied with
ing,
thirst,

fainting

and such

like

disturbances,
of the

and

which leads to a permanent

disfiguration

body,

retarding the healing of the incidental ulcer which leaves

a discoloured cicatrix even

after healing,

is

called the

Ati-Dagdham (over burnt
try to heal

one).

A

physician should

any of these

four

types of burns with

the

measures already laid

down

before.

Chap.

XII.

]

sutrasthanam

93

Authoritative verses on the subject. — The
hot by
fire,

blood of

a.

man

is

agitated

and made
tends
fire

and the
it

blood thus

heated
since

to
bile

excite or causes

to raise the bile.

And

and

(Pittam) are similar in their taste, essence, effect, potency

and natal
etc.),

factors, the effects of

Pittam (burning sensation

are naturally aggravated
fire.

and augmented through a
or vesicles

contact with

Blisters

crop up in

rapid' succession

and mark the seat of burning, and

fever, thirst, etc., supervene.

Now
ment

I shall

describe

the course of medical the cure of burns.

treat-

to be adopted for

Hot and
should be

dry fomentations, as well as
applied to a burn
of hot food

warm

plasters

of

the Plushtam type, and a course
for

and drink should be likewise prescribed

the patient.
is

The blood becomes

thin

when

the body

diaphorised by m.eans of warm fomentations, and water,
virtue

in

of

its

natural cooling

properties,

tends to
or appliof

thicken the blood.
cations
exercise

Hence warm fomentations
curative
t)^pe,

virtues

in

the

case

a

burn of the foregoing

and water or cold appli-

cations produce the contrary effect.*

Both warm and cold measures are to be adopted
in the case

of a

burn of the Dur-Daghdha
radiation
of the incarcerated

t5''pe,

the

* By arresting the

heat and thereby

favouring the elevation of the local

temperature and the increase of the

burning sensation.

94

THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA.

[

Chap, xil

medicinal remedies consisting of cold

applications

and

unguents of

clarified butter.*

A plaster composed of Tugakshiri,
Gairika,
clarified butter,

Plaksha, Chandana,

and Amritam Guduchi), pasted together with
should be applied over a
type,
or

bum

of the

Samyag-Dagdha

the flesh

of

domestic or

aquatic or amphibious animals
plastered

should be pasted

and
the

over the
type,

affected part.

A

burn

ol

present

marked by excessive burning, should

be medicinally treated in the same manner as a case of
bilious abscess (Pitta-vidradhi).

In the case of a burn of the Ati-Dagdha (over-burnt
t3^pe,

i

the

loose

or

the

dangling integuments

(skin)

and

flesh should

be removed, and cold applications should

be made over the ulcer.
should
or

Then

the

affected
Shali

part
rice,

be

dusted

over with pulverised
of

a plaster

composed

the

pulverised

skin

of

Tinduki and
applied over

clarified butter
its

pasted together,

should be

surface.!

The

affected part should

be

covered over with the leaves of Guduchi, or of
other aquatic plants, and
all

lotus, or

measures and remedial

* Cold applications

and cooling measures should be resorted

to

in

the
the

case of a deep and excessive burn, while the contrary should be held as
correct
•)•

remedy
Several

in the case of a slight

and

superficial one.

authorities

prescribe Tinduki
clarified

bark

and human cranium
others
prescribe

powdered together and mixed with
a decoction of Tinduki bark.

butter, while

Chap. XII.

]

SUTRASTHANAM.
the case
to
in

95

agents,

indicated in

of a bilious erysipelas,

should
as well.

be

resorted

the

present

instance

A

plaster

composed

of

bee's

wax, Madhukam,

Sarjarasa,

Manjistha,

(red)

Chandanam and

Murva

pasted together and boiled with clarified butter should

be regarded as beneficial to burns of

all

types to

promote rapid healing.
In the case of a burn from boiling
or such
like
oil, clarified

butter

substances should be externally applied

and
part

all

measures which

promote

dryness

of

the
least

(Ruksha) should be adopted without the

hesitation.

Now we
manifest are
in

shall describe the s5''mptoms

which become

a

person

[whose

nostrils

and larynx]
becomes
distended

choked with

smoke.

— The

respiration
is

laboured and hurried and the abdomen

accompanied by constant sneezing and coughing.
eyes look
red and seem
as
if

The

burning.

The

patient

breathes out

smoke and
it.

fails

to

catch any other smell
is

than that of
affected
thirst
;

The

sense

of hearing

considerably
inert
;

the

sense of

taste

becomes

;

fever,

and

a burning sensation supervene

and the

patient drops

down

utterly unconscious.

Now
treatment

hear
to

me
be

discourse

on the course of medical
in

adopted

the

case

of

one

g6

THE SUSHRUTA

SAMHITA'.
in

[

Chap. XII.

over-powered with smoke.— Emetics
clarified

the shape of
juice

butter

mixed with sugarcane
the
juice
in

or

milk

saturated

with

of

grapes,

or

lumps of
of

sugar- candy
w^ater, or

dissolved

an

adequate

quantity

any acid potion
to
th.e

slightly sweetened, should

be
the

administered

patient.

The

contents of
;

stomach are speedily discharged by vomiting the distension of the

abdomen
is

is

removed

;

the smell of

smoke

in

the breath
(its

mitigated,

and the accompanying fever with
thirst,

concomitants) of sneezing, languor,
etc.
is

cough,
is

laboured breathing
restored
to

abated,

and the patient

consciousness.
or

Gargles having

a sweet,
sense-

saline, acid

pungent (katu)

taste restore the

perception of the patient, and gladden his mind.

Medi-

cated snuffs in adequate quantities should be administered
his

by a well-read physician
eyes

to such a patient,

whereby

head,

and neck would be able to resume

their
light,

normal functions.

And

a course of diet,
in
its

which

is

emollient and not acid

reaction, should

be

prescribed.

Cooling
prescribed or

measures

or

applications

should

be

made

in

the event of any part of the body

being scorched by excessive heat, or by being exposed
to a draught of hot and

parched wind.

Similarly,

hot
re-

and emollient measures or applications should be
sorted to where
or shrivelled

any part of the body has become frozen
or cold winds.

by snow

A

person struck

Chap. XII.

]

SUTRASTHA'NAM.
as

gy beyond the pale

by lightning should be regarded
of medicine.*

*

Additional texts
;

:— \\Tieie

the scorching would be found to be consi-

derably extensive

otherwise such measures as lubrication

with medicated
is

unguents

etc.

should be adopted in a case where the patient

picked

up

alive.

Thus ends the
Samhit^ which

twelfth

Chapter of the SutrasthSnam

in the

Sushruta

treats of Cauteries

and the rules

to

be observed

in their use.

'3

CHAPTER
Now we
shall

XIII.
Chapter which treats
use

discuss

the

of leeches and of

how and which to

(Jalaukar-

vacharraniyamadhyaryam).
Leeches
should

be

applied

where

the
or a

patient

would be found to be old or imbecile,

woman,

or an infant, or a person of an extremely timid disposition, or a

person of a delicate constitution, and as such
fit

is

not

to

be surgically operated upon,
is

since

this

mode

of bleeding

the gentlest that can be possibly

devised.

The

blood vitiated by the deranged wind

(Vayu\

bile (Pittam),

and phlegm (Kapham) should be

respectively sucked through a horn^

by leeches and a

gourd appliance (Alavu-Yantra) or with whichsoever
of

them

is

available at the time, irrespective of the cause

of such

vitiation,

whenever such bleeding or sucking

would be found to be imperatively necessary.

Authoritative verses on the subject — A CO whom is described in the Shastras as of a
:

hot or heat making potency, and as possessed of a
slightly cooling (Snigdha) or

soothing (Madhura) pro-

perty.

Accordingly

it

should be used in sucking the

blood vitiated through the action of the deranged bodily
wind. Leeches, which are born in water, are possessed of

Madhura (sweet

or soothing) properties, and hence they

Chap. XIII.]

SUTRASTHANAM.

9^

should be used in sucking the blood vitiated throoigh a

deranged condition of the bile (Pittam\
(Alavu)
its
is

The gourd
irritating
in

pungent,

parching

and

in

potency and should be therefore used

sucking

the blood vitiated through the action of the deranged

phlegm (Kapham).

Mode

of application :— The
is

part

from

which the blood
or slightly cut in

to be sucked should be

first scarified

two

or

three

places,

and then the

mouth

or the

open end, of the horn, covered with a
muslin tied round
its

thin piece

of
it

edges should be

placed over
aperture at

and sucked with the mouth through the
or top- end, or with a gourd appliance
in its inside.

its tip

equipped with a lighted lamp placed

The
gically

term

Jalauka
to

(leeches)

may

be etymolo-

interpreted

mean
is in,

creatures

whose

life

(Ayu) or whose longevity

or depends upon, water,

whereas

the

derivative
is

meaning

of

the

term

Jalauka (leeches)

based upon the fact of their dwelling
in

("Oka"— dwelling place)

water (Jalam). Leeches

may

be divided into twelve distinct species of which six are

venomous, and
species

six

non-venomous.
Krishna,

The

six

venomous
Alagarda,

are

named

Karvura,

Indrayudha, Sdmudrik^ and Gochandana.
of the first-named species (Krishna) are

The

leeches

marked by thick

heads, and of a colour resembling powdered lampblack.

The

leeches

of the

Karvura type have extended or

lOO
elongated

THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA.
bodies
like

[Chap. XIIl.

the
the

Varmifishes,
waist.

and

are

indented and

thick

at

The

Alagarda

leeches are hairy, thick and round at the sides, and black
at the

mouth.

The

leeches of the
surface

Indrayudha species

are

marked on the
lines.

with up-pointed rainbow

coloured

The

skins of the Samudrikas are black-

ish yellow, dotted over

with white spots of a variety

of shapes.

Leeches which are provided with narrow
are

mouths and
bottom
like

marked by
scrotal

bifurcating

line

at

the

the

sac

of

a bull

are

called

Gochandanas.

A

person bitten by any of the abovesaid venomous
the seat
swelling.

leeches has an irresistble inclination to scratch

of the bite

which

is

marked by a considerable

Fever, with burning, retching, drowsiness and

delirium

supervenes and ultimately the patient loses
ness.

all

consciousof

The

remedy

consists in

the

administration

an anti-toxic medicine known as Mahagada, as
potions and unguents, etc.
usually proves
for their bites,
fatal.

snuffs,

A

bite

by an Indrayudha

Venomous

leeches, as well as cures

have thus been described.
species include Kapilas, Pingalas,

The non-venomous

Shankhamukhis, Musikas, Pundarimukhis and Saravikas.

The Kapilas
at

are

coloured like Manah-Shila
their

(

realgar

)

the

sides,

and

backs

are

tinged

with

a

glossy hue like that of a

Mudga
are

pulse.

The Pingalas
in

have

a

reddish

colour,

round

shape

and

Chap.

XIII.

]

SUTRASTHANAAI.

loi
are

capable of speedy locomotion.

The Shankhamuldiis
hue
like

marked by
liver,

a

blackish

red

that

of the

are

provided

with

sharp

elongated moutlis,

and are capable of sucking blood with the greatest
swiftness.

The Musikas

are coloured like the
fetid

common

blind moles, and emit a

smell from

their bodies.

The Pundarimukhas

are coloured like the
fact

IMudga pulse
of

and are so called from the
their

of the resemblance
lotus hhes

mouths to the full-blown

TPimdarikas).

The

Saravikas have cold bodies
lotus

marked with impressfingers'

ions like

leaves

and measure eighteen

width

in

length,

and they should be employed

in

sucking blood from the affected parts of lower animals.

This exhausts the

list

of

non-venomous

leeches.

The

countries,

such as Turkesthan

(Yavana), the

Deccan (Pandya), the

tract of land traversed

by the Ghaut

mountains (Sahya), and Pautana

(modem

Mathura), are

the natural habitats of these leeches.

The

leeches,

found in the aforesaid countries, are specifically non-

venomous,
suckers.

strong,

large-bodied,

greedy

and

ready

The venomous

leeches have their origin
fecal

in

the de-

composed urine and

matter of toads

and venom-

ous fishes in pools of stagnant and turbid water.
origin of the non- venomous species
is

The
such

ascribed

to

decomposed vegetable matter,
the several aquatic plants

as the petrified stems of as

known

Padma, Utpalam,

I02
Nalina,

THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA.

[

Chap. XIII.

Kumuda, Pundarika, and the common zoophytes

which

live in clear waters.

Authoritative
ject.

verse on

the subin

—The non-venomous leeches swim about
lie

sweet

scented waters, live on non-poisonous weeds,

on the

leaves of flowering water plants instead of on the dank

and

ooz)^ beds of pools,

and suck blood from the affected

part of a

human organism without causing any discomfort.
should be caught hold of with a piece of

Leeches

wet

leather, or

by some

similar article,

and then put
the

in

to a large-sized

new

pitcher filled with

water and

ooze or slime of a pool. Pulverised zoophytes and powder
of dried

meat and aquatic bulbs should be thrown

into

the pitcher for their food,

and blades of grass and
it

leaves of water-plants should be put into
to
lie

for

them
be

upon.

The water and the

edibles

should

changed every second or third day, and the pitchers
should be changed each week,
transferred
(the leeches

should be

to

a

new

pitcher at

the

end of every

consecutive seven days).

The authoritative verse on the subject
do
:

— Leeches that are venomous,
readily

thick

about

the

middle, elongated, of slow locomotion,

look fatigued,

not
to,

take

to

the

part

they

are

appHed

and capable of sucking only a small quantity
upon
as

of blood, should be looked

not belonging to

the proper or the

commendable

type.

Chap.

XIII.

]

SUTRASTHA'NAM,
seated or laid

103
'suffer-

Then having

down

the patient

ing from a disease which requires the
leeches, the seat of bleeding,
if

application

of

not previously ulcerated,
it

should be roughened
sition of loose

b}'

dusting

over with a compo-

earth

and pulverised cowdung.

Then

the leeches should be taken out of their receptacles

and sprinkled over with water saturated with mustard
seed and pasted turmeric.

Then

for

a

moment they

should be kept in a basin

full

of water, and after they

have regained their natural vivacity and freshness, they
should be applied to the affected part.

Their bodies

should be covered with a piece of thin and wet linen,
or with

a piece of white cotton.

The

affected

part or

should
blood,

be
or

sprinkled over
slight

with

drops of

milk
it

incisions should be

made

into

in the

event of their refusing to stick to the desired spot.

Other fresh leeches should be applied even when the
preceding measures should prove ineffectual.
leeches have taken to the affected part

That the
be inferred

may

from the mouths of the leeches assuming the shape
of a horse-shoe, and the
of
their

raised

and arched

position

necks after

they had become attached to

the seat

of the disease.

While sucking,

the leeches

should

be

covered

with a piece of wet linen and

should be constantly sprinkled over with cold water.

A
seat

sensation of itching and of a drawing pain at

the

of the

application

would give

rise

to the pre-

104

^^^ SUSHRUTA

SAMHITA'.

[Chap. XIII.

sumption that fresh blood was being sucked, and the
leeches should be forthwith removed.*

Leeches refusing to

fall

off

even after the production

of the desired effect, or sticking to the affected part out

of their fondness for the smell of blood, should

be

sprinkled with the dust of powdered Saindhava (rock
salt.)

After falling

off,

the

leeches

should

be

dusted

|

over with rice powder

and

their
oil

mouths should be
and common
tail-end
salt.

j

lubricated with a composition of

Then they should be caught by the
thumb and the
forefinger

with the
their

of the

left

hand and

backs should be gently rubbed with the same fingers of
the right hand from
tail

upward

to

the

mouth with
quantity

a
of

view to make them vomit or

eject the full

blood they had sucked from the seat of the disease.

The
the

process should
fullest

be continued until they manifest
of
disgorging.

symptoms
the

Leeches

that,

-y.^

had
as

vomited
above,
if

entire

quantity

of

blood sucked
in

would

briskly

move about

quest

of

food

placed in

water, while
their

the contrary should be
dull

inferred

from
be

l5nng

and
again.

inert.

These
not

should

made
emit

to

disgorge
entire

Leeches
of

made
"^

to

the

quantity

the

sucked

The

leeches, though a blissful dispensntion of Nature in themselves,

instinctively

draw

off the vitiated

blood from a diseased part, attacking the

healthy vital fluid (red blood) \Yhen the former has been completely tapped
or sucked.

Chap, XIII.

]

SUTRASTHANAM.
in

105
attacked*
genus,

blood
an

stand

danger

of

being
to

with

incurable
is

disease peculiar
as

their

and

which

known

Indramada.

The

leeches

should

then be put into a
laid

new

pitcher,

and treated as before
sucked blood.
of

down, after they had
ulcer

fully emitted the

An

incidental

to an

application

leeches

should be rubbed with honey or washed with sprays
of cold water, or bound up with an astringent (kashaya)

sweet and cooling

plaster, according to the

quantity

of

blood removed from the part.*

Authoritative
ject
cation
:

verse
is

on the subconversant with

—The physician who
mode
of leeches, can well
in

fully

the habitat,

of catching, preservation

and

appli-

aspire to cure the diseases
their use
the
is

which yield to them or
*

which

indicated.
ulcer

In case of

full

and proper bleeding (Voga)
butter
technically

should

be
(lit:

rubbed with

clarified

known
as

as the

Shatadhautam
a
piece

hundred times washed) Ghritam
soaked
in

(clarified

butter), or

of cotton,
the part.

the

same substance,

applied

a compress

over

The

ulcer should be rubbed with
it

honey

in

a case

of insuflicient
of

bleeding,
if

while

should

be

washed with a copious quantity
in.

cold water

excessive bleeding (Ati-Yoga) should set
the absence of any bleeding at
all

Similarly in a case

marked by

(Mithya-Yoga) a sour, sweet and cooling

plaster should be applied over the ulcer.

Thus ends

the thirteenth Chapter of the
treats of

Sulrasthinam

in the

Sushruta

Samhita which

Leeches and of

how and which

to use.

14

CHAPTER

XIV.

Now we shall discuss the Chapter which treats of blood (Shonita-Varnaniya- mad hya'yam).
The food
of

a

human

being,

which

is

usually

composed of the
admits of being
[as,

five

fundamental material principles,
under four different heads
It

classified

drinks and edibles, etc.].
is

has six

different

tastes or

of of

two [cooling
eightfold

or heat-making] potencies,
[viz.

or consists
dry,

properties,

hot,

cool,

expansive,
of

slimy,

mild,
or

sharp,

etc.]

and of a

variety

other active
digested

efficacious

virtues.

The

food

is

fully

with the help of the internal

heat and ultimately assimilated in the system, giving
rise

to

lymph chyle (Rasa) which
its

is

extremely thin

or attenuated in

consistency and which forms the

essence of the assimilated food.*

The lymph

chyle (Rasaj, though running through the
its

whole organism, has
it

primary seat

in the heart,

whence

flows through the twenty- four vessels which branch
(heart) to the

off from the latter

remotest parts and

extremities of the bod5\
vessels,

Of

the aforesaid twenty-four
are

ten are up-coursing, ten
lateral direction.

down-coursing,
or the
and

and four have a
* It
is

The Rasa
fecal matter,

free

from

all sorts

of impurities such as

etc.,

permeates the minutest vessels and capillaries.

Chap. XIV.

]

SUTRASTHANAM.

107
constantly

lymph

chyle, thus flowing out of the heart,

soothes,

maintains,

and

irrigates b}^
its

transudation the

body, and further contributes to
life

growth, and supports
of causes which

owing to the dynamical

effects

lie

beyond the ken of human understanding. The nature
this

and course of

lymph

chyle,

which runs through

the whole system, can be inferred from the growth,
attenuation, or other modified conditions of the bod5\

Now
flowing

it

may

be asked, whether the Rasa, which

permeates the entire body and limbs, and which by
through different chambers (visceras) of the
thus in constant contact with the excreta and
is

body

is

other morbid humours,

of a
?

cooling

(Saum3'a)

or

heat-making (Agneya) potency

The

question

may be answered by
is

stating that, since

the Rasa or

lymph chyle

a

fluid,

and possessed
(lit
:

of lubricating, vitalising, moistening, and nutritive
supporting) properties,
class of
it

must be included within the

Saumya
fluid,

(cooling) substances.

The Rasa, though
pigment
liver.

a

Saumya

obtains

its

characteristic

(Ragam)

in its passage

through the spleen and

Authoritative verses on the subject:—The Rasa or the lymph chyle, coloured
through the effect of the healthy normal
of the body,
is

d5''eing

heat

obtains

the

name

of blood.
in

The Rasa

transformed into the catamenial flow
at the age of

women which
fifty.

commences

twelve and ceases at

I08

THE SUSHRUTA

SAMHITA'.

[

Chap. XIV.

Catamenial blood, though originating from

Rasa

which

is

of a cooling potency^,
in
its

is

fiery or

heat-making

(Agneya)

character

;

and

the

fecundated or

impregnated o\'um (Garbha)

is

both cooling and heatits

making

in its properties on

accoimt of

partaking of

the nature of both the menstrual blood (ovum) and

semen which are respectively possessed of the two
preceding virtues.

Hence

several authorities hold
life

the

blood to be identical with the

blood or with the

vital principle of a living organism,

and being such, to be

the product of the five fundamental material principles

(Panchabhautikam).

lYIctrical
as,

texts:— In
which

blood the properties such
redness,
lightness

a raw

or

fleshy

smell, fluidity,

and mobility,

respectively

characterise
fire,

the

fundamental principles (of earth, water,
sky) are to be found

air,

and

thus representing those

specific

elements

in its

composition.
blood.

The chyle produces
flesh.

From blood
fat

is

formed
rise

From

flesh

originates

which gives

to
its

bones.

From bones

originate

marrow, which,

in

turn, germinates semen.

The Rasa which
assimilated food
all

is

originated

from the digested or

and drink pre-eminently strengthens

the fundamental principles of the body.

The Purusha

or self-conscious personality

is

Chyl«-

Chap.

XIV.

]

SUTRASTHANAM
and hence an

109

born

in its origin,

intelligent person should

carefully

preserve his bodily Rasa

dymph

chyle)

by

adopting a proper regimen of diet and conduct.

The term Rasa
go,

is

derived from the root
is

"Ras", to
fact of its

and the substance

so called

from the

continually flowing through and permeating every vital
principle of an

animated organism.
successively transformed into each of the

The Rasa
six

is

remaining fundamental principles of the body, and

continues in the shape of each for the period of three

thousand and

fifteen kalas
.

five

days according to our
is

modern computation

Thus the Rasa

converted into
in

semen, or into the menstrual blood 'ovum)
in

women,

the course of a month.*
*

The

successive

development
distinct order.

of

the

fundamental or root principles
essence
of the
the

of the

body follows a

The

assimilated food-

matter under the heat of digestion goes towards

formation

of chyle,

and

is

ultimately transformed into

it,

its

excreted and effete
etc.

residue

being
thus

passed out of the organism in the shape of stool,

The

chyle

produced

is

called the
it

immature Rasa, or the Rasa

in its

nascent stage.

Subsequently

enters into the bodily principle of Rasa,
latter,

becomes matured
in

by

the native heat of the
its

and
is

is

resolved

into

three factors, or

other words,

excreted
is

matter

transformed into

phlegm,
the

its

thick

or condensed portion

transformed into and assimilated in
its

matured
into

Rasa
blood.

of the

bodv,

whereas

subtile

essence
is

is

metamorphosed
into

The blood,
principle

thus newly generated,
of

merged
by the

the

fundamental
the
latter
is

organic
it

blood

;

and there
factors,

heat

of

is

again

resolved
into

into

three
thick

viz.,

its

excreted
is

portion

transformed
or
its

bile,

its

or

condensed portion
organic
principle
flesh.

transformed
blood,
flesh,

assimilated
subtile

into the
is

fundamental

of

and
thus

essence
is

metamorphosed into

The
resolved

newly formed,
and
there,

merged

into the fundamental organic
latter,
it

principle

of flesh,
three

by the native heat of the

is

into

I

JO

THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA.
its

[Chap. XIV.

Authoritative verse on putation: — In the present work, as
works of recognised authority, a month
consist of eighteen thousand

com-

well as in other
is

calculated to

and ninety Kalas.
in

The

said

Rasa courses through the whole body

invisible currents of zigzag shape, like the

waves of sound,
fire,

or in

(an

upward

direction) like
s

flames of

or (in

a

downward
vis,

direction like rivulets of water.

factors,

its

excreted
to

portion

goes

towards

the

formation
of

of such

excreta

as

are found

be deposited in the corners

the

eyes and

inside the integuments of the prepuce, or about the region of the glans penis,
its

thick
flesh

or

condensed portion
its

is

transformed into the organic principle
is

of

and

subtile

essence

metamorphosed

into
',of

fat.

The

fat,

thus newly generated, enters into the organic principle
there,
?7-,

that

name, and
factors,

by the

native heat

of the

latter,

is

resolved

into

three

its

excreted

portion
its

is

discharged through
is
is

the pores of the
in

skin in

drops of perspiration,
principle

condensed portion
subtile

assimilated

the

organic

of

fat,

and
in

its

portion

metamorphosed into bone.
into

Again the bone,
of bone, and there,
three factors, v!~,

its

nascent stage,

enters

the organic principle
is

by the inherent heat of

that principle,

resolved

into

its its

excreted portion goes towards the formation of hairs,
thick
or

mustaches,

etc,

condensed portion
its its

is is

assimilated into the

organic principle of bone, and

subtile portion

metamorphosed
into

into

marrow.
principle
that

The marrow,
of that
it

in
;

nascent

state,

enters

the

organic

name
is

and there matured under the native heat of
vh,
its

principle,

resolved into three factors,

excreted portion
the

contributes towards the formation

of gelatinous matter deposited in
its

corners of the eyes, and the oily secretions of the skin,
is is

condensed portion
its its

assimilated into the organic principle of marrow,

and
in

subtile portion

metamorphosed

into

semen.

The semen
of that

again,

nascent stage,

enters into the organic principle
its

name and
I'i:.

there

matured under

native heat
is

is

resolved into two factors,

thick

and

thin.

The

thick

portion

assimilated into the organic principle of semen, the thin one being
like gold a

metamorphosed into (albumen). Semen,
casts off

thousand times purified,

no dregs.

Hence

certain

authorities hold

albumen (protoplasmic

matter) to be the eighth or the culminating principle of the body.

Chap. XIV.

]

SUTRASTHANAM.
may
be asked, since the Rasa
in .the course
is

1 1

Now
is

it

naturally

transformed into semen
the
use

of a month, what

of administering medicine
effect

which
of

has a

stimulating

upon

the
is,

organs

generation

(Vajikaranam.)
of their

The answer
specific

that such medicines out

own

potencies and virtue help the
its

speedy conversion of Rasa into semen and

profuse

emission [on the desired occasion] like purgatives aiding

the drastic evacuation of the bowels.

Again
is

it

may

be asked,
?

how

is

it,

that

semen

not found in an infant
is

Since perfume in a flower-

bud

imperceptible to the

organ of smell you
in
it

may
not.

as well ask

whether there

is

any perfume

or

But what does not
in the

exist in a thing
its

can not be evoked

subsequent course of
in

development.
latent

As the

perfume

a flower-bud

lies

in its earl}^ stage

of growth but becomes patent only with
of
lies
its

the growth

seed organs,

so

semen
in

or

catamenial
or

blood
female

in

a potential state

a

male

a

child,

and

appears with

the growth

of beards

and

mustaches, or with the enlargement of

the breasts,
of pubic

uterus and vaginal canal and the appearance
hair.

The same
serves only

Rasa, originated from the assimilated food,
to

maintain the vitality

in

the old

and

spontaneously decayed subjects owing to an exhausted
state of the inner vitalising principle, natural to old age.

112

THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA.

:

Chap. XIV.

The abovesaid

principles (of Rasa, blood etc.) are called

the root principles (Dhatus), inasmuch as they maintain

the

integrity
its

of

the

human

organism

and guard

against
or

speedy dissolution).
of

And

since the strength

weakness

the

abovesaid

bodily

principles

absolutely depends

upon the richness or poverty of blood,
on the
latter condition of the blood.

we

shall discourse

The

blood, vitiated

by the deranged bodily wind

(Vayu), becomes thin, frothy, transparent, quick- coursing,

and and
is

expansive, divested of

assumes a vermilion or
its

black hue,

slimy character

;

whereas vitiated
it

through a deranged condition of the bile (Pittam),

assumes a blue, yellow, green, or brown colour, emits a
fishy smell,

becomes thin
ants.

in its consistency

and

is

shun

by

flies

and

Similarly,

blood,

vitiated

by the

deranged phlegm (Kapham), becomes cold, glossy and
thick,

assumes a colour like that of the washings of

Gairika or that of a flesh tendon, takes time in secreting
or in

mnning down, and

is

marked by an

increase of

its

slimy character.

The

blood, vitiated through a concertis

ed derangement of the three bodily humours,

marked

by

features

peculiar to

each of them, and assumes a

colour like that of Kanjika (sour gruel),
fetid

and emits a
through

smell.

Similarly,

the

blood,

vitiated

the joint action of any two of the

(beforesaid) bodily

humours,
of them.

is

characterised

by

features

peculiar

to each

Cain

.

XIV.

]

SUTRASTHANAM.
in its

113
is

The blood

healthy and natural state

possess-

ed of a vivid red colour like that of an Indragopa
(Cochineal)
insect,

and

is

neither

too

thin

nor

too

transparent.*

Cases where blood-letting
hibited
:

is

pro-

—A

person afflicted with an oedematous
all

swelling extending
unfit for bleeding.

over the body should be deemed

An

intumescence occurring

in a

weak

and enfeebled patient owing to

an excessive use of

acid food or in a person suffering from jaundice or laid

up with haemorrhoids or abdominal dropsy, as well as
in

an enceinte, or

in a

person suffering from Pulmonary

consumption (Shosha), should not be bled.
Blood-letting, with the help of a surgical instrument,

may
as

be grouped under two distinct heads, according

scarification
is

(Prachchhanam) or venesection
resorted to for the purpose.

(Sira-

Vyadhanam)

In

such a

case the knife or the instrument

(Shastram) should be
as to

driven straight
straight,

and speedily so

make

the incision

narrow, unextended, and of equal and slight
(so

depth throughout,

as

to

reach

only the
injure

surface
in

layer of the flesh and blood), and not to

any

way

the local veins, nerves, joints, and other vital parts.

Bleeding performed on a cloudy day or done with a

* Additional texts the principles

:

— Later

on we

shall

have occasion

to

speak of

known

as the

life-blood (essential

conditions of vitality

Sk. Jiva-Shonita) and of the process of blood-letting.

15

114

THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA.
incision, or

[

Chap.

Xiv

wrong

with

full

exposure to cold and wind,

or performed

on a patient not previously diaphorised,
with an

or on a patient
.

empty stomach,

is

attended

with

little

or

no outflow of blood owing to the thickened

condition of the blood.

Authoritative verse
ject
or
:

on the subin

— Blood-letting surgically performed on a fatigued
a

exhausted subject, or on a person

swoon,

or

anyway poisoned

or intoxicated,

or

on a person

suffering

from extreme constipation of the bowels accomi

panied by suppression of the flatus Vayu) and urine, or

on a person of timid disposition, or on one overcome with
sleep,
is

marked by the absence of any outflow of blood.
vitiated blood, failing to find out an outlet, gives

The
rise

to itching, swelling, redness, burning,

suppuration
confined).

and

pain in

the part

(to

which

it

is

On
an

the contrary, blood-letting performed
diaphorised
or

on the body
heated, or
or

of a person excessively

by
an

ignorant

or

inexperienced
is

surgeon,

with

injudiciously deep incision,

attended with haemorrhage,
results as

which may be followed by such dreadful
Shirobhitapa
sight (Timria,

or

violent headache, blindness or loss of
loss of vital

Adhimantham (ophthalmia^
the body

principles

of

(Dhatu-Kshaya), convulsions,

paralysis
thirst,

(Ekanga Vikara), Hemiplegia (Pakshaghata),
hic-cough,

a burning sensation,

cough, asthma,

jaundice and even death.

Chap.

XIV.

]

SUTRASTHANAM.

n^

Authoritative verses
ject
neither
:

on the sub-

— Therefore blood-Jetting
in

should be performed

on a patient not on one

an extremly hot or cold season,
is

who

too

much heated
the
act).

or

im-

properly

diaphorised

(before
(

The

patient

should be given gruel

Yavagu) before the operation.
of red flow would
indicate

A

spontaneous cessation

that there has been a free discharge of blood.
»

An

act of complete
b}'

and successful blood-letting

is

followed
in

a feeling of lightness and alleviation of pain

the affected part, by an abatement of the disease,

and a general sense of cheerfulness.

A

person, accustomed to blood letting, enjoys a kind
all

of immunity from

types of skin diseases, sarcomata,

aneurism,

oedema, and diseases brought about by a

vitiated condition of the blood such as, Ovarian tumour,

Carbuncle, Erysipelas, etc.

A

plaster

composed of

Ela,

Shitashiva,

Kustha,

Tagara,

Patha,

Agaradhuma,

Bhadradaru, Vidanga,

Chitraka, Trikatus, Ankura, Haridra, Arka,

and Naktaof

mala,

or

three,

or

four,

or

as

many
in

them

as
oil

are available, pasted together

and soaked

mustard

saturated

with

common

salt,

should be rubbed over
this

the

mouth

of the incision.
out.

By

means the blood

will

fully

come

In a case of excessive flow or hcemof the incision should be gently rubbed

orrhage, the

mouth

with a composition consisting of the powders of Lodhra,

Il6
Priyangii,

THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA.
Madhiika,
Pattanga,
Gairika,

[

Chap. Xiv.

Sarjarasa,

Rasanjana,

Shalmali flowers, Shankha, Shukti, Masha,
firmly pressed with the tips of

Yava and Godhuma, and
the fingers.

As an

alternative, the

mouth

of the incision

should be gently rubbed with the powdered barks of
Sdla,
Sarja,

Arjuna,

Arimeda,

Mesha-shringi,

and

Dhanvana, or the edges of the wound should be
dusted with the burnt ashes of a
rolled
silk

lightly

cord

(a

piece of silk

up

in

the

form of a cord}, and firmly pressed
fingers
;

with the

tips of the

or

the

mouth

of

the

wound

should be lightly touched with the powders of
its

Laksha and Samudra-phena, and

edges should be

similarly pressed together as above.

Then
piece

the
of

wound
silk

should be firmly tied up
linen;

(with

a

or

plastered over
in

with a paste of the substances
of ulcers
in

mentioned
(Vrana).

connection with the bandaging
patient

The

should

be

kept

a

cool

room, covered over

with a wet sheet and constantly

soothed with sprays of cold water.

A

medicinal plaster

of a cooling virtue and a course of cooling diet should be

prescribed

for

him.

The wound should be
or

cauterised

with

fire

or
at

an

alkali,

the vein

should be again

opened
first

a point a
in

little

below the seat of the
abovesaid measures

incision

case

where the

should have failed to check the flow of blood.
-patient should be

The
of

made

to drink a decoction

compound

drugs of the Kakolyadi group, sweetened with sugar or

honey

;

and

his

ordinary'

drink should consist of the

[Chap. XIV.

]

SUTRASTHANAM.
common
deer, or of a

II7
sheep, hare,
rice,

blood of the Ena or
or buffalo.

A

diet

composed of boiled

soaked

in or saturated

with clarified butter,
complications
nature
of

should be pres-

cribed,

and
to

the the

should
the

be subdued
bodily

according

deranged

humours respectively involved

therein.

Authoritative verses on the subject: — Excessive
appetite
blood-letting
is

followed

b}' im^paired

and an agitated condition of the
loss

vital

Vayu

owing to the

of the

fundamental principles of the

body, and, accordingly, to recoup the health of the
the patient

a course of

diet

should

be prescribed

which

is

light

and not excessively heat-making, and
fair
is

which contains a

amount of emollient and blood-

making matter, and

marked by

Kttle or

no acid

taste.

The
bleeding

four measures are

indicated for
;

the stoppage of
(process

known

as

the

Sandhanam
the

by contracting
(thickening
or

the affected

part),

Skandanam
blood),
in

congealing

the

local

the
the

Pachanam

(process

of setting

up suppuration

wound) and the Dahanam

(process of cauterisation).

Drugs of astringent tastes

are

possessed

of the

property of bringing about an adhesion (contraction) of
the wound.
ice etc,

Cooling measures such

as,

applications of
;

tend to thicken the local blood

alkalis
in

and

alkaline

preparations produce suppuration

such a

Il8

THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA.

[Chap. XIV.

woimci or ulcer, whereas cauterisation has the property
of .contracting a vein.

Remedies and appHances possessed of the virtue of
bringing about an adhesion of such a

wound should be

used where applications for thickening or congealing
the local blood would
fail
;

whereas the suppurating
in

measures should be adopted

the

event

of

the

former (Sandhanam) proving ineffectual. With any of the
three of these preceding measures a physician should try
to check the outflow of blood incidental to an operation

of bleeding,

and

lastly

the

process of cauterisation

should be resorted to in the event of the preceding

ones having pro^-ed unavailing, as

it

is

pre-eminently

the best means of checking the bleeding.

The
in

least

residue

of the vitiated blood continuing

the

affected part
its

may

not aggi-avate the disease
In such
to,

but prevent

perfect

healing.

a case bleed-

ing should not be

again

resorted

but the derang-

ed residue should be subdued by means of pacifying or
absorbing remedies.

Blood
maintains

is

the

origin of the

body.

It is

blood that
it

vitality.

Blood

is

life.

Hence

should be

preserved with the greatest care.

The Vayu

of

a person

who

has been bled, and

which has been aggravated by constant cold applications

Chap.

XIV.

]

SUTRASTHANAM.
rise

119
the
incised* part

may

give

to

a

swelling

of

characterised by

a

piercing

pain,

which

should be

treated with an unguent of tepid clarified butter.

Thus ends

the fourteenlh Chapter of
treats of Blood.

the Sutrasthan^m in

the

Sushrula

Samhit^ which

CHAPTER
Now we
treats
shall

XV.
the

describe

Chapter

which

of

development and non-deA'elopment of the
constituents of the
.

humoral

body

and

excrements

(Dosha- Dhai:u-IVIaIa- Kshaya-Vriddhi

Vijnaniya-madhya^am).
Since

the

human body

is

constituted of humours,

(Doshas), excretions (Mala\ and the fimdamental principles (Dhatus. of blood, marrow, etc.,

hear

me

discourse

on the features which are peculiar to each of them.

The Vayu. — The
:

imparting of motion to the

body Praspandanam;, the carrsing of the sensations of
the respective sense organs (Udvahanam', the passing

down

of food to

its

proper receptacles (Puranam), the

separation of excretions from the assimilated food matter
(,Viveka
,

and the retention and evacuation of urine and
etc.

semen,

(Dharanam' should be
five

ascribed to the
inerve
forcei

fimctions of the

kinds*

of

Vayu

which support the body.

The
tissues

Pittam. — Pigmentations
of food

or

coloiu-ing

(Ragakrit), the digestion

and metabolism of and nutrition of the

(Paktikrit), the vitalisation

protaplasmic cells (Ojakrit), the origination and preser*

They

are called Pr^na, Ud<ina,

Samdna, \'y^na and Apina.

Chap. XV.

]

SUTR ASTHANAM

1

2

i

vation of eye-sight (Teja-Krit), the germination df heat

and maintenance of the temperature of the body (UshmaKrit), and the origination

of the faculty of intellection

(Medha-Krit) should be regarded as the functions of
the five

kinds*

of Pittam,

which contribute to the
its

preservation

of the

body through

thermogenetic

potency (Agni-Karma).

The Shieshma'.—The
kindsf of Shieshma
joints
is

function

of

the

five

to

lubricate

the interior of the

(Sandhi-Samshleshanam), to contribute to the

gloss of the

body (Snehanam),

to aid in

the formation
to

of healthy granules in sores (Ropanam),
size

add to the
tissues

of the

body (Puranam',

to

build

fresh

(Vrimhanam), to impart a pleasant or soothing sensation
to
'

the

body
,

(Tarpanam),

to

increase

its

strength

Valakrit

and to give firmness to the limbs 'Sthairya-

krit),

thereby contributing to the welfare of the body
it

by supplying

with
or

its

watery element.

The

Rasa

the the

lymph
entire

chyle

exercises

a

soothing effect upon
*

organism and

tends

They

are

named

as

Ranjaka.

P^chaka,

SSdhaka (Medh^krit and

Ojakrit),

Alochaka and BhrSjaka.
are

t

They

known

as

Shleshmaka,

Kledaka,

Vodhaka,

Tarpaka,

Avalamvaka.
A^.

B,

— The V^yu,

Pittam, andShleshmS, (Kaphham), though ordinarily

translated as wind, bile

and phlegm,

differ

in

their

meaning from

their

usual

English synonyms.

We

reserve the

treatment of these subjects for

a separate place in another

part

of

the

book when

we

shall

have

occasion to deal with the essentials of Ayurvedic Physiology

— Tr.

i6

122
to

THE SUSHRUTA
to

SAMHITA'.

[Chap. XV.

contribute
blood,

the increased
turn,

formation of
the
healthful

blood.

The

in its

increases

glow

of the complexion, leads to the increased formation of
flesh

and muscles and maintains
flesh contributes

vitalit}- in

the organism.

The

towards the stoutness or rotundity
of fatty
to

of the

limbs
in

and occasions the formation
system.

matter

the

The

fat

gives

rise

the

glossiness (formation

of oily or

albuminous matter) of
the firmin

the body and primarily
ness and growth
turn,

contributes towards

of the bones.

The

bones,

their

support the body, and contribute to the formation

of marrow.

The marrow

contributes towards the forfills

mation and increase of semen, and
canities

in

the internal

of the bones, and fomis the chief soiu"ce of

strength,
rise to

amorous

feelings

and

hilarity.

The semen
a

gives

valour and courageousness,

makes
sex,

man amorincreases
his

ously disposed towards the female
strength

and amativeness,

is

the

sole
is

impregnating

principle in the

male organism, and

possessed of the

virtue of being quickly emitted.

The

excreta or the

fecal matters of a

man

are in-

dispensably necessary for the preser\^ation of the body.

They

contain the wind and digestion

.being

primarily

connected with the movements of the bodily Vayu and
the feeling of hunger).

The

urine

fills

the receptacle of

the bladder, and

is

possessed of the property of washing
;

or draining off the waste or refuse matter of the organism

whereas perspiration tends to moisten the skin.

Chap.

XV.

]

SUTRASTHANAM.
blood)
is

123

The Artavam (menstrual
same properties
as
its arterial

endued with the
is

namesake, and

one of the

essential factors in a
possible.

woman which makes
or impregnated

impregnation

The

foetus

matter (Garbha)
of

serves to

make

patent the features characteristic
breast-milk
in
its

pregnancy.
bring

The
an

turn

tends to
lof

about
,

expansion

of the
life

mammae
her

a

woman

and
it

maintains the

of

child

(by

suppl}'ing

with the necessary and nutritive element
etc.

of food).
in their

These Vayu,

should be duly preserved

normal condition.
shall

Now we

describe

the

symptoms
of

which

attend the loss

or

waste

of any

the

foregoing

principles of the body.*

The
bv a
or

loss of the bodily

Vayu

f

nerve-force)

is

followed

state of languor,

shortness of speech,

uneasiness

absence of hilarity, and loss of consciousness.
is

The

loss of fPittam)

marked

b}'

a dulness

of complexion,

diminution of the bodily heat and an
of internal
fire
is

impaired state
loss of

(digestive

heat).

The

phlegm

(Kapham)

marked by dryness, a sensation of internal

burning, a feeling of emptiness in the stomach and other
*

Such a

loss or

perceptible

deterioration

of any of them

should be

ascribed to the use of exce^^sive cleansing or
pacifying

cathartic
to

(Samshodhanam) and
of the
natural

(Samshamanam) measures,
or to

or

a

repression
or

urgings of the body,
exercise,

a course

of violent
to

overfatiguing

physical

or

to

amorous

excesses, or

the

use of

unwholesome and

unsuitable food, or ta grief, etc.

124
cavities or

THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA.

[

Chap.

XV.

chambers of the body, looseness of the
if

joints

(a feeling as
ness,

the joints were

all

broken), thirst,

weak-

and insomnia. In such cases the medical treatment

should consist of remedial agents which are capable
of directly contributing to

the growth

or

formation

of the

humour

so lost or deteriorated.

Similarly

the loss of

lymph chyle

is

marked by

pain

about the region of the heart, Angina Pectoris,
palpitation
or of

with

the

heart,

a

sensation

of

emptiness

gone-feeling in
is

the viscus,

and

thirst.

The

loss of

blood

attended with such symptoms as

roughness of the skin,
or drink.

and a craving
in

for

acid

food
place

The

patient longs to be

a

cool

and asks

for cool things,

and the veins become loose
is

and

flabby.

The

loss of flesh
lips,

marked by emaciation
breasts, armpits,*

of the buttocks, cheeks,

thighs,
legs.

neck, and the calves of the
loose
inert,
in its

The

arteries

seem

and

flabby,

and the body seems to be dry and
gnawing

accompanied by an aching or

pam

members.

The

loss of fat

is

followed by such

symptoms.as the enlargement of the spleen, a sense of
emptiness
skin
in

the joints, and a peculiar dryness of the
for cold
is

and a craving

and emollient meat.

The

degeneration of the bones
in

marked by an aching pain

the bones and bone-joints, a wasting of teeth and

ffums,

and a general drvness of the body.
armpits look thin, narrow and contracledt

Similarly,

.

*

The

Chap. XV.

]

SUTRASTHA'NAM.
marrow
is

125

the loss or waste of

characterised

by the
in

for-

mation of a

lesser quantity of
in

semen, aching pain

the

bones and breaking pain

the bone-joints which have

become marrowless. The
ed by pain
in

loss or

waste of semen

is

mark-

the penis and the testes, and by incapacity

for sexual intercourse. In such cases the emission of semen

but rarely happens, and

is

then perceptibly deficient in

its

quantity, the emitted matter consisting of a small quantity

of sehien marked with shreds of blood.

The medical treatconsist

ment under the preceding circumstances should
of remedies of such medicinal
directly
virtues as

are

found to

and immediately contribute to the formation
lost).

of the bodily principle (thus wasted or

The
tion
of

loss

absence, suppression or scanty forma-

fecal

matter
sides

is

attended with a sensation
the region of
(the

of pain

at

the

and

the heart,

and the upward coursing of
or
flatus,

incarcerated)

wind
sound

accompanied
region of

with
liver

a

rumbling

about

the

the

and the

intestines.

Similarly,

the loss,

absence or scanty formation) of
in the bladder, causing
jets.

urine
it

is

marked by an aching pain

dribble or to
in

come out

in thin

and scanty
the

Here,
agents

as

the

foregoing

instances,

remedial

should consist of drugs which directly contribute to
the formation of urine.
Similarly the waste, absence or
is

scanty formation of perspiration

followed by such
hair,

symptoms

as

numbness about the pores of the

and

126

THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA.
The
is

[

Chap. XV.

dryness of the epidermis (skin\

sense of touch

is

perceptibly affected, and perspiration

entirely stopped.
consists
in

The medical treatment
the application
diaphoretics,

in

such a case

of

medicated unguents, lubrications,
(that

and adoption of measures

tend to

produce a copious perspiration\
In
flow,

the

case

of loss

or

waste

of the
at

catamenial

the menses
or

do not appear

the

appointed
stuffed

time

are

scant}'.

The vagina seems
in

and
in

painful.

The medical treatment

such cases consists

the adoption of alterative or cleansing measures, and in the administration of drugs of a

heat-making (Agneya)

potency or

virtue.

The

loss or

waste of breast-milk

is

characterised

by
or

a shrunken condition of the

mammae, and suppression

scanty secretion of the
in

fluid.

The medical treatment

such cases

lies in

the administration of drugs which

generate

Kapham.
or wasting of the foetus
in

The atrophy

the

womb

(during the period

of

gestation)
in

is

marked by the
and the non-

absence of any

movement

the uterus

distended condition of the sides or walls of the abdomen.

The treatment

consists

in

the application of Kshira
into the region of the

Vastis (enemas of medicated milk
utenis) in the eighth

month of gestation, and

prescribing

courses of emollient fare for the patient mother)*
* Several editions read invigorating
diets, egg, etc.

Chap.

XV.]

SUTRASTHANAM.
shall

127

Now we
of the

describe the

symptoms which mark
body of any
>

the excess (excessive accumulation in the

fundamental humours,

]>rinciples

and excrements

of the body.

The

quantities

of

these

humours, principles and

secretion, are

abnormally increased through the use of

substances that primarily contribute to their formation
in the

organism.*
excess

An

of

Vayu

in the

body

is

marked by such

symptoms

as roughness of the skin, t emaciation of the
flit
:

body, darkness of complexion
little

blackness of hue), a

tremor or

trembling of the limbs, longing for

heat, or for hot things, insomnia, thickness or increased

consistency of the fecal matter and decrease of bodily
strength.
is

(Similarly,

an abnormal) increase of Pittam
a

characterised

by

sallow

complexion

or

a

yellowish colour of the skin, a general burning sensation
in

the

body

as

well

as

insomnia, a craving for cold

contacts and cooling things,

diminution of strength,
fits

weakness of the sense organs,

of fainting

and

yellowness of the conjunctivae, stool and urine.

An

excess

of

Kapham
as

in

the

body

is

marked
and
a

by such symptoms,

the

whiteness,

coldness
limbs,

numbness of the
* Several Editions read
+

body, heaviness
as

of the

it

an additional

text.

Several Editions read roughness of speech.

128
sense

THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA.
of drowsiness

[

Chap. XV.

and

languor_,

somnolence, and a

feeling of looseness of the bone-joints.

Similarl}',

an increased germination of lymph chyle

(Rasa) in the
as,

body

is

manifest by such

characteristics

nausea, water-brash, and an increased flow of salivary

secretion.

A

plethora of blood in the system gives a

reddish glow to the complexion and the
eyes,
flesh

white of the
increase of
of the

and imparts
is

fullness to the veins.

An

marked by the
lips,

rotundit}"

and

fullness

buttocks and the

as well as of the penis, arms,

and

the thighs, and an increased heaviness of the whole body.

An

excess of fat in the

body imparts an

oily gloss to the

skin.

The

sides of the

abdomen

are

increased in bulk,

and the body emits a
assailed with

fetid smell,

and the person

is

cough and dyspnoea.

An
is

excessive forma-

tion of bone (abnormal ossification)

attended with such

symptoms

as

the cutting of additional teeth and the

abnormal development of any of the bone-structures.
excessive formation of

An

marrow

gives rise to a heaviness

of the eyes and to the

members
in the

of the body.

An

excess of

semen

body

is

marked

b}'

an ex-

cessive flow of that fluid

and gives

rise to

the fomiation

of gravels (concretions) in the bladder which are
as

known

Shukrashmari.

An abnormal
is

increase in the formadistension of the
intestines.

tion of fecal matter

attended with

abdomen and

colic pains in the loins
is

and the

An

excessive formation of urine

manifest by constant

Chap.

XV.

SUTRASTHANAM.

129

urging for micturition

and distension of the bladder,

attended by a kind of gnawing or aching pain.
Similarly, an

increased

secretion

of perspiration

is

attended with
odour.

an itching of the skin which emits a bad

An

excess in the quantity of catamenial blood*

gives rise to an aching of the limbs

and an excessive

flow.
is

So also an excess in the quantity of the breast-milk
attended with frequent secretions of that
inflaihmation and pain in
fluid,

and with
excessive

the

mammae.

An

growth

of the faetus in the

uterus

tends to abnomially
is

swell .the region of the

abdomen, and
of

accompanied
extremities

by

anasarca,

or

dropsy,

the

lower

(phlegmasia dolens;.

These abnormal excesses of the aforesaid humours

and

principles, etc. of the

body should be checked or
(cleansing)

remedied
measures as

with

corrective

or

pacifying

would

be

indicated

by

their respective

natures, so as not to

reduce them to a smaller quantity
are

than that

in

which they

found

in

the

normal and

healthy state of a body.

IVIetrical

text

:

— An

increased

quantity of a
in

bodily principle gives rise to a similar increase
quantity
of one

the the

immediately

succeeding
;

it

in

order of enumeration as stated above
* An abnormal flow woman to a considerable
weakness.
Il

aud hence an

tends
extent,

to

stimulate the voluptuous sensation of a
is

and

followed by a sense

of reactionary

emits a fetid smell and originates ovarian tumours.

17

130
increase in

THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA.
any of the fundamental

[

Chap. XV.

principles

of the

body should be checked and reduced
quantity.

to

its

normal

Now we
of the
as the

shall

describe

the characteristic features

strength-giving principles of the body, as well

symptoms
of

that
all

mark

their loss or waste.

The
of

quintessence

the

fundamental

principles

the body, starting with

lymph chyle and ending with
which
is

semen,
is

is

called the Ojas,

identical with

what

termed "vital power."

This view of oneness of

vitality

with protoplasmic albumen has been adopted

in the present

work*
(albumen)
or

This Ojas

strength-giving
to

principle

serves to impart a firm

integrity

the flesh (and the

muscles), exercises unbounded control
vitality,

over

all

acts of

improves the
the
external

voice and
(operative")
in

complexion,

and

helps both
^intellectual)

and the internal
their

sense

organs,

duly performing

natural functions.

Authoritative verses on the subject:
to
*
it it

— Ojas (albumen
class

being of a white colour belongs
(cooling)

the
The

of
lerm

Somatmakam
"Ojas"'
as

substances.
Primarily

Sanskrit

has a variety of meanings.

means protoplasmic matter

found
describe

in

cells

(Vindus).
in

Secondarily
chapters

means albumen

as

we

shall

later

on

the

on

etiology and therapeutics of Prameha.

Several authorities hold a contrary

view staling that Ojas
vitality

(albumen) forms only one of the essentials of
identical.

and

that the

two are by no means

Chap.

XV.

]

SUTRASTHA'NAM.
and firm

131

It

is

cooling, oleaginous,

(Sthira), contributes to

the formation and growth -of
or holds
it

flesh,

maintains

its

integrity

firm,

and

is

mobile or capable of moving about
another within the
is

from

one

place

to

organism. *

It is further soft

and shiny, and

possessed of the most
as

efficacious virtue

and should be regarded
(seat) of vitality.

the most

important element

The whole body

with

its

limbs and

members

is

permeated with Ojas,
natural

and a

loss or

diminution in

its

quantity leads

to the gradual emaciation (and ultimate dissolution) of

organism.

A

blow, a persistent wasting disease, anger,

grief,

cares and anxieties, fatigue and hunger, are the causes to

which should be ascribed the wasting or disappearance
of this strength-giving principle (albumen) of the body.

The

bodily albumen, through the agency of the aboveis

said causes,
different

wasted through the channels carrying the
is

fundamental principles of the body. Albumen

transformed into strength which radiates from the heart.

A deranged or vitiated albumen (Ojas) is
firstly

characterised

by

its

dislodgment from

its

proper seat or locality
its

(Visransha), secondly,

by a change or modification of

native virtues

in

contact

with the deranged humours

or disordered organs (Vyapad)

and

thiidly,

by wasting

away (Kshaya\
* Several editions read
taste.

Rasam, meaning

it

to

be possessed of a sweet

132

THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA.
first

[

Chap.

XV.

The
gives

of the preceding properties (dislodgment)
to

rise

such

symptoms

as

looseness

of

the
of

bone-joints,

numbness of the hmbs,

dislodgment
respective

the deranged
tacles

humours from

their

recep-

and suppression of the (bodily and

intellectual)

functions.

To

the second of the foregoing properties,
its

(change or modification of

natural

virtue through

contact with the deranged bodily humours etc) should be
ascribed such symptoms, as numbness and heaviness of

the limbs, dropsy due to the action of the deranged
bodily Vayu, discoloured or changed complexion, feeling
of malaise, drowsiness and somnolence.

The

third pro-

perty of the deranged albumen,

loss or wasting), brings

on

fits

of fainting, loss

of flesh,

stupor, delirium

and

ultimately death.

Authoritative verses on the subject:— A deranged state of albumen is marked
by
from
the
its

three

abovesaid properties
seat (Visransha)
;

of

dislodgment
its

proper
virtues

by a change of

natural

through
.

contamination (Vyapadi and
first

by wasting (Kshaya
(Visransha)
is

The

of

these

properties
joints,

characterised

by looseness of the

by an

inert state of the

body, by a sense of fatigue,

by

a dislodgment of the

deranged humours from their

natural seats,
intellectual

and by a suppression of the bodily and

functions.

Numbness

and heaviness

of

the limbs, malaise, a discoloured complexion, drowsiness,

Chap.

XV.

]

SUTRASTHA'NAM.

133

somnolence and dropsical swelling brought about by
a

deranged

state

ot

t\\e

bodily

Vayu,
of

should be

considered as

natural

consequences

the

Vyapad
through
is

^change

of

the natural virtues of albumen

contamination).

The

loss or

waste of Ojah (albumen)
as
fits

marked

by

such

symptoms

of

fainting,

emaciation of the body, bewilderment and distraction
of the

mind, delirium and loss of consciousness and

ultim?itely death.

The medical treatment
flowing
out

in

cases of dislodgment or

external secretion) of

albumen from
event of

its
it

natural seat (Visransha), as well as in the

becoming contaminated by the

vitiated
its

principles

of

the body, should consist in improving
elixirs

quantity by

and remedies possessed of rejuvenating properties,
fluid

tending to increase the quantity of such
in the

(albumen

1

body.
to

A
an

patient
excessive

who

has lost
or

all

consciousness
of

owing

loss

waste

albumen)

should be given up by a physician as incurable\

The
the

oily

or

albuminous

matter

found

within

components of the other fundamental principles
of

(Dhatu)
internal

the

body

as

metabolised

by

the
into

heat

and

regularly

metamorphosed
be

the the

succeeding

ones)
fiery

should
or

grouped

under

head

of

thermogenetic
iVas^'i
its

(Agneya))
in

substances.

This fatty matter

predominates

the female organism and produces

peculiar softness,

134

^^^ SUSHRUTA

SAMHITA'.

[Chap. XV.

beauty and pleasing shape, causes the grovrth of scanty
but soft hair on
its

surface.

It strengthens the eyesight
its

and increases the energy of the body, improves

power of
plexion.

digestion

and heightens

its

glow and comas,

Fat

is

deranged by such acts
cold,

an abuse of

astringent,
(indigestible

bitter,

parchifying

or
stuffed

Vistambhi
in

food

which

remains

the

stomach^ substances, a voluntary repression of the natural
urging for evacutions of the body, by excessive sexual indulgence,

and fatiguing physical exercise, or by the

draining action of any particular disease.

An

instance of dislodgment of fat from
is

its

proper seat

or locality

attended by such symptoms as roughness

of the skin, loss of the natural healthful glow of the body

and a breaking or an aching pain

in the limbs.

Anaemia

or a gradual emaciation of the body, impaired digestive
function

and a slanting or downward course of the
fat

deranged humours, mark the case where the bodily

has

undergone a change
foul contamination.
fat is

in its natural properties

through any

A

case of loss or waste of the bodily
as,

marked by such S5aTiptoms

impaired digestive

function, dulness of sight,

decay of strength and aggra-

vation of the bodily Vayu, and always ends in death.

The medical treatment

in the latter case (loss of fat)

should consist in the administration of oily or emollient
drinks,

use of medicated
(plasters

unguents
oleaginous

or

lubrications,

Pradeha

of

substances)

and

Chap. XV.

]

SUTRASTHANAM.
light,

13^
cooling

Parisheka (washes) and a diet comprising

and well-cooked

articles of food.

lYIetrical
a

texts
any
of

:

—A
from

person

suffering

from
or

wasting

of

the
or

constituent

humours

fundamental

principles
suffering

excrements of the
loss of

body,

as well as one

Ojah (albumen)
con-

naturally craves for drink and food

that tend to

tribute directly to the formation of the matter (or bodily
principle) so lost or wasted.

Conversely, the particular
b}'

food

or

drink longed

for

a

person

suffering
fluids or

from a

loss or

waste of any of the abovesaid
be looked
in

principles,

should
virtue

upon

as

possessed

of

a curative

that

particular

case.

Such a
of his

person devoid of

consciousness and
functions

divested

bodily and intellectual
state

through a deranged

of the

bodih'

Vayu

ner\-e-force)

and extremely

weak and enfeebled owing
should be regarded as past

to the loss of the vital fluid
cure.

all

Etiology of Obesity :— Obesity
flesh (Karsha) should

or loss

of

be ascribed to changes

in

the condi-

tion of the

lymph

chyle.

The lymph chyle derived from

the assimilated food of a person,

who

is

habituated to a

course of diet which tends to promote the quantitv of the bodily
belly even

Kapham
when

or

is in

the habit of pampering his

a previous meal has not been thoroughly
is

digested, or

who

addicted to a habit of sleeping in the
life,

day, or leading a sedentary

or

is

averse to taking

136

THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA.
sort of physical exercise, continues in

t

Chap. XV.

any

an immature

State

and

is

transformed into a serum of sweet taste which

moves about within the body, engendering the formation
of fat which produces excessive stoutness.
afflicted

A

person

with obesity develops such symptoms as short-

ness of breath, thirst, ravenous appetite, excessive sleepiness, perspiration, fetid

odours

in

the body,

wheezing

sound

in the throat

during sleep or sudden suspension of
dulness or heaviness
of speech.
is

breath, inert feeling in the limbs,

of the body, and the softness of
fat,

indistinctness

Owing

to

a

fatty person

unntted for every
is

kind of work.
nished
(in

Capacity

for sexual intercourse

dimi-

such a one), owing to the obstruction of the
of

passage

semen by phlegm
rest

and
the

fatty

deposits

and the growth of the
of the
etc.,
is

of

root-principles

body such

as,

lymph

chyle, albumen,

semen,
deposit

considerably arrested

owing

to

the

of fatty

matter within the channels of the internal

passages of the body, thus seriously affecting his bodily
strength.
likely to

An
be

obese or excessively corpulent person

is

afflicted

with any of the following diseases

such

as,

urethral discharges, eruptions, boils, carbuncles,
in

fever,

fistula

ano, or with any of the diseases which
state

are caused

by a deranged
attacks are

of the bodily

V^3ai

and such
in death.

invariably

found to terminate
is

Any

disease in such a person

apt to develop

into one of a violent

and dangerous type owing to the
fat.

obstruction of the internal channels with deposits of

Chap. XV.

]

SUTRASTHANAM.
things or

^2^7

Hence

all

conditions which foster the growth

of abnormal fat should be carefully avoided.

Accordingly medicated compositions, consisting of
such
drugs

and

substances

as

Shilajatu,

Guggulu,

Go-Mutram, Triphala, Loharaja, Rasanjanam, IMadhu,
Yava,

Mudga, Koradusha, Shyamaka and
anti-fat
in

Uddiilaka

which are
agents

their properties, or of remedial

possessing

the
well

efficacy as

of

cleansing

the

internal channels, as

enematas of liquefacient
as

solutions

technically

known

Lekhana

Vastis

and

physical exercise should be prescribed.

Etiology of

Karshyam

:— Loss

of flesh

or

a gradual emaciation of the body should be ascribed to
the partaking of food in the composition of which, matter

which aggravates the bodily Vayu

largel)' or

excessively

enters, to over-fatiguing physical exercise, sexual excesses,

over study,

fright, grief

or anxiety, to the

keeping

up of

late hours, to unsatisfied hunger, insufficient food,
dr}-

and to astringent food which tends to
chyle.

up the lymph
in

The

chyle, thus parched up,
fails

moves about

the

organism, but

to impart to

it

the necessary nutritive
it,

element owing to

its

being insufficiently charged with

thus causing the body to grow extremely emaciated.

A
body

patient suffering from extreme emaciation
fails

of the

to bear the inclemencies of weather

and the

variations of terrestrial heat,
all

and becomes apathetic to

movements and does but imperfectly perform the

138

THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA.
is

[Chap. XV.

functions of vitality, and
thirst or hunger.

also incapable

of enduring

The

bodily strength suffers a gradual

diminution, and diseases, incidental to a deranged state
of the bodily Vayu,
patient has to
diseases

make

their

appearance,

and the

meet

his

doom from any
Shosha

of the following

as asthma, cough,

(phthisis), enlarged

spleen or liver, abdominal drops}^, dyspepsia, abdominal

glands and haemoptysis.

Any

disease appearing in such

a patient develops into one of a violent type

owing to

the loss or diminished condition of the bodily strength
or protoplasm (Prina).

Contrarily, conditions

or

factors

which
of patent

produce
obesity

obesity should be avoided.

A

case

should be checked with a medicated compound, consisting of

such drugs

as,

Payasya, Ashvagandha, Vidari,

Vidarigandha, Shat^vari, Vala, Ativala, Nagavala and such
other drugs of sweet taste. Diets consisting of thickened
milk,
clarified

butter,

ciu^d,
etc.,

meat, boiled Shall

rice,

Yasthika, wheat, barley,
case
;

should be prescribed in the

and sleep

in

the day, sexual indulgence, physical

exercise, etc., should be prohibited.
tive substances

Enematas of

nutri-

can be likewise given with advantage.

On

the other hand, the

lymph chyle of

a

man, who

partakes of food belonging to both the abovesaid classes,
courses through his organism and strengthens the rootprinciples of his body, thus giving a middling or
ful

health-

rotundity to his limbs owing to

its

properties

being

Chap. XV.

]

SUTRASTHA'NAM.

j^c^

equipoised.
of
all

A man

possessed of such a body

is

capable

kinds of work and movement.

He

can

fairly

stand

the inclemencies of weather and the keenness of hunger

and

thirst,

and

will gain in strength

and energy.

Care

should be always taken to have such a well equipped

body of moderate

size.

Authoritative verses on the subject*:
persons

— Excessively
are
alike

corpulent

and excessively

lean
is

condemnable.

A

body which

neither too stout nor
as

too lean, but strikes the
is

mean
frame

regards

plumpness,

the

best.

A

lean

should have the preference to a stout one.
or aggravated bodil}-

The enraged

humours dry up the fundamental

principles of the body, such as the
in the

lymph chyle
fire

etc., just

same way

as a well- kindled

will evaporate
it.

the water contained in a basin placed
^the

over

Since

temperament, constitution,

size

and the fundamental
individuals

principles of)

the body vary in the

different

rand

since

body, in

its

turn, undergoes

such
old

gradual transformations as
age),

infancy,

youth
it is

and

and changes
lay

its

state

each moment,
the

absolutely

impossible to

down

exact quantity

of the

deranged
principles
etc.)

humours,
(of

excrements
chyle,

and

fundamental
albumen,
organism.

lymph
be

blood, semen,

that
it is

may

found

in

the

human

Hence

necessary for a physician to ascertain their

state of equilibrium (their continuance in

normal

state

and

[_,^0

THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA.
;

l

Chap.

XV.

quantity) at any particular time

and which should be
sigiis

pronounced

onl}' in
visible.

cases

where

of perfect health

would

be

An

experienced physician

would

naturally

draw a
of the

contrar}- inference

from the improper

functions

organs

in

an individual.

A
in

person

with an uniformly healthy digestion, and whose bodily

humours
the
state

are

in

a state of equilibrium,
vital
fluids

and

whom
normal

fundamental

course

in

their

and quantity, accompanied by the normal processes
organic function, and intellection,
is

of secretion,

said

to be a healthy person

An
of

intelligent
in

physician should

preserAC
wliile

the state

health

a

healthy

individual,

he should

increase or decrease the quantity of the bodily humours,
vital fluids, or

excrements

in

a

sick

patient
is

according
perfectly

to the exigencies of the case until his health restored.
Thus ends
ihe fifteenth Chapter
treats of the

of'the Sutrasthanam

in

the

Sushruta

Samhit^ which

Development and Non-development of the

humoral constituenls of the bodv.

CHAPTER
Now we
shall discuss the

XVI.

Chapter which treats of the

piercing and bandaging of the lobules of ears

(Kama-

Vyadha-Vandha-Vidhimadhyaym).
The
through
lobules of the ears of an infant are usually pierced
for protecting
it

(from the

evil

influences

of

mali^ant

stars

and

spirits)

and

for

the purposes of

ornamentation as well. The piercing should be performed

on a day of bright fortnight marked by the auspicious
lunar and astral combinations, and in the
sixth
its

or

the

seventh month of the year reckoned from
(Bhadra).
nurse,

beginning
its
it.

The

child should be placed

on the lap of

and benedictions should be pronounced over
it

Then having soothed
playthings,
left

and lured

it

with

toys and
his

the

physician
its

should draw
ears with a

down with

hand the lobules of

view to detect,

with the help of the reflected sun-light, (the closed up)
apertures that
localities.

are

naturally

found to exist

in

those

Then he

sliould pierce

them

straight through

with a needle held
or with a

in his right

hand, or with an awl (Ara),

thick needle

where the appendages would

be found to be too thick.
should be
first

The

lobule of the
left in

right

ear

pierced and then the

the case of a

male

child, while the contrary

should be the procedure in

the case of a female. Plugs of cotton-lint should be then
inserted into the holes of the pricked ear-lobules,

which

1^2

THE SUSHRUTA

SAMHITA'.

[

Chap. XVI.

should be lubricated or rubbed with any unboiled

oil.

A

copious bleeding attended with pain would indicate
place

that the needle has passed through a

other than
;

the natural (^and closed up) fissure described above

whereas the absence of any serious

after-effect

would

give rise to the presumption that the piercing has been

done through the right spot.
incidentally injured

Any

of the local veins

by an ignorant, bungling surgeon,
with

may

be

attended

symptoms which

will

be

described under the heads

of K^lika, Marmarika,

and

Lohitika.

Karlika'
in

is

marked by

fever

and a burning pain
gives rise

the affected part and swelling.

Marmarika

to

pain and knotty (nodular)
region,

formations about the
(the
last

affected

accompanied by
fever
;

characteristic

inflammatory)
(Lohitika)

while in the
as,

named type

symptoms such

Manya-Stambha (numb-

ness of the tendons

forming the nape of the neck),

Apatfinak

(a

type of tetanus), Shirograha (headache) and
themselves,

Karna-shula (ear-ache) exhibit
should be

and they

duly treated with
their

medicinal remedies laid
heads.

down under

respective

The

lint

should
is

be speedily taken out from a pierced hole which

marked by extreme pain and
of
its

swelling, etc.,
blunt, crooked

on account
or stunted

being

made with
to
its

a

needle, or

owing

being plugged with a deep and
or to
its

inordinately large

lint,

being disturbed by the
its

aggravated bodily humours (Doshas), or to

being made

Chap.

XVI.]

SUTRASTHANAM.
place.

1

43

at a

wrong

An unguent composed

of

Madhuka,
clarified

Eranda

roots, Manjistha, Yava, Tila,

honey and

butter pasted together, should be thickly

plastered over
;

the affected part until the ulcers are perfectly healed
after

which the lobules of the ears should be again
the directions laid

pierced through according to
before.

down

The

lint

should be

removed, each third
in
its

da)'-,

and a

thicker one should
successive
occasion,
oil)

be inserted

stead

on each

and the part should
as before.

be rubbed

with (unboiled

For the expansion of

the fissures, (sticks of

Nimba

or

Apamarga, or rods of
after the

lead) should be inserted into

them

subsidence

of the accompanying

symptoms and deranged bodily

humours

t,in

the locality).

lYIetrical

Text — The
:

fissures

thus expanded

may

ultimately bifurcate the lobules of the ears owing to
or

the effects of the deranged bodily humours (Dosha),
of a blow.

Now

hear

me

discourse on the

mode

of

adhesioning them (with suitable bandages).

These unions or adhesions admit of being
divided into
fifteen different

briefly

kinds,

viz.,

the

Nemi-

sandhdnaka, the Utpala-Bhedyaka the Valluraka, the

Asangima, the Ganda-karna, the Aharyaya, the Nirvedhima, the Vyayojima, the Kapata-sandhika, theArdhakap^ta-sandhika, the Samkshipta, the Hina-karna, the
Vallikarna, the Yasthi-karna, and the Kakaushthaka.

144

'^^^
of

SUSHRUTA SAMHITA.
process,
in

[Chap. XVI.

Out

these, the

known
cases

as the

Nemi-

sandhanaka, should be used
the bifurcated lobes of the
thick, extended,

where each of

ears

would be found to be

and equal

in size.

The

process,

known
cases

as

the

Utpala-Bhedyaka,

should be

used

in

where the severed lobes of the ears would be found to
be round,
process,

extended, and

equal in dimensions.
to in cases

The
where

Valluraka should be resorted
ears

the severed lobes of the
short, circular
as the

would be found to be

and equal

in size.

The

process,
in

known
where

Asangima, should be adopted

cases

the anterior surface of one of these severed appendages

would have a more elongated shape than the

other.

The

process,

known

as

the

Ganda-Karna,

consists in

slicing off a

patch of healthy flesh from one of the

regions of the

cheeks and in adhering
is

it

to one of the

severed lobes of the ears which
its

more elongated on
In

anterior side than the other

(Plastic-operations).

the case of extremely short lobes,

the

flesh

should be
the

cutoff from both the cheeks and adhered to them,
process being
ears
are

known

as the

Aharyaya. The lobes of the

which have been completely severed from their roots
called

Pithopamas.

The

process
to
in

known
such

as

the

Nirvedhima should be resorted
piercing the

cases

by
of

two Putrikas (Tragus and Anti-tragus

the ears.

The process known

as

the

Vyayojima should be

made

use

of in

cases

where one of the bifurcated

1

Chap. XVI.

]

SUTRASTHANAM.
ear

145

lobes

of the
as

should be found to be dissimilar to
its
.

the

other

regards
as

thickness

or

thinness.
in

The
bring-

process

known

Kapata-Sandhika

consists

ing about an adhesion,

on the posterior
lobes

side,

between
is

one

of the

bifurcated

and another, which

elongated on the anterior side of the ear.
is

The adhesion

so called from the fact of

its

resembling the closing of

the

two

leaves

of a

door 'Kapatam),

The

process

knoWn
ing

as the

Ardha-Kapata-Sandhika

consists in bring-

about an adhesion on the anterior side between

the shorter one of the two parts of a bifurcated earlobe

with the part, elongated on the posterior

side, like

a half- closed door.

The ten
successfully

aforesaid processes

of adhesion

may

be

brought about and their

shapes can be

easily pictured

from the meanings of their respective

names.

The remaining

five sorts

such as the

Samkhiptam

etc.,

are seldom attended with success

and hence are
process

called

impracticable

(Asadhayas'.

The

Samkhiptam

has

its

scope in the case where the auricle (^Shashkuli)

has been withered up and one of the bifurcated lobes
is

raised,

the other being reduced and shortened.
of

The
cases

process

Hina-karna should be

adopted

in

where the supporting rim of the lobe (pinna) has been
entirely

swept away and its exterior

sides

and the cheeks
the adhesive

are sunk
19

and devoid of

flesh.

Similarly

146
process
cases

THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA.
known
as

[

Chap. XVI.

the

Vallikarna
short,

is

indicated

in

where the lobes are

thin

and unequal.
is

The adhesion known
in cases

as the Yasthi

Kama

indicated

where the thin and severed ear-lobes are run
and made of knotty or nodular
flesh.

across with veins

The
a
in

case in which the ear-lobe, being permeated with

little

quantity
or

of

blood,

is

fleshless

and

ends

a narrow tip

end,

furnishes

the

occasion for

Kakusthakapaii.

The five abovesaid
inflammation,
part or

adhesions,

if

followed by swelling,

suppuration and redness of the affected
sort

and found to be secreting a
studded
over

of slimy pus

with pustular eruptions,
success.

may

be

apprehended as not to be attended with

Authoritative verses on the subject
:

—The

exact middle point of the external ear

should be pierced (with a knife^ and the severed parts
should be pulled

down and
of
a

elongated in the case where
ear-lobe

both the

parts

bifurcated
lost

would be
In

found to have been entirely

or eaten away.

the case where the posterior one of the two bifurcated
parts

would be found to be longer or more elongated, the
;

adhesion should be effected on the anterior side
the contrary should be the
case

whereas

where the anterior

one would appear to be more elongated.

Only the

remaining one of the two bifurcated parts of an ear-lobe

would be

pierced, cut in

two and adhesioned on the

top,

Chap. XVI.

]

SUTRASTHA'NAM.

147

in the case

where the other part would be found to
surgeon well-versed in the knowledge of
should
slice

be gone.

A

surgery ''Sh^stras
flesh

off

a patch

of living

from the cheek of a person devoid of ear-lobes
its

in

a manner so as to have one of
its

ends attached
part,

to

former seat (cheek).
ear-lobe
is

Then

the

where
slightly
full

the

artificial

to be

made, should be
living
flesh,

scarified

(with

a

knife),

and the

of

blood'and sliced off as previously directed,
adhesioned to
in shape).
it

should be
ear-lobe

(so as to resemble

a

natural

A

surgeon, wishing to

effect

any

sort

of adhesion
collect the

other than those described before, should
articles

first

enumerated

in

the

chapter on

Preliminary
milk,

Measures to Surgical Operations, together with
water,

Dh^ny^mla (fermented
of

rice boilings),

Suramanda
powders
of

(transparent surface-part

wine)

and

earthen vessel.

Then the

hair of the

patient,

whether
in

male or female, should be gathered and tied up
knot, and the patient should be
(so

a

given a light food

as to

keep up
;

his

strength
his

without
friends

hampering
relations
ascer-

his

digestion)

after

which

and

should be asked to hold him firm.

Then having
to

tained the particular nature of adhesion
in the case, the

be effected
local

smgeon should examine the
scarifying

blood
the

by

incising,

excising,

or

puncturing

affected

lobes

as

found
is

necessary,

and

determine

whether the same

pure or vitiated.

Then having

I_|8

THE SUSHRUTA

SAMHITA'.

[

Chap. XVI.

washed the blood with Dhanyamla and tepid water,
if found vitiated

through the action of the deranged
water
in

(V^yu), or with milk and cold

the

event of

the same being contaminated by the deranged Pittam,
or with

Suramanda and warm water
vitiated

in

the case of
the

its

being

by

the

action
shall

of

disordered

Kapham,

the

surgeon

bring

about

the ad-

hesion by again scarifying the affected parts of the
ear, so as
(raised),

not to leave the

adhesioned parts elevated

unequal and short.

Of

course

the

adhesion
in

should be effected with the blood being
parts that

still left

the

had been scraped.
clarified

Then having anointed
butter,

them with honey and

they should be

covered with cotton and linen, and tied with strings
of thread,
neither

too loose nor too tight, and dusted
of

over with powders

baked

clay.

Then

directions

should be given
the
patient,

as

regards

the diet and

nursing of

who may
in the

be as well

treated with the

regimen laid down

chapter on Dvi-vraniyam.

Authoritative verses on the subject
:

—Tlie patient should be
avoid physical

careful

not to disturb
over- eating,
in,

the bandage and

exercise,

sexual intercourse, exposure to, or basking

the

glare

of

fire,

fatiguing

talk,

and sleep by day.
ulcer

For three

consecutive days

the

should be
in

anointed with

unboiled

oil

;

and cotton soaked
placed over
till
it,

the
is

same substance
to

should

be

which

be

altered,

each third day,

healing.

Chap.

XVI.]

SUTRASTHANAM.
ulcer

14^

The

incidental

should not be tried to be
in

healed up as long as the local blood (blood
ulcer)
is is

the

not fully

purified

;

or

so

long
the

as

there
or

haemorrhage
local

from the

seat

of

affection

the

blood continues feeble.
the
its

An

ulcer,

adhesion-

ed

with

least

of

the
will

Vayu-vitiated

blood

continuing in

inside,
It

spontaneously burst or

break open afresh.
pain, -burning, redness
its

will

be again attended with
in

and suppuration
little

the event of

being closed with a

quantity of Pitta-deranged

blood incarcerated
a
little

in its inside.

Adhesioned even with
its

quantity of
is

Kapha

fouled blood in

cavity
ulcer

an ulcer

marked by

itching

and numbness.

An

adhesioned with the continuance of an active haemorrhage from
its

inside

is

marked by a brown

or blackish

yellow swelling.
the local blood,

An

ulcer,

adhesioned at a time when

though otherwise good or pure, has

been thinned or weakened through excessive bleeding,
is

followed by a corresponding emaciation

(thinness)

of the

adhesioned part.

The

lobule

of the ear thus

adhesioned should be

gradually

pulled

down

and

elongated after the complete healing of the local ulcer

and the subsidence of
after

its

concomitant symptoms, and
the
colour
of

the

cicatrix

has

assumed

the

skin of the surrounding part.

Otherwise the adhesioned

part

may

be characterised

by

pain,

swelling,

infla-

mmation, burning and suppuration, or the

adhesion
un-

may

again

fall

off.

An

adhesioned

ear-lobe,

I50

THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA.

[

Chap. XVI.

accompanied by any of the distressing or unfavourable

symptoms, should be gradually elongated by rubbing
it

with an unguent composed of the milk,

fat,

and

marrow

of any such animals and birds as the Godha, the

Pratudas, the Vishkiras, the Anupas, or the Audakas as

would be

available,

and

clarified butter

and the

oil ex-

pressed out of the seeds of white mustard, boiled with

the decoction

or

Kvatha

of

Arka,

Alarka,

VaU,
V.idari-

AtivaU,

Anant^,

Apamarga, Ashvagandh^,

gandha, Kshira-Shukla, Jalashuka and the drugs forming the group

known

as

the

Madhura, which should
stowed
in

be

previously

prepared and carefully

a

covered receptacle.

IVIetrical

texts :— Then
all

the

above medicinal

unguent should be applied or rubbed over the lobe of
the affected ear, whereby
able
firm

the disturbing or unfavoursubsided, thus favouring
its

symptoms would be
and steady growth.

Similarly a plaster

composed

of Yava, Ashvagandh^,

Yashtyahva, and Tila, pasted

together might be rubbed over the affected ear-lobe with

advantage.
Shatavari,

Oil prepared and boiled with the essence of

and Ashvagandh^, or Payasya, Eranda, Jivana
ear-lobe.

and milk increases the growth of an
of an ear, which refuses to

The

lobe

grow

in size in spite of being

fomented
be

and lubricated as above indicated^ should
with slight
is

scarified

longitudinal incisions

on

its

anterior side (that

on the side nearest to the cheeks)

Chap. XVI.

]

SUTRASTHANAM.

I^l

and not on the posterior one, as such a procedure might
be attended with dreadful
results.

An

ear-lobe should not be tried to be elongated just

after the adhesion of its

two severed
still

parts,

inasmuch

as

the centre

of
to

the adhesion,
again.

being raw, might

cause

them

fall off

Thus an ear-lobe under
only

the circumstance should be gradually elongated,

when
hair

it

would be found to be marked by the growth of
its

on

surface,

and the hole or the perforation has
look,

assumed a

circular

and the adhesion has become

firmly effected, well-dried, painless, even
entire length.

and

level in its

The modes
two severed
a
skilled

of bringing

about an adhesion of the
;

parts of an e;f\-lobe are innumerable

and

and experienced surgeon should determine
of each

the shape and nature

according to the exi-

gencies of a particular case.*

* Additional

Text

:— O

Sushrula, again

I

shall

deal

with

diseases

which

affect the lobule of

an ear under the circumstance described above

The deranged

bodily Vdyu, Pittam and Kaphani, either jointly or severally,

give rise to several types of diseases which affect the lobule of an ear.

The
ul-

deranged V^yu produces numbness and an erysipelatous swelling and
cer

about

the

affected

ear-lobe,

while an

erysipelatous

ulcer

in

the

locality

accompanied by swelling, burning, suppuration,
deranged Pittam.

etc.,

should be

ascribed to the action of the

Heaviness, numbness and
in

swelling of the ear-lobe accompanied
locality

by constant itching

the

affected

mark

the action of the deranged

Kapham.

The medical
particular

treatment

in these

cases consists in effecting a subsidence of the

deranged

humour by

means

of

diaphoresis,

lubrication, be.

Parishekas

(medicated

plasters) or blood-letting as the case

may

These measures should be

moderately applied and a nutritive and invigorating food should be pres-

1^2

THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA.
:

[Chap. XVI.

Rhinoplastic operations
deal

-Now
artificial

I

shall

with the

process

of affixing

an

nose.

cribed for the patient.
of the deranged bodily

The

physician

who

is

well familiar with

the actions

humours

as described above, should be looked
case,

upon

as alone entitled to take in

hand a

which

falls

under the head of one

of the preceding types.

Now

I shall

enumerate the names of the several diseases which
of the ear

affect

a severed lobe

and describe the sjTnptoms which each of them
are

develops in succession.

They

known
hear

as

UtpStaka, Utputuka, Shyava,

Bhrisam-kanduj^ta, Avamantha, Sakanduka,
vala,

Akundaka, Granthika, J5mdiscourse

SrAvi and

Dihavdna.

Now

me

on the nature of

medicinal treatment to be adopted in each of them.

Remedies

:

—A

plaster

composed of the drugs known

as

Apam£rga,

Sarjarasa, Patala bark
oil

and Lakucha bark pasted togather, or a medicated

prepared and boiled with the preceding substances should be applied

in a case of the

Utpataka type, wherea' a case of the Utputuka type would
consisting
of

prove amenable to a medicinal plaster
Putika, the fat and
she-buffalo
or

Shamp&ka, Shigru,

marrow

of a

GodhS and
;

the milk and bile of a she-deer,
to

sow, pasted togather

^r

a

medicated unguent comoil.

posed of the abovesaid substanees duly
cinal plaster

Lioiled

with

Similarly, a medi-

composed

of the drugs
oil

known

as

Gauri, Sugandhd, ShydmS,
the
extract
of

Anantd, Tanduliyakam, or an
the preceding drugs,
the desease.

prepared and boiled with
beneficial in a case of the

would prove

Shyiva type of
the affected
oil

In a case of the Vrisham-Sakundakam

type,

part should

be rubbed or lubricated with an unguent or medicated

prepared with the boiled extract of PathA, Rasanjanam,

Kshoudram, and

warm Kdnjik5m.

or a plaster

composed of the same drugs and substances

should be applied over the diseased locality. In a case of ulceration, the ulcerated ear-lobe should be rubbed with the
oil

prepared and boiled with the drugs

known

as

Madhukam and

Kshira;

kSkoli, or with those

which form the group known as the Jivakddi-Varga

while in a case where Vringhanam measures are to be adopted, lard

pre-

pared from the
In the

fat

of a Godhd, boar, or snake might be used with advantage.

Avamanthaka

type the diseased ear-lobe

should be washed and
as Prapaundarikam,
oil

covered with a plaster composed of the drugs

known

Madhukam, Samanga and Dhavam,
boiled with the same drugs.

or

rubbed with

prepared and

Similarly, a case of
to

Kandu-Juta (accompanied
as

with itching) would yield

a plaster

composed of the drugs known

SahadevA, Vishvadevd, and Saindhava

salt

pasted with goat's milk, or to the
the

medicated

oil

boiled and prepared

with

same drugs and substances.

Chap.

XVI.]

SUTRASTHANAM.
long and broad

1

1;^

First

the leaf of a creeper,

enough

to fully
off part,
flesh,

cover the whole

of the
;

severed or clipped
li\ing

should be gathered
in

and a patch of
leaf,

equal

dimension to the preceding
;from

should
region

be sliced off
of the
swiftly

down upward) from
after

the

cheek and,

scarifying

it

with a knife,

adhered to the severed nose.
physician

Then the
it

cool-

headed

should

steadily

tie

up with a

bandage decent to look at and perfectly suited to the
end
for

which

it

has been

employed (Sadhu Vandha).
sure

The physician should make
the

that

the

adhesion of

severed

parts

has been fully effected and then
into

insert

two small pipes

the nostrils to facilitate
flesh

respiration,

and to prevent the adhesioned

from

hanging down.
be
dusted

After that, the adhesioned part should

with the

powders of

Pattanga, Yashtitogether
;

madhukam and Rasanjana
inside) the knotty

pulverised

and

In a case of the Granthika type (accompanied by

the formation

of knotty

growths in
be
first

its

growths or glandular formations should

removed, and che affected locality should be bled with a surgical

instrument and dusted with
case
of J^mvala
type,

powdered Saindhava

salt.

Likewise, in

a

blood-letting

should be resorted to

by

scarifying

the seat of the disease, which should be then

washed with a spray of milk.
purification

The

ulcer
c^

=^

ild

be healed

after the perfect

of

its

internal

morbid

Of

ts.

A

case

of the

Srivi (secreting)
the drugs

type
as

would readily
Madhuparni,
oil

vield to a

inal plaster
..alil,

composed of

known

snd Mad'

or of

Madhukam

pasted with honey, or to the medicinal

Uprepared and boiled with the same drugs and substances.

A

case

of the

the drugs

Jahyam^na (burning) tj'pe should be treated with a plaster composed of known as the five Kalkas and Madhukam pasted together and nixed with clarified butter, or with a pasted compound of the drugs which
clarified

form the group of the Jivakadi Varga with a quantity of

butter

added

to

it.

20

154

THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA.

[Chap. XVI.

the nose should be enveloped in Karp^sa cotton and
several times sprinkled over with the refined oil of pure

sesamum.

Clarified

butter

should be given

to
oil

the

patient for drink, and he should be anointed with treated with purgatives
after

and

the complete

digestion
of

of the meals he has taken, as advised (in the books
medicine).

Adhesion should be deemed complete

after

the incidental ulcer had been perfectly healed up, while the nose should be again scarified and bandaged in the
case

of a semi

or

partial adhesion.

The adhesioned
it
it

nose should be tried to be elongated where
fall

would
should

short of

its

natural and previous length, or
its

be surgically restored to
the abnormal growth of

natural size in the case of
flesh.

its

newly formed

The
is

mode

of

bringing about the adhesion of severed lips

identical

with what has been described

in

connection

with a severed nose with the exception of the insertion
of
pipes.

The

physician,

who

is

well

conversant

with these matters, can be alone entrusted with the
medical treatment of a King.
Thus ends
the sixteenth chapter of the Sutra-Sthina n
treats of the Piercing

in the
.-lobes.

Sushruta

SamhitS which

and Bandaging of

t

Jivaw
opted,
i

with

nd

d
2d as

the
:es.

CHAPTER
Now we
the
shall discuss the

XVII.
suppurating and non-

Chapter which deals with

mode of distinguishing between

suppurating swellings.

Ama-pakkaishaniyaGranthi
(Aneurism),
of the

madhyayam.
Diseases
(abscess)

such
Alaji

as,

Vidradhi,

and

(inflammation

edge of the

cornea) etc. are ushered in

by a preliminary swelling

which subsequently develops
each of them.

symptoms

peculiar

to

These diseases

differ in their

symptoms
appear at

and outward shape.

A
is

swelling which
is

may

any part of the body, and
uneven
in its
(surface)

round, elevated, even, or
a

called

Shotha
of
or

(swelling).
its

It restricts itself to

the

skin

and

flesh

locality

and

is

characterised

by

the

several

concerted

action of the
(swelling)

deranged bodily humours.
of

The Shothas

admit

being divided into six different

types according as they are caused by the action of the

deranged Vayu, Pittam,
to the

Kapham

or blood,

or

are

due

concerted

action

of the

three

fundamental

humours of the

bod)'',

or are of traumatic origin.

Now we
maT'k

shall

describe

the

symptoms
the

which
in

the

respective

actions of

humours

a

welling.

A

swelling due to the action of the deranged

iyu

a.'tsumes a reddish or blackish
It

hue and
soft to

is

shifting

1 its ciiif acter.

feels

rough and

the touch,

1^6 and
is

THE SUSHRUTA
marked by

SAMHITA'.

[

Chap. XVII.

a sort of aching pain (peculiar to the

deranged Vayu) which vanishes at intervals.

A

swelling,

due to
a

the

action

of

the
It
is

deranged
soft

Pittam,
fluctuates

assumes

yellowish
is

hue.

and

under pressure, and
in its

marl^ed by
It

an accu-

mulation of blood

body.

swiftly

shifts

from

one part of the body to another, accompanied by a
burning,

sucking

pain.

A

swelling,

brought

^bout

through the deranged condition of the Kapham, assumes
a grey or whitish colour.
cold,

The

skin

becomes glossy and
its

and the swelling very
at
all,

slowl)'-

changes
b}-

original

site, if it shifts

accompanied

pain and itching.

A

swelling engendered

through the concerted action

of the three bodily

humours successively manifests the
colours respectively peculiar
a swelling

symptoms and assumes the
to each of them.

The symptoms which mark

due to the action of the vitiated blood are identical with
those which are exhibited in a
swelling

of the

Pittaja

type with the exception of the blackness of the part
(and an
increase of
heat).

A

swelling

due to an
peculiar

external blow traumatic) manifests

symptoms

to'the Pittaja and blood-origined types.

A

swelling,

which does not

3'ield

to

internal

and

external remedies on account of an excessive accumula
tion of the

deranged local humours, or through
of the remedial
i

+'

insufficient or contrary effects

ame
can

shows sign of suppuration.

/
/

Chap. XVII.]

SUTRASTHANAM.
me
describe the symptoms,

157

Now
tively

hear

which respecor

mark

an unsuppurated, suppurating

sup-

purated swelhng.
continues as
its its

The un suppurated

or immature stage

long as the skin of the swelling retains

natural hue,
inside,
its

marked by

a

little

pain and heat in
slight elevation

and coldness, hardness and a

of

surface.

The suppurating
pricking pain
in

stage gives rise

to

a

sensation of

the affected locality.

The swelhng
or

seems as

if it is

being pricked with needles,
of ants,
or

bitten

or wandered

over by a host

cut with a

knife, or pierced

with a spear, or thrashed with a club,

or pressed with the hand, or scraped round with fingers, or burnt with a
fire

or an alkali.

The

patient complains

of a

sort

of sucking,

burning pain in the swelling of

a fixed or shifting character.

The

patient, as

if

stung

by a

scorpion,

does not find comfort in
of

any place
is

or position.

The hue

the local skin
like

changed
inflated

and the swelling goes on increasing
leather bag
;

an

and

fever, thirst, a

burning sensation and

aversion to food etc. gradually supervene.

The suppurated

stage

is

marked by an amelioration

of the local pain and a yellowishness of the skin over the
swelling,

which cracks and seems too
in the integument.

big,

thus giving

pu§ to folds

The

swelling exhibits

the uation under pressure and shows perceptible signs
large cdinution.

Moreover,

it

yields

to

pressure

and

1^8
reaches
its

THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA.
former height

[

Chap. XVII,

when

the pressure

is

removed.
place,

The pus
shifts

or the suppurated matter changes

its

or

from one part of the sweUing to another under
water
in

pressure hke
distressing

a

bloated

leather
;

bag.

The

symptoms gradually
a
desire
for

subside

the patient a constant

again evinces
inclination
for

food,

and

feels

scratching the
sort

affected

part

which

is

characterised
as
in

by a

of aching pain.

Sometimes,

cases

of traumatic

swelling or in those brought
of the
to

about by a deranged condition
suppurating process
of
is

Kapham, the

restricted

the deeper tissues
fail

the affected part

and hence
fact

to

exhibit

its

characteristic

symptoms — a

which often misleads
true
state
(lit
:

a physician (surgeon) as regards the

whether suppurated or not) of the accompan3'ing
ing.

swell-

But the knowledge that a process of suppuration,
is

occurring in the deeper tissues of an affected part,

accompanied by

alleviation of the pain

and swelling

which becomes as compact
touch,

as a stone

and cold to the
natural
colour,

and the

local

skin resuming
off all

its

would unquestionably ward
error of judgment.

apprehensions for

Authoritative verses on the subject :— A
physician (surgeon)

who

is

fully

conversant

with the symptoms which are respectively exhibited

by (an inflammatory) swelling

in its unsuppurated, supT
is

purating and suppurated stages,
epithet
;

alone worthy of the
Since there can

the rest are but impostors.

/

Chap. XVil.

]

SUTRASTHANAM.

159

be no pain without the intervention of the deranged

V^yu
action

;

and no suppuration can
of the

set

in

without the

deranged Pittam

;

nor pus, without the
;

action of the deranged

Kapham
marked

it is

evident that a

suppurated swelling

is

b}^

the

combined and

simultaneous action of the three deranged humours of
the body.

According to

certain

authorities,

the

deranged

Pittam gets the preponderance over the local Vayu and

Kapham, and transforms the blood

into

pus out of

its

own preponderant
The

energy.
its

incision or opening of a swelling in
(lit.

inflam-

matory or unsuppurated
is

immature, unripe) stage
local flesh, liga-

attended with the destruction of the
joint,

ment, bone, vein, or
excessive haemorrhage.

and

is

usually followed

by

The

incidental

wound becomes
symptoms begin
and
cavities

extremely painful.

Many
in

distressing

to manifest themselves

succession

are

formed inside the wound which

may

lapse

into

a

case of Kshata-Vidradhi (a type of ulcerated abscess).

On

the other hand, a fully suppurated swelling,
for a

left

unopened

long time out of fear or ignorance by the
is

attending physician,

attended with symptoms which are

fraught with dreadful consequences.
pus, unable to find an outlet,
is

The accumulated
and attacks
and
forms

infiltrated

the deeper tissues of the affected

part,

large cavities or sinuses in their inside,

thus converting

l6o
the
type.

THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA.
disease

[Chap. XVII.

into

one

of

a

difficult

or incurable

Authoritative verses on the subject
the
:

—The physician (surgeon) who opens an
neglects a
fully

unsup-

purated or unripe swelling out of ignorance, as well as

man who

suppurated one, should

be looked upon as the vilest Chandala for his wrong
or incorrect diagnosis.

The

patient should be provided

with a meal before the surgical operation, or strong

wine should be given him,
to the habit of taking any.

if

he

is

found to be addicted
effect

The

of a good meal

under the circumstance will be to keep up the strength
of the patient and to guard against his swooning during

the operation, while the effect of wine will be to

make

him unconscious of the

pain.

The

rule as

regards the

feeding and anaesthetising (wine giving) of the patient

should

be

strictly

adhered
is

to,

since

the

internal

vital principle of a

man
is

invigorated

by the strength

of his

body which
of
food,

the product of lymph-chyle, the
five

essence
material

and the quintessence of the

principles.

A

swelling,

no matter whether

limited or extensive, spontaneously runs on to suppuration, if

not medicinally treated, or

left

to

nature.
It

The

base of such a swelling goes on extending.

becomes

unequally suppurated and reaches an unequal elevation,
thus affecting the deeper tissues of the part and swiftly

running into one of an incurable type.

A

swelHng, which

does not yield to the application of medicated plasters

Chap. XVII.

]

SUTRASTHANAM.

l6l

or to corrective or blood-letting measures, speedily

and

uniformly suppurates, and
restricted base

is

marked by a small and
conical
elevation.

and a
fed

circular or

As

a

blazing

fire

by

gusts

of favourable wind soon
pus,
in

consumes a withered
the absence
of

forest, so the incarcerated

any

outlet, attacks

and eats away the

healthy

flesh,

veins and nerves of an organism.

Surgical acts in connection with an abscess (Shotha)

may
tion
2.

be divided into seven

kinds such
swelling

as

i.

mutila-

(Vimlapanam)

of

the

by

massage,

Avashechanam

(bleeding or application of leeches)
4.

3.

Upanaham
5.

(poulticing)

Patanam
of

(opening
the

or

incision;

Shodhanam
of

(purification
boil

internal

morbid

matter
6.

an incised

with corrective
7.

medicines)

Ropanam

(healing) and

Vaikritdpaskin
to

ham

(restoring

of the natural

colour

of the

the cicatrix).

Thus
Siisliiul;!

ends the

.scvciUecnlh

Chaplei

of

ihc

Suiiaslhfinam
Ijetween

in

ttie

Sanihit^ which lieals ofhuw

to (hslinguisli

suppurating

and noii-suppurating swelhngs.

21

CHAPTER X V
Now we
shall discourse

1 1 1

on the Chapter which treats

of dressings and bandages of ulcers

(Vranarlepana-

Vandha-Vidhi-madhyayam).
A
general

medicinal plaster should

be regarded as the
in
all

and most important remedy

cases of
discuss

(inflammatory) swelling.
the

We

shall

presently

nature

of plasters to be used in each specific form

of disease.

A

bandage plays a more important part (than
its

a medicinal plaster) as regards
efficacy,

healing and curative
contributes to

inasmuch as

it

materially
of an

the

purification

and

healing

ulcer

and keeps the

joints steady.

A
local

medicinal plaster should be applied
or
in

from
that

down
of the

upward
hair

a

direction
It

contrary-

to

(Pratiloma).

should

never
hair),

be applied

(so as

to run

down with

the local

since a plaster,

applied as directed above,
part,

would firmly
and naturally
hair

stick to the surface of the affected

percolate

through the
orifices

follicles

of the
of

and the

external

of

the
thus

vehicles

perspiration

(Sudoriferous

ducts),

permeating the

organism

with

its

own

native potency and virtue.

A
by
a

medicinal plaster should be removed or replaced
fresh

one

as

soon

as

it

has

become
its

dry,

except in cases where the purpose of

application

Chap. XVIII.

]

SUTRASTHANAM.

l6^
definite

would be found to be the drawing of pus to a
head (Pidayitavya Vrana).'

A A

dried

medicinal plaster will

prove

useless

or

abortive,

and may act
plaster

as a caustic or corrosive agent.

medicinal

admits of

being grouped under

any of the three subheads of Pralepa, Pradeha and

Alepana (according
IVIeciicinal
of the
is

to

its

thickness or consistency) etc.

plasters :— A
class
is

medicinal plaster

Pralepa
to

applied thin and cold,

and

made

be endued with an
Avishoshi*)

absorbing (Vishoshi)
according to

or non-absorbing

property

the nature of the eftbct desired.

On

the

other hand,
is

a

medicinal plaster of
thick
or
thin,

the

Pradeha
or cold,

class

applied

either

warm

and

acts as a non-absorbent.

A

medicinal plaster of the Alepana class stands
a Pralepa and a Pradeha.

midway between
Of
these,

a

plaster

of the

Pralepana
or

class

is

possessed of the efficacy

of pacifying

restoring

the

deranged blood and Pittam to their normal condition.

A

plaster of the

Pradeha

class

pacifies

the deranged

Vayu and Kapham and tends
purification,

to bring about the union,

and healing

(of

an

ulcer),

causing the
where the

*

As

in the case of a Pidayitavya ulcer,

described

before,

withdrawing or gathering of pus

to a definite

head

is

desired.

164

THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA.
Hence

[

Chap. XVIII.

subsidence of pain and swelling.

it

should be
or

used in

all

types of swelling whether

ulcerated

otherwise.

A
ulcer

medicinal plaster (Alepanam) applied over an
is

called
f

by the changed epithet
(arrestive

Niruddha-Alepanam

or

astringent

...
of

Kalka

or

plaster).

The

function of such an

Alepanam

consists in arresting a

local haemorrhage, in softening the ulcer, in

withdrawing

sloughing or putrifying flesh from the formation
of pus
in
its

its

cavity, in checking

inside,

and

in

correcting

the morbid matter or deranged humours (that retard
its

union and healing).

IVIetrical

Texts

:

— A medicinal
beneficial

plaster of the
in

Alepanam

class

would prove

a

sweHing
as
it

marked by the absence of suppuration, inasmuch
subdues the characteristic symptoms
of each

of the

deranged bodily humours
(peculiar to the

y/2,

the

burning sensation

deranged Pittam), itching (incidental
state

to

the deranged

of

Kapham) and
of the

the

aching

pain (which marks the
Its

disorder
in

bodily

Vayu).

action

lies

principally

cleansing the skin, the

flesh

and the blood of
the

all

morbiferous diatheses, in

removing

burning

sensation,

and

in

alleviating

the piercing pain and itching.

A

physician

(surgeon)

should use an Alepana
the anus,
or

in

(ulcerous) diseases appearing about

about

any other

vital part

;

Marnias) of the body, with a view

Chap.

XVIII.]

SUTRASTHANAM.
purification of the (local

1

5^

to bring about the

deranged
con-

humours).
dition

In

diseases

caused by a

deranged

of the

Vayu, Pittam or

Kapham,

medicinal

plasters should be respectively

mixed with a quantity
and an

of clarified butter, measuring a sixth, quarter,
eighth part of their respective quantities.

It

has been said that the thickness
"should

of an

Alepaof the

nam

not be made to

exceed

that

newly-flayed skin of a buffalo.
should
a

Under no
be
applied

condition,
at

medicinal

plaster

night,

inasmuch as such a measure would arrest the escape
or radiation
its

of

heat from the swelling in

virtue

of

own

inherent

humidity, and thus bring on

an

aggravation.

Metrical Texts
the

:

— In
as

diseases,

which are

amenable to the application of medicinal plasters of

Pradeha type,

as

well

in

swellings resulting

from the vitiated condition of blood and the Pittam,
or in those

which are of

extrinsic

origin,

or are

due

to

the effect

of a poison

or blow, the plaster should

be applied cold, by day.

A
day

plaster should

not

be

applied without removing the previous

one,
as

nor over

the one applied on the
increase the local heat

before,

this

would

and aggravate the pain and the
its

burning sensation on account of
thickness.

greater or increased

A

medicinal plaster, previously used, should
;

not be moistened and applied again

it

should be held

l66

THE SUSHRUTA

SAMHITA'.
its

[

Chap, xvili.

as absolutely ineffective

owing to

virtue having been

previously used or soaked in/

Articles of bandaging^ :— Now we
enumerate the names of
in

shall

articles

which
:

are required

bandaging

ulcers.

They

are as follows

Kshauma
plant),

(cloth

woven with the

fibres

of Atasi

Avika

(blankets

made

of

sheeps'

wool),

Dukulum
(a

(loom-silk),

Kausheya
of the

(silk),

the

Patroma
trees,

kind of cloth

made

fibres

of

Naga

which grow
the
inner

in the provinces of

Paundra and Magadha),
Antarvalkala
(the

Chinapatta
bark
or

(Chinese
fibres

cloth),
tree),

of a of a

Charma
the

iskin),

the

Alfivu Shakala 'the skin
(half

gourd),

Lata-Vidala
or
cord,

thrashed

Shyama

creepers),

string

the cream of milk, Tula-phalam (cotton
iron.

seeds)

and

These accessories should be used

in

considera-

tion of the exigencies of each case

and the time or the

season of the year in which

it

occurs.!

*

This portion of the

text

has

been omitted hy Chakrapani

in

his

commentary
+

entitled the Bhdnutniifi.

In a swelling or ulcer caused

by the deranged

\'a\\x

and Kapham,
in

the bandage should consist of a piece of thick cloth;
it

whereas

summer
The

should consist of thin linen.

Similarly, a bandage, tied round

anv deep

or hollow part of the body, should consist of a piece of thick

cloth.

contrary rule should be observed,
at

when

the seat of the

bandage would be

any

flexible part of the body.

Similarly, in the ca.se of a snake-bite, a ligature

.should

be- firmly

tied

above the punctured wound with a string or twisted cord of cotton,
a fractured bone should be set right

while

by twisting bunches
seat of fracture.

iif

half-thrashed

shydmS creeper (LatAvidala) round the

A

local

hemorrhage

Chap. XVIII.

]

SUTRASTHAN A M.
:

1

67

Bandag'es
the

— The

fourteen
(a

different

forms of

bandage are named as the Kosha

sheath or scabbard),
(cross),

D^ma

(a cord or chaplet

,

the Svastika
(a

the

Anuvelhta
road), the

a

twist),

the Pratoli

winding street or

Mandala

(ring),

the Sthagika (a betel -box),

the

Yamaka
(a

(double or twin), the Khatta (a bedstead),
streamer),

the China

the

Vivandha

(noose),

the

Vitana (canopy) the Gophana (cow-horn), the Panchangi
(five limbed).

Their shapes can be

easil}' inferred

from

the meanings of their names.

Applications :— Out
the sheath-shaped bandage

of these,

the

Kosha

or

should be tied round the
;

thumb and the phalanges

of the fingers

the

Dama

or

chaplet-shaped bandage, round the narrow or unbent
parts of the

body

;

the Svastika or cross shaped, round

the joints, round the articulations or the
as

Marmas known

the

Kurchakas (Navicular ligaments) round the

eye-brows, round the ears and round the region of
the
breast.

Similarly, the bandage,

known

as the

Anu-

vellita, should be used

when

the seat of the affection
the extremities (hands
class should

would be found
and legs\

to be situated at

A

bandage of the Protoli
;

be tied
'ring-

round the neck or the penis

the

Mandalam

should be arrested by binding the part with milk-cream, while the aflected
part in a case of Ardita (facial paralysis) as well as a broken tooth should be

bound with

strings of iron, gold or silver.
skins), while

Warts,

etc.

should be bandaged
be used in

with Ela (cardamom

dried

^ourd-skins should

bandaging ulcers on the head

(scalp).

1

68

THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA.

[Chap. XVlil.

shaped),

round the circular parts of the body
(betel-box),
;

;

the

Sthagika

round the glans-penis

and the

tips of the fingers

the
;

Yamakam, round
the

the confluent

or

contiguous ulcers

Khatta

(bedstead-shaped),

over and around the
parts

cheeks,

cheek-bones,
;

and the

between the ears and the eye-brows

the

Vitdnam

over the skull, the
region of the chin
;

Gophana

(horn-shaped),

round the

and the Panchangi, round the part

lying above the clavicles.

In short, a bandage of any

particular

shape should
it

be tied round the part of the body to which
be found to be most suited.

would
with

Now we

shall deal

the Yantranas (fastenings of bandages) which

admit of

being divided into three different classes according as

they are fastened above, below, or obliquely
an ulcer.

round

Kavalika' (Tow) :— Any
(such as the leaves or
virtues)

soft stuffing

or

tow

the

bark

of trees

of medicinal

between the medicine applied over an ulcer
is

and the bandaging linen
cated
tow).

called the

Kavalika (medishould

The tow

or

the

Kavalika
;

be

placed thickly (on the seat of affection)
physician
(surgeon; having

and then the
with
his
left

pressed
straight,

it

hand should* place a piece of
*

soft,

untwisted,

Carefully examining whether ihe applied

remedy had been unifurmly
tlie

dislributed

over

the

diseased
l)e

surface

and whether

contemplated

pattern of bandage would

actually suited to the case.

Chap. XVIII.

]

SUTRASTHA'NAM.
it,

1

69

and unfolded or unshrivelled linen over
firmly tie up the bandage
in

and then
as

a

manner

so
or

not to
cause

leave any knot over the seat of the ulcer,

to

any discomfort to the patient.

Introduction of lint :— A
saturated

Visheshika

(lint)

with hone}',

clarified

butter,

and a mediulcer.

cinal paste should

be inserted into the

Care

should be taken not to introduce the
dry, or oily (oversoaked in a lubricating
cinal

lint

extremely
oily

or

medilint

preparation),
rise

inasmuch as an over-lubricated
excessive
its

would give

to an

formation

of slimy
substitute

mucus

in

the ulcer,

whereas,

parched

would bring about the
breaking
of

friction

and the
like

consequent

the edges

of

the ulcer,

one mis-

placed or wrongly inserted.

A
ways

bandage should be
of

tied

in

any of the three
Shithila

Gadha,
the

Sama
shape

and and

fastenings

according to

seat

of

the
tied

ulcer.*

A

tight

bandage (Gadha- Vandha) should be

round

the buttocks, round the sides, round the arm-pits, round

the inguinal regions,
head.

round the breast or round the

A

bandage of the

Sama

pattern should be
extremities (hands

fastened round the ears, round the

*

Additional

text

:

— A bandage,

tightly

tied

round an ulcerated or
to the
is

affected part of the
patient,
is

body without causing any pain or discomfort
GAdha-Vandha, while the one which
is

called a

loosely

bound

called Shithila, the one neither too tight nor too loose being called a

Sama-

V'andha.

22

170 and
the
legs),
lips,

THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA.
round the
face,

[Chap. XVIII,

round the throat,

round

round the penis, round the scrotum, round the

back, round the belly and the chest.

A

loose bandaging

(Shithila-Vandha) should be the rule in the region of
the eyes and locations of important joints or unions.

An

ulcer,

brought about or characterised

b)^

the
at a

symptoms of the deranged Pittam and occurring
place where a tight bandaging
fastened with one of the
is

indicated,
class,

should be

Sama-Vandha

and with

a Shithila bandage where one of the

Sama type would
all

be indicated

;

whereas

it

should not be bandaged at

in the event of a loose

bandage (Shithila-Vandha) being
rule

indicated.

The same

should

be observed in the
or

case of an ulcer caused through a diseased

contami-

nated state of the blood.

Similarl}'', in

the case of an ulcer

produced through a deranged condition of the Kapha m,
a loose bandaging, otherwise enjoined to

be adopted,

should be substituted

for

one of the same pattern.

A

tight

bandage should give place to a lighter one

under the same circumstances, and such a procedure
should be deemed as holding good even in the case
of

an ulcer

caused by the action

of

the deranged

Vayu.
In

summer and autumn,

the bandage of an

ulcer,

due to the vitiated blood or Pittam, should be changed
twice a day
;

while the one tied round an ulcer of the

deranged Vayu or Kapham, should be changed on each

Chap. XVIII.

]

SUTRASTHANAM.
and Hemanta.
Similarly, an

171
ulcer,

third

day

in spring

marked by the action of the deranged Vayu, should be
bandaged twice a day.
discretion,

"

Thou

shalt exercise thy

own
of

and vary or adopt the preceding

rules

bandaging according to the exigencies of each case."

A

medicated

lint

fails

to

have any efficacy but
local

rather tends to

augment the

pain

and swelling

where a bandage, enjoined to be loosely bound, or bound
up with moderate and uniform steadiness (Sama-Vandha),
is

replaced by a tight

or

deep fastened one (Gadha-

Vandha,.
case

A

loose

bandage, injudiciously used in a
or

where a

tight

a

moderately firm

bandage

should have been used, would cause the medicine to
fall

off

from the

lint

and give

rise

to

the consequent
of the
ulcer.

friction

and
a

laceration

of the
firm

edges

Similarly,

moderately

and

steady

bandage

(Sama-Vandha; fastened

in a case

where a

light or loose

bandage should have been used, would

fail

to

produce
to

any

effect.

A

proper

bandage

would

lead

the

subsidence of pain, and the

softening

of the

edges of

the ulcer, thus bringing about a purification of the local blood.

Evils
left

of

non- bandaging :~An
flies.

ulcer,
is

uncovered and untied with a suitable bandage,
It
is

soon assailed by gnats and

moistened
in

by

sweat and cold wind,

etc.

and stands
of

danger of
matters

being irritated by deposits

many

foreign

172
such
as>

THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA.
the
particles

[

Chap. XVIII.

of

bone,

dust,

weeds,

etc.

Moreover, a constant exposure to heat or cold brings on
varied
pains,

the

ulcer

develops

into

one

of

a

malignant

type,

and

the applied medicinal
fall off.

plasters

are dried, encrusted and speedily

IVIetrical

Texts :—A
may

smashed, lacerated,

frac-

tured, dislocated, displaced bone, or a vein or a ligament

similarly jeopardised,

be soon healed or set right

with the help of a surgical bandage.

The

patient

is

enabled by such a means to

lie

down, or stand up or
increased facility
of

move about with
rest or

ease.

And an

movement

leads to speedy healing.

Cases where bandaging
ed
:

is

prohibitat all that are

—Ulcers should not be bandaged

due to the deranged condition of blood or Pittam,
or to the
effects

of a

blow

or of

any imbibed poison,
pain, redness,

and characterised by a sucking, burning
or suppuration, as well
as those

which are incidental
of actual or

to burns, or to the applications
cauteries

potential
character.

marked by a sloughing or phagedenic

Metrical Texts :— An
leper or
a carbuncle a fleshy
rat, or

ulcer due to a scald in a

in

a diabetic patient (Pidaka) as
bite

well as

condylomata due to a

from a

venomous

any other poisonous

ulcer should not

be bandaged
*

at all.

The same
:— Pricking,

rule should be

observed

Different reading

burning pain.

Chap. XVIII.]

SUTRASTHANAM.

1

73

in

the case of a dreadful suppuration about the anus, or

in that of a sloughing ulcej.

An

intelligent

physician,

familiar

with

the specific features of ulcers,
of the

should

observe the shape

one under treatment, and
its

prognosticate the result from

seat

or locality

and

the nature of the deranged bodily humours involved
in the case.
is

The season

of the year in which

an ulcer

first

seen to appear also determines the nature of

the pfognosis.

Bandages may be
or

tied

up either from above, below,

from the sides of a diseased locality.

Now
ulcer.*

I

shall

fully describe the process of

bandaging an

First

the Kavalika or

tow should be thickly
after that

laid over

the

seat of the ulcer and

a

piece

of soft
it,

and

unshrivelled

linen

should be placed upon

and the

bandage should be loosely or tightly tied up according
to the directions laid

down

before.*

The

lint

and the

(inserted)

medicine should not be
as-

over-lubricated and must not be inordinately oily in

much

as such a lint or medicine

would give

rise

to

the

formation of excessive and abnormal
the ulcer.

slimy mucous in
lint

On
up

the other hand,
friction

an extremely dry

would

set

and laceration of the edges of
improperly inserted
Brahmadeva,
etc.

the ulcer, like the one wrongly or
*

Several authorities such as
of the
it

GayadAsa,

hold

this

portion

text to

be an interpolation.

Both Dallana and ChakrapSni

have included

within their commentaries with nearly the same remark.

174
into
its

THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA.
cavity, causing

[

Chap, xviii.

numbness, excessive exudation
its

and

unevenness

of

surface.

A
its

lint,

properly
inserted

saturated with a medicinal plaster and
into the cavity of an ulcer, leads to

rightly

speedy healing.
with an ulcer
its

All

secreting

measures

in

connection

should be continued or stopped according to
tion,

condi-

whereby the nature and shape of the bandage

should be determined as well.
to

An

ulcer,

due either
the

the

deranged condition of blood

or

Pittam,

should be dressed and bandaged once a day which

may
of an

be extended to a number of times
ulcer brought about

in

the

case

by the deranged Kapham and Vayu.
be secreted

The pus
by

or the local morbid matter should

pressing the base or the bottom of an
it

ulcer

and

b}-

gently moving the hand along

in a contrary'

direction

(down, upward

;

and

all

bandages

around

joints

and

Gudasandhis) should be duly tied up.

The

rules laid

down under

the head of adhesioning

the parts of a bifurcated ear-lobe would hold good in a
case of severed lips as well.

The measures amply

dis-

cussed in the present

Chapter should be extended by
analogy and judgment to apply

means

of inference,

mutatis mutandis to the bandaging of a fractured or
dislocated bone.

An
other

ulcer, properly

bandaged, has a greater chance
sitting up,

of not being affected

by lying down,
patient,

or

any

movement

of the

nor by the joltings

Chap. XVIII.

]

SUTRASTHA'NAM.
may
ride

1

7^

of a

conveyance he

or

be carried

in.

An

ulcer affecting a vein or
ficial)

a ligament or the skin (super-

or

the

flesh
it.

or

the bones cannot be healed
ulcer

without bandaging
internal
at
its

An

situated in
bod}',

any of the

chambers

(cavities) of the

or occurring

any junction of the limbs or organs,
seat in

etc. or

having

a bone and whether of a deep, superficial,

malignant, or corrosive character, cannot be brought to

a successful termination without the
Thus ends

lielp

of a bandage.
the
Siishruta

the eighteenth Chapter of the Sutrasth^nam in
treats of the dressing

Samhita which

and bandaging of

ulcers.

CHAPTER
Now we
the
etc.

XIX.

shall discuss the

Chapter which treats of

management

or nursing of a patient with an ulcer

(Vranito-pa^saniya-madhyaryam).
First of all a suitable

chamber should be sought and
It

selected for a patient, suffering from an ulcer.

should

be roomy and spacious and situated
able
site.

in

a

commend-

IVIetrical

Text :— Diseases,
in their

which are physical,
can never attack

mental or traumatic
a person

origin,

who

dwells in a clean and spacious chamber,

protected from excessive heat, and strong gusts of wind.

The bed

should

be

spread

clean,

ample

and

comfortable, with

the head of the beadstead turned

towards the

east,

and provided with some kind of a

weapon.

rVIetrical

Texts :— In
greatest

a

spacious

and well-

spread bed, an ulcer-patient can toss about and
his limbs with the

move
for

comfort.

The reason
is

the head being turned towards the east
patient

that the

may

easily
spirits,

make

obeisance to the
inhabit that
in

(demons

and) celestial
sky.

who

quarter of the

Thus the patient

shall lie

comfortable posture,

attended upon by his sweet-talking friends and relations.

Chap. XIX.

]

SUTRASTHANAM.
friends

1

77

Metrical Text :— The
of a patient shall alleviate
,

and

relations

the

pain

of his ulcer with

pleasant and interesting topics,

and by solacing him

with the prospect of a
patient

speedy recovery.
in

An

ulcer-

should

not

sleep

the day time,

as

it

tends to

aggravate the pain, swelling
its

and

redness
rise

of the ulcer, increases

exudations,

and gives

to itching and heaviness of the limbs.

The

patient must carefully protect
of his
limbs,

the ulcer

when
or

moving any
sitting

such

as

standing up,

down, or turning on

his sides, or

while moving

about, or speaking in a loud voice.

IVIetrical
he
feels

Text

:

— An

ulcer-patient,

even

if

himself

strong

and capable, should
as

avoid

a standing or sitting

posture,

well

as

locomotion,

and day-sleep.*

These acts done to excess, or a long

confinement to bed would aggravate the bodily Vayu,
thus causing pain in the ulcer.

He
of,

should studiously avoid the

company and touch
with

and even conversation with,

women

whom

he

can legitimately have intercourse.

Metrical Text

:

— The sight

of a

woman

etc

might lead to the secretion and emission of semen and

*

Different reading

:

— Ridint;

in

a

carriage

or

on horseback,

and

garrulousness.

23

178
give
rise

THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA.
to
all

[

Chap. XIX.

the distressing symptoms, which

are

consequent upon an act of actual coitus under the
circumstance.

Prohibited
newly
Kalaya,

diet :— A

diet

consisting

of

harvested Dhan3''am,

Masha

pulse,

Sesamum_,

Kulattha, and Nishpaba should

be

avoided

by an

ulcer-patient.

The

pot-herbs

known

as Haritaka-

shaka, acid, saline or
its

pungent substances, treacle and
dried

modifications, cakes,

meat, dried pot-herbs,

goat's flesh, mutton,

meat of animals which are amphiclose to water,
lard,

bious in their habits or which live

cold

water,

Krishara

(a

composition prepared with
rice),

sesamum, Masha pulse and
preparation of
curd, milk
rice,

P^yasa (a sweetened

milk and sugar boiled together),
as

and whey should be regarded

unwholesome.

iVIctrical
which

Texts :— Vegetables

and

articles

belong to the groups commencing from

the

one technically known as the Nava-Dhanya-Varga,

and ending with the one known

as the

Takra-Varga,

should be understood as possessed of the property of
'

increasing the pus in an ulcer

and of aggravating the
the
habit of taking

deranged bodily humours.

If in

wine, an ulcer-patient will do well to avoid the use
of spirituous liquors, such as Mairaya, Sidhu, Sura and
*

Arishta,

Asava,

its

varieties.*

An

ulcer

may

develop

The

species of wine

which are made of the expressed juice of grapes
mentioned under the head

and are antacids
of Haemoptysis,

in their virtues, as well as those

may be

given to an ulcer-patient.

Chap. XIX.

]

SUTRASTHA'NAM.

179

into one of a

malignant type through the use of a
acid
in in its
its

wine which

is

taste,

or

is

sharp,
is

dry and

heat-making

potency,

or

followed

by

almost instantaneous intoxication.

An

ulcer-patient should avoid all things that

retard

the progress of a rapid cure, such as wind, dust, smoke,

exposure to heat and

cold,

over-eating,
fear,

unpleasant
anger, grief,

sounds and

sights,

envy, humiliation,

scheming, keeping of late hours, sitting or lying in an

uneven posture,
cise,

fasting,

garrulousness,

physical

exer-

leaping or a standing posture, locomotion, ex-

posure to cold winds, ingestion of unwholesome, in-

compatible or

indigestible
locality.

substances,

and

flea-bites

on the affected

IVIctrical

Texts :— The
the above

food, partaken of
is

by

a weakened and emaciated ulcer-patient,
digested owing to
multifarious
disturbs

not fully

mentioned,

and other
violently

causes.

The undigested food

and aggravates the bodily humours, which move
the body and give
rise

about

in

to swelling,

secretion,

burning pain and suppuration in the ulcer.

An
clipped
to the
rites

ulcer-patient

should always be clad in
his

clean
closely

and white garments, have and pared
off,

hair
in

and

nails

and

live

humble devotion

Br^hmans, to the gods and the preceptors.

The

of benediction

and divine peace should be done
?

unto

him.

Wherefore

Because the monsters and

j8o

the SUSHRUTA SAMHITA.
of mighty

[Chap. XIX.

demons
of the

prowess,

who

are

the attendants

gods Pashupati, Kuvera and
visit

Kum^ra,

roam

about in quest of prey, and

the bedside of an
flesh

ulcer-patient out of their fondness for

and blood,

being attracted thereto by the smell of the secreted and

morbid matter
to take
is

in

the ulcer.
life

These

evil

spirits

come
which

away

the

of a patient in a
fatally,

case

doomed

to terminate
is

while in a successful
sacri-

case their advent
ficial

due to the desire of extorting

oblations from him.

Authoritative verse on
ject —These
:

the

subheart
;

honour-seeking

evil

spirits

should be

worshipped and propitiated with the whole

and

offerings
etc.

of burning incense

sticks,

edibles

and

sacrifices,

should

be

made

to

them with the

greatest humility.

The

evil

spirits,

worshipped and

propitiated

as

above, spare the
of compassion
'.

life

of a self-controlled patient
shall

^out

Hence he

be kept in a chamber

furnished with flowers, garlands, weapons, fried paddy,

and lamps kept continuously burning.
relations

His friends and

should regale

him

with fond and loving with the

topics to drive

away the

feeling of sleepiness

prospect of a speedy cure.

Metrical
cheered

Texts :— A
the

patient,

constantly

with

suggested prospects of a

speedy

Chap.

XIX.]

SUTRASTHANAM.
and beguiled with
pleasant

l8l

recovery,

and congenial

discourses, soon gets rid of his complaint.

Morning and evening, the physicians and the Brdh-

mans should perform the
as laid

rites of

benediction, over him^

down

in the Rik, Yajuh,

Saman and

the Atharva

Vedas.

IVIetrical
the

Texts

:

— For ten
and

consecutive

days,

room

of the patient should be diligently fumigated,

morning and evening, with the fumes
Arishta-leaves,
clarified-butter
stick.
salt

of

mustard,
into

made

a

kind of incense

Drugs such

as Chhatra, Atichhatra,

Languli,

Jatil^,

Bramhacharini, Lakshmi, Guh^^ Atiguha, Shata-viryaya,
Sahasra-viryaya and

white mustard seeds

should be

placed on the head of the patient.

Metrical
fanned
with
not
the

Texts :— The
blowing
in

patient
so

should
the

be

chowries

that

ulcer

may
during

be

any

way
The
The

thrashed or
ulcer

lacerated

fanning.

should

not

be

scratched or pressed.

patient should be carefully
in the

watched, while asleep.
night, fly

Demons, that get abroad

from the presence of an ulcer-patient proas herds of deer

tected as above,

fly

from the

forest

where

lions are found.

Regimen
ulcer-patient

of diet

and conduct :— An

living

on a diet consisting of old and

igo
boiled

THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA.
Shall
rice,

[

Chap. XIX.

not

extremely

liquefied,

and
the

treated

with

clarified-butter,

and

taken

with

cooked meat of animals of the J^ngala
gets rid of his disease.

species,

soon

A
as

diet consisting of boiled rice,

the pot-herbs

known

the Tanduliyakam, Jivanti,

Sunishannaka, V^stuka,

immatme

Mulaka, Vartaku,

Patola and K^ravella, fried with Saindhava (rock-salt)

and

clarified-butter,

and seasoned with the expressed
or

Juice of

Dhadima and Amalakam,

of
for

Mudga soup
the patient.

treated as above, should be prescribed

Barley
should

powder, Vilepi, Kulm^sha and boiled water,
be likewise given to
Fatigue
to or

the

patient
exercise

for

food

and drink.
the
ulcer

physical

causes

swell, while
local

the

keeping of late hours
sleep during the
rise to

increases the

redness.

A
may

day
the

under the circumstance would give
affected part,

pain in

while a coitus

bring

on the death

of the patient.

An
and

ulcer-patient,
in

not given to sleep in the day,
gusts

and ^ing

a

room protected from

of wind,

strictly following the instructions
is

of his physician,

(surgeon)

healed in the course of a very short time
life

and

will

enjoy a long

through the observance of
This
is

the abovesaid regimen of diet and conduct.

the

dictum of Dhanvantari.
Thus ends
the nineteenth Chapter of the SutrasthSnam in the
treats of the nursing or

Sushruta

SamhitS which

management

of an ulcer-patient.

CHAPTER
Now we
shall discuss

XX.
of regimen,
etc.

the

Chapter which treats of
effects

the salutary and non- salutary

(H ita'h itiya- madhyayam)
According to certain eminent medical authorities, an
article or

a substance which

is

beneficial

in

derangeinjuri-

ments of the bodily Vayu
ous in a
to
or
Pittaja

may
;

prove positively
it

affection

hence

is is

impossible
absolutely

name an

article

or

substance which
(^irrespective

universally

wholesome
disease,

of the

nature

and type of a

and of the deranged bodily

humours involved
But we
pothesis,

therein}.

cannot

subscribe

to

the

foregoing

hy-

since
are,

by
or

nature

or

combination,

things

(substances

become endued

with properties,

which prove absolutely beneficial or unconditionally
harmful or exert a mixed virtue (both beneficial and
injurious) according to the difference in

the

natu^ and

type of the disease in which they are employed. Things
or
articles

such as,

clarified- butter,

water,

milk and

boiled-rice, etc.

may

be
their

denominated
congeniality

as absolutely
to,

beneficial

owing to

or natural

suitableness to the

human

organism.
fire,

Similarly, substances such as

alkali

and poison,
in virtue

may

be designated as unconditionally harmful

184

THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA.
suppurating
lit
:

[Chap.

XX.

of their burning,
effect

boiling)

and

fatal

upon the organic bodies
is

in general.

A

substance,
injuri-

which
ous

innocuous by nature,

may

prove equally

as

any active poison through an injudicious or
;

incompatible combination
article,

whereas a substance or an

which proves

beneficial in a

derangement of the
the Pittam.

Vayu, ma}^ prove otherwise

in a disorder of

Articles or substances

which
all

may

be

safel}'-

included

within the food stuffs of
bers of the group Varga)

human
as

beings are the

memthe

known

the red

Shali,

Shastika, the Kanguka, the

Mukundaka, the Panduka,
the Ashanaka,

the Pitaka, the Pramodaka, the Kalaka,

the Pushpaka, the Karddamaka, the Shakunahrita, the

Sugandhaka, the Kalama, the Nivara, the Kodrava the
Uddalaka, the Shy^maka, the
etc., as

Godhuma and

the Venn,

well as the flesh of the Ena, the Harina (copper

coloured deer), the
matrika, the
the

Kuranga, the Mriga, the Mrigathe

Shvadanstra,
(pigeon),

Karala,

the

Krakara,
the
like

Kapota

the

Lava,

the

Tittiri,

Kapinjala, the Varttira, and the Varttika, and such
beasts and birds.

The

varieties

of pulse

which form
the

the articles of
the

human

food are

known

as

Mudga,

Vana-Mudga,

the

Makushtha, the Kalaya, the

Masura, the Mangalya, the Chanaka, the Harenu, the
the Adhaki

and the Satina.

Similarly,

the different

species of pot-herbs, which

may
his

be safely used by a

man

to give a greater relish to

food, are

named

as the

Chap.

XX.]

SUTRASTHANAM.

1

85

Chilli,

the

V^stuka, the Sunishannaka the Jivanti, the
the

Tanduliyaka, and
butter,

Mandukaparni,
as

etc.

Clarified-

the salt

known

the

Saindhava,

and

the

luscious juice of the

pomegranate and the Amalakam,

should be generally deemed the most wholesome articles
of food.
Similarly,

the practise of self-control, residence in a
gusts of wind, sleeping

room protected from the strong

only at night, tepid water, and moderate physical exercise
should be regarded as absolutely conducive to a better
preservation of health.

We

have already enumerated the names of subare

stances which

absolutely

beneficial

or

uncondi-

tionally injurious to

human

health.

Things which are
for

both wholesome and injurious are those, which,
example,

may

prove

beneficial

in

a distemper of
a
Pittaj a affec-

the bodily. Vayu though
tion.

otherwise in
the

The

Valli

fruit,

Karaka, the

Karira,

the

Amla-phala, the
oil,

salt,

the Kulattha, the Pinyaka, curd,

Virohi, cakes, the dried pot-herbs, goat's flesh, mutton,
fruit,

wine, the Jamboline

the Chilichima

fish,

the

flesh

of the Godha, and the Varaha

(wild boar)

being eaten
articles

simultaneousl)^ with milk, furnish an

example of

which

may

act

as

deadly poisons through incompatible

combinations.

Metrical Texts:— An
24

intelligent

physician,

considering the nature of the disease, the strength and

1

86

THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA.
patient,

[

Chap.

XX.

temperament of the
tion
as

and the

state of his

diges-

well as the seat of the affection, the physical

features

of the country and the then prevailing season

of the year, should prescribe a diet which he thinks
the most proper and suitable to the requirements of

the case.

Since the

conditions infinitely vary in the

different types of diseases

and even the same conditions

do not obtain

in

one and the same type,* physicians
diet of their
its

generally prescribe a

own

selection,

one

determined with regard to
preference
to

general effect on health, in
laid

one that has been

down

in

books

of medicine.

If

asked to prescribe either milk or poison to a

healthy person, a physician would naturally prescribe
the former, and thereby, prove the absolute wholesomeness of milk and unconditional harmfulness of poison.

Thus

is

verified,

Sushruta, the correctness

of the

dic-

tum, that things such as

water,

etc.,

are

absolutely

and unconditionally wholesome or otherwise, by virtue
of their respective natural properties.

Things which are through combination

unwholesome
:

—Now

I

shall

enu-

merate the names of substances which become positively

unwholesome through incompatible combinations.
*

The
deter-

The

propriety and improprietyof a particular diet should be
full

mined with a

regard

to

the antecedent

and attending circumstances

of a particular malady.

Chap. XX.

]

SUTRASTHANAM.

1

87

flesh

of

any domestic (Gramya) or aquatic (Anupa)
the flesh of those which live in

beast or bird, as well as

marshy ground (Audaka), should not be eaten with
boiled rice

prepared from
or

paddy
lard,

which

has

com-

menced
or

sprouting,

with

honey, milk, treacle

Masha-pulse.

The

pot-herbs,,

known

as

the

Rohini and the
of
in

J4tu-shaka,

should not be partaken
;

combination

with milk and honey

nor the

flesh of a heron,

eaten simultaneously with Kulm^sha

and the spirituous liquor known as V^runi. Maricha
(black pepper)

and Pippalis should not be eaten

in

combination with the pot-herbs

known as the Kakam^chi.
Siddhi should
flesh

The

pot-herbs

known

as the

Nadima and

not be simultaneously eaten with curd, and the
a cock.

of

Honey

should not be taken immediately
water,

after

drinking

warm

nor

meat

and

bile

should

be simultaneouly eaten.

Sura
in

(wine),

Krishara and
Similarly,

Payasa should not be taken

combination.
fish

Souviraka and sesamum paste,
of sugarcane juice,
treacle

and

modifications

and

Kdkam^chi,

honey

and Mulakam, treacle and the
or

flesh

of a wild boar,
in

honey and

boar's

flesh

should not be taken

combination.

Similarly,

milk

and Mulakam,
flesh of

mango

fruit

and

Jamboline

fruit

and the

Godh^, Porcupine and
fish,

hog should not be eaten together. All

specially

those of the Chilichimi species, should not be taken with

1

88

I'HE

SUSHRUTA SAMHITA.

[Chap. XX.

milk, nor the fruit of a plantain tree should be

simulta-

neously eaten with Tila

fruit,

milk or whey.

The

fruit

known
or

as

Lakucha should not be taken with milk, curd
clarified-butter,

meat soup, nor with honey and

nor

immediately before or

after the drinking of milk.

I

ncompatible preparations of food:—
we
shall

Now
stances,

enumerate

the

names

of

sub-

which become unwholesome through incom-

patible preparations. Flesh of pigeon fried with mustard
oil

should

not be

eaten.

The

flesh

of a Kapinjala,

Myura (peacock, L^va,
with castor
plants,
in a
oil

Tittira,
fire

and

Godha,
twigs

boiled

and on a
be

of the

of castor

should not

eaten.
bell

Clarified-butter,
for

kept

vessel

of Indian

metal

ten consecutive

days,

should

be rejected as unwholesome.

Honey
article

should not be used in
or

combination with an
fire,

substance

heated by

nor

in

the seasons

of

spring

and

autumn.
in a

The pot-herbs
bowl
in

known
fish

as

the

Kakam^chi, boiled

which

or ginger

had

been

previously boiled

or

prepared,

should be

rejected as positively injurious.
Similarly,

the pot-herbs

known

as

the

Upodika

should not be eaten by boiling them with the levigated
paste of sesamum.

The

flesh

of a

heron

prepared

with hog's lard should not be taken with the pulp
of the cocoanut
fruit.

The

flesh of a

Bhasa

bird, roasted

on a

spit over a charcoal fire, should not

be eaten.

Chap.

XX.

]

SUTRASTHANAM.

189

Objectionable proportions :— Now we
shall

enumerate the names of substances which become
in

unwholesome by being mixed
portions.

objectionable
(such
as
oil

pro-

Two

oily

substances

and
oily

clarified butter)

or

honey

and

any

of

the

substances,

mixed

in equal proportions,

should not be

taken
after

;

nor should rain water be drunk immediately

having taken honey and clarified-butter.

Incompatible tastes, potencies and chemical actions :— Now we shall describe
the substances enumerated in couples, and possessed of
different
tastes,

which
their

prove

incompatible
tastes,

to

each

other through

respective

potencies and
acid
tastes,

chemical actions
or sweet

Vipaka).
tastes

Sweet

and

and

saline

should be deemed incompotencies and

patible to each other

in respect of their

inherent properties. Sweet and

acrid tastes are incom-

patible to each other in all the above three respects.
Similarly, sweet

and

bitter, or

sweet and astringent
to each

things should be

deemed incompatible
and chemical

other in

respect of their tastes,

action.

Acid and

sahne things are incompatible to each other as regards
their flavours.

Acid and acrid things are incompatible

as

regards

flavour

and

chemical

action.

Acid

and

bitter, or acid

and astringent

things,

are incompatible

to

each other, both as regards their respective flavours,

potencies,

and digestive or chemical transformations.

IQO
Saline

THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA.

[

Chap.

XX.

and pungent things are incompatible to each

other as regards their respective flavour (Rasa)
digestive (chemical) transformation.

and

Similarly,

saline

and
are

bitter

things

or

saline

and

astringent

things

incompatible

to

each other

in respect of all the three abovesaid relations
gories.

and

cate-

Pungent and
other
in

bitter

tastes

are

incompatible

to

each

respect

of

flavour

and

digestive

transformation,
astringent
or

whereas substances
bitter

of

pungent
tastes

and
in-

and

astringent
as

are
their

1

compatible
spective

to

one

another

regards

re-

potencies, flavours

and digestive

chemical)

action or transformation.

Degrees

of

incompatibility

:

-Sub-

stances that are incompatible with, or antagonistic to, the

system through a difference of degree or intensity, as
well as things which bring about an
of the
their

extreme dryness

organism, or those which are extremely oily in

composition

or

are

characterised

by

extreme

cold or warmth, should be categorically rejected.

Authoritative verses on the subject :—Things or substances which are incompatible
to

one another

in their respective tastes, potencies

and

reactionary transformation
lutely

should be denied as absorest

unwholesome, while the
of

should be consi-

dered as possessed

mixed

virtues

^wholesome

or

Chap.

XX.

]

SUTRASTHA'NAM.
certain

191
as

injurious

under

circumstances'

described

before.

By

taking substances which are incompatible to one

another as regards their tastes, potencies and digestive
transformation,

a

greed}^

and

intemperate

person

becomes

afflicted

with disease and weakness of the

sense-organs, and ultimately meets with his doom.

Anything, which being taken enrages or agitates the
bodily humours without
(

causing the

assimilated

food
is is

effete matter) to

be evacuated out of the bowels, or
to, or

possessed of a taste contrary

other than

what

necessary

for the

purposes of vitalization, should be
all

looked upon as the primary source of
tempers.
Diseases, brought about

bodily

dis-

by a food

or drink

composed
the use of
of

of incompatible substances, are amenable to
purgatives,

emetics,

or

pacifying
;

(corrective

the

deranged humours) medicines

and such a

diet,

even

when found

unavoidable, should be preceded by the use

of drugs or substances potent

enough to neutralise

its

baneful effect.*

A

meat,

in

the composition of which

substances of
fails

incompatible virtues and potencies largely enter,

to

develop any distressing or harmful symptoms in subjects

who
*

are habitually

addicted to

it,

or

who

takes

it

in

This couplet occurs also in the Charaka Samhita.

192

THE SUSHRUTA

SAMHITA'.

[

Chap. xx.

small quantities, as well as in persons of youthful

vigor

and strong
invigorated

iappetite,

or

in

those

who have become

by the use of

oily

and albuminous food and

healthful physical exercise.*

The

effects of the

winds :— Now

we

shall

describe the effects of the winds on the body, (as

they

blow from the

dfferent quarters of the heaven)

The East wind :— The East wind,
and sweet in
it

which

is

cool
salt;

its

potency, is heavy and charged with

aggravates blood and Pittam and gives rise to an acid
It specially

digestive reaction.

aggravates the disease
ulcer, or

in a patient suffering

from a wound or an

from

the effect of any poison, and affects persons of Shleshmdla

temperament.

It

is

highly

efficacious

to

fatigued

persons, as well as to those of a Vatala (nervous) tem-

perament, or
disease
ulcers
;

who

are afflicted with

any

sort of

Kaphaja

though

it

increases the slimy secretion in their

if

there be any.

The South wind — The
:

South wind
effect
is

is

light,

sweet ('produces
organism

the

same soothing
sweet
taste)

on the

like a thing of

and

followed by
its

an astringent after-taste
reaction.
It
is

(Anurasa) being antacid in
to

the best of winds, gives vigour

the

eyes,

increases the strength,

and soothes the blood and

the Pittam without aggravating the bodily Vayu.
'

Different

Reading—In

a child or in a

man

of voracious appelitc.

Chap. XX.

]

SUTRASTHA'NAM.
West wind
is

193
pure,
It

The West wind :— The
non- slimy, dry, rough to
absorbs the albumen
absorbs
or
dries

the perception, and keen.

or oily principle of the body.
fat

It

up
in

and Kapham, produces

a
it,

parched

condition

the

body when exposed

to

and speedily diminishes the strength of a person.

The North wind
crisp, mild, of a

:— The North wind
in

is

cold,

sweet taste terminating

an astringent

one.

It

does not in any

way

enrage or agitate the
subjects
it

deranged bodily humours.
increases the strength

In healthy

and the running secretions from

the different orfices
etc.). It

of the

body (such

as

the nostrils

proves extremely salutary to patients suffering
effects of poison.

from consumption, cachexia and the

Tims ends the twentieth Ch.ipter
sanihila wliich iieals
(if

of (he

.Siitiasthanrtiii in

the.Sushiuia

snlutarx'

and nonsnlutai^-

efiVrts of the reginien.

25

CHAPTER
Now we
the
shall discuss the

XXI.

Chapter which investigates

nature

of bodily

humours, as exciting causes of

ulcers

(Vrana-prashna-madhyayam).
and the most essential
organism.
factors in the con-

The Vayu, Pittam and Shleshma should be considered
as the primary
stitution of
vital

human

These fundamental and

humours, occupying respectively the lower, middle,
its

and upper parts of the body, maintain

integrity.

The

human body
humours
in

is

supported by

the
as
a

three

fundamental
house
;

the

same way

dwelling

is

propped up by three supporting poles or stays

from

which

fact,

the body

is

called the

three-supported one

(Tristhunam) by certain authorities.
dition

A

deranged con-

of these
its

three

fundamental humours
or

may

bring con-

about

dissolution

death,

while

on their

tinuance in a normal state depends the vitality of the organism.
fourth,

These three humours,
principle

in

combination with a
the
origin,

the

of blood, determine

preservation, and dissolution of animated organism and

permeate

it

with their respective

properties

till

the

moment

of death.

Authoritative
ject
:

verse on
organism
are

the subwithout

— There

can be no

Vdyu,

Pittam,

Kapham and

blood, which

necessary to

Chap.

XXI.]

SUTRASTHANAM.
maintain
its

195

constantly

integrity.

The terms Vata
respecsmell,

(Vayu),
tively
'

Pittam and Shleshma (Kaphami are

derived from the roots 'Va', to
heat,

move

or

Tapa,' to burn or to

and

" Shlisha," to embrace,

with the

suffix 'Ta' thereto

added.*

Seats of the bodily humours
we
mours.
in

:—

Now

shall describe the locations of the foregoing vital hu-

The

Vaj'^u

may be

briefly described

as

located

the regions of the pelvis (Shroni), and the rectum
.

(Guda

The Pittam has
1

its

seat in the region

between

the stomach Amashaya) and the intestines (Pakvashaya)

which
the

is

above the pelvis and the rectum and below
the

umbilicus, while

Kapham

is

ensconced within

the cavity of the stomach (Amashaya.

Xow we
vital

shall divide the
five

locations
:

of each
five

of

the

humours into
will

parts

— The

localities of

the

Vayu

be described under the head of Vata-

Vyadhis (nervous diseases), while those of Pittam are the
liver

and the spleen, the

heart, the pupils

of the

eyes,

the skin and the intestines (Pakvashaya\
is

The Kapham
throat, the

located in the

region

of the

breast,

the

head, the joints and the stomach (Amashaya).

The

fore-

going regions are the seats of the vital humours in their

normal

state.

*

From

this shiiuld

he infenetl that niotion and

sim-ll

arc

ilic

nalural

allriljutes

of ihe

viud

\^yu,

heal

and ImininL; arc

lliosc uf

I'iUam, and

union and inlegraliun arc

iho.sc of

Kapham.

196

THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. Texts :—The
by
vital

[Chap. xxi.

IVIetrical
Pittam and

humours ^Vayu,

Kapham

maintain the integrity of the
creating,

animated

organism

assimilating

and
sun,

diffusing strength in the

same way

as the

moon, the

and the winds maintain the
globe.*

integrity

of the

terrestrial

The Pittam
the Pittam
is

:— Now

it

may

be asked whether
fire,

identical with the

elemental

or

is

it

something

other than

that

?

The question may be
is

answered by stating that the Pittam
fire.

the same

as

Since such
,

symptoms,
and
all

as

a burning

sensation,

digestion (boiling

other

characteristics

of

fire

can never exhibit themselves in the

human body
is

withcalled

out the intervention of Pittam. Pittam therefore

internal

fire.t

Consequently, an enfeebled action of Pittam

is

re-

medied by the administration of drugs and substances
which are akin to the elemental
fire

in

their attributes,

while an abnormal or excessive action (secretion) of

Pittam
kindled
fire

is

subdued by cooling measures as an oversubdued by moisture.
factor) in the
the ea.rlh

fire is

There

is

no other

(heat making
The moon
laves

organism than Pittam.
lo
it

*

and imparls

the

vitaHsing principle
in virtue

with her
of his

own ambrosial lii^ht. The sun draws off the moisture own attractive force, and the Vdyu distributes the heal and
surface.
is

moisture

over
t

its

The analogy

based

on the healing (and metabolic) actions of
its

Pittam, and does not extend to

liquid

secreli<jn
it is

,'bile).

Bui

since

the
fire-

former attributes

permeate

in its entirety,

designated the Inlernal

Chap. XXI.

]

SUTRASTHA'NAM.
:— By

1^7

The Pd'Chakygni

the ordination of fate

or necessity (unfathomable natural

cause \ the

Pittam,
<

located in the region between

the stomach (Am^shaya

and the
of the
etc.
1

intestines

(Pakvashaya), helps the digestion

four

kinds of food

such as drink and edibles

partaken of by a living subject, and purges off the
in

residue or impure morbiferous matter

the

shape of
process.
in
its
is

urine and excreta after the completion

of the

Even thus
its

located,

it

keeps up the
etc.)

temperature
in

other distant locations (skin,
heat-giving attribute.

virtue

of

native

Hence
fire

this

Pittam
in

called the

Pachakagni

(digestive

or

heat)

an

animated organism.

The Ranjaka'gni
Pittam, which has
its

:— The

function

of

the

seats in the

liver

and the spleen,
(
i

consists in imparting

its

characteristic
is

pigment Ragakrit

to the lymph-chyle
(lit
:

and

hence known as Ranjakagni
bile.)

— dyeing
is

fire

or

pigment

The Sa'dhaka'gni
heart
or
is

:— The Pittam

seated in the

denominated

as

the Sadhakagni (performing

operating heat or
to

fire;

inasmuch
or

as

its

action of

bring

about the

fruition

realisation

one's desires.

The Alochaka'gni
kagni
(the

:—The
is

Pittam,
called the
its

which

is

located in the pupils of the eyes,

Alochais

Pittam or

fire

of sight) as

office

to

igS

THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA.
of

[Chap. XXI.

catch the image the
e5'es.

any external object presented to

The Bhrarjaka'gni
its

:-The

Pittam, which has
(illuminat-

seat in the skin,
or
irradiating

is

called the

Bhrajakagni
it

ing

heat)

inasmuch as

absorbs the
lubrications,

substances used in the shape of imguents.
etc.

and

irradiates the

glow of one's natural complexion.
Pittam
is

IVIetrical
and warm

texts :-The
its

a keen, sharp

liquid, of a blue colour (in its
(in

normal
It

state),

or yellowish

deranged condition).
is

emits a

kind of fleshy smell and

possessed of a pungent taste

which

is

transformed into an acid one

when deranged

or

vitiated.

Seats of Shiesh ma'
shall describe the locations

Kapham :— Xow we
Kapham.
The stomach
occupies the
of Pittam

of

(Amashaya), which

is

the

seat of

Kapham,

same

position as regards

its

location to

that

as the sun holds in relation to that of the
since

moon.

And

the stomach (Amashaya;
is

is

situated

above the
a property
Pit-

pancreas (Pittashaya^-, and
(cooling) contrary to the

endowed with

primary virtue (heating) of

tam, and, since the heat emitted by the receptacle of Pit-

tam

is

naturally radiated in an

upward

direction, the four

kinds of food, brought in to the stomach (Amashaya), are
boiled and transformed into a soft placid mass (chyme;,
like
rice

boiled

in

a bowl

full

of water placed

over a

Chap. XXI.

1

SUTRASTHA'NAM.
The
food,

1

99

burning oven.

thus brought

down

into the

stomach,

is

easily moistene'd, disintegrated

and digested

by coming

into contact with the oily secretions of the

stomach (Amdshaya).

IVIetrical

Texts :— The Kapham

is

originated

through the sweet, slimy, watery, exudating character
of the

food brought into the stomach

(Amashaya)

;

and hence the
attributes.

Kapham becomes endued

with similar

The Kledakam
principally

:— The Kapham, even though
stomach, permeates
its
its

located

in

the

four

other distant

localities
in virtue

with
of
its

peculiar

watery or

humid essence

inherent attributes.

The Avalamvaka
the neck and the sternum,

:— The Kapham,

located in

the region of the chest, protects the joints of the arms,

and enables the heart to
with the help
of the
its

perform

its

natural

functions

lymph-chyle derived from the assimilated food and

own

intrinsic potency.

The Vodhakam

:— The Kapham,

situated
its

in

the throat and at the root of the palate,

lends

aid to

the perception of tastes by maintaining the moist or

humid character

of the tongue.

The Tarpakam
the

:— The Kapham,

situated

in

head, cools and

bathes the different sense organs

200
with
its

THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA.
own humid
essence,
in

[

Chap. XXi.

virtue of

its

natural

humid

attributes.

The Shimcshakam
in

:— The Kapham,
firmly
united,

situated

the

joints,

keeps

them

protects

their

articulation

and

opposes their separation and

disunion.

Metrical Texts :— The
heavy,
is

Kapham
its

is

white,
state,
it

oily,

slimy and cool.

In

normal
is

possessed of a sweet taste, which
saline

followed by

a

one

in its reactionary transformation (chemical

reaction

when deranged

or vitiated.
seats
ot

Seats of blood :— The
in the
it

blood are

liver
its

and the spleen, as stated before, whence
other receptacles
to

helps

serve

their

proper

functions.

Metrical Texts :— The
glossy, a
little

blood

is

red,

oily

or

warm, and

is

possessed of an attribute
It is heav)',

similar to something of a sweet taste.
it

and
its

emits a fleshy smell and resembles the Pittam in
other

reactionary process, or in

words, those

factors,

which derange the Pittam,

vitiate the

blood as well.

These are the locations of the deranged humours,

which are respectively accumulated
of the aforesaid causes.

in

them on account
exhibit

The deranged humours

such symptoms

as, fullness

and stuffedness of the abdo-

men, or of any of the viscera (due to the action of the

Chap. XXI.

]

SUTRA8THANAM.
;

20I

deranged Vayu
to

yellowness of the affected part (due
,

the

action of the deranged Pittam

and diminution
a

of the bodily heat, heaviness of the limbs, and
of languor .^due to the action of the

sense

diseased Kapham),
(factors)

and a natural repugnance

for

causes

which

lead to their respective aggravations or accumulations.

The medical treatment should be commenced
as the

as

soon

symptoms, peculiar to
manifest.

their accumulation,

would

become

Humours and
Xow we
is

their aggravations :—
humours.

shall

enumerate the causes which agitate and

(aggravate) the deranged

The bodily Vayu

aggravated by such factors (conduct, practices and
etc.)
as,

diet,

wrestling

with

a

wrestler of superior

strength, violent

gymnastic exercises, sexual excesses,

excessive study, a headlong plunge into water or a leap

from an inordinate height, running, a violent pressing
blow, leaping over a ditch, a bounding
gait,

swimming,

keeping of late hours, carrj'ing of heavy loads, excessive
riding,

walking a long

distance

and
of

the

partaking

of a

food into the

composition

which

pungent,
or

astringent, bitter, light or

parchifying articles,

sub-

stances of cool potency, largely enter.

Diets consisting

of dried pot-herbs,

Vallura, Varaka, Uddalaka, Kara-

dusha,

Shyamaka, Xiv^ra, Mudga,

Masura,

Adhaki,

Harenu, Kalaya, and Nishpava tend to aggravate the
bodily V^yu.
26

202

THE SUSHRUTA
unequal
or

SAMHITA'.
meals,

[

Chap. XXI.

Fasting,

irregular

over-eating,

voluntary suppression of urine, semen, and tears, or of
the mucous secretions
coryza,

from the nose as
of
defecation,

in

a

fluent

a

forced
are

stoppage

eructation

or

sneezing

the factors, which

may

be set

down

as the aggravating causes of the bodily

Vayu.
is

Metrical Text :— The
aggravated
in

bodily

Vayu

naturally
in winter,

a cold, cloudy or
in

windy day,

during the rains,

the

morning

and evening

and

especially at the close of digestion.

Symptoms of aggravated Pittam
The Pittam
is

:—

aggravated by anger,

grief,

fear,

fatigue,

fasting, acid transformation

(reaction) of the assimilated

food,

or

deficient gastric

digestion,

unnatural

sexual

indulgence, partaking of a food consisting
acid or saline, keen, heat

of pungent,

making

or light substances, as
is

well

as

of

those
acidity.

whose digestion
It
is

followed by

a

reactionary

aggravated by the use of
paste.
as

sesamum
Atashi,
flesh
its

oil,

or of

sesamum

Kulattha, Sarshapa,

the

pot-herbs

known

Haritaka,

fish,

the

of a

Godha
if

or

a goat or mutton

may

lead to

aggravation,
Similarly,

taken iniudiciously.
Kurchika,
kinds
of
(in-

the use of curd, whey,

spissated

milk),

Sauviraka,
fruits),

different

wine,

Amla-phala (sour
oil)

or Katvara i.curd
to

mixed with
be followed

and excessive exposure

the sun,

may

by the same consequences.

Chap. XXI.

1

SUTRASTHA'NAM.
addition
to
all

203
these,

Metrical Texts :— In
the Pittam
in
is

spontaneously and abnormally aggravated
in

summer,

autumn,
of

at

noon,

at

mid-night
well
as

and

during the process

digestion,

as

by the

partaking of hot or

warm

substances.

Symptoms of the deranged Kapham — The deranged Kapham aggravated by
:

is

sleep in the day time,

or b}'

the following of lazy or
of

sedentary habits.
of substances

The partaking
heav)',

food,

composed
acid

which are

slimy,

sweet,

or saline in their taste, or of one consisting of substances

which increase the mucous secretions from the
of the

fissures

body^ ma}' be likewise set
factors.

down
grains,

as

aggraare

vating
called

The

use

of food

which

the

Hayanaka, the

Yavaka, the

Naishadha,

the Itcata, the Masha, the Mahamasha, the the Tilam, or of rice cakes ma}-- lead to
its

Godhuma,

aggravation.

Curd, milk, the Krishara,

the Payasha (sweetened rice
are

porridge^ the various preparations of cane-sugar
things which produce the

same

result.

The

flesh

of

beasts and birds that are aquatic in their habits
in
if

or live
effect,

swampy

lands, as well as lard,

have the same

used as food.
of

The

use

of

bulbs and

lotus stems
Valli-

or

Kasheruka, Shringataka,

Madhura-phala,
or

phala as well as eating before digestion

the

par-

taking of food consisting of both wholesome

and unhumour.

wholesome substances may aggravate

this bodily

204

THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA.

[

Chap. XXI.

lYIetrlcal

Texts :—The Kapham
aggravated
in

is

naturally

and spontaneoush'
evening, in

the
in

morning and
and
just

Hemanta, and
Likewise,
etc.

specially

Spring,

after a meal.

it is

aggravated by the use of

cold food or drink,

Symptoms
blood: — [Owing
their attributes],

of

the

aggravated
between blood
between
affinity

to a natural similarity

and the Pittam, and through a natural
causes,

which tend

to

aggravate the

deranged Pittam, tend to aggravate or agitate the blood
as well.

Moreover, frequent meals or repeated use of
of which
cool,

food, into the composition

liquid

and

heavy substances largely

enter, are followed

by

a disin

turbed or aggravated condition of the blood.
the day time, anger,
or
fire,

Sleep

exposure to the glare of the sun

over- fatiguing labour, an external blow, ingestion

of indigestible or before

incompatible substances,
digestion of a
as

and eating

the

full

previous meal,

may

as

well be set

down

causes

which tend to aggravate

blood.

IVIetrical

Texts:—As

the bodily humours are
blood,
their

never aggravated independently of the
aggravation

goes together with a disturbed or agitated

condition of the blood.

The aggravated

condition of the

humours gives
in

rise to
;

pain and moves the
acid

wind A'ayu)
eructations,

the

bowels

it

further occasions

thirst,

burning sensations, aversion

to

food,

vomiting

Chap

XXI.]

SUTRASTHANAM.
Any
of these

205
regardaid.

and nausea.

symptoms should be
calls for

ed as the second occasion which

medical

Expansion

of
we

the
shall

deranged
the

hu-

mours — Now
:

describe

expansion

(Prasaram) of

the

deranged humours.
b}-

The deranged
causes,

humours,

aggravated

the above mentioned

expand
localities

and
in

overflow
the
or

the limits

of their respective
cakes, soaked in

same

manner
and

as,

any ferment
night,

enzyme
and
rise

kept

standing
the

over

ferment

through

acquisition

of
is

new

and unseen

attributes.

The V^yu,

which

possessed of locomotion or extreme mobility, should
the

be looked upon as
or over-flowing.
in

cause

of

their

expansion
thing,

The Vayu, though an inanimate
of

reality

is

possessed

the

quality

of

"Rajas"
of the

(creative or cohesive

energ}'),

and the

qualit}'

Rajas

is

the

only

essential

or motive principle in the

universe.

As

a

vast

and mighty expanse of water, which
expanses by a
latter

has been divided into two
barrier,
will

dam

or

sweep away the
;

and unite again

to form one sheet of water

so the deranged humours,
in

sometimes singly, sometimes

combination with two

or all of their species, or in unison with blood,

expand

and over-run the organism
example, the Vayu,
the
the

in

all

directions.

As

for

Pittam,

the

Kapham and

blood

are

singlv

expanded, whereas the bi-hu-

2o6

THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA.

[

Chap. xxi.

moural expansions involve the simultaneous overflow
of the

two deranged humours,
blood,
as the

or

of

any deranged

humour and

Vayu and

Pittam,

Vayu and

Kapham, Vayu

and blood, Pittam
blood.

and blood, and
expansions,

Kapham and

The tri-humoural

which involve the blood and any

two of the deranged

and enraged humours,
of
fi)

may

be classified as the expansion,
{2)

the Vayu, Pittam and blood,

the expansion of the expansion of

the Vayu,

Kapham and

blood,
(4)

(3)

Pittam,

Kapham and

blood,
(5,1

the expansion of Vayu,

Pittam and Kapham,

the

expansion
types

of Pittam,

Kapham and
numbering

blood, the
all.

different

of expansion

fifteen in

Metrical Texts:— The
abnormally
irritated

aggravated,

or

the

deranged

humours, whether per-

meating the whole or half of the system or restricted
to

any particular part or member of the body, give
like

rise

to disease in the place of their incarceration,

rain

clouds pouring

down

in

the

quarter of the

sky where

they are formed. The deranged humours, not excessively
slightly; aggravated, lie inoperative coating the internal

passages (Margas) of the body and thus bring about a
fresh disease,
if

subsequent!}' agitated

by any disturbing

causes.

The deranged and aggravated Vayu, ha\ing moved
into

any

specific seat of Pittam,

should be medicinally
Similarly,- the

treated as a case of Pittaja aggravation.

[Chap. XXI.

SUTRASTHANAM.

207

deranged and aggravated Pittam, or Kapham, changing
their

respective places with. each other, should be medi-

cinally treated as the

humour

in

whose location

it

is

lound.
to

The Vayu,
from

thus aggravated and expanded, tends
its

deviate

right

passage and gives

rise to

a

swelling or distention of the abdomen, accompanied a rumbling sound in the intestines.

by

The Pittam, under
and a
sort

the similar condition, gives rise to heat,

of

sucking, burning pain in the affected part, together with

a sensation of radiation or evaporation of heat from
surface.

its

The Kapham, under

the circumstance, would
food, inertness

usher in a complete aversion to
limbs, ^•omiting

of the

and impaired digestion.

The preceding

symptoms, caused by the aggravation and expansion
of the bodily
for

humours, should be the third occasion

medical treatment

Stha'na-Samshrayam :— Now
originated

we

shall

enumerate the names of the peculiar diseases, which are

by the deranged and expanded
in

humours,
the

incarcerated

the

different
in the

parts

of

body.
rise

These humours, confined

abdomen, give

to

Gulma

abdominal

glands) tumours, internal abscesses

(Vidradhi),

abdominal

dropsy,

impaired

digestion
fVisu-

in the bowels,

constipation

(Anaha',

cholera

chikai

and dysentery.
in

Lodged

the

bladder,

these

humours usher

in

Prameha (morbid

urethral discharges),

Ashman

(stone in

2o8

THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA.

[

Chap. XXI.

the bladder), Mutrakrichchhra (stricture of the urethra)

and

Mutraghata
the

'retention
secretion,

of

urine),

and diseases

affecting

renal

etc.

Restricted to the

penis they tend to bring in syphilis, Xirudha-prakasha

(phymosis

and

the

local

inflammatory

diseases

known

as

the Shuka-dosha, etc.
in

Similarly, lodged

the region of the anus,

these

deranged and expanded humours beget
hccmorrhoids
locality.

fistula in ano,

and
in

polypus
the

growths
of

about
the

that

Confined
rise to
etc.

region

scrotum,

they give
tumours,

hydrocele and other types of scrotal
to

Restricted

the

region

above the

clavicles, these

humours originate diseases peculiar to
while
erysipelas,

that

locality,
.

cutaneous

affections

(Kushtha and other minor diseases supervene, when they
restrict

themselves to the flesh and the skin (lymph-

chyle)

and

blood.

Affecting

only the

fat,

these

humours tend
(scrofula),

to originate

Granthi (Aneurism), Apachi
(goitre)

Arvuda (tumour', Galaganda

and

Alaji

(inflammation of the eye at the edge

of the cornea.*

Lodged
elephantisis,

in

the

lower extremities, they
(a

bring on
,

Vata-Rakta

kind of

leprosy

Vata-

Kantaka,
irive

etc.

Permeating the whole organism, they
such diseases as
fever,

rise

to

SarAangaroga,

etc.

which invade the entire system.
*

Additional text:— Reaching

down and

confined in the bone -systems of
cte.

Anushayi, ihe body, ihey produce Vidradhi (abscesses),

Chap. XXI.

]

SUTRASTHANAM.

209
firmly

The aggravated and expanded humours, thus

ensconced in the different parts of the body, exhibit
the premonitor}''
fully

symptoms

of

diseases which will be

dealt

with under

their

respective heads.

The

manifestation

of these premonitory
as

symptoms should
for

be considered
treatment.

the

fourth

occasion

medical

Disease- Its
shall deal

Development
full

:—

Now we

with the
full

development or manifestation

of a disease. The
swelling,

manifestation of a disease, such as a

tumour, aneurism (Granthi), Vidradhi (abscess)
etc.,

and erysipelas (Visarpa)

fever or dysentery, signifies
characteristic

the complete development of the

symp-

toms, which should be regarded as the fifth occasion for

medical treatment.

The

sixth occasion for the calling in
arisen

of medical aid
a

should be considered to have
(abscess, tumour, etc.)
teristic

when

swelling

would burst and exhibit the characan

symptoms

of

open

ulcer.

A

persistent
etc.,
its

lingering or continuance

of a

fever or

dysentery,

should be considered as marking, or forming one of
particular stages,

and which

may

run

into

one of an

incurable type,
at the outset.

if

neglected or not sufficiently cared for

Authoritative verse on the subject:—
The
physician,

who

fully

knows about the accumula-

2IO
tion

THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA.

[Chap. XXI.

(Sanchaya), disturbance or aggravation rPrakopa},
(

expansion

Prasaram), and differentiating traits of the
is

deranged humours (Bheda), and
the
specific
localities in

well conversant with

which they are respectively
of their

confined in

the

course

expansion

(Sthana-

samshrayam), and with the symptoms which they respectively exhibit in connection with the incidental

disease

(Vyakti),

is

alone worthy of that epithet.

The deranged humours, checked
accumulating stage,
fail

or

subdued

in

their

to exhibit
if

any further or subse-

quent development, but,
in

left

unremedied, they gain
of their
further
in

strength and intensity

in

the course

development. The humours, deranged either singly, or
couples, or in a triple combination as regards one or

two

of their virtues, push on, follow and blend with humours
similarly

deranged as regards their qualities and com-

binative numbers.

The medical treatment
(three) of the
in

in a case,

where two or

all

deranged humours are involved, consists
in

conquering the strongest one

the combination, but

so as not to enrage or aggravate the minor or the

weaker
of

humours

in

the

group

and specially so

in a

case

Sannipata."

*

THl- cuniliinaiinii

nfany iwnot ihc
iiiicrpiL-tL-d

IkkIIIv liuiiKiuis

wiih the

viiiaied

hlond niav liki'wisf Uc
conil.iTiaticin.

in signify

a

SAnnip^tika (tiihuninuial)

Chap. XXI.

]

SUTRASTHANAM.

211

A
or

concourse of deranged humours, affecting and apis

pearing in a particular part of the body,

called a boil

an ulcer (Vrana)
to cover

which
is

"is

derived from the root
fact

"Vri"

and

so called from the

of

its its

covering a
leaving a

particular

part

of the

body

or

from

cicatrix

which remains the whole

life-time

of the patient.
Thus ends
Samhili which
rise to

ihe l\vcnl\-Hisl chapter uf the

Sulraslh^nam

in

the

Sushnila

treats of investigation into the nature ol

the

humours giving

an

ulcer.

CHAPTER
Now we
treats
shall

XXII.
the
boils

discuss

chapter,
or

which
of

of

secretions
types.

from

ulcers

different

(Vranasra'va-Vijna'niaya-

madhya'yam).
A
the
boil or an ulcer has its

seat

generally
or

in

one of
of the
veins,

eight

following components
as,

principles
flesh,

body such

the bone, the skin,

the

the

the ligaments, the joints, the viscera and the
(vital

Marmas

parts of the body).

A

boil in

or

an ulcer of any

type

may

crop

up or appear

any one of the above

mentioned

localities.

A
skin,

boil or

an

ulcer,

which
to

is

confined onl)' to the
treatment, while the

readily

yields

medical

remaining types, as well as those,
suppurate and bursty are
ulcer usually assumes a

which spontaneoush'

hard to cure.
is

A

boil or

an

shape which
or

either diffused^
;

rectangular,

spheroidal

triangular

while

those,

which are

irregular or indefinite in shape, (or
,

have forms

other than the preceding ones
as belonging to types

should be

looked upon

which can be cured only with

the

utmost

difficulty.

Any Vrana

(burst

or

incised

abscess) in a patient,

who
is

observes a strict regimen, and

who, from the

outset,

placed under the medical treat-

ment

of an

experienced physician (surgeon), will
;

be
of

speedily healed

while an ulcer, affecting a person

Chap. XXII.

]

SUTRASTHANAM.

213

irregular

habits

and treated by a quack or an ignorant
one of a malignant type,
difficulty,

physician, will dcNelop into

which can be healed only with the greatest
on account of
it

becoming aggravated

b}'

the deranged

bodily humours involved therein.

Symptoms of Dushta-Vranas :— Malignant ulcers (Dushta Vranas) are known by the following
indications
:

—They
They

are

either too

narrow or too wide-

mouthed. They

feel either

extremely hard or soft to the
elevated
or a de-

touch and present either a raised
pressed aspect.
or

are of either a black or red, yellow

white colour, and

are

characterised

by extremes
unusual
of
fea-

of temperature.
tures,

Exhibiting strange and

they

are

checkered with networks
filled

veins,

hgaments,
flesh

etc.,

and are

with putrid and sloughing

and

fetid pus.

Indefinite

and

irregular

in

shape,

they

are

found to exude a sort of dirty, fetid pus,
into
fissures

which runs
oblique or

and

cavities,

following
a

an

upward

course.

They have

cadaverous

look and smell and are characterised by extreme pain

and burning sensation, attended with swelling, redness,
itching
ulcers,

and suppuration.

Pustules crop up round
vitiated blood,

these
linger

which largely secrete
for

and

unhealed

an inordinate length of time.

These
ing
as,

ulcers

may

be divided into six classes [accordcaused by the

they are severally

deranged

bodily humours

fVayu, Pittam and Kapham), or are

214
due to
effects

^^^ SUSHRUTA SAMHITA.
their

[

Chap. XXli.

concerted action '^Sannip^ta), or to the
(traumatic)
or to
vitiated blood.],

of a blow

and should be medically treated according to the nature
of their respective exciting factors.

Secretions from ulcers :— Now we
describe the characteristic secretions from
ulcers.
all

shall

types of

Secretions from a
as

contused or lacerated skin,
it),

as

well

from an ulcer confined only to

whether

spontaneously bursting or surgically opened, are thin

and watery
ised

in

their consistency.
(fleshy)

They

are

character-

by

a

raw

smell

and a yellowish colour.

An

ulcer, affecting the flesh,

exudes a slimy, thick and

white secretion like clarified-butter.
of blood
incidental

A

copious quantity
cut,

flows

out
in

of a vein recently
its

while the
secretes a

ulcer,

suppurating stage,
out

copious secretion, like water flowing

of a hydrant,

which

is

moreover
in
its

detached,

thin,

pendent (ropy),

and slimy
hue.
a sort

character

and has a brown or frosty

An

ulcer,

confined

only to a ligament, secretes
secretion, like

of cold

and thick

expectorated

mucous,
blood.

though

sometimes marked with streaks of

A
loses
its

bone, mjured, tractured,

or

suddenly cracked by

idiopathic causes
its

(derangement of the bodily humours),

internal

marrow and appears

as

if

washed

(loses

natural gloss\ It assumes the colour of an oyster shell,
ulcer,

whereas the secretions from an

which

is

seated in

Chap. XXII.

1

SUTRASTHA'NAM.
cold and

215
of

a bone,

are

marked

b}^ streaks

Mood and
bone-

lumps of marrow. An
joints,

ulcer, 'situated in an}' of the

does not exude any secretion under pressure,

but secretes a sort of slimy, pendent, frothy and bloodstreaked pus,

when

the affected limb or part
or

is

flexed,

expanded,

raised

lowered, as in running (moving

about), sitting or standing erect, or at defecation.

An

ulcer, seated in the

abdominal cavity (Koshtha),
is

exudes a secretion, which
matter,
fluid.

mixed with

urine, fecal

pus or blood, and a thin or watery (serous)

The

secretions from an ulcer, affecting

any

vital

part of the body, need not be

separately

described, as

such a part naturally involves the organic principles
skin, flesh, etc.
;

of

and hence an

ulcer,

invading
is

it,

must

necessarily

exude a secretion, which

peculiar to
etc.)

any
that

of the aforesaid bodily principles (skin, flesh,

has become affected.

The deranged V^yu makes
ulcer, seated in an}^

the

secretions

from an

of the

seven abovesaid principles

such

as,

the skin, flesh, veins, ligaments, bones, joints

and the abdomen, respectively coarse, and rough to
the touch, brown, grey, frosty, or white like the cream
of curd,

and coloured

like the

washings of an

alkali, like

that of

meat

or

paddy husks.

Similarly, the action of

the deranged Pittam should be inferred from
tions assuming

the secre(a species

the colours of a
agate;,

Gomedha
of

of

bluish

yellow

or

that

the

urine

of

2,6

THE SUSHRUTA

SAMHITA'.

[Chap. XXII.

a cow, or that of water saturated with the

burnt ashes
or that
oil,

of

conch-shells

or

that

of Kashaya

water

of the

wine known as the Madhvika or that of
flesh, etc. are

according as the skin,

respectiveh^ affected.
in

The

action

of

the

deranged blood,

changing the

nature

of the

secretions
is

of ulcers in the seven abovethat
of the

sajd locations,

identical with

deranged
are

Pittam with the exception,

that

the

secretions

characterised by an extremel}'' fishy smell.

In
of a

an epidermic (confined
part)

onl}'

to

the epidermis
action
of

or

superficial

ulcer

the
itself

the
a

deranged
butter-like

Kapham
or

manifests

by imparting
of
iron)

a

Kasisha (sulphate

colour

to

the

secretions.

They

have

lard-like

hue or a

colour like that of rice paste,

or that of water tinged

with sesamum, or a colour like that of the internal
juice or

water of a cocoanut, or a colour like that of
as
is

hog's lard, according a bone
or a joint

the flesh, a vein, a

ligament,

attacked.

On
all

the

other hand,

through the combined action of

the three deranged

humours of the

body
like

(Sannipata),

those secretions
tinged

become coloured
soakings
of

the

water
or

with

the
or

sesamum

seeds,

the internal sap

water of a cocoanut, or the juice of the Ervaruka or the
transparent surface layer of rice gruel, or the washings
of the of the

Aruka

fruit, or

the water tinged with the

fruits

Priy^ngu, or like the liver or the

Mudga

pulse.

Chap. XXII.

]

SUTRASTHANAM.

217

Authoritative verses on the subject
husks
:

— An

ulcer,

situated

in

the

cavity of the ab-

domen and

secreting

an

exudation resembling paddy

in colour, as well as

one located

in

the viscera

of blood (spleen or

liver

— Raktasha^'am)
water,

and exuding
be

a

secretion

like

alkaline

should
its

deemed
the

incurable.

Similarh',

an ulcer having
or

seat in

cavity of the stomach (Amashaya),
of the Trika,
(articulation

in

the region

of the

clavicle

with the

intraclavicular

notch)

and exuding
the

a

thin,

watery

secretion, coloured like

washings of Kalaya pulse,
type

should be regarded
(incurable).

as

belonging to the same

A

physician should only take in hand the
ulcer-patient
after

treatment of an

having examined

the abovesaid nature of the discharges.

Pain and
describe
all

its

character
kinds of
several

:-

Now we
which

shall

the
in

different

pain,

are

experienced

the

types of Vrana (ulcers)

described before.

Vartaja pain

:

— Pains

of

pricking,

piercing,

thrashing, cutting, expanding, gnawing, churning, shooting,

tingling,

burning,

breaking,
quivering,

bursting,

pinching,
different

uprooting,

uplifting,

aching

of

types, shifting, stuffing, benumbing, indurating, contracting,

and pains of a spasmodic character are usually
ulcers.

felt in

A

pain,

which comes on or vanishes
is

without any apparent cause, or
28

varied and

shifting

2i8
in
its

'I'HE

SUSHKUTA SAMHITA.
be
ascribed
to

f

Chap. XXII.

character, should

the effects

of the

deranged Vayu.

Pittaja pain
the
ulcer

:

—A sensation of burning

is felt

in

accompanied by a

sort of sucking pain.

A

feeling of inhaling heat or vapour,

and a burning sensa-

tion running through the

whole body, should be looked
of the

upon
the

as

the resultant

deranged Pittam.
as
if it

At

same

time the with

body seems
bits

had been

strewn
heat
or

over
(the

of

glowing charcoal.
of the
affected
like

The

temperature
rise,

locality)

shows

a

steady

and

a

pain

the

one

incidental to the
solution
is

application of alkaline water (caustic
in

experienced
:

the ulcer.
pain and
the

Raktaja pain
features

— The

other specific
condition

of

an ulcer due to
identical

vitiated

of the

blood are

with those developed by

one

of the Pittaja type.

Kaphaja pain
in

:

— An

ulcer, characterised
slight

by
pain

numbness, heaviness, coldness, itching and a
the
affected part,

and which seems

as

if it

has been

plastered over with a paste, and which proves insensible
to

touch,

should be ascribed to the action

of

the

deranged Kapham.

Sannipai:ika pain
scribed

-.—The
each

symptoms,
of the

de-

under

the head
of

of

preceding
exhibit

humoural

types

ulcer,

simultaneously

Chap. XXII.

]

SUTRASTHANAM.
in the

219

themselves
action of
all

one brought about by the concerted
^

the deranged

humours
:

1

Sannipatikam).

Colours of Vranas
cribe

— Now

we

shall

de-

the

colours

assumed

by

the several

types

of ulcers.
\'ayu,
is
is

An

ulcer,

due to the action of the deranged
or

rough and black, red, or ash- coloured,

of the colour of a bone, or a pigeon.

An

ulcer,

caused
Pittam,

by the action of the
is

deranged

blood

or

coloured either blue, yellow, greenish-brown, black,

reddish-tawny or flame-coloured.
the
action
gloss)'.

An

ulcer
is

due

to

of the

deranged
ulcer,

Kapham

white,

grey

and

An

due to the combined action

of the three deranged bodily humours,

may assume any

colour peculiar to them.

Authoritative verses on the subject
:

— Not only

in

the

cases of Vrana,

but

in

all

(inflammatory)

swellings

of

whatsoever

type,

the

physician should carefully observe the
local pain,

nature of the

and the colour of the epidermis.
the
t\vcnl_\--second

Thus ends

Chaplcr of the SulraslliAnam

in

llic

SushruUi Sanihila which Heats of secretion from different types of ulcers.

CHAPTER
Now we
with
the
shall

XXIII.
chapter

discuss

the
ulcer

which

deals

Prognosis

of an

(Kritya'kritya-

Vidhi-madhya'yam).
A
boil or

an ulcer appearing
(in

in

a
is

patient

who

is

young, muscular

frame\ strong, or

possessed of an

indomitable courage and fortitude, proves readily amenable to healing measures and applications
;

how much

more

so

when one appears

in

a

patient

in

whom

all

these four conditions simultaneously obtain.

An

ulcer

in

a

young patient
and vigorous

is

speedily

healed

owing to the
of the

fresh

vitalizing

principles
in a

body

;

whereas the one, which appears
build, finds a

person

of strong
ful

and muscular

speedy and successof the
incising

termination owing to the

inability

instrument to cut deep into the hard and tough muscles
of the affected part and to reach down, or in any
destro}"

way

the underl3nng veins and nerves, etc.
easily endure a

A

strong

and vigorous patient can

considerable
feel distressed

amount
b)'

of burning pain, etc.

and does not

a

strict

regimen of

diet.

A man

of stupendous

endurance and fortitude can sustain the fatigue and

worry of even

the

most painful

surgical

operation.

Accordingly, a boil or an ulcer, appearing in a patient of
the above said description,
is

easily

and

speedil)' healed

;

Chap. XXIII.

1

SUTRASTHANAM.
affects either

221

whereas the one, which

an old, emaciated,

or timid person or one of small strength

and endurance,

takes time to heal.

Boils

or ulcers,

which appear

in

the regions of the

buttocks (Sphik), or about the anus, and the
of
lips,

organs of

generation,
or
in

or

on the back, forehead, cheek, or
of

the

region

the
or

external
in

ears,

or

on

the testes or the abdomen,

the cavity of the

mouth, or about the nape
the clavicles,
seated in

of

the

neck,

or

above

can be easily healed.
eyes,
or
in

Those, that are

the

the gums, the nostrils or the
cavity of the
ears,

exterior angle of the e3^e, or in the

abdomen

or the umbilicus, or
ribs,

about any suture of the
sides,

body, hips,

arm-pits, chest, breasts,

or the

joints, as well as those, that secrete frothy

blood or pus

with a gurgling sound, or contain any foreign matter em-

bedded

in their inside, are

healed only with the greatest

difihcult3\

Similarl}^

an abscess or an

ulcer appearing in the

nether region of the body and pointing upward,
the

or

one appearing on the extremity of scalp (Romanta)
the

or about

end of a
of

finger-nail,

or

in

an)" of the

vulnerable

parts

the body, as

well

as

the

one

affecting either of the thigh bones

(femurs),

should be

looked upon as equally hard to cure.
abscess
or

Likewise an
of
as

an

ulcer

affecting
as

a bone
well

the
a

pelvis
fistula

'Shronikanda- Acetabulum),

222
in

THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA.

[Chap, xxill.

ano opening inward should be regarded as hard

to cure.

Authoritative
ject
or
in
, :

verse on the
from
:

subiMadhu-

— An ulcer (Vrana) appearing in a leper (Kushthi
a
or

person

suffering
(lit

diabetes

meha
or

from Shosha
effects

pulmonary- consumption)
as

from the

of

poison,

well

as

the one

appearing in a pre-existing ulcer, should be looked upon
as curable only with the greatest difficulty.

Ya'pya ulcers
affecting
viz.

:--An
any

ulcer

incidental to,

and

the

seat
(

of

of the
,

following

diseases,

Avap^thika
or
or

paraphimosis

or

Niruddha-Prakash
(constriction

(phimosis),

Sanniruddha-guda
Jathara

of

the

anus),

abdominal-dropsy), or Granthi

(glandular

inflammation),
of
parasites
in

and
in
its

characterised
interior,

by
well
_,

the
as

germination
the

as

one appearing

the

cavity

of the

abdomen

or

affecting the

mucous

linings of the intestines, or

brought

about by the corrosi>'e
(Pratishyaya),

secretions

of a nasal catarrh
parasites,

and infested with

should be

considered as onh- admitting of a palliative treatment.
Similarly palliation
is

the only remedy
in a patient

in

the

case

of

an ulcer which appears

suffering

from any
from
in

morbid secretion from the urethra (Prameha) or

any form of cutaneous
its inside.

affections,

marked by worms

Likewise

a

case

of gravel

Sharkara

,

or

urinary

Chap. XXIII.

]

SUTRASTHA'NAM.
)

223
is

calculi

Shikata

in

which the urine

found to be

charged with concretions, or leaves a deposit of sandy
sediment, can not be radicalh' cured by medicine alone.

A

case of V^ta-kundalika, Asthila,

Upakusha, Kantha^'isarpa, Asthi-

saluka,

Danta-sharkar^,

Danta-veshta,

kshata, Uru-kshata, or Vrana-Granthi,

may

not perfectly

yield to medicine alone. In an inflammation of the
resulting
for teeth

gums

from the use of poisonous twigs as brushes

Xishkoshana) a temporary amelioration
be

is

all

that

can

expected

from

a

good and

efficient

treatment.

IVIetrical
disease
at
its

texts :— In
regimen) even

a

patient neglecting a
(or

preliminary stage,

otherwise not

observing a

strict

a curable

malady ma}'

speedily develop into one which admits
tive measures,

only of pallia-

while a disease of the

last

named type

is

soon transformed into
curable disease

an

incurable

one.

An

in-

under the circumstances speedily finds

a fatal termination.

A

patient laid up

with a disease,

which only admits of a

palliative treatment, lives so long
is

as the course of the medical treatment
will die almost simultaneously

continued, and
discontinuance.
collapse

with

its

Just as a prop or a pillar

can

prevent the

of

a

tumbling

edifice,

so palliative measures,

judiciously^
off

applied

by a

skilful

physician,

may

keep

the

inevitable in a disease

which knows no

radical cure.
shall

Incurable diseases :— Now we

de-

224

'^^^

SUSHRUTA

SAMHITA'.

[Chap, xxili.

scribe the types of diseases

which are usually held as
up
in

in-

curable.

An

ulcer

(\'rana) cropping

like

a fleshy

tumour, painful and containing pus

its inside,

and
its

which

is

characterised

by

a copious secretion,

with

edges raised like those of the genital of a mare,

should

be understood as belonging to the

incurable type.

A
and
is

condylomatous (papillomatous
raised like the horn

)

ulcer

which

is

soft

of a

cow, or
its

the
base,

one which

moderately raised or elevated at

and secretes

an exudation of vitiated blood, or a thin slimy secretion,
should be likewise regarded as incurable.

An

ulcer

with an embossed or heaved up centre, and one dipped or
fissured at its extremity should

be regarded as past

all

remedy.

An

ulcer covered over with shreds of ligaments,
if

and looking as
should
ulcer

studded with loose shreds of hemp,

be

given

up

as

incurable.

Similarly,

an

due to the deranged condition of any of the funda-

mental humours, and secreting an exudation composed
of

coagulated blood,

fat,

marrow and

brain-matter

should be deemed incurable.

Likewise, an ulcer, in a

weak and emaciated person,
abdomen,

which

is

located

within the cavity of the

(Koshtha: and which assumes either a black or yellowish colour,

and exudes a secretion composed of and
fecal matter,

urine,

pus, blood

which

finds

its

outlet both

through the upward and downward

fissures of

the body

(the mouth and the anus) making a rumbling, gurgling

i

Chap. XXIII.

]

SUTKASTHANAM.

225

sound, or which

simultaneously secretes pus and blood

through both the channels, should be regarded as belonging to the incurable class.
patient,
throat,

An

ulcer

in

an emaciated
in

which

is

situated either
is

on the head or
is

the

and which
network

narrow-mouthed and
capillaries,

tra\ersed

by

a

of

and

studded

with

fleshy or papillomatous eruptions,
as incurable.

should be

regarded
is

A

distinctly

audible

sound or report

heard

in

these

ulcers

which are found to be charged

with wind.

An

ulcer

in

an emaciated patient, which secretes
is

blood and pus, and
painful respiration

attended with indigestion, cough,
for food,

and non-relish

as

well as a

case

of fractured skull, attended with cough, dyspnoea,

secretion of brain-matter,

and symptoms peculiar to the

concerted action of the three deranged humours of the

body, should be given

up as past

all

remedy.

Authoritative verses on the subject — A traumatic ulcer, which exudes a secretion
:

of

fat,

marrow

or

brain- matter,

may

prove amenable

to medical treatment, whereas a

humoural ulcer under

the circumstance will prove incurable.

An
than a
its

ulcer
vital

appearing

at

an}' part of the
is

body other

one (Marma), and which

found to invade

successive

elements though without affecting any
regarded as incurable.

vein, bone, joint, etc. should be

29

226

THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA.

[Chap, xxili.

Just as a tree, that has grown old and that has spread
roots deep into the
soil,

its

can not be uprooted, so a disease
in strength

can not be eradicated that has gained

and

maturity with the process of time, and that has gradually

invaded the different essential principles of the body.

A

disease, which, having

been neglected at the outset,

has run

on to one of a lingering or persistent type
the
successive
in

by invading

elements of the bod}',

and has thereby gained
baffles
just

strength

and

intensity,
eflicac)^,

medicines,

(of tested

and

marked

as malignant astral

combinations tend to nullify

potent incantations.

Symptoms
ulcers
:

of

cleansed

Fiealthy
any of the

—An

ulcer,

not belonging to

above said types,

may

prove easily amenable to the

curative efficacies of medicines. In other words, an ulcer

of recent origin

is

easily uprooted like a

tender sapling

of recent gi^owth.

An

ulcer,

which

is

unaffected by any

of the three deranged bodily humours, and which assumes
a dark

brown hue along

its

edges,

and

is

characterised

by the absence of any
secretions,

pain,

pustular

eruptions

or

and which

is

of an

even or of an equal
as
all

elevation throughout

its

length, should be regarded

cleansed (asepsised

or

healthy),

and divested of

morbid matter or principle (Shuddha-Vrana).

Symptoms
ulcer,

of

Healing

Ulcers:—An
is

which

is

dove-coloured (yellowish dusky), and

Chap. XXIII.

]

SUTRASTHA'NAM.
its

227

not lardaceous at

base, and

is

further characterised

by
its

the absence of any muco-piirulent

secretion

along

margin, and which has become hard and surrounded
b}'

shreds

of

dead

skin,

and presents symptoms of

healthy granulation, should be looked
course of healing.

upon

as

in

Symptoms of Healed
with
its

Ulcers:— An

ulcer,

edges firmly adhered and characterised by the

absence of any pain and swelling and

not appearing
left

knotty or glandular to the touch and that has
cicatrix

a

of the

same hue with the surrounding

skin,

should be considered as perfectly healed.
Causes, such as mental excitements, as excessive grief

and ecstacies of joy, anger or

fright, as well as

an exter-

nal blow, or excessive physical exercise, or an abnormal
excitation

of

any of the deranged humours, or an

impaired digestion,

may

tend to

reopen

an

ulcer

recently adhered and

healed.

Accordingly such acts

and conditions should be avoided by an ulcer-patient.

Thus ends

the

twenty-third

Chapter of

the

Sutrasth^nam

in

the

Sushruta Samhita, which treats of the prognosis of ulcers.

C

HAP

i

ER

XXIV.

Now we
specific

shall discourse

on the Chapter^ which deals
according to their

with the classification
nature

of diseases

(Vya'dhi-Samudcihcshiya-

madhya'yam).
Diseases

may
as

be grouped under two broad
Surgical,

sub-

divisions, such

and Medical, that

is

those

that yield to the administration of purgatives, emetics,
oils,

diaphoretics,

and unguents.
of medicated
in a
oils

The

use

or administration
is

and

unguents,

etc.,

not prohibited
is

surgical

disease,
in
its

while a case,

which

exclusively medicinal

character, does not admit of the adoption of

any
the

surgical

remedy.

Onl}^

a

general
all

outline
will

of

nature

and S3miptoms of
been briefly
includes
laid

diseases
in

be found to have
This work

down
its

the present work.
subject matters

within
dealt

scope
in

which have
a

been

fully

with
all

other books (having only

general bearing upon
science of medicine).

the several branches of the

It

has been stated before that anj^thing that the
is

afflicts

either

body

or the
disease.

living

personality— self, or
pain
or
affliction

both,

called

This

Chap.

XXIV.

]

SUTRASTHANAM.
in
its

229

ma}^

be

either physical*
an}'-

character (Adhyat-

mikam), or due to
environments of a
acts

disturbance in

the physical

man

(Adhibhautikam), or to the
etc.

of

God
be

(Adhidaivikam)

This

three- fold
an)'

pain

may

ultimately transformed into
as,

of

the seven kinds of diseases such
Janma-vala-pravritta,

the Adi-vala-pravritta,

Dosha- vala-pravritta,

Sanghata-

vala-pravritta, Kala- vala-pravritta,

Daiva-vala-pravritta

and Svabhava- vala-pravritta.
A'di -vala-pravritta :— The
Adi-vala-pravritta
in
is

disease

termed

ascribed to any

inherent defect

the semen or the

ovum

of one's parent,

which forms
"

one of the original and primary factors of " being

and

includes leprosy (Kushtham), hemorrhoids, phthisis etc.

This type

may

be

divided
is

into

two

subdivisions,

according as the disease

generated by the deranged

paternal or maternal factor at the time of incubation.

J an ma -vala-pravritta :—The
or

Congenital
follows

the Janma-vala-pravritta

type

usually

such causes as an improper
of the

conduct

on

the

part

mother during the period of
or

gestation, etc.,

and

embraces such defects
blindness,

maladies

as

(congenital)

deafness, dumbness,

nasal-voice,

and such

monstrous aberrations of nature as congenital cretinism,
commentators interpret the term "Atman"
only,

* Certain

in

"AdhyStmikam"
that

to

mean body

and accordingly designate

all

phenomena

may

be

manifest in the body as AdhyAtmikam,

230

THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA.
dwarfs

[

Chap.

XXIV.

and the births of
in its

and pigmies.

This

type,
as

turn, admits of
is

two

sub-divisions, according

the disease

due to the action of the deranged lymphungratified
to
desire of the

chyle (Rasa-krita), or to an

mother during

gestation, or

her

gratification

of

any improper longing or
(Dauhridyam).

conduct during pregnancy

Dosha-vala-pravritta
pravritta
(idiopathic)

-.—The
to

Dosha-valaaction

type

is

due

the

of

any of the fundamental bodily humours deranged by an
improper
diet, or resulting

from the dynamical energies
etc).

of the mind,

such as (Rajas and Tamas,

This

type

may

be classified under two sub-heads, according
is

as the disease

found to have

its

origin in the

Amashaya

(stomach), or in the Pakvashaya (intestines), and each of
these again

may

be

further divided

into

two main

sub-divisions such as the physical

and the mental.

The

three preceding kinds of diseases include

within their

category disorders which are called mental or psychical

(Adhyatmikam).

Samghala-vala-Pravritta :— The
that
are

Trau-

matic type (Samghatha-vala-pravritta) includes diseases
caused by an external blow or
are

due

to wrestling

with an antagonist of superior strength.
be
sub-divided
disease
bite
is

They

may
as

into

minor
to

divisions,

according

the the

due

an

external

wound,

or

to

from

any

fierce

beast

or

Chap.

XXIV.

]

SUTRASTHA'NAM.

231

poisonous

reptile, etc.
t5'pe,
i.

These types belong to the Adhie.

bhautikam
causes).

(brought about

by

physical

Ka'Ia-vala-pravritta:— The
(K^la-vala-pravritta)

Periodical type

includes diseases that are brought

about by the variation of atmospheric heat or humidity
with the change of the seasons, and admits of being

grouped under two different sub-heads, according as the
seasons,

which usher these changes

in,

exhibit

natural

or contrary features.

Daiva-vala-pravritta :— The
embodiments of
curses, divine

Providential

('Daiva-vala-pravritta^ type includes diseases that are the

wrath or displeasure, or

are brought about through the mystic potencies of charms

and
type
as

spells,

as described

in

the Atharva-Veda.

This

may

be divided into two minor divisions according
is

the disease
is

due to such acts of God as when
lightning,
etc.,

a

man

struck

by

or

to

the malignant
these

influences of

demons and monsters, and

may

be
as

further grouped under

two main sub-heads, according

the disease assumes a contagious character (epidemic), or
is

purely

accidental,

and

restricts

itself

to

isolated

cases (sporadic).

Svabha'va-vala-pravritta:— The Natural
or

the

Spontaneous
such

(Svabhava-vala-pravritta)

type
as,

includes

natural

organic

phenomena

232

THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA.
death,
*

[Chap.

XXIV.

decrepitude,

hunger,
either

thirst,

sleep,

etc.

These phenomena

are

Kalakrita

(timely)

or

Akalakrita (untimely).
the}^ occur at the

They

are called Kalakrita

when

proper time in persons

who

strictly

observe the rules of health, and Akalakrita,

when they

appear at the improper time (morbid or premature)
as the effects of unhealthy living.

These diseases belong

to the Providential or

Adhi-daivikam typet.

Thus we

have

classified diseases into their several types.

The deranged bodily humours such

as,

Vayu, Pittam

and Kapham should be looked upon as the primary
sources of
teristic
all

diseases,

inasmuch as symptoms characin the case of

of each of

them may be detected

a disease

of whatsoever type,

(which usually

abates

with their corresponding subsidence), and also because
the
of

Shastras

have

ascribed to
assail

them

the

fatherhood

all

maladies that

the

human

frame.

As the

three qualities of Sattva, Rajas and
in,

Tamasi
pheno-

are inherent

and inseparable from,
in

all

the

menal appearances

the universe whicli are, in reality,

*

Accord. ng

lo

certain

aulhorilies

"Death" may

also

mean death

of tissues.

+ Several authorities on the other

hand include such diseases as
class
vital

thirst,

hunger

etc.,

within
of
the

the

Adhy^tmika
of

inasmuch as they are but the
principles
in

indications

want
mental

certain

the

body and
for

appear

in

the

plane

(Adhy^tmika) only

as

longings

water, food, ttc

X

The

Sattva

:— Illuminating

or

psychic

principle.

Rajas

:

— Prin-

ciple of Action

and Co-hesion. Tanias -.—Principle of Nescience or

Illusion.

Chap.

XXIV.

]

SUTRASTHA'NAM.
own
qualities,

233
so

but modifications of their

the

three

fundamental
of,

bodily

hum'ours

underlie
all

at the

root

and run through, the course of

known forms

of

bodily distemper.

The deranged bodily humours (Dosha"
with the different elements,

in

contact

Dhathu) and excrements
difference

(Mala) of the body, together with the
their

of
to

locations

and pathological

effects,

give

rise

the different forms of disease.*

The nomenclature

of a disease depends

upon where

the affection of the several elementary principles of the

body by the deranged bodily humours
accordingly styled as
it is

lies,

and which

is

seated in the lymph- chyle, or in
in fat, bone, or in the

the blood or the flesh, or

it is

semen.

Rasaja Distempers :— Distempers
aversion
to,

such as

and

loss

of relish

for

'

food_,

indigestion,

aching

in

the limbs, fever, nausea and a sense of reple-

tion even without food, heaviness of the limbs, diseases
affecting

the heart, jaundice,

constriction

of any

in-

ternal passage of the

body (Margo-parodha), emaciation
bad taste
in

of the

body

^cachexia),

the

mouth, weak
falling off

feelings in the limbs,

premature whiteness and

of the hair,

and s)^mptoms

indicative of senile
in

decay,

should be regarded as having their seat
l5"mph- chyle (Rasa).
*

the deranged

This answers the question,

"how

can

the deranged bodily

hmnours

bring about a disease

of the Adhi-vala-type

— a disease which
factors of

is

specifically

due

to the

derangement of the innate and primary

life."

30

234

THE SUSHRUTA
:

SAMHITA'.

[Chap. XXIV.

Raktaja Diseases — Maladies
tha (cutaneous affections in general
las),
,

such as Kush-

Visarpa (erysipe-

Pidaka

(pustular

eruptions,
(tans),

Mashaka,

Nilika,
(stains),

Tilakalaka (specks),
Indralupta
scess*,

Nachhya

Vyanga

alopecia),

enlarged- spleen,

Vidradhi (ab(a

Gulma abdominal
Arsha

glands), Vata-shonita

kind

of leprosy),

(piles),

Arvuda (tumours), aching of
etc.

the hmbs^

menorrhagia, h£emopt3'sis,

as

well

as

suppuration in the regions of the anus and the penis

should be

deemed

as

having

their

origin

in

the

blood Raktaja contaminated by the

deranged bodily

humours.

IVSa'nsaj aArvuda,
Arsha,

Diseases :— Similarly
Adhi-jihva,

Adhi-mansa,

Upa-jihva,

Upakusha,

Gala-sunthika, Alaji, Mansha-sanghata (condylomatous
growth),

Astha-prakopa,

Gala-ganda,

Garjda-mala

(scrofula), etc.

should be regarded as diseases having

their

seat in the flesh, vitiated

by the deranged bodily

humours.

IVledaja- Distempers :— Diseases, such

as

Granthi, \'riddhi, Gala-ganda, Arvuda, and Ostha-prakopa
are due to
tlie

action of the deranged

fat.

Madhu-meha
etc.

(diabetes), obesitv

and abnormal diaphoresis,
origin
in

should

be regarded as having their

the

humour-

deranged

fat

of the body.

Asthija- Disease :— Adhyasthi,
Asthi-toda,

Adhi-danta,
etc.

Asthi-shula

and Ku-nakha,

are

the

Chap.

XXIV.

]

SUTRASTHANAM.

235

diseases

which should be regarded as the outcome of

the deranged bodily humours affecting the bones.

IVIaJJadoshaJa Diseases :— The
ance
of
a

vanishing

of sight, epileps}'; vertigo, conjunctivitis and the appear-

broad-based

ulcer

about
in

the

Parva-

sthanam and a sense of heaviness

the thighs and
in

knee-joints should be regarded as having their seat

the deranged marrow.

Shukra-doshaja :— Diseases

such

as,

im-

potency, entire aversion to sexual intercourse, Shukra-

shmari fseminal concretions). Spermatorrhoea, and other
seminal affections, should be regarded as having their
seat in the deranged semen.

Cutaneous

affections, constipation or looseness of the

bowels, and diseases impeding or arresting the proper
functions of the

sense-organs or in an}"

wa}" bringing

about

their aberrations,

should be regarded as respecof the faeces and
the

tively located in

the receptacle

sense organs.

Thus we have
diseases,
will

briefl}'

enumerated the

names of

the
full)'

specific

nature

and symptoms of which

be

discussed later on under their respective

heads.

Authoritative verse
ject :— The
coursing through the body, give

on the Subrise to a disease

deranged and aggravated humours, freely
at the

:J36

THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA.
in

[

Chap. xxiv.

place

which

they are incarcerated owing to an

obstruction in their natural passage.

Now
humours

it

may

be again asked, whether the relation

of a disease, such as fever, etc. with the deranged bodily
is

constant and inseparable, or otherwise.

All

human
falhng

beings would
ill

be

in

danger

of

perpetually
relation;

in

the event of the said connection
;

being constant and unseparable
separate existence,
terstic
it

but

in

case of their

is

but natural that their characseparately

symptoms should
of

manifest

themwith

selves instead
fever,
etc.

being simultaneously present
are

as

they

found to be

in reality.

And

accordingly the theor)', that diseases (such

as, fever, etc.)

and

the

deranged

bodily

humours have a separate

existence,

and are not pritna facie intimately co-related
another
falls

with

one

to

the

ground.

On

the

other hand, the assumption of their separate
invalidates

existence

the

incontestable conclusion, that diseases

such

as, fever, etc. are

fathered by the deranged humours

of the body.

Hence

it

may

be safely asserted that no disease can
of

occur without the direct mediation or intervention
the deranged bodily humours.
(relation)

Yet the

connection
is

which

exists

between the two

neither

constant nor separable.
lightning,

As the physical phenomena of
not

storm,

thunder and rain can
the

happen
yet

independently

of

sky (cloud)

;

and

they

Chap. XXIV.

]

SUTRASTHANAM.

237

sometimes do or do not occur with the presence of a
cloud
;

again

as

bubbles^

though

in

reality

but the

modifications of

the
at

underlying water, do not swell
all

up on

its

surface

times,

so the

connection
is

between a disease and the bodily humours
universally separable or inseparable.

neither

Authoritative verse on the subject
quality
:

—We

shall describe the

nature,

intensity

and

of diseases

with their complications and give
their
different
in
t3'pes.

the

number

of

Diseases

[omitted to be mentioned
(aetiology)]
will

the

chapter

on

Xidanam
in

be found fully dealt with

the sup-

plementary part of the present work (Uttara-tantram).
Thus ends the Iwenty-fourlh
Chapter of
the

SulrasthSnam

in

the

Sushruta SamhitA which treats of the classification of diseases according
to their specific nature.

CHAPTER XXV.
Now we
shall discourse

on the Chapter which deals
of surgical

with the eight different forms

operations

(Ashtavidha-Shastra- Karmanya dhya'yam).
Metrical
Granthi,

-

ma-

Texts :— Bhagandara,
Arvuda,
Arsha,

Shlaishmika

Tilakalaka,

Charma-Kila,

Jatumani,

Mansa-Samgh^ta, Gala-Sunthik^, Valmika,
Shataponaka,

Vrana-Vartma,

Adhrusha,

Upadansha,
due to

Mansakandha, Adhimansaka,

as well as ailments

the lodgment of a foreign body in the flesh

or

a bone,
are

and a sloughing of ligaments,
diseases in

flesh or veins

the

which
:

incision

i

Chhed)^am should be made.

Bhedyam

-Excision

(Bhedyam)
viz.,

should

be

resorted to in the following diseases,

Vidradhis, the

three types of Granthi other than the Sannipatika

one,

Visarpa due either to the deranged

Vayu, Pittam or
swellings
organs,

Kapham,
in

Vriddhi, Vidarika, Prameha-pidaka,
diseases
affecting

general,

the

mammary

Avamanthaka,

Kumbhika,

Anushayi^

Nadi, the two
(all

types of Vrinda,

Pushkarika, Alaji,
or

Kshudra-roga
the

minor

cutaneous

pustular

diseases),

three

types of Puppata, Talu-puppata, and Danta-puppata

Tundukeri,

Gil^Cyu,
in

and the diseases which are caused
the local flesh or any soft part of the

by suppuration

[Chap.

XXV.

SUTRASTHANAM.
as

239
as

body

^siich as fistula in ano),

well

stone ni the

bladder and diseases due to a derangement of fat.*

Lekhyam — The
:

surgical

operation

known

as

scarification

Lekhya; should be resorted to
viz,

in the follow^-

ing diseases,
hva,

the four types of Rohini, Kilasa, Upajiin

diseases

having their seat

the deranged

fat,

Danta-Vaidarbha, Granthi, Vrana-Vartma, Adhi-Jihva,
Arshah, Mandala, Mansa-kandi, and Mansonnati.

Vyadhanam —The
:

Surgical operation

known
use
of

as
in

Vyadhanam

(aspiration;

should be

made

connection with a vein, or a case of
or

Dakodaram
(hydrocele).

(abdominal dropsy),
Diseases, in connection
director should be

Mutra-Vriddhi

witli

which the probe or the
Nadis
(

used,

are

sinus)

and
in

ulcers
their

wMth an}^ extraneous or foreign
inside,

body lodged

and those which follow abnormal

(lateral

or

oblique' directions.

A'harryam :— The

process

known

as

Aharanam
morbid

(extraction or drawing out)

should be adopted in the
anj^

three types of Sharkar^,t in drawing out

matter from between the teeth or from the cavity
of the ears, or in extracting
seat of
*

any foreign matter from
stone
(scrotal

its

lodgment

in

the body, or a
(goitre), \'riddhi

from the

Granthi (gland), Galaganda

tumour) Apachi

(scrofula)

and Arvuda (tumour) are the fat-origined diseases contemplated

as instances.

t

Such as urinary

calculi, calcareous deposits

on the teeth, and P5da-

SharkarS.

240

THE SUSHRUTA

SAMHITA'.

[

Chap.

XXV.

bladder, or in drawing out

feces

from the constricted
the case
of a

anus, or a foetus from the uterus, (as in
false presentation or difficult labour).

Srarvyam :— Secreting
(Srav5'^am)

or

evacuating
in

measures
following

should

be

adopted

the

diseases, viz, the five

types

of Vidradhi excepting the

Sannipatika one, Kustha of whatsoever type,

derange-

ment

of the

bodily

V^yu with

pain

in

the affected

region, inflammatory swellings restricted to
lar part

any

particu-

of the

body, diseases affecting the ear-lobes, blood
poisoning,

Shleepada
(tumours),
to

(elephantiasis^

Arvuda

Visarpa

Terysipelas),

Granthi (glands due
or

any of the deranged Vayu, Pittam,
of

Kapham)

the

three types

Upadansha

(syphilis),

Stana-roga (inGalateeth),

flammation! of the mammae), Vidarika, Shaushira,
Shaluka, Kantaka,

Krimi-dantaka

worm-eaten

Danta-veshta (inflammation of the gums), Upakusha,
Shit^da, Danta-puppata,
diseases of the lips

originated

through the action of the deranged blood,

Pittam or
under

Kapham, and

a variety of other diseases passing

the denomination of Kshudra-Roga (minor ailments\

Sccvyam
resorted
to
in

:

—Suturing
deranged

rSeevya*

should

be

the case of the

an
fat

open ulcer due to
after
its

the

action

of

vitiated

contents (morbid matter) had been fully scraped out, as
well as in the case of an uncomplicated (curable"^ Sadya-

Vrana (wound

or

instant ulcer) at

any of the

joints

Chap.

x.w.

]

SUTRASTHANAM.

24

r

which are connected with the acts of movement or locomotion.

Conditions of Suturing:— An
cidental to the application of
fire

ulcer

inal-

(canter}'),

or

any

kaline preparation (caustic), or treated with any poison-

ous drug or substance,

or from

whose

inside

the

em-

bedded Shalyam
should not be

(foreign matter) has not

been removed,

sewed up without being thoroughly
=

cleansed and purified asepsised inasmuch as any foreign
matter, whether a hair, nail or a particle of dust or bone, lying

embedded

in its cavity,

might

set

up an abnormal

suppuration, accompanied
secretion.

by extreme pain and excessive
should

Hence such
all

ulcers

be thoroughly

cleansed (and

foreign

or

indigenous morbid matter

should be extracted therefrom) before being sewed up.

Mode

of

Suturing :— Then
its

having pressed
it

the ulcer up into

proper position,

should be
viz.

sutured with strings of any of the
of thin cotton thread,

following kinds,

of the fibres of the
or
of

Ashman-

taka tree or

hemp

plants,

of the

Atasi,

Murva

or

Guduchi,
hair or

or

with strips

leather,

plaited

horse-

animal sinews,

into as

any
the
or as

of

the

officinal

shapes (of suturing)
Sevani

known

Gophana, Tunnasuited

and Riju-Granthi,

etc.

to

the

shape and position of the ulcerated part.
of

The margin
close

the ulcer
fingers

should be gently
during
suturing.

pressed

with
to

the

A

round needle

242

THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA.

[Chap.

XXV. sew-

the length of two fingers' width should be used

in

ing up an ulcer occurring about any joint or in a part of

the body where the flesh
of a triangular
fingers'

is

thin and scanty.

A

needle

body

tri-hedral),
is

and measuring three
in the case of

width

in length,

recommended
flesh}'

an ulcer appearing at any

part

of the body.

A
in

semi-circular

or

bow-shaped needle should be used
seat of the ulcer

a case where

the

would be found
abdomen, or

to be on the scrotum, or on the skin of the

about any of the

Marmas

(vital parts).

Needles of these three shapes should be so constructed as to be fitted with sharp
points capable
of being

handled with the greatest ease, having a girth equal
that of the stem of a Malati flower.

The needle should not be pricked into
or too remote from the fissure, or the

a part too near, of an ulcer,

mouth

as there might be the danger of the suture being broken
off (at

the

least

pressure

or
of

movement)
pain
in

in

the

first

instance
ulcer,

and of genesis
properly

the second.

xAn

thus

sutured,

should

be

covered

over with cotton

and dusted over with a pulverised
the

compound

consisting of

powders

of Priyangu,

Anjanam, Yasthyahva and Rodhra, or with the ashes
of a burnt piece of of the Shallaki

Kshauma

cloth, or with the

powders

fruit.

Then the

ulcer should be properly

bandaged, and measures and rules regarding the regimen
of diet, and conduct previously laid

down

in

the chapter

Chap.

XXV.

]

SUTRASTHANAM.
ulcer- patient

243
)

on the nursing of an

(Ch. XIX.

should

be adopted and observed.

The

eight kinds of surgical operations have thus been

briefly described.

They

will

be dealt with later on in

the Chikitsitam.

Defective Surgical Operations:— These
eight forms of operations

may

be attended with dangers
as

of four

different

kinds such

those arising from an

insufficient

or

over performance, or from the slanting
knife
or

or oblique deviation (of the

the
the

instrument),
part

or from

an

act

of self-injury

on

of

the

physician.

A physician
the

(

surgeon

;

making
either

a

wrong operation on

body

of his

patient

through mistake, or
or

through the want of necessary
out of greed,
fear,

skill

knowledge, or
or
in

nervousness or haste,

conse-

quence of being spurned or abused, should be condemned
as the direct cause of

many new and unforeseen maladies.
instinct of self-preservation,

A

patient, with

any

would

do well to keep aloof from such a ph\sician, or from one

who makes

a

wrong

or

injudicious application

of the

cautery, and should shun his presence just as he

would

shun a conflagration or a cup of

fatal poison.

On
what

the other hand, a surgical
surgical
,

operation,

carried

to

excess, (or a
is

instrument inserted deeper than
is

necessary

attended

with

the

danger of

244

THE SUSHRUTA
a vein,

SAiMHlTA.
ligament,
'

L

Chap.

xxv.

cutting or destroying

bone, joint,

or

any

vital part

of the

body.

A

surgical
in

operation
cases,

by
the

an ignorant surgeon brings

about,

most

instantaneous death of the patient, or consigns him to
the pangs of a life-long death.

The symptoms which
in

generally manifest themselves

connection with the injudicious hurting of any of the
or
principles

five vital parts

of the

body (such

as

the

joints, bones, veins, ligaments, etc.) are vertigo, delirium,

loss of bodily
state),

functions,

semi-insensibility
oneself,

(

comatose
of

incapacity

of supporting
fainting,

cessation

mental functions, heat,
difficult respiration,

looseness of the

limbs,

excruciating pain or pain peculiar to

the deranged Vayu, secretion of blood or a thin watery
secretion like the

washings of meat from the injured

part, or the organ, with

coma

or inoperativeness

of

all
is

the senses.

A

vein* iShira) any wa}' severed or injured

attended with a copious flow (haemorrhage
blood, resembling the hue of the cochineal

of deep red
insect,

from

the ulcer
all
its

;

and the deranged

local

Vayu

readil}' exhibits

essential characteristics,

and ushers

in

diseases
in

which have been enumerated under that head
chapter on the description of blood.)

the

Similarly, an injured ligament gives rise to a crooked-

ness or bending
*

of,

as well as to a

gone feeling
vital

in

the

Other than ihc one silualcd

in

any of the abovesaid

parts

of

the body.

Chap.

XXV.

]

SUTRASIHA'NAM.

245

injured limb or organ,
function,

attended with pain and loss of
ulcer

and the incidental

takes a

long time

to heal.

An abnormal

increase in the local swelling, together
loss ol

with an excruciating pain,

strength, breaking

pain in the joints, and in-operativeness
part,
joint.

of the affected

mark the wounding
Similarly, in the

of a

flexible or

immovable
is

case

where a bone

hurt or
patient

injured in the course of a surgical operation, the
is

tormented

with

indescribable
in

pain,

da}'

and

night,

and

finds

no comfort

any position what-

soever.
locality,

Pain and swelling specifically mark the affected

and

thirst

and inertness of the limbs add to

the

list

of his sufferings.

A

case of

any injured Sira-Marma

(

vital

venal or

arterial

combination or plexus
characterise

exhibits

the

same

symptoms which

the hurting of a single

vein, as previously described.

Loss of actual perception

(anaesthesia^

and a yellowish colour of the skin mark
the
injury
is

the case where

confined to

the vital

principle of the flesh.

A

patient,

who

is

discreet,

and

is

not in a

special

hurry to end his earthly sojourn,

would do well to
unskilful

shun the presence of a

bungling,

surgeon,
in

who

can

not

even

keep

himself

unhurt

the

course of a surgical operation.

246

THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA.
evils,

LChap.

xxv.

I

The

which attend the obhque insertion of a
have been described before
;

surgical instrument,

and

accordingly care should be taken not to leave any
for the

room

occurence of those evils

in

connection with a

surgical operation.

The
and

patient,

who may

mistrust his

own

parents, sons

relations, should repose

an implicit
into his
;

faith in his

own

physician, and put his

own

life

hands without

the least apprehension

of danger

hence a ph5'sician
begotten child.
or

should protect his patient as his
surgical case

own

A

may

yield

to a

single incision,

may

require two, three, four or
effect a cure.

more than that number to
to

By doing good

humanity with

his pro-

fessional skill, a physician achieves glory,

and acquires the

plaudits of the
live in

good and the wise

in this life,

and

shall

Paradise in the next.
twenly-fiflh Chapter of the Sulrasthimim in the Sushruta

Thus ends the
Samhita which

tieats of the eight

forms of Surgical operations.

CHAPTER
Now we
organism
shall discourse

XXVI.

on the Chapter which treats

of the exploration of splinters lost or deep-seated in the

(Pranashta-Shalya-Vijna'niya'-

madhysryam).
Definition
to the
:

— The

term

Shalyam

is

derived

from the root "Shala" or Shvala" (to go swiftly) joined

Unadi

affix

"Yat." Shalyas
as

may be

divided into

two kinds according

they are extrinsic

Agantuka)

or idiopathic (Sharira) in their origin.

A

Shalyam usually serves to

act

as an

impeding or

obstructing agent to the entire organism, and, hence, the
science which deals with
is

its

nature

and characteristics

called the Shalya-Shastram (Surgery).

An

idiopathic

(Sharira) Shalyam

may
body

be either a

hair, nail,

embohsed

blood (Dhatus)*,

etc.,

excrements (Mala), or deranged
(Dosha),

humours of the

while

an extrinsic
afflicts

Shal3'am should be regarded as one which

the

body and

is

originated

from a source other than any
of iron

of the preceding ones, including particles

and
bits

bone,

stems of
etc.

grass,

scrapings

of

bamboo, and
(extrinsic)

of horns,

But an Agantuka
article

Shalyam
it

specifically

denotes an

of iron,

inasmuch as

*

Embolism and Thrombosis have been included within Shalyam by

the Ayurvedic Pathologists.

248

ITHE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA.

1

Chap xxvi.

pre-eminently sqvvqs the

purpose of killing and
Since

is

the

most

irresistible of

all

metals.

any amount of
article

sharpness can

be imparted to the point of an

made

of iron

and since
is

it

can be easily discharged
metal exclusively chosen

from a distance, iron

the

in the construction of darts or arrows.

Classification of Shafts — Arrows (Shara) may be divided into two classes according as they are
:

feathered or unfeathered

;

and

their

barbs

are

usually
or

constructed
fruits,

in

the shape

of trees, leaves,

flowers,

or are

made

to resemble the

mouths of

birds

and

wild and ferocious animals.

Flights of arrows: — The
tions of an arrow (Shalyam)
different kinds, such as the

flights

or

direc-

may

be divided

into five

upward, the downward, the

backward (coming from the back), the oblique and the
straight.

Either through

its

diminished

momentum,

or

through any external resistance, an arrow

may
or

drop

down and

penetrate

into

the skin,

arteries,

any
its

internal channel of the body, or into
cavity, causing a

any bone or

wound

or an ulcer (Vrana) at the spot

of

its

penetration.

Symptoms — Now hear me describe the symp:

toms which are exhibited

in

connection with an

arrow-

wound
*

(Shalya*-Vrana).

These

symptoms
to kill.

may

be

An

arrow or an iron barb, from "Shala"

Chap.

XXVI.

]

SUTRASTHANAM.
specific

249
and
as

grouped under two sub-heads, such as the
the
general.
:

The
ulcer,

general

characteristics
is

are

follows

— The

which
a

marked by pain
or

and

swelling and presents

raised

bloated aspect like

a water bubble, assumes a dark
soft to the touch.

brown hue and appears
is

The

seat of the ulcer

seen to be

studded over with pustular eruptions and a constant
bleeding sets in from
its inside.

The

specific

symptoms,
the hard-

which mark a Shalyam lodged

in the skin, are

ness and extended character of the

local

swelling

and

the darkness (discolouring) of

its skin.

In a case where the arrow Shalyam)
flesh,

is

lodged

in

the

the swelling increases in

size

and the incidental
least

ulcer refuses to be
pressure.
terised

healed and cannot bear the
is

Suppuration sets in and the ulcer
sort of sucking pain.*

charac-

by a
the

All

preceding symptoms,

with
fthirst

the

exception

of swelling

and

sucking

pain

according to

others), manifest themselves in a case

where the arrow
Similarly, the

(Shalyam) has penetrated into a muscle.
distension,

aching and swelhng of a vein mark a case

of an of
its

arrow-lodged vein.
fibres

An

upheaval and swelling
characterise
in

together with
shaft

intense pain

a

case

where the

(Shalyam) has lodged

a

ligament.
*

The

internal passages or channels (Srota)
the patient

of

According

to certain authorities
thirst.

is

tormented with a sort

of

unquenchable
?>2

250

THE SUSHRUT.A

SAMHITA'.

[

Chap,

xxvi,

the body are choked up and

become

inoperative,

when

the shaft

is

lodged in any one

of them.

A

flow of red

and frothy blood with a gurghng sound, accompanied

by

thirst,

nausea,

and aching of the limbs,
is

sets in

when

the

arrow

lodged in an artery (Dhamani).

Similarly,

pain and swelling of diverse kinds
shaft
is

mark

a

case

where the
of

embedded
on
the

in

a bone.
a

The

appearance

goose

flesh

skin,

stuffed

sensation inside the cavity of the affected bone,

and

a violent piercing bone-ache,
shaft

mark

a case where the

has

found a lodgment inside the cavity of a
pierced joint exhibits the same
in

bone.
as

A

symptoms

described

connection

with

an

arrow-lodged
is

bone, with the exception that the patient
of
flexing

incapable
In a
in
;

and expanding the

affected

joint.

case

where the shaft (Shalyam) has

lodged

the

abdomen (Koshtha), the bowels become constipated the
abdomen becomes distended with
testines

a rumbling in the in-

and the suppression of
well

flatus

and urine
and

;

and
are

ingested food matter, as

as

urine

feces

found to ooze out of the

fissure or

mouth

of the

ulcer.

Symptoms,
themselves
vital

similar

to

those above described, manifest
is

when

the arrow
of

lodged in any of the
body.

parts

(Marmas'i

the

The preceding

symptoms
ficial

are but faintly exhibited in a case of super-

penetration.

An

ulcer incidental to the penetration

of an

arrow

Chap. XXVI.]

SUTRASTHANAM.

25

(Shalyam"), along the direction of the local hair, in* the
throat, in

any internal channel of the body, or

in a vein,

the

skin, or

a muscle, or into a cavity of the bone,

and

not in any

way

affected

by the action of the deranged

bodily humours,

may

speedily and spontaneously heal
if

but

it

may

break open and become painful afresh

the

bodily

humours become deranged and aggravated by a
exercise.

blow or physical

Localisation :— The
(Shalyam) embedded

exact position of a

shaft

in the skin

should be ascertained
clay, Masha-pulse,

by applying a
Yava,

plaster

composed of

Godhuma and cow-dung
The
part (hmb)

over the injured limb

or part.

should be duly lubricated

with

oil,

and diaphorised (by fomenting or applying
surface)

heat to

its

before

the plaster

is

applied.
in

The
that

shaft (Shalyam) should be considered as lodged

part which would be

marked by
such

pain, redness, or swelling
x\s

(Samrambha)

after

application.

an alterna-

tive, the affected part

should be plastered with clarified

butter,

common

clay and sandal paste.
is

The embedded

shaft

(Shalyam)

then exactly located at the spot

where, owing to the heat of the affected part, the
clarified butter,

or

earth,

or

sandal

paste would be

found to have melted, or dried up.
Similarly, the

mode

of localising a shaft

(Shalyam),

*

So

as not to obstruct the

coursing

of the

blood

or

serum

in

the

locality.

252

THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA.
in the flesh is as follows
:

;

Chap. XXVI.

embedded

— First, the

patient

should be duly lubricated and diaphorised with medicinal

agents suited to the requirements of his case.

Then, the part or the limb having been thus reduced
with depletive measures, the shaft would be found to

have been dislodged from
about
(^within

its

seat

and to be moving
affected

the deeper tissues

of the

part

giving rise to pain, redness and swelling.

In such a case

the

exact location

of the shaft should be fixed at the

spot where the pain

and swelling,

etc.
in

would occur.
the case of a

The same measures should be adopted
shaft (Shalyam)

which

lies

embedded

in

the cavity of

the

abdomen (Kostha),
In

or in a bone, or joint, or muscle

the
in

case

of a

Shalyam lodged

in a vein,

in

an

artery,
in a

any external channel (Srota) of the body, or

ligament, the patient should be

made

to

ride

in

a

carriage with a broken or lopped oif wheel

and dragged
pain and
at
is

up and down
swelling,
etc.

in

it

on an undulating road

The

incidental to the jolting,

would occur

that part

of his body,

where the

shaft (Shalyam}

embedded.
In

the

case

of

a

shaft

Shalyam)
be

lodged

in

a

bone, the affected bone should
diaphorised with
it

lubricated
after

and

oil

and heat respectively,

which
seat of

should be firmly pressed and bound up.

The

the pain or swelling, caused

by such a procedure, would
the

mark the exact

locality

of

embedded Shalyam.

Chap.

XXVI.

I

SUTRASTHANAM.

253
in

Similarly, in the case of a shaft (Shalyam) lodged
joint,

a

the same

lubricating, diaphorising, compressing,

and expanding measures should be adopted, and the
painful swelling caused thereby
locality.

would indicate
laid

its

exact
as

No

definite

method can be
exact
location

down

regards ascertaining the

of a

Shalyam

lodged

in

any of the

vital parts of

the body

(Marma

',

inasmuch as they are
locations

co- existing
as,

with (the eight different
skin_,

of ulcers, such

the

the flesh, the

bone, etc.)*

General rule
at

:

A

painful

swelling,

occurring

any part of the body and incidental to such physical
natural

or

endeavours of the patient, as riding on an
hill,

elephant or on horse-back, climbing a steep
ing of a

bendr

bow, gymnastic

exercises, running, wrestling,

walking, leaping,

swimming, high -jumping,

yawning,

coughing, singing, expectorating, eructating, laughing,
practising

of

Pranay^ma

(regulating the breath prelimi-

nary to the practice of Yoga), or an emission of semen,
urine or flatus,
or

defecation,

would

clearly

indicate

the exact location of the

embedded

shaft (Shalyam).

Authoritative
ject
:

Verses on the Subbody, which
is

— The

part

of the

marked by
is

pain and swelling, or which seems heavy and
*

marked

Accordingly measures enjoined to be adopted in connection with a

shaft

(Shalyam) lodged

in

any one of them should be applied

wufati.-:

mutandis to cases in which these
affected.

Marmas would be found

to

be similarly

254

THE SUSHRUTA

SAMHITA'.

[Chap.

XXVi,

by complete

anaesthesia, or the part

which the patient

repeatedly handles, or constantly presses with his

own
is

hand, or which exudes any sort of secretion, and

marked by a
involuntarily

sort

of excruciating pain,

or

which he
guards

withdraws from, or constantly
imaginary
painful

against

(an

contact),

should be

regarded as clearly indicative of the exact location of
the embedded Shalyam.

A

physician, having tested with a probe
interior

the

cavity
affected

of the incidental ulcer or the
locality,

of

the

and found

it

to be characterised

by
or

little

pain

and absence of any aching discomfort
able

unfavourof proper
to
its

symptoms and
and

swelling, after a

course

treatment,

after

having been

satisfied as

healthy look and the softness of

its

margin, and after

having ascertained that any remnant of the embedded

arrow can not be perceived with the end of the director

by moving

it

to

and

fro,

should pronounce

it

free

from

any embedded

foreign matter (Shalyam),
full

which would

be further confirmed by the

flexion

and expansion

of the affected limb or organ.

A
bits

particle of soft
in

bone, horn

or

iron,

in
;

an}' wise

lodged

the body, assumes an arched shape
grass-stems,
or

whereas

of wood,

chips

of bamboo-bark,

under the same circumstances, putrify the blood and
the local flesh,
of
1

if

not speedily extracted from their seats

odgment.

Bits of gold, silver, copper, brass, zinc, or

Chap.

XXVI.

]

SUTRASTHANAM.

255

lead,

anj'how inserted into a human organism, are soon

melted by the heat of the Pittam and are assimilated

and transformed
body.

into the fundamental principles of the

Metals or substances of kindred softness, and
cold, are

which are naturally

melted and become amal-

gamated, under such circumstances, with the elements
of the organism.

A

hair,

or

a particle of hard bone,
cla}^

wood, stone, bamboo scraping, or

which remains

lodged in the body as a Shalyam, does not melt, nor

undergo any change or deterioration.

The

physician,

who

is

fully

conversant with the

five different courses or flights of

an arrow 'Shalyam),

whether feathered or unfeathered, and has minutely
observed and studied the symptoms due to
its

lodg-

ment
in

in

any of the eight

different seats of ulcers (Vrana)
as,

the

human organism such

the skin,

etc.),

is

alone

worthy of attending on kings and nobles.
Thus ends
the

twenly-sixth

Chapter of the

Sulrasth^nam

in

the

Sushruta Samhit^ which treats of exploration of spHnters.

CHAPTER XXVII.
Now we
deals with the
shall

discourse

on the

Chapter

which

modes of

extracting sphnters

(Shalyar-

pa n iya- mad hyaryam)
There are two kinds of
either

Shalyas.
its

A

Shalya

is

loose

or firmly fixed to

seat within the body.
different

We

shall presently

speak of the

fifteen

modes
viz.

of extracting a loose Shalyam, which are as follows,

Extraction by natural expulsive functions

of the

body

(Svabhaba), by suppuration or putrefication (Pachanam),

by excising (Bhedanam), by bursting

Daranam), by
b)''

pressing Pidanam), by rubbing i^Pramarjananr,
ing with the

blow-

mouth of medicinal powders
by the

into the affect-

ed part (Nirdhmapanam),
emetics (Vamanam), by an

administration
of
,

of

exhibition

purgatives

(Virechanam) by

washing (Prakshalanam
(Pratimarsha),

by

friction

with
the

the

fingers

by

straining

as

at

time

of defecation

(Pravahanam),

by

sucking

(Achushanam), by applying a magnet (Ayaskanta) and

by exhilarating Harsham).
;

An embedded
from the eyes,
eructation,

foreign

matter

is

usually

expelled

etc,

by inducing lachrymation, sneezing,
micturition,

coughing,
flatus.

defecation,

and

the emission of

A

Shalyam, or any other foreign matter which has

Chap, xxvii.^

SUTRASTH/VNAM.
into

257
flesh,

penetrated
extracted
locah'ty.

the

deeper tissues of

should be
affected

b}'

setting

up suppuration

in

the

The

putrid flesh

would loosen the

fixture of the

Shalyam, the
causing
it

weight of the secreted pus and blood

to drop
seat

down.
the
locality

The
should
its

or

of a

fixed
in

Shalyam
event of

be

opened

by an

incision

the

not being ejected even after the establishment of
If

the local suppuration.

the Shalyam
the
or
affected

fails

to

come out

even after the
pressed with

incision,

part

should be

the

fingers,

medicines,

endued with
be
fine

the virtue

of exerting
surface.

pressure,
particle

should
of
an}-

applied
matter,

over

its

A

accidentally dropped into

the

eye, should be

removed
it

with sprays of cold water, or by blowing into
the mouth, or by rubbing
it

with

with hair or the fingers.
food or mucous, a remnant

A
of

residue

of digested

any food

matter (Ahdrashesha) misdirected into

the nostrils, or any small splinter loosely pricking thereto

CAnu-shalyam), should be expelled by breathing hard,
or
or

by coughing upward through the

nostrils

(Utk^sha),

by blowing through the nose.
obstructing

A

morsel of food,
the cavity

acting as an

Shalyam
should

in

of

the

stomach

(Am^shaya),

be

ejected

by

rubbing (Pratimarsha) the fingers against
of the throat,
or

the

lining

against the region

of the epiglottis,

while such a morsel brought
33

down

into

the intestines,

258
should

THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA.
be

[Chap, xxvil.

evacuated

by

administering

purgatives

(Virechanam).

The pus

or

any other morbid matter found within

the cavity of an ulcer should be removed by washing
it,

while

incarcerated

flatus,

or

obstructed

scybala

or retained

urine, or obstructed foetus, should

be borne

down and

expelled by means of straining.

Any
in

deranged Vayu or watery secretion incarcerated
of the

anv part

body, as well as poisoned blood

or vitiated breast-milk, should be

sucked off with the

mouth, or with a horn.

A

loose,

unbarbed arrow, lodged
lying
in

in

a

wound with
direction,

a broad

mouth and

an

Anuloma

should be
end.

withdrawn by applying a
driven into the

magnet
heart

to

its

A

shaft of grief,

by any
removed

of the multifarious emotional causes, should be

by exhilaration and merry-making.

A

shaft

(Shalyam),
its

whether large or small,
place in
either

may
two

be withdrawn from

of the

ways known

as

the

Anuloma and Pratiloma.

The

Anuloma
a

consists in

withdrawing a Shalyam through
its

way

other
is

than that of

penetration, while the

contrary

called the Pratiloma.
in

A
spot

Shalyam lodged
of
its

a

place

lying

close

to

the

penetration

(Arvacheenam)
it

should

be

extracted through the

wav bv which

has entered

Chap. XXVII.

]

SUTRASTHANAM.
On
the other hand, a
shaft

259
or

(Pratiloma).

Shalyam,
but not

piercing deep

into

any part of the body,
side

coming out by the other
be drawn out through
penetration (Anuloma).
a

(Par^cheenam), should
other than that of
its

way

A
so or
to

shaft, piercing

deep into any part of the body
of the

as to reach
part,

the other side

wounded hmb
it

(but

not cutting out
its

clean through

owing
and

the diminution of

original

momentum),
flesh,

remaining protruded

in

the

heaved up

should
that

be extracted through a channel other than

by

which
stirring

it

has originally penetrated (Anuloma), and by
striking
flesh
it

or

with the hand or a hammer.

The heaved up

should be opened with an incision,
of being so

when found

possible

opened,

and

the

embedded Shalyam should be drawn out by
striking
it

stirring or

with the hand as laid
in

down

before.

A

Shalyam, lodged

any

soft part of the
ribs,

abdomen,

chest, arm-pits, inguinal regions or

should not be
tried to
its

cut open or struck with

hammer, but should be

be removed with

the hands through the

wa)- of

penetration (Pratiloma), in failure whereof the Shalyam

should be extracted with surgical
or

appliances (Shastra)
(

any other

surgical instruments

Yantras),

Authoritative Verse on the Subject — A patient, fainting away (during the course
:

of such

a

surgical

operation),

should be enlivened by

26o

THR SUSHRUTA SAMHITA.
He

:

Chap.

XXVli.

dashing cold water over his face.

should be solaced

with

many

a hopeful
as,

and cheering word, and a nourishetc.

ing diet
his

such

milk,

should be given

him, and

vital parts

should be protected.

Then having

extracted the Shalyam,

the

incidental
of,

wound

or ulcer, the blood having
lieat or

been wiped

should

be fomented with
butter to
its

by apph'ing warm
it

clarified
fit

surface in the event of
i.e.,

being found

to

be so treated

'devoid of pain and unattended
Cauterisation should be

with
to

further bleeding).

resorted

where the condition of the wound would indicate such a
measure.
After
tliat,

the

wound should be

plastered

(Pradeha) with honey and clarified butter, and bandaged

with a piece of clean linen
diet

;

and directions as to the
(as

and nursing of the patient should be given

previously laid down).

A

Shalyam, lodged

in a

vein or a

ligament
of a

(Snayu),

should be extracted
shaft (Shalyam),

with

the
in

help

probe.

The

lodged

the

body and lying buried

under the incidental swelling, should be extracted hy
firmly tying blades

of Kuslia grass around

its

body.

A

shaft (Shalyam;, lodged in a spot situated

anywhere

close to the heart,

should be
;

withdrawn by the way

by which

it

has entered

and the patient should be
etc.

enlivened with sprat's of cold water,
operation.

during the

Chap.

XXVII.

]

SUTRASTHA'N'AM.
in

261

A
and

Shalyam, lodged
is difficult

any other part of the body
that

and that

to extract, and

produces pain

local inflammation, should be

removed by cutting
1

the part open.

In the case of a shaft Shalyam)

which

has pierced into the cavity of a bone, the surgeon should
firmly press the affected

bone with
all

his

legs,

and

pull

out the embedded shaft with
it

his
in

might by gripping
failure

with

a

surgical

instrument,

whereof a
hold of

strong

man

should be asked to
the

firmly

catch

the patient, and

Shalyam should be pulled out

with the help of a gripping surgical instrument as before.

As an

alternative, the

bottom of the shaft should
fully

be tied to the string of a bow, strung and

bent

down
means

;

and the Shalyam should be ejected with the
of
a
full

twang.
in

As an
the

alternative,

a horse
as

should be harnessed

fashion
in

known

the

Panch^ngi-vandhanam

(lit.

bound

the five parts of the

body), and the end of the Shalyam should be bent

down
be

and
so

tied

to

the

bridle.

Then the horse should
head
first,

whipped as to

raise

its

thus pulling out
its

the

embedded

shaft .Shalyam)

from

seat

of lodga

ment by the

jerk

of

its

head.

As an

alternative,

high and tough bough of a tree should be lowered

down
the

and

tied

to

the

bent

end of the shaft as

in

preceding case.

The bough should be then
/

let loose,

thus pulling out the shaft (Shalyam
force.

with

its

rebounding

262

THE SUSHRUTA

SAMHITA'.

[Chap. XXVII.

A

shaft (Shalyam), lodged in a
in

bone and lying pro-

truded

the heaved up local flesh (situated in a place

other than the inguinal regions, abdomen, or arm-pits,
etc.),

should be stirred by striking

it

on the head with
according

an Asthila a round stone,

—a

short

hammer

to certain authorities), or with a stone or

hammer, and

should be taken out by the

way

of

its

penetration.

The

feather of a barbed shaft, lying
at

embedded

in

a

bone situated
existence
to create

a

part

of

the

organism where the
is

of such a

foreign

matter

calculated
first

not

any

special discomfort, should be

crushed

by putting pressure on the heaved up
flesh,

or protruded

and the shaft then should be gently pulled out
seat of lodgment.

of

its

In

the

case of a bit

of shellac

being accidentally
should be
first

pricked into the pharynx, a metal tube
inserted
into

the passage,

and then a heated metallic
to the

rod should be reached

down

obstructing shellac

through

its

inside.

The

shellac,

thus melted by the

heat of the inserted rod, would naturally stick fast to
it,

which should be then condensed by an injection of

cold water poured
after

down through

the aforesaid tube

;

that the

rod should be withdrawn thus carrying
its

away

the melted shellac at

end.

According to certain authorities, any other obstructing foreign

matter accidentally

introduced into the
a rod,

pharynx should be withdrawn with the help of

Chap. XXVII.

1

SUTRASTHA'NAM.

263

soaked

in

melted wax or shellac, and then inserted into
all

that passage,

other procedure being the same as

in

the preceding instance.
In the case of a bone
of
fish

Shalyam

(such

as
fast

the bone
in

etc.)

having accidentally stuck
hair, tied

the

throat,

a

bundle of
inserted

to a

string

of thread,

should be

into

the

gullet of the patient, the
string
in his
of

physician holding the

other end of the

hand.

Then

a copious

quantity

of water,

or

any

other liquid substance, should be poured
throat, so as to

down

into his

entirely

fill

his

stomach.

After that

some kind
and the

of emetic

should be given to the patient,
out as soon
struck
as

string

should be pulled
felt

the

bundle of hair would be
obstructing bone
or

to have

below the

Shalyam, which would naturally
pull.
is

come out with
end of a
soft

the

As an

alternative,

the top

twig, as

generally used in cleansing

the teeth, should be bruised into the

shape of a brush,

and the thorn or the Shalyam should be removed with
its

help.

The

incidental
lick

wound should be
a

treated

by

making the patient
butter

compound

of

clarified

and honey, or of the powders of the Triphal^,

saturated with honey and sugar.

The body

of the patient should be pressed or rubbed,

or he should be whirled round

by the

ankles, or general-

ly

measures, calculated to induce vomiting, should be
in

adopted

a

case

where he would be found to have

264

THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA.

[

Chap. XXVIt.

swallowed a stomachful of water
ing).

(as in a case of

drownthe

As an

alternative, he should be buried under

ashes up to his chin.

Strong wine should be given

to

the patient,

or

he

should be slapped on the shoulders, so as to cause him
to suddenly start in a case

where a morsel

of food

would

be found to have obstructed and stuck

fast in his gullet.

A

tight gripe about the throat of a person with a creeper,

rope or the arm of an antagonist, tends to enrage the
local

(Kapham), which

obstructs

the

cavity

of

the

passage (Srota)

producing salivation,
consciousness.

foaming at the
in

mouth and

loss of

The remedy

such

cases consists in lubricating and diaphorising

the

body

of the

patient
errhines

with

oil

and heat, and

in

administering
juice

strong
extract

(Shiro-Virechanam),

and the

or

of meat

which

is

possessed of the virtue

of

subduing the deranged Vayu.

Authoritative Verses on the Subject: — An
adaptability
intelligent

physician
to
its

should

remove

a

Shalvam with due regard
of the

shape, location and the

different

types of surgical instru-

ments to the case under treatment.
exercise
shafts
his

A

physician should

own

discretion

in

extracting feathered

(Shalyas)

from their seats of lodgment, as well

as those that are difficult of extraction.

A physician

is

at

liberty

to exercise

his

own

skill

and wisdom, and

to devise his

own

original

means

for

Chap. XXVII.

]

SUTR.ASTHA'NAM.
of a

265
of

the

extraction

Shalyam with the help

any

surgical

instruments
abortive.
left in

when

the

abovesaid measures

would prove

A

Shalyam, not removed from
of lodgment,
brings

the bod}'- and

its

place

on

swelling, suppuration, mortification of the affected

part,

and a

sort

of excruciating pain,

and

may

ultimately

lead to death.
to extract a

Hence

a physician should spare
its

no pain

Shalyam from

seat of lodgment.

Thus ends the twenty-seventh Chapter of

ihe

Sutraslh^nain

in

the

Sushruta SamhitS, which treats of extraction nf Shalvam.

34

CHAPTER
Now we
(

XXVIII.

shall discourse

on the Chapter, which deals

with the fa\ourable or unfavourable prognosis of an ulcer.

Viparitarviparita
).

-

Vrana - Vijna^niya -

madhyaryam
IVIetrical

Text :— Certain
a

fatal or

unfavourable

symptoms (Arishtas)* unmistakably presage the death
of

an ulcer-patient, as

flower,

smoke and cloud
In most cases,
fatal

respectively herald a

fruit, fire

and

rain.

the ignorant

cannot interpret aright these

symp-

toms owing to

their extremely subtile nature, or out of

ignorance or stupidity, or because such symptoms are

very closely followed by the death of the patient.

These
of

fatal

indications
patient,

serve

as

sure

precursors
off

death in
of

a

unless

warded

by the
from
also

blessings

hoi}'

Brahmanas,

who

are

free

low

desires

or

animal

propensities,

and

are

accustomed to practise the
penances
;

Yo^a and

other religious
of

or death

may

be averted with the help

men who

are initiated

into the

mystery of concocting

life-giving elixirs

(Rasayanam".
are developed by the deranj^ed bodily

* in the

The symptoms which
organism of a

humours
all

man

at

a

time

when

they

have passed beyond

medical cure,
for

and when the body serves as a mere passive back-ground
its

those

phenomena, awaiting

impending dissolution, are called

Ariahtas,

Chap. XXVIII.

]

SUTRASTHANAM.
indications
in

267
fatal

Man}'' such

do not prove instantly

but

bring

on death
b}'

course of time, just as diseases,

supposed

some

to be

due to the influence of malig-

nant planets, take time before they become patent out
of their incubative stages.
patient
is

An

attempt to cure a doomed

only repaid by failure and the ridicule of the
physician should

world, and hence an intelligent
it

make

worth

his while to carefully observe

and study these
smell,

fatal indications.

A

contrariety

of the natural

colour, taste, (sensation, sound, touch, etc.)

of an

ulcer

indicates a near

and

fatal

termination of the disease.

An

ulcer emits a pungent, sharp, or fishy smell under

the respective influences of the deranged Vayu,

Pittam

and Kapham.
the
vitiated

An
blood,

ulcer,

deranged by the action of
like

emits a smell
one,

that of iron

(Loha-gandhi),

while

originated

through

the

concerted action of the deranged
smell characterised
of them.
action
'^of

humours, emits a
of each

by the

distinctive features

On

the other hand, an ulcer, due to the joint

the deranged

Vayu and 'Pittam), emits
;

a smell

like that

of fried paddy

one,

due to the action of
a

the deranged
that of linseed

Vayu and Kapham, emits
oil
;

smell like

whereas one, brought

about by
smells

the action of the deranged Pittam and
like

Kapham,

sesamum

oil.

All

those

odours,

marked by a

somewhat

fishy character, should

be deemed the natural

odours of ulcers, and any other smell should be held as
a contrary or unnatural one.

268

THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA.
ulcer

[Chap.

XX\

111.

An
or

emitting
aloe

a sweet smell like that of wine,

fragrant

wood

(Aguru),

clarified-butter,

Jati

flower,

Champaka,

sandal, lotus or

any

celestial flower

(Divyagandha), should be regarded as the precursor of
death.
ises

Similarly, a smell like the

one which characteror
like

a dog, horse, mole, crow or a bug,

the one

emitted by dry, putrid meat, or resembling the smell of
earth or slime, should be
or fatal in an ulcer.

likewise

deemed unfavourable

A

physician should give up a case
it

where an

ulcer,

though

has assumed a blackish, saffron or Kankustha
earth)
is

colour (a sort of mountain
of the aggravated Pittam,

through the action
of the

divested
is

burning,
that

sucking and drawing pain, which

peculiar to

morbiferous diathesis. Similarly, an ulcer, which, though

brought about through the action

of

the deranged

Kapham, has become
in

cold, hard

and whitish as natural

one of the Kaphaja type, should be given up as soon
it is

as

marked by

a burning

pain.

Likewise an

ulcer,

due to the action of the deranged V^iyu, and characterised

by a blackish hue and a thin
found to invade the

secretion,

and which

is

vital principles

of the body, should

be abandoned by a

physician,

whenever found to be

entirely devoid of pain.

An
or

ulcer,

which makes a gurgling or groaning sound,
is

one which

characterised

by an extreme burnflesh,

ing sensation, oris confined to the skin and the

Chap. XXVIII.

]

SUTRASTHA'NAM.
of

269

and

is

marked by the emission
is

wind with a loud
Likewise,

report,

sure to
is

have a

fatal termination.

one,

which

characterised

by extreme

pain,

though

not otherwise seated about any of the vital parts of the

body, or which

is

cold on the surface, though attended
in
its

with an extremely burning sensation
vice versa, should be

inside

and

deemed

the

precursor of death.
as
fatal,

Similarly, an ulcer should be regarded

that
(a

is

shaped

like the

barb
or

of a
spear),

spear,

or a

a

Kunta

kind

of barbed

dart

or

like

banner, chariot,
ox,
a

horse, or an elephant, or like a
or a palace.

cow, an

temple,

A

wise physician, witli any regard to his

own

repu-

tation,

should abandon a patient laid up with an ulcer
sort

which appears to have been dusted over with a
pulverised crust, or

of

who

has been suffering from one ac-

companied by
respiration

loss of flesh

and strength, cough,
to food.

difficult

and

aversion

An

ulcer,

which
secretes

occurring at any of the vital parts of the
a

body

copious quantity of pus and blood, and refuses to

be healed even after a course of proper and persistent
medical treatment,
Thus ends
Sushruta
the is

sure to have a fatal termination.

twenty-eighth
deals

Chapter of
with
the

the

SutrasthSnam

in

the

SamhitS, which

favourable and

unfavourable

prognosis of ulcers.

CHAPTER XXIX.
Now we
treats
shall

discourse
or

on

the Chapter,

which
in

of

favourable

unfavourable

prognosis

diseases, as
etc.

known from

messengers,

omens and dreams

(Viparitarviparita-Duta-Shakuna-

Svapna- Nidarshaniya-madhyaryam).
IVIctrical

Texts:— The
disease dress
in

favourable or unfavour-

able termination of a

may

be predicted from

the appearance, speech,

and demeanour of the
or

messenger sent to

call

a physician,

from the

nature of the asterism and the the time of his arrival,
or

lunar phase

marking

from the direction of the
time,
or

wind (Anila) blowing
of

at the

from the nature
road, or from

omens (Shakuna) seen by him on the

the posture, temperament or speech
himself.

of the

physician

A

messenger belonging to the same caste as the
should be regarded as an
auspicious

patient*

omen,

whereas one from a different caste would indicate a
fatal or

an unfavourable termination of the disease,

A
*

eunuch, a husband of

many

wives, a messenger

A

P^shanda messenger should be despatched

to

call in
;

a physician

where a member of the same community would
in the case of a patient of the

fall ill

a householder,
the case

same

social order
;

;

a BrShmana, in

of a

BrShmana

patient,

and so on
evil

while

an infringement of the rule

would be looked upon as an

omen.

Chap.

XXIX.

]

StJTRAStHANAM.
calling

^fl
at

sent on a different errand and incidentally
physician's house, or one
or messengers
in carts, or

a

who

has quarrelled on the road,

who come
in

riding

on camels, donkeys or
line,

on foot

one unbroken

should be

looked upon as inauspicious messengers.
Similarly,

messengers,

who

call

at the

house of a
club,

physician,

holding in their hands a
or

rope,

or

any other weapon,

who come

dressed in

blacky red,

yellow, wet, dirty or torn garments, or with
sheets

the upper

placed or arranged on

their

right

shoulders

(Apasavya), or clad in single cloths without such upper
sheets on, as well as those,
tional or smaller

who

are

possessed

of addi-

number of limbs,
in

or look disturbed

and

agitated, or

whose bodies are

any way mutilated or
in

such, as look fierce

and haughty, or speak

a rough

and harsh tone, or utter any term implying death,
should be regarded as augurs of
evil.

Likewise^ a messenger, tearing off a blade of grass or

a chip of

wood with

his

fingers, or

handling the tip
pulling the

of his nose or the nipples of his

breast, or

ends of his cloth or
hand, or brushing his

hair,

or

the

ring-finger
hair,

of his

nails

and
or

or
or

standing waiting

with his fingers

in

his

ears

nostrils,

with his hands placed on his cheeks, chest or head,
or about one,

the

regions

of

the

arm-pits,

as

well

as

who

has arrived at the house of the physician

with

bits of

human

skull or stone, or

with ashes, bones,

272

"

THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA.
in

[

Chap.

XXIX.

paddy husks or charcoal
one,

the palms of his hands,

or

who

digs

into

the earth

with his toe-nails, or
while waiting

wantonly breaks
at

stones or brickbats,

the

physician's
evil

house,

should be

regarded as

a

messenger of

augury.

A

messenger,

who

at the time of visiting a physician

for his professional help

comes smeared with

oil,

or with

red sandal paste or mud, and carries a red garland or a
ripe but sapless fruit, or
in his

any other thing of

like

nature

hand, or brushes together the nails of his fingers

or touches his legs
in his

with the hand,

or

carries

a shoe

hand, or
or

who

appears to have been suffering from

a foul

loathsome disease, further one,

who

breathes

heavily, or

weeps or behaves

contrarily, or stands with
his

the palms of his hands united and

face

turned

to-

waids the south, or waits on one leg on an uneven
ground with the other raised and placed on a higher
support, should be
evil.

looked upon as the precursor of

A
state

messenger,
is

reporting
south,

his

errand to the physician

while he

facing the

or

who

is

in

an unclean
a
fire

of the

body, or engaged
is

in kindling in a

or in
is

killing

an animal, or

remaining

nude

state, or

found to be lying on the bare

floor of his

chamber, or
call

performing an afiection after attending to a
nature,
sitting

of

or

anointing himself with

oil,

or perspiring, or

with his hair dishevelled, or

in a state of

mental

[Chap.

XXIX.

sOtrasthanam.
is

27;

perturbation,

to be looked

upon

as a messenger fore-

boding

evil.

A
M'hile

messenger, seeking the interview of a physician

he

is

engaged

in offering oblations to his

departed

manes, or to the gods, or one
or at midnight, at

who

calls

on him at noon
the

morning or

at evening, or during

happening of any abnormal physical phenomenon, or at
an hour under the influence of any of the
asterisms (lunar mansions),
viz.

following
Ashlesa,

the Ardra,

the

the Maghd, the Mula, the
or

two Purvas, and the Bharani,

on the day of the fourth, ninth, or the sixth phase

of the

moon (whether on
on the
last

the

wane

or on the increase),

as well as

days of months and fortnights,

should be considered as a messenger of evil augury.

A

messenger,
fire,

hot and perspiring from being seated

near a blazing

and

calling

upon a physician
inauspicious
;

in the

midday, should be deemed as an
in

one
a

the

case

of

a

Pittaja

distemper

whereas

messenger of similar description should be looked upon
as foreboding

the favourable termination of a disease,

if

due to the action of the deranged Kapham. The favourable character of a messenger should be likewise
deter-

mined

in diseases originated

through the action of the
intelligent

deranged Vayu,*

etc.

;

and an

physician

is

*

A
or

messenger,

visitin;; a |)liy.sician

in

ihe afternoon or during a

hea\}'

rain

storm, or at a time

when

the vital

wind

is

naturally disturijed and

agitated, indicates an unfavouraljlc prognosis.

274

THE SUSHKUTA SAMHITA.
own
discretion in

[Chap. XXIX.

at liberty to exercise his

determining

the omen.
or

Similarly in a case of haemoptysis, dysentery

any morbid discharge from the urethra (Prameha j,
first

the

interview between a messenger and a physician
is

near a reservoir of water

an omen of happy augury,
determine the ominous
connection

A

learned physician shall
of a

tluis

character

messenger

in

with

other

diseases as well.

IVIessengers of

happy augury :— A
is

fair

and handsome messenger, who

clad in clean

and white

garments, and belongs to the same caste

or spiritual

clan (Svagotraj as the patient himself, forebodes the successful termination of the disease (for

which the medical

aid

is

needed).
in

A messenger, calling
a

on a physician either
is

on foot or
intelligent,

bullock cart,

and who

contented,

capable of acting according to the rules of
is

decorum, time and circumstances, and
original in his thoughts

independent and
ornaments,
is

and ideas, and

carries

and other auspicious

articles

about his person,

alone

capable of rendering the best services in connection

with the calling
first

in of a physician.

A

messenger, for the
the latter
east,
is

time, interviewing a physician,

when

complacently seated with his face towards the

and

on a clean and even ground, should be regarded as a
messenger of happy augury.

Raw
a

meat, a

pitcher

full

of water,

an umbrella,
article

Bramhana, an elephant,

a cow, an

ox and an

Chap.

XXIX.

]

SUTKASTHANAM.
deemed

275

of a white colour, should be
a physician

auspicious sights

by

on

his

way

]to

the house of a patient.

A

mother, a

cow with her
fish,

calf,

a small
fruits,

pitcher of water, a

decorated virgin,

unripe

a

Svastika (a cross

shaped religious insignia),
vessel
full

sweetmeat, curd, gold, a
gems, flowers (according
king), a blazing

of sun-dried

rice,

to certain
fire,

commentators a well disposed
a

a

horse,

swan, a peacock, a bird of the Chasha
verses,

species,

chantings of Vedic
of
conch-shells,

claps

of thunder,

blowings
chariot

notes

of lutes,

sounds of

wheels, roar of lions,

lowings

of cows and

bullocks, neighings of horses, trumpeting of elephants,

cacklings

of geese,

hootings of owls, and the pleasant
palace of a king,

conversation of persons going to the

should be regarded as lucky sights and sounds by a
physician on his

way

(to

the house of a patient).

Similarly,

harmonious melodies of birds chirping
Kshira trees, bent

on the boughs of healthy
the weight of
fruit,

under
their

and looking gladsome with
blossoms and
foliage,

dowry of

beautiful

or notes of

birds perched

on the terraces of palace towers or on

the tops of banner poles singing melodiously, or birds
following the messenger

with their songs or singing

seated from
following
as sights

the auspicious quarters of the heavens, or
his
left,

him on

should be equally regarded

and notes of happy foreboding.
seated on the withered trunk of a blighted

A

bird,

2/6

THR SUSHRUTA SAMHITA
a thorny

1

Chap.

xxix.

or thunder-blasted tree, or on

knoll
or

covered

over with creepers, or on
ordure
or

ashes or stones,
or

amidst

husks of grain,
in

on
with

dried
its

skeletons,

and singing

a

harsh

voice

head turned
the

towards the blazing or inauspicious
sky, should be

quarter of

deemed

as portending evil.

Similarly, birds,

which are possessed of names of

masculine terminations are happy
the
left

omens
to

if

seen on

by a physician on

his

way

the

house of

a patient, while birds, on

a similar

occasion,

whose
if

names have feminine
bv him on the
right.

endings,

are auspicious
jackal,

seen

A

dog or a
left,
is

seen run-

ning from the right to the

a

hapjnif

omen,

and so
left.

is

a mongoose or a Chasha bird
hare,
is

seen on the

A

a serpent, or an owl, seen on either side

of the road,

an

inauspicious

sight.

The

sight

and

the

sound of a Godha or a Krikal^sha an animal of

of the lizard species) are both inauspicious.

If

a

man, other than

a

messenger of inauspicious
unfavourable,

character but possessed of features alike

should happen to cross the
starting

way

of a physician, just

on a professional
indicative

call,

he should be regarded

as
full

equallv

of evil.

The

sight

of a vessel

of Kulutha pulse, or of husks
clay
or
charcoal,
or of

of grain, or of stone,
oil,
is

ashes,

inauspicious.

Similarly, the sight of a vessel

filled
is

with red mustard
clear

or

witli

wine other than whicli

and mild

Chap.

XXIX.

]

SUTRASTHANAM.
should

277

(Prasanna)
augury.
Similarly,

be

deemed

an

omen

of

evil

the sight of a parched corpse,
is

or of a

withered tree or Pal^sha branch,

equally inauspicious.
vile or
a

A

physician,

meeting a member of any of the

degraded castes or a blind or indigent person, or
inimically

man

disposed

towards him, should consider the

character of the disease to be unfavourable.

A

gentle,

cool and

fragrant

breeze,

blowing from

the direction of his destination, should

be regarded as

an auspicious omen by a physician.
is

A

wind, which
exalations

hot, dry,

and

is

charged with the

fetid

of putrid matter, and which of his
starting
point,

blows from the direction
regarded
as

should be

an

evil

omen.

The word

"cut," used

by another and

accidentallv

heard by a physician fon his wa^O to the bed-side of a
patient laid

up with Granthi (aneurism)

or
;

Arvuda
while the
in

(tumour), should be regarded as a

good omen

term "open", heard under similar circumstances and
connection with a case of Vidradhi (abscess),
or

Gulma

(abdominal gland\ or Udara
as

(ascites),

should be regarded
Similarly, the

an equally auspicious portent.
is

term
or

"stopped"

commended
Thus
the

in

a

case

of dysenter}'

haemoptysis.

physician

should

interpret

the auguries according to the nature of each
case.

individual

278

THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA.
curse, imprecation, or wailing like

[Chap.

XXIX
me",

A

"woe

to

as well as sobs, groans, reports of defecation or
ing, the

vomitof

brayings of an

ass,

the

frightened sound
in

a camel, a

an

obstacle
a

or

impediment

the path

of

physician, or

sudden

breakage, collapse, or the
sad

falling

of

any

article

from a cupboard, and a

or dejected spirit of the physician
able cause, should

without any assignevil

be regarded as

omens

at

the

time of his starting.

These omens should be observed or attended to
at the time

of

first

entering
or

the house
its

of a

patient,

or

at

the threshold

within

walls, but not after

the physician has once

commenced

the medical treathairs,

ment.

The

sight of a knot of torn

ashes, bones,

wood, stone, husks of
with
its

grain, cotton, thorns, a

bedstead

legs upturned, wine,

water,

fat,

oil,

sesamum,
or one

dried grass, straw, a eunuch, a deformed person

with a broken limb, a nude man, or one with a clean

shaved head, or clad in a black garment, should be
regarded as
b}'

evil

omens by

a physician,

whether noticed

him

at the

time of starting or after getting into

a sick room. Pots or utensils placed in pendent brackets,

and found to be spontaneously moving about without

any

definite cause, as well as
in,

any other
or

fallen

articles

digged

smashed
a ph3^sician

in

thrown
dejected
sitting

out

of

the

sick-room

;

sitting

and gathered
with a down-

up

in his seat,

and the patient

cast face,

or pricking his

body

or

at

the bed clothes

Chap.

XXIX.

]

SUTRASFHANAM.

279

while talking with the physician, or shaking his hands,

back or head, or taking hold of or placing the hands
of the physician
gating the
pressing his
in his

own, or on
with

his breast, or

interroface,

physician

an

up-turned
is

or

own
in

limbs,

when he

interrogated

by
as

the

physician

return,

should be

considered

unfavourable signs.

The

patient,

in

whose house a physician
rally.

is

not
of

duly honoured, can never

The due honouring

a physician leads to a speedy of

recoAery.

A

messenger

good omen forebodes the favourable termination
disease,

of a

while the

contrary

is

indicated
a

by a

messenger of the opposite type.
shall

Hence

physician

carefully

observe the

ominous character of a
.

messenger (despatched to seek his aid

Dreams — Now
:

I

shall

describe the
patient,

dreams,

which either being dreamt by the
relations,

or

by
of

his

portend

fatal

or

a

successful

close

the

malady.
the south

The

patient,

who dreams

of going

towards

on the back of an elephant, or on that of
or

any carnivorous animal,
on a buffalo,
or

of riding on
carried

a boar or

sees

himself

towards the
hair

quarter by a dark

woman

with

dishevelled

and

clad in a blood- red garment

—laughing and dancing, soon

meets

his

doom.

A

dream by a patient that members of

vile castes

have been drawing him southward, or that
embracing him, or that

ghosts or anchorites have been

28o

THE SUSHRUtA SAMHITA.

Chap.

xxix.

savage beasts with diabolical faces have been smelling
his head, predicts that his

earthly days are numbered,
in

while

such

dreams

occurring
disease.

a

healthy

subject

indicate an

impending

Similarly, the patient,

who dreams

of drinking

oil

or

honey, or of diving into a bed of dank or oozy slime,
or of laughing

and dancing mud-besplattered,

is

at the

threshold of death.

A dream

of ha^*ing

entwined a

wreath of red iiowers round one's head, though otherwise nude or stripped of clothes,
or
his

of seeing reeds,
chest, portends

bamboos, or palm trees growing on
the

impending

death

of

a

patient.

On

the

other

hand,

such dreams,

occurring in

a

healthy

subject,,

forebode the advent of disease.

I.ikewise, the patient,
fish,

who dreams

of being eaten up b}'
into

or

who

fancies

himself again entering
or thinks he into a dark
is

the

womb

of his

mother,

falling

from the summit of a mountain or
as being carried

and dismal cave, or

away by

the current of a river, or assailed and overwhelmed by a

pack of crows,

is

already a

doomed

being.

The dream
of dying

of a clean shaved head, or of falling stars, or

lamp

light, or

of the extraction of one's

own

eyes, or of

shaking divine images, or of earthquakes, purgings, vomitings

or falling out of one's
patient,

own

teeth,

is

always

fatal.

The
or

who dreams of climbing a

Shalmali, Kinsuka,
ant-hill

Pari-bhadra tree, or of ascending an

or

a

funeral pyre, or of witnessing himself

bound

to

a

sacri-

Chap.

XXIX.

]

SUTRASTHANAM.
or

281
eating,

ficical

stake,

of

receiving
.

or

cotton,

levigated
rice,

sesamum
oil

paste,

iron,

salt,

sesamum, boiled

or drinking

or

wine

(Sura), as the case

may

be,

should consider himself as a

doomed

being, while

such

dreams

in

a healthy

subject

indicate the

impending

attack of a disease.

A
is

dream should be regarded

as ineffectual

which

quite in conformity with the physical

temperament of
the heavens

the

dreamer (such

as,

one of scaling
;

by a person of Vataja temperament
a blazing
fire,

one of seeing
meteor-fall

a

flash

of lightning,
;

or a

by

a

man

of Pittaja temperament

and one of wit-

nessing reservoirs of water, etc. by

a

man

of Kaphaja

temperamentj as well as one which has been forgotten
or followed

by another of an auspicious type or
like

is

the
in

outcome of premeditated thought
the da}' time.

one dreamt

A
a

fever patient

dreaming of friendship with a dog,

consumptive one dreaming of making friends with a
or a monster
;

monkey

a hysteric patient
;

who dreams

of

making friendship with a ghost a Prameha or dj'sentery
patient dreaming of drinking water
;

a leper dreaming of

drinking

oil,

or a

Gulma

patient dreaming of a tree grow-

on

his belly, should

count his days as numbered.

A person

afflicted

with any disease of the head, and dreaming

of a

tree

growing on

his

head, or one suffering from
;

vomiting and dreaming of eating sesamum cakes
36

or

282

THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA.
afflicted

[Chap.

XXIX.

an asthma patient, or a person,

with

thirst,

dreaming of making a journey on
patient

foot

;

or a jaundice

dreaming
;

of

eating a

food

prepared with

turmeric

or a

person suffering from hecmoptysis and

dreaming of drinking blood, should be considered as about
to depart this
life.

A

patient

having had any of the
circumstances, should get
a
gift

aforesaid dreams, under

the

up

in

the morning and

make

of Masha-pulse,

sesamum, iron and gold to the Brahmanas, and repeat
the blessed Tripada Gayatri (Mantras

Having dreamt a bad dream
night, a person should meditate
subject,

in the first

watch of the

upon a holy or auspicious
all his

and then

lie

down

again with

senses fully

controlled,

and repeat the Mantras sacred to any of the
evil

gods.

An

dream should not be related to another.
of the

The dreamer
temple

dream should
nights,,

reside

in a

holy

for three

consecutive

and worship the

deity with the most fervent devotion,
effects

whereby

its

evil

would become
shall

nullified.

Now we
of auspicious
castes, gods,

describe

the dreams, which
of

are

nature.

Members

the twice born
one's
a

cows, bullocks,
relations,

kings,
fire,

own

living

friends

and

a blazing

Brahmana, or a

sheet of clear water seen in a
predict or predicts to
future, while

dream by a healthy person
in

him a pecuniary gain

the near

such dreams occurring in a diseased person
recovery of the disease he has been

indicate

a speed}'

Chap.

XXIX.

]

SUTKASTHANAM.
dreams of meat, and
fruit
fish,

28"
garlands
or

suffering from. Similarly,

of white

flowers, cloths

predict a gain

a

speedy cure, as the case

may

be.

Dreams

of

ascending
a
tree

the
or

terrace
hill,

of

a

royal

palace, of climbing

a

or of riding

an

elephant predict similar results as
one's sailing over
predicts
a a
river,

above.

A

dream of

pool or sea of turbid water
cure,

money

gain

or

according as one

is

healthy or diseased.
or stung
bliss

A
by

dream of having
leeches, or

been

bit

by a

serpent,

by a

bee, indicates

or cure, according to one's good or

bad health
auspicious

at the time.

The man, who usually gets such

dreams, should be looked upon

as a long-lived

man,

and

may

be

unhesitatingly

taken

under

medical

treatment by a physician.
Thus ends
the
Uventy-nintli

Chapter

of

the

Sutiasthinam
unfavourable

in

the

Sushruta SamhitS, which deals with favourable or

prognosis

from messengers, birds, omens

etc.

CHAPTER XXX.
Now we
functions
shall discourse

on the Chapter which treats

of the prognosis that can be obtained from the perverted

Pane he nd riyartha- Vi prati pattf - madhyaryam)
of the
five

sense

organs

(

Metrical texts
of the
of the
(an

;

—A perversion or contrariety
mind or brain
is

functions

of the

(Shilam),

and

organs of sense-perception,

called

Arishtam

unfavourable

symptom
in

foreboding

death).

Now

hear

me

describe,

brief detail, the

symptoms which

are called Arishta (fatal indications).

The man, who
even
in
tlie

hears
of

a

variety of divine sounds
celestial beings,
etc.),

absence

any of the
Gandharvas
uproar
the

(such as, the Siddhas, the

or

thinks
or

that

he

is

hearing
of the

the
or

of a

city,

the
rain

moanings
cloud,

sea,

rumbling of a

without their actual presence or proximity, or
incapable
of catching
their sounds even

who

is

when

they are actually present and sounding, or assigns to

them causes other than the
regarded as a

actual ones,

should

be

doomed

being.

The

person,

who

interprets as

the uproar of a city

or the

rustling

forest

sounds

emanating from other sources, or
of his

rejoices at the voice
at

enemies,
friends,

and
or

is

annoyed

that

of his

own

devoted

who

suddenly loses

the

faculty

Chap.

XXX.

J

SUTRASTHANAM.

285

of hearing

without any manifest or tangible reason,

should be deemed as already on the threshold of death.

The man,
or

who

feels

cold

when touching
versa,

a

hot
of

warm

substance,

and,

vice

complains

a burning sensation
or

even when suffering from a

boil,

a

postule of the

Kaphaja type (characterised by

numbness, shivering, etc, or shivers when the temperature of his body
is felt

to be

considerably high,

should be
death.

looked upon as already on the point of
person,
feel

The

who

has lost the faculty of touch,
in

and does not

any pain
or

any part of the body
or
feels

when

it

is

struck

amputated,

as

if

his

body had been strewn over with

particles

of dust,

or suffers from discoloration of the skin

which becomes

marked with blue

or

red stripes, and
after

who

is

harassed

by

hosts of blue

flies

a bath or

an anointment,

should be regarded as one
confines of
life.

who

has already passed the

Similarly, the

man whose body emits a

fragrant smell

without having been rubbed with any kind of perfume,
or to

whom
or

a sweet thing tastes acid, and an acid tastes
exhibits
faculty
tastes

sweet,

who

symptoms of a general
in
in

per-

version of the
of)

of taste, or

whom
their

(articles
officinal

different

(administered

order of enumeration') tend to

aggravate the deranged

bodily humours,
a dulness

or bring about their pacification
if

and

of appetite

partaken of

in the

inverted

286
order,

THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA.
should be regarded as a departed

[

Chap.

XXX.

soul,

like

the one

who

has lost the faculty of taste.
a fetid odour to be a
to be fetid, or
at the smell

The man, who deems
perfume, or one

fragrant

fragi'ant

one who does
of a burning

not

feel

any discomfort even
just

lamp wick that has
entirely lost

been extinguished, or
of smell,

who

has

the

faculty

should be looked

upon

as a

dead man.
to

The man,
cold,

whom

the twin attributes of heat and
as the peculiarities of
etc.),

pleasure
(as

and pain, as well
drought,

weather

storm,

snowfall,

and the

different quarters

of the

sky appear to be reversed or
all distinctions (of

inverted

;

one

who

has lost

joy and
or

misery, storm and sunshine, heat and cold,

etc.),

to

whom

the

specific

attributes

of things

appear to be

contrary and reversed, should be regarded as
point of death.

on the

The man, who

sees stars ablaze in the
fiery

broad day-light or fancies
the sun

seeing the

orb

of

by night

an.d the

mellow

disc

of the

moon

by day, or who seems to witness the phenomena of
rainbow and lightning even
rain
in

the

absence of

any

cloud,

or

the
in

formation
a
clear

of a lightning-spangled
sky,
is

rain-cloud

even

blue

sure

to

be

speedily gathered to

his rest.

The man, who observes
and
aerial

the
cars

reflected
in
fire

images of chariots, palaces
or

the heavens,

sees the

embodied images of

the

and

sky

gods,

or

to

whom

the

earth

Chap.

XXX.]

SUTRASTHANAM.
be
in

287
or or

appears

to

enveloped
a sheet
of

in
fine

frost

smoke,

or

enshrouded
with cross

linen,
fire,

chequered

lines,

or blazing with

or

flooded with
asterism

water, or to whose sight the Pole Star and the

Arundhati (one of the Pliades) and the Milky

Way

remain

invisible,

should be reckoned as already with

the dead.

The man, who
in a mirror, in

foils

to see his

own image

reflected

the moonlight, or in hot water,
reflections

or

sees

but distorted
animal,
or

of himself or
storks,

of any

other

of

dogs,

cows,

vultures,

ghosts,

Yakshas, Rakshas,

Pishachas

and

Nagas, should be
life.

regarded as about to depart this

The man,
natural

to

whom

fire

appears to be

free
it is

of

its

accom

paniment of smoke, or that
resembling
the

possessed of a colour
feathers
(if

hue

of

the

breast

of

a

peacock, should be regarded as doomed,
to be suffering

happening

from any disease).
indicate

On

the

other hand,
of a disease

these
in

phenomena

the approach

one,

who

is

found to be as yet in the enjoyment

of apparent health.

Thus ends

the thirtieth Chapter of the Sulrasthdnam

in

the Sushriita

Samhitd which deals with prognosis from the perverted functions of the
live

sense ortrans.

CHAPTER XXX
Now we
deals
shall

I.

discourse

on the

Chapter,

which

with the prognosis to be gathered

from the

altered condition of features

(Chhd'yar-Viprati-

patti

madhy^yam).*
Text: — The
man, whose complexion

IVIetrical

suddenly assumes a brown, red, blue or yellow shade,
should be regarded as already gathered to his
rest.

The

man, who has

lost

all

sense of modesty or propriety,
(ojah)

and whose complexion, and whose strength

and
or

memory have suddenly undergone

discolouration

extreme deterioration, should be counted with the dead.
Little

chance there
lip

is

of the

life

of a

patient
is

whose
or

lower

hangs down while the upper one

drawn

turned up, and both of them have assumed a black
colour like that
fall

of a jamboline

fruit.

The

patient,

whose teeth
*

out or which have assumed a reddish

Physicians of the Ayurvedic School, however, observe a dislinclion

between Chhiyd (shade of complexion),

PrabhA (healthful glow
itself.

of the

complexion), and Varna (natural colour of the complexion)

The

Chh%d

or

the

shade of one's complexion

may

be easily distinguished

as clear, rough or cool, etc.

and can be detected only on a close view.
is

The Prabhd, on

the other hand,

visible

from a distance and admits of
such as red,
or

of being divided into seven different types,

yellow, while,

brown, greenish, pale, and black.
the complexion of a

The Varna

the natural colour of black, dusky

man

is

found to be either

fair,

leaning
also

towards the

fair,

according to his race and habitation.

The term

includes natural modestv, look and ease.

Chap.

XXXI.

]

SUTRASTHANAM.
colour,
blue),

289

or a dark

brown

or

a

colour like that of a

Khanjana bird (dark

should be reckoned as already-

gathered to his fathers.

The
swollen,

patient,

whose
or
is

tongue has become
of a

furred,

or

inert,

black colour, should be

considered as already at the gate of death.

The

patient,

whose nose
or

has sunk or become bent, cracked, dried,
breathing makes a gurgling sound through

who when
nostrils,

the
is

should be given up as
life

lost.

A

patient

certainly quitting this
or

whose eyes appear to be

contracted,
light or

unequal, oblique, or inert, insensitive to

touch,

sunk

in

their

sockets,

or

bloody, or

marked by a copious lachrymation.
hair appears to

The

patient

whose

have been glued to

his

head whose

eyebrows are contracted and hang down, and whose
eyelashes are
listless

should be considered as about to

leave his mortal frame.

The

patient,

who

is

incapable of swallowing any food

or of holding up his head,
fixed
stare,

and who looks with a kind of
life

with

all

memories of

fully obliterated,

should be deemed as d3'ing on that very day.
or

A

wise

prudent
of

physician

should give up

the

medical

treatment
or

a patient, no
is

matter whether strong
fainting

weak,

who
is

found to be

away every
patient,

time he

lifted

up or seated.

The

who

constantly- extends or

draws up

his

lower extremities,
posture, should be

or keeps

them

in

a gathered up

37

290
looked

THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA.
upon
as rapidly succumbing.

[

Chap.

XXXI.

A

wise physician

should abandon a patient, characterised
ness of his breath

by the

cold-

and

extremities and a hurried and

intermittent respiration, or
his

who

is

found breathing with

mouth open,

or lips separated.

Similarly, a patient affected

with a kind of stupor
all

or

insomnia and remaining drowsy,
at the
least

day long, or

fainting

attempt of speaking, should be

counted with the dead. The patient,
lip,

who

licks his

upper

or

is

troubled with eructations, or holds conversa-

tions

with the departed, should be deemed as already

entered into the region of the dead.

A

man, spontane-

ously bleeding through the roots of his hairs (pores of the
skin) otherwise

than

in

a case of poisoning,

should be

deemed

as dying

on that day.
with an up-coursing pain about
the

A
case

patient, affected

the cardiac region, like
of V^tashtila

one which distinguishes a
of a
stone-like

(^appearance

lump

rising or seated within the

thorax and ascribed to the

action

of the

deranged Vayu),
etc.,

accompanied by an

aversion to food,

should be already reckoned

among

the dead.

An

idiopathic

swelling

(Shopha)

first

occurring in

either of the lower extremities in a

male patient not as a

complication of an}' other disease*, as well as a similar
swelling
*

first

appearing at the face, or about the region

Such as Chlorosis, Ascites, lioemorrhoids.

Chap.

XXXI.

]

SUTRASTHANAM.
in

291
is

of the anus

a

male or a female patient,

sure to

have a

fatal termination.

A

patient,

suffering

from
fever,

cough

or

asthma
vomiting
should

attended with dysentery,

hic-cough,

and swelling of the penis and
be given up as
lost.

the

scrotum,

Excessive perspiration, burning,

hic-cough, dyspnoea and hyperpyrexia with a burning
sensation

of

the

body,

are

undoubtedl)' capable of
in

extinguishing the vital spark even

a strong patient.

Similarl}^ a patient, with a black coated tongue
left

and the

eye sunk

in

its

socket and a foul smell from the
lost.

mouth, should be given up as

The mouth

of a man,

who

is

on

his

way

to the

mansions of the god of death, becomes
the
legs

filled v^ith tears,

are

wet with perspiration, and
about or become
listless.

the

pupils

of the eyes

roll

The

patient,

whose limbs become
is

all

of

a

sudden

abnormally light or heavy,

sure to go to the region of

the son of the da5''-god (Yama.i

The

patient,

whose
smells

body emits

a fishy, dirty or a fragrant
is

smell,

or

like fat, oil, or clarified-butter,

on the way to the

mansions of Death.

The

patient

on whose forehead

lice freely

move

about, or whose offerings the crows do not eat, or

who

does not find comfort in any position or place, goes to
the mansions of the god of death.

A

patient,

who

has

2g2

''^HE

SUSHRUTA

SAMHITA',

[Chap.

xxxi.

become emaciated and

enfeebled, or

has been suffering
fever, dysentery,

from a complication of such diseases as
oedema,
etc.,

one

supervening

another
as

pre-existing

malady,
of

should

be

deemed

beyond

the

pale

medicine.
thirst

A
in

ravenous
a or

hunger or an
patient,

unquenchrefuses

able
to

weak
satisfied

who
sweet,

be

appeased

with
drink,

wholebe
re-

some

and

]ialatable

food

or

should

garded as

a fatal

indication.

A

patient

exhibiting

such symptoms as diarrhoea, an excruciating headache,
colic
in

the

intestines, thirst
in

and gradual
of

faihng of death.
of
life,

strength,

stands

danger

imminent
character

Death
or to
it

is

due to the

transitory

may

be attributed

to

irregular

conduct,

or

the

deeds of one's previous existence transformed

into the dynamics of fate.

Ghosts,

evil

spirits,

Pishachas and

monsters

of

various shapes and denomination,
to

constanth^ lead
to

men

death.

These

evil

spirits,

owing

their natural

killing propensities, nullify the efficacies

of medicines
treatfatal

and hence

it is futile

to take in

hand the medical
of the

ment of a man who

exhibits

any

abovesaid

symptoms, and thereby

testifies that lie
spirits.

has fallen into

the clutches of such evil
Thus ends

the Thirty-first Chapter of the SutrasthSnam in the Sushrutafeatures.

SamhitA which deals with prognosis from perverted

CHAPTER XXXII.
Now we
shall discourse

on the Chapter which treats

of the prognosis based on the perversion of the external

appearances of the body

(Svabha'va-viprati-

patti - madhyaryam)

A

contrariety of the natural features of any part
of the

or

member

body should be looked upon
blackness of a limb
or a

as a fatal

indication.
is

The

part

which

naturally white,* or the whiteness of a blackf part,

or a naturally red| part, or

member,
part

etc.

assuming any
soft,

other colour, or a hard§
vice

becoming

and

versaW, or a

movableU part suddenly becoming
(flexion) of

fixed,

and

vice

versa** or the contraction
or

an

extended
contracted

part,

the extension
or a

or

expansion of a
part or

(flexible; part,

shorttt
versa,

suddenly
a

becoming elongatedji, and

vice

sudden

hanging down of a part or member of the body which
does not naturally §§

hang down, and

vice

versa\\\\,

or a sudden increase or decrease of natural temperature

of any part, member,
as
its

or

organ of the body, as well

sudden glossiness, roughness, numbness, discolour-

ation, weakness, or weariness, should be looked
fatal
* palate,

upon as

symptoms.
The
teeth

and the cornea,
teeth,
etc.
|i

f

The
Soft

iris,

J

The tongue and

the

etc. §

Bones,

parts such

as the flesh, fat, etc.
etc.

H

Joints, etc.
etc.

** Nose, ears and

flesh, etc.
|i||

ft Head and forehead,

XX Pupils,

§§ Hair, nails, etc.

Perspiration, urine

and

feces, etc.

294

THE SUSHRUTA
a

SAMHITA'.
of the

[

Chap.

XXXII.

(Similarly) a limb or

part

body, hanging

down from

its

natural position, or becoming raised or
its

twisted round, or cast obliquely from
dislocated, or

natural seat, or

protruded, or drawn inward, or suddenly
or or

becoming
assignable

light

heavy
a

without

any

definite

or

cause,

sudden eruption

of

a

coral-

coloured rash or Vyanga, should be regarded as indicating
a

speedy dissolution of the patient

in

whom

they

are exhibited.

Likewise, the appearance of veins in the region of
the
forehead, or an eruption of postules on the ridge of

the nose, perspiration on the forehead in the

morning,

copious lachrymation
a

without any ocular complaint,
dried

sense

of

being dusted with

and pulverised
Kankas,
or

cowdung over the
etc,

face, or the flying of pigeons,

over one's

head,

or

excessive

micturitions

motions of the bowels from an empty stomach, or a
suppression of urine or feces even after a hearty meal
or draught,
is fatal.

So

also,

pain and aching about the
of the

breast

and the

chest,

emaciation

extremities

and an oedema of the middle part of the trunk, and
vice versa
;

or

an oedema

of

the upper trunk
;

and
or an

emaciation

of the
left

lower part, and vice versa
half of the
;

oedema of the
of the right,

body and emaciation

and

vice versa

or hoarseness, huskiness, or

loss of voice,

discolouring of the teeth, nails or of the

skin, eruption of

white patches on the chest,

etc, of

the

Chap.

XXXII.

]

SUTRASTHANAM.

295

body, should be deemed as signs which forebode the

approaching dissolution of an individual.

Moreover the

patient,

whose semen,

or expectorated

or fecal matter does not float

on water, or

who

sees the
hair

distorted or bifurcated images of objects, or

whose

shines

with

a

gloss

as

if

anointed with

oil,

finds his

relief in

death.

A

weak
to

dysentery
food,

patient

with
is

a

complete

aversion
thirst

or

one

who

tormented with
a

even

when
from
for

suffering

from
catarrh

cough,
a

or

a

man

suffering

chronic
food,

with

complete
^Sula)

loathing

or

from
frothy

gastritis

with

aphonia,

and

vomiting

blood and pus, should be regarded as past
patient, enfeebled

all cure.

A

and emaciated through
face

fever,

cough
extre-

and an oedematous swelling of the
mities,

and the
to

and showing the

greatest

aversion

food,

and the muscles of whose

calves, shoulders

and thighs

have grown loose and flabby, should be considered as
awaiting the
call of

death.

A

patient, suffering from fever, cough,
in

and vomiting,
undigested

or passing with the stool,

the

evening,

food matter eaten in the morning, would die of asthma.

The
goat,

patient,

who

falls

to

the ground bleating hke a
as a rupture of the

and exhibits such symptoms

testes,

numbness of the

penis,

drooping of the neck
should be considered
is

and introsusception of the
as past all cure.

penis,

The

patient,

whose heart

first

felt

296

THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA.
covered

[

Chap.

XXXII.

dry followed by becoming

with

a

slimy
strikes

moisture of the whole body, as well as one
a stone with a stone,
piece
of wood,
or or

who

a piece
cleaves

of
in

wood
two

with a
of

who

blades

dried grass, or one

who

bites his lower lip

and

licks the

upper one, or draws

his ears

and

tears his hair, or dis-

honours the gods and the Brahmanas, as well as his

own
as

physician, friends and relations, should be regarded

beyond the pale of medicine.
Similarl}', a disease,

due to the influence of a maligits

nant planet occupying, either through
zigzag

retrogade or
in relation to

movement, an inauspicious position
is

the

natal asterism of the patients,

sure to

terminate
meteor,

in death.

A

man, struck by lightning or a
Similarly, a

falling

baffles all medicinal skill.

disease

due to
con-

the

fact

of one's
or

own

house,

wife,

bed,

seat,

veyance,

riding-animal assuming

any ill-omened

features, or a disease originated
utensils,

through the use of gems,
or

garments,

etc.

of

forbidden

inauspicious

character usuall}^ ends in death (Aristam).
«

Authoritative verses on the Subject — A disease, appearing in an enfeebled and
:

emaciated subject and refusing to yield to a course of
proper medicinal treatment, and which becomes rather

aggravated by the administraticn of proper medicinal
remedies or antidotes, necessarily portends the death of
the patient.

Chap.

XXXII.

]

SUTRASTHANAM.
(lit
:

297
disease)

A
denly
fails

Mahavyadhi*
abating
in

— a deep seated
in

sud-

a

person

whom

nourishment

to produce

any perceptible
ph3'sician,

effect

forebodes a fatal
full}^

termination.

The

who
is

can detect and

interpret these fatal indications,
for

honoured by the king
nature of a

determining the curable or incurable

disease.

*

Any deep
is

seated disease, which seriously

affects

the

vital

principles

of a man,

called MahAvj-^dhi.

Diseases such as

Prameha, V^tavyadhi,

Shosha,

etc.

have also been included within the category in the Chapter on

ICciya-chikitsh^.

A

general amelioration
their

or

recovery in these cases being

natural,
is

on account of

deep-seated character,

a sudden abatement

usually fraught with fatal

consequences.

(Arishtattl.)

Thus ends
S^mhita

the thirty-second Chapter

of Sutrasthanam in the

Sushrulathe

which

deals

with the prognosis based

on perversion of

natural appearances of the body.

38

CHAPTER XXXII

I.

Now we shall discourse on the Chapter, which treats of incurable diseases (A'varaniya-madhyayam).
IVIetrical
the
diseases

texts :— Hear me
being
supervenient

describe,

Oh

child,

which

attended

with

many
and

a

distressing

and

symptom,

being

treated without rejuvenating and restorative

medicines,

speedily
eight
or

assume incurable character.
viz
:

The

following
(paralysis

diseases,

Maha-Vata-vyadhi

diseases affecting

the nervous system in general),
,

Prameha morbid
Arsha
(stone
tations)
are,
(piles),

discharges from the urethra)
fistula

Kushtha,

Vagandara
bladder),

in

ano\ Ashmari
(false

in

the

Mudha-garbha

presendrops)'-)

and the eight kinds of Udari (abdominal
their

by

very nature, extremely hard to cure.

A

phy-

sician

with any regard to professional success should abanlaid

don a patient

up with any of the preceding diseases,
as,

marked by complications such

emaciation of the

body, loss of strength, dyspnoea, palpitation, wasting,
vomiting, dysentery and
hie- cough,

fever

and swoon.

A

case

of Vatavyadhi

developing symptoms, such as

oedematous swelling, complete anesthesia of the affected
part,

breaking and palsy shaking) of the affected limbs,

distention of the

abdomen, with aching and

colic

pain,

usually ends in death.

Chap. XXXIII.

]

SUTRASTHANAM.
Prameha,
attended

299
indications

A
as

case
to

of

with

are

be found under the head of that disease,
increased secretion

as

well as an

of

urine

charged
specific

with semen,
abcesses

albumen,

etc.

and eruptions of
etc.)
is

(.known as Sharavika

sure

to

have

a fatal termination.

A
and
able
tives,

case of Kushtha (leprosy) characterised
parts,

by sponta-

neous bursting of the affected
blood-shot eyes,
to

hoarse voice,
itself

and not proving
appliances
of

amen-

the
etc.

five-fold

emetics, purga-

(Pancha-Karma),

usuall)^

ends

in

death.
food,

A

case of piles attended with thirst,
pain,

aversion

to

colic

excessive

haemorrhage,
dysenter}''
is

anasarca (Shopha)

of the locality,
death.

and

soon

relieved

by

A
urine,

patient

suffering

from an attack of
flatus

fistula

in

ano, characterised
fecal

by an emission of

(Vayu),

matter,

worms and semen
be given

through the
as
lost.

ulcerated locality, should
patient
suffering

up

A
and

from the presence of stone, gravel, or
(Sharkar^)
in

urinary

concretions

the

bladder

attended with oedema of the scrotum and the umbilicus,
retention of urine, and colic

pain

in

that

organ,

is

soon relieved of his pain by death.
In a case of false presentation ^Mudhagarva)

an

extreme constriction of the

mouth

of

the

uterus

300
(os
uteri),

THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA.

Chap. XXXIII.
f

development of the peculiar pain of
is

child-

birth,

which

known

as

Makkalla, tonic rigidity of
at a

the vagina, and situation of the placenta (Apara)

wrong place
vulsions,

(false

pregnancy; and other symptoms (conetc/i

cough, d3^spnoea, vertigo

described in the

Chapter on the Etiology of that disease, forebode the
death of the parturient woman.

A

patient suffering from abdominal
at

dropsy (ascites)

marked by pain

the

sides,

aversion to food, oede-

matous swelling of the limbs, dysentery

and

fresh

accumulation of water even after he had been tapped,
or evacuated with

the

exhibition of purgatives, should

be given up as incurable.
the
patient becomes
in

A

case

of fever
tosses

in

which
in

restless
state,

and

about

the

bed

an unconscious

and

lies

extremely pros-

trate, or is incapable of sitting or
in

of holding himself up

any other position and

is

besides afllicted with rigor
within,

though
is

complaining of a burning sensation

sure to end in death.

Similarly, a fever patient developing such
as,

symptoms

the appearance of goose flesh on the skin, an aching
in

gathered-up pain
or congested

the cardiac

region,

blood-shot

eyes,

and breathing through the mouth
as

should be deemed

already at the threshold

of

death. Similarly, a case of fever, attended with hic-cough,

dyspnoea,
rolling

thirst, fits

of unconsciousness or fainting, and
in

of the eye-balls, proves fatal

a

weak and

Chap. XXXIII.]

SUTRASTHANAM.
who
is

301

emaciated patient,
through the mouth.

found to breathe hurriedly

A
to

case

of fever proves
or to
lie

fatal in

a

patient, found

be

restless

inert

in

an

unconscious
eyes,

(subcomatose) state with dull, clouded, or tearful
or prostrate,
fever

somnolent and extremely

emaciated.

A
an

patient

and especially

an old one

extremely
to

enfeebled
attack
colic

and emaciated,
in

readily

succumbs

of dysentery

which

laboured

respiration,

and

thirst supervene.

An
to

attack of Phthisis
in

(Yakshm^) leads
of the
e3'es,

its

victim

death
food,

whom

glossiness

aversion

to

expiratory (subclavicle) dyspnoea, difficult and

up-drawn breathing (Urdha-Shvasa),

and painful and

and excessive micturition
manifest themselves,
attack of

(diarrhoea according to others),

A

patient
gland),

suffering

from

an

Gulma (abdominal

and on the verge

of death, exhibits such
respiration,
colic

symptoms

as laboured

and painful
aversion

pain,

unquenchable

thirst,

to food, loss of consciousness, anaemia,
obliteration

and the sudden
or

of the

Granthi

(tumorous

glandular

formation).

A

person laid up with an attack of Vidradhi (abscess)

and exhibiting
of the

such

fatal

symptoms
urine,

as

distension
hic-

abdomen, retention of
thirst,

vomiting,

cough,

pain of a varied character (such as aching,

excruciating, etc.)

and dyspnoea, should be regarded

302
as to

THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA.
have approached the goal of his
from
life.

[

Chap, XXXIII.

A
or

patient
chlorosis

suffering

an

attack

of

jaundice
teeth,

marked by yellowness of the
conjunctivae,

nails,

and of the
is

and

seeing everything

yellow,

not

expected to long survive the occurrence of the attack.

A

person laid up

with an attack of Haemoptysis,

largely vomiting blood,

and viewing everything red or
blood-shot eyes,
life.

blood-coloured

with his

should be

regarded as about to depart this

A

person, insane,
sitting

extremely enfeebled and emaciated, and
less in

up

sleep-

the night, or with eyes constantly lifted upward

or

cast

down, would be soon relieved of

his earthly

suffering.
in

A

case of

Apasm^ra

(epilepsy)

proves fatal

a person,

who

is

extremely emaciated, and whose

eye-brows are constantly moving and whose eyes seem
fixed in

an unnatural (oblique)
the the
thirty-third

stare.
in the

Thus ends

Chapter of the Sutrasthinam

Sushruta Samhita which treats of incurable diseases.

CHAPTER XXXIV.
Now we
of the
soldiers are
shall discourse

on the Chapter which treats
life

mode

of preserving the

of a king whose

on march (J ucta-Scniya-madhy^-

yam).
Metrical Texts :— I
the
shall

presentl}^

describe

measures,

which a physician

in the king's service
life

should adopt with a view to protect the

of his royal

master, specially from acts of secret poisoning, while
mobilizing his armies to

invade the

territor}^

of

a

neighbouring monarch accompanied by his chiefs and
ministers.

A common
circumstances
is

practice

of

the

enemy under such

to poison the wells on the roadside, the

articles of food, the

shades of trees (shadowy places) and
for cattle
;

the fuel and forage

hence

it

is

incumbent

on a physician marching with the troops, to inspect,

examine and purify these before using any of them,
in case

they be poisoned.

The symptoms and medical

treatment will be fully described and discussed later on
in the part, entitled the

Kalpa Sthanam.
of the Atharva Veda, hold

Men, learned
that death
different

in the lore

may

be attributed to a hundred and one
(lit
:

causes,

deaths of a hundred
is

and one

kinds)

of which

one (which

that

of

an old

man

304
natural!}'-

THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA.
and spontaneously
rest

[Chap.

XXXIV.

expiring)

is

called natural,
in

while the
origin.

are

unnatural

or

traumatic

their

Physicians conversant with the curative virtues
well versed in the

of drugs and minerals, and priests

Vedic Mantras, should jointly protect the king from
death,

whether

due

to

idiopathic

(Doshajai

or

extrinsic causes.

The god Brahma
Veda together
Vedic

disclosed to the world the Atharva

with

the
the
is

eight

allied

branches

of

hterature and

science

of medicine.

And

since a priest

(Brahmana)

well- versed in the aforesaid

branches of study, a physician should act subserviently

and occupy a subordinate position to the
death of
tion or

priest.

The

a
to

king usually leads to a political revolupopular disturbances and brings about a
the

confusion
of

among

vocations of the
of

different orders

society.

The growth

population

markedly

suffers

through such catastrophies.
features of a king resemble those of a

As the external

common
sacrifice,
(in their

person, while his (king's)

commanding majesty,
are

forbearance

and fortune

super- human

nature and intensity), therefore a

man
good,

should,

who

is

prudent and
of
his

seeks

his

own

think

reverentially

king,

and

propitiate
if

him with

tokens of loyalty and allegiance as

he were a deity.

A

physician, fully equipped with a supply of medicine,
in

should live

a

camp not remote from

the

royal

Chap.

XXXIV.

]

SUTRASTKANAM.

365
ot

pavilion,

and there the persons wounded by shafts
or
an}^
effects

arrows

other
of

war
any

projectiles,

or

suffering

from
resort

the
to

imbibed

poison,

should

him (the physician), conspicuous
for his

like a tri-

umphant ensign

fame and professional success.
his

A

physician,

well versed in
fair

own

technical science,

and commanding a
branches
of study

knowledge of
is

other

allied

as

well,
is

glorified

by

his

king

and the Brahmanas, and

like a

banner of victory an

ennobling ornament to the state.

The

physician, the
(nurses

patient,

the

medicine,

and the

attendants

are

the

four essential factors of a

course of medical treatment.
is

Even a dangerous

disease

readily cured, or

it

may

be expected to run a speedy
four factors

course in the event of the preceding
respectively

being

found

to

be

(qualified,
.

self-controlled,

genuine and intelligently watchful
In

the

absence of a qualified physician the three
will

remaining factors of treatment
religious
sacrifice

prove abortive like a
the

performed

with

help

of

an

Udgatri,* a Hotri,t and a Brahmana, in the absence of

an Adhvaryam.t

A

qualified physician

is

alone capable

ofreheving the pain of many a suffering patient, just as
"'

Udgdtri

;

—One

of the four piiucipal priests al a sacrifice,

who

chants

llie

hymns
t

Sdma Veda. Hotri — A priest, who recites
of the

the (Riks) pr.iyers of the

Rik \'eda

at a

religious sacrifice.

t Adhvaryyu — A

priest of the ^'ayur \'eda,

whose duly

is

to cast

the

sacrificial beast into the fire.

39

3o6

THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA.
is

[

Chap,

xxxiv.

only a helmsman
river

capable of taking his boat across a

even without the help <ind co-operation of a single

oarsman.

Qualities of a physician :— A
who
is

physician,

well versed in the science of medicine and has

attended to the demonstrations of surgery and medicine,

and who himself

practises the healing art,

and

is

clean,

courageous, light-handed, fully equipped with supplies
of

medicine,
is

surgical

instruments

and
is

appliances,

and who

intelligent, well read,

and

a

man

of ready

resources,
further

and one commands a decent
all

practice,
is

and
fit

is

endowed with

moral

virtues,

alone

to

be called a physician.

Patient
and
fortitude

:

—The patient, who believes
vital energy,

in

a

kind

all-merciful Providence,

and possesses an unshakable and who
is

and strong

is

laid

up

with a curable form of disease, and

not greedy, and
his his

who

further

commands

all

the necessary articles at the advice
of

disposal,

and firmly adheres to
is

physician,

a patient of the

proper or commendable

type.

lYIedicine
consists of drugs
their

:

— The

proper; medicine
in

is

that which
to

grown

countries

most congenial

growth,

collected

under the auspices of proper

lunar phases and asterisms,

and compounded
and
which
is

in

proper

measures

and
to

proportions,

pleasing

(exhilarating

the

mind

and has the property of

Chap.

XXXIV.]

SUTRASTHA'NAM.

307
l!

subduing the deranged bodily humours without creating

any discomfort
eveil

to the patient,
is

and which

is

harmless

in

an overdose, and

judiciously administered at

the opportune moment.

Nurse
and pleasant
any body,
of the
is

:

— That person alone
of a
patient,
his

is fit

to nurse
is

or

to

attend the bedside
in

who

cool-headed
ill

demeanour, does not speak

of

strong and attentive to the requirements

sick,

and

strictly

and indefatigably follows the

instructions of the physician.

Thus

ends

the

ihirly-fourth

Chapter of
of preserving

the

SiitrasthSnam
life

in

the

Sushruia Samhit^,
soldiers are

which

treats

the

of a king whose

on march.

CHAPTER XXXV
Now we
with
shall discourse

on the Chapter which deals

clinical observations

(A'turopakramaniyafirst

madhyaryam). A physician should
treatment.

observe the vital condition

(Ayu) of the patient before commencing the medical
After that, the

nature of the disease, the
it

country and season of the year in which

has

made

its

appearance, as well as the state of digestion, age, body,
strength,
disposition,
habit, previous medicine,

natural
of

temperament and the power
patient, etc. should be observed

of

endurance

the

and

carefully examined.

Characteristic features
lived

of

a long
of

man — Men,
:

the

dimensions
of the

whose
teeth,

hands, legs, sides, back,
face,

nipples

breast,

shoulders and forehead
as

exceed the average, as

well

those whose eyes, arms, phalanges and fingers

are longer than the ordinary ones should be regarded as

going to live long.

Those who have broad

chests,

broad eye-brows with broader spaces intervening between
the muscles
of the breasts,

and who take

in

deeper

inspirations of breath, will be long lived.

Those whose

necks, thighs, and

generative

organs are shorter than

those of the average type,

or those

whose voices and

umbilical cavities -are deep, and

whose breasts are unraised

an d thick-set, and external ears broad, fleshy and haiiy.

Chap.

XXXV.

j

SUTRASTHA'NAM.

309

with the occipital region fully developed and protruded,
will

enjoy a longer span
paste

of' life.

Men, on whose bodies
dry

sandal

and similar preparations begin to

up from the head downward, while those applied over
the chest
as

become absorbed

later,

should be looked upon
dura-

persons endowed with an
life.

uncommonly longer

tion of

The medical treatment

of such a

patient

may

be

unhesitatingly taken in hand by a physician.
exhibiting bodily
features

Persons,

other than those described

above,

should be

looked
are

upon

as

short-lived

men,

while those,
to

who

possessed

of features

common
should

men

of both

the above mentioned types,
as

be

considered

keeping the mean between them

as regards longevity

(Madhyamayuh).

Authoritative verses on the subject — A man, with deep-set bones, ligaments, and
:

veins,

and

tough and thick-set limbs, and firm and
organs,
as

unflinching sense

well

as

one whose body
symmetrical

gradually develops

a

more and

more

shape, should be looked upon as a long-lived

man The

man, who has not
the day
of his

ailed for a single

moment even from

birth,

and has been getting more and
every
sense
is

more
vation

strong- limbed

day through
and a better

the

culti-

of his

inborn

knowledge

of the laws of health,
in

sure to live to a
his senses

good old age

the

full

enjoyment of

and

intellect.

3IO

THE SUSHRTTTA SAMHITA.
hear
a

[

Chap.

XXXV.

IVIadhyama^uh :— Now,
the bodily
features
life

me

describe
or
aver-

of a

man

of

mean

age duration of

(Madhyamayuli;.

The man, the

integuments of whose lower eyelids are marked with

two

or

three

well-marked
legs
tip

and

extended

lines

or

furrows,

and whose
and the

and external ears are thick
of

and
little

fleshy,

whose nose

is

turned a

upward, and

who

has up-pointed lines directly
his back,
is

running through the middle of
live

expected to

up to the

ripe old age of seventy years.

Specific

traits
hear

of

a short-lived
a short-li^•ed
of fingers,
raised

man —^Xow,
:

me

describe the specific traits,

which characterise the body of

man.
narrow
from

A man
their

with

short

phalanges

a

back, and external ears
natural
a
seats,

abnormall}'
is

up

and who

possessed

of a large
ringlets

penis,

high nose, a breast covered
hair,

with

of

curly
or

and who exposes the
e3'es
roll

gums

of

his

teeth,
is

whose

while talking or laughing,

not expected to see more than twenty-five summers.

We shall now give
limbs and

the exact measures of the different
of

members

the

body
of
life

for

the
a

better

ascertainment of the duration

of

patient

under

investigation.

— The

legs,

the
bod}*-,

arms,

and

the

head are called the limbs of the
ponent parts are
called

while their com-

the

members

(Avayavas).
it,

The

great toe of a

man, or the one next to

measured

Chap,

xxxv.]
his

SUTRASTHANAM.
fingers

311

with

own

should

measure

two

fingers'

width in length, the lengths of the other toes (the
fourth,

third,

and

small ones) successively diminishing by
(

a

fifth

part of that of his middle finger
fore-sole

Pradeshini).

The

and the

sole proper respectively should
in

measure four
width

fingers'

width

length and

five

fingers'

in breadth.
five

The

heel of the foot (Parshni) should
in length
itself

measure
wadth
in

fingers'

width

and four
should

fingers'

breadth.

The

foot

measure

fourteen fingers' width in length.
as

The

girth of the foot,

well as the circumference

of the

middle parts of
should

thighs

and knee-joints, respectively

measure

fourteen fingers in width.

The

part

of the leg between

the

ankle and the

knee-joint should

measure eighteen

fingers'

width

in

length, while the part

between the

joint

of the

waist

and the knee-joint should measure
width
fingers'
in

thirty -two fingers'
fifty

length, the
in all.

entire

leg

thus measuring
of the

width

The length

thigh

is

the

same

as that of the part lying
.

between the heel and the

knee-joint (Jangha

The scrotum,
the
ears,

the chin,
of the

the

(two rows

of)

teeth,

exterior

line

nostrils^

the roots

of the

and the intervening space between the eyes, should

respectively measure

two

fingers'

width

in

length.

The

non-erected penis, the cavity of the mouth, the two

rows

of

teeth,

the

nose,

the

height of

the neck.

JI2
the

THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA.
ears,

[

Chap.

XXXV.

and the forehead, and the space intervenmg
fingers'

between the pupils of the eyes measure four
width in length.

The
twelve

entire length of the vaginal canal should
fingers'

measure
the penis

width.

The space l3nng between
as the

and the umbihcus,as well

one intervening between
the throat
tips
(lit
:

the chest and the upper end of
like

neck),

the

one h'ing between
breast,

the

of

the

two

nipples of the

should measure twelve fingers'
length
of the entire face should

width

in length.

The

measure twelve
wrist

fingers'

width.

The

girth

round the

and the fore-arm of a man should measure twelve

fingers.

The

girth

round the knee-joint

is

sixteen fingers'

width and the length between the wrist and the elbow
should measure sixteen fingers' width.

The

part of the

arm between the elbow and the

tip of the

middle finger
all.

should measure twenty-four fingers' width in

The

length of the entire arm mea.sures thirty- two fingers'
width, and the girth round the
thirty-two
fingers'

thighs should measure
of the hand should
four fingers'

width.

The palm
in

measure
width
of the

six fingers'

width

length and

in

breadth.
of the

The space between the bottom
thumb
to

ball

the root of the index

finger, as well as the space

between the root of the ears

to the outer corner or angle of the eyes, should measure
live

fingers'

in

length.

The middle

finger

should

Chap.

XXXV.

j

SUTRASTHANAM.
width
in length.

31-

measure

five fingers'

The index and

the ring-fingers respectively -should measure four and a
half fingers in length, the

thumbs and the

little

fingers

respectively measuring three and a half fingers.

The

fissure of the

mouth should measure

four fingers

in length.

The

girth

round the neck should measure
of the cavities

twenty
should

fingers.

Each

of the nostrils
parts

measure one

and three quarter
region of the
of the
iris

of

a

finger in length.

The

occupies a third

part of the entire area

cornea.

The

region

of

the pupil should measure a ninth part thereof

The arch extending from
the templar region
to

the

hairy

extremity of

the middle point of the back

of the head should measure eleven fingers.

The
the

distance

between the middle of the head and
point of the hairy portion of the neck
ten fingers
in

terminal

should measure

length.

The

girth of the

neck measured

from the back of one ear to that of the other should be
fourteen
fingers.

The

length

of the

pelvic

region of
anterior

a young

woman measured

from below the

side of the thigh joints

should be found to be equal to
a male subject

the breadth

of the chest (Vakshah) in

'twelve fingers\

The

thigh of a

woman

should be

eighteen fingers in

breadth and equal to that of the waist of a man.
entire length of a

The

male human body should be a hundred

and twenty
40

fingers.

314

THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA.

[

Chap.

xxxv.

Authoritative verse on the subject:— An intelligent physician should regard the
organism
sixteen
oi"

a

man

of twenty- five

or

of a

woman
respect

of
of

years of age, as fully developed in

the maturity of the seven fundamental principles of the

body

such

as,

serum, blood,

Sic).

The dimensions
laid

of the different limbs

and members of the body,

down

above,

should be understood as to have been

measured by the standard of one's (man's or woman's)

own

finger's width,

and a person, whose limbs and organs
above-said measures,
is

are found to correspond to the
sure
to
live

to

a good

and hearty old age, as a

necessary and befitting sequel to a happ3' and prosperous
career in
life.

In the case of a

partial

correspondence

of one's

limbs and organs to the above-said measures
as

and proportions, a man should be regarded
an average
fall

having

life

and prosperity.

A

person whose limbs

short of the

abovesaid measures should be regarded

as an indigent

and short-lived person.

Physical temperament (Sa'ra) :— Now
we
shall

describe

the

characteristic

traits

of

the

different

preponderant principles (Sara) or temperaments
organism.

of the

human

A

man, who
is

is

possessed of a

good retentive memory, and
cleanly in his
habits,

intelligent, valorous
is

and

and whose mind
as,

graced with

such rare and excellent virtues
a fervent and

purity of thought, and
to

unflinching devotion

gods and the
furtherance

reverend,

and who

exerts himself for

the

Chap.

XXXV.

]

SUTRASTHA'NAM.
good,

31^

of the

absolute

should be regarded as a

man

of

Satvasara (psychic or illumined) temperament.

A man
teeth,

with glossy,
nails

white

and

close-set bones,

and

and

who

has beootten

a

large

family of children,

and shows a marked amative ten-

dency, should be looked upon as a
ciple of

man

in

semen decidedly preponderates.
bod}',

whom the prinA man with a
and a
pair
in

thin

and sinewy

and who

exibits traits of excessive

strength,

and possesses a deep resonant

voice,
is

of large and
ever}'

handsome
life,

eyes, and

who

successful

walk of

should be looked upon as one

in

whom

the principle of

marrow preponderates.

A man

with a large head, and a large pair of shoulders, and
having firm teeth, bones, cheek-bones, and finger-nails,
should be
considered as one
in

whom

the

principle

of bone preponderates.

A man
capable

with a large and bulky body, and
a

who

is

of enduring

large

amount of

fatigue
in

or

physical exertion,

and who naturally talks
voice,

a soft

and melodious
such
as

and whose

bodily

secretions

urine

and perspiration are characterised by

coldness should be regarded as one of a fatty tempera-

ment.

A man

with an erect and upright frame,

and
flesh,

deep-set bones,

and

joints

in

thick

layers

of

should be regarded as one in
flesh

whom

the

principle

of

predominates.

A

man, whose

finger

nails,

eyes,

tongue, palate.

!

3i6
lips,

THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA.
palms of hands and soles of

[

Clmp.

xxxv
and

feet are glossy,

tinged with a shade of red, should be looked upon as one
in

whom

blood forms the essential and predominant

principle.

A man

with a

soft,

smooth and pleasant skin
in

and hair should be considered as one

whom

serum
In
of

fTvak) forms the essential principle of the body.
respect

of

worldly success

and

longevity,

men

each of the aforesaid types should

be

successively

judged
ceding

inferior
it

to

men

belonging to

the

one

pre-

in

the above order of enumeration.

Authoritative
ject
:

verse on the
the

sub-

A

quabfied physician should examine the duraa patient with

tion of

life in

help of the aforesaid

measures of limbs and the essential bodily principles,
before proceeding to take up his medical treatment, and
his professional

success

should be decidedly increased

thereby.
All the diseases,

whose names have been

specifically

enumerated before, ma}' be grouped under any of the
three different heads
as

the curable, the
(lit
:

suppressible

(Yapya) and the incurable
as hopeless).

fit

to be

pronounced

Each of these

different types, in

its

turn,

should be
it

carefully observed so as to

determine whether
disease,

is

a

primar}'

or

an independent

or

merely

an

accessory or sympathetic one, or the premonitory indication of an incipient distemper in
its

incubative stage.

Chap.

XXXV.

]

SUTRASTHA'XAM.
(sympathetic) disease
in
is

^17
merely a
original
in

An A upasargika
symptom developed

the

course
its

of an

or

primary malady, and which has

foundation

the

very nature or component factors of the pre-existing
distemper.

A

disease, Avhich manifests itself

from the
accessor}'

commencement
symptom, nor
distemper,
original)
is

of a case and

is

neither

an
of

a premonitory
called

indication

any other
or

a

Prak-kevalam
indicates
is

(primary

one.

A

disease which

the advent

of a

future or

impending malad}'

called a

Purvaru-

pam

(premonitory stage or indication of a disease).
to be

The medicinal remedy

administered
with an

in

any

particular case should be selected

eye to the

curative ^•irtues of each of
clash

its

components, so as not to
of the
to

with the nature (cause)

disease

and

its

accompanying symptoms, and
soothing to both of them.

prove simultaneously
contrary, a violent

On

the

unfavourable

symptom should
case

be

first

attended to and

checked

in a

where

it

would be found to have

grown stronger and more
the original malady
in

distressing or dangerous than

course of which

it

has been

developed.

A

primary

or

independent

malady,

unattended

with any of the distressing or unfavourable symptoms,
should be treated according to
nature of
the
its

indications

and the
therein,

deranged

humours

involved

while

in

an incubative disease the treatment should

3i8
consist in
it

THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA.

Chap.

XXXV.

subduing a premonitory s^'mptom as soon as
itself

would make

manifest.

Authoritative
ject
make
:

Verse on the sub
which can

— As

there

is

not a single disease,

its

appearance without the participation of any of
bodil)'

the deranged

liumours, a wise physician

is

en-

joined to administer medicines according to the specific
features of the deranged

humours involved

in a disease

whose nature and treatment have not even been described in

any book on medicine.

The

different seasons

of the year have been described before.

IVIetricai

Texts :— In

the

cold

season,

a

disease should be treated with measures

and remedies
off

endued with the virtue of destroying or warding
cold, while in

summer

the

medicinal

treatment should
alla^n'ng

consist of measures

and applications capable of
medical
treatment
at

the

heat.

The

of

a

disease

should be connnenced just

the opportune

moment,
under

which should not be allowed to expire

in vain

any circumstances whatsoever.

A

course of medical treat-

ment commenced

at

an inopportune moment, or not
its

resorted to at the advent of

proper time, as well as

over or insufficient medication, proves abortive
a curable type of disease.

even

in

The proper medical

treat-

ment

(of a

disease)

is

that

which successfully copes
arrests

with the malady under treatment, and
recrudescence of a fresh one by

the

way

of sequel,

and not

Chap.

XXXV.

]

SUTRASTHANAM.

:>ig

that,
is

which, though subduing a particular distemper,

immediately followed

by a new

one.

It

has been demonstrated before
is

that

the

food of

a

man

digested only with

the

help of the digestive

fire

or heat (Pachakagni),

which

may

be divided into
is

four ditferent kinds (states).

One

of these kinds

due

to

it

not being

in

any way affected by the deranged
are respec-

humours of the body, while the other three
tively ascribed to the fact of their

becoming so deranged.
irregular or
fitful

The

digestive

fire

or

heat becomes

(Vishamagni) through the action of the deranged Vayu,

becomes keen, through the action of the
Pittam,

deranged

and

dull

or

sluggish,

through the action of
fourth

the

deranged

Kapham.

The

kind (Sama)

continues in a state unaffected by any of the morbid

humoural

constituents

of

the

body

owing to

their

maintaining the normal equilibrium.

Samargni and Vishamei'gni :— The
tive heat,

diges-

which

l\illy

digests the ingested

food at the
thus
in their

proper

time

without

the

least

irregularit}',

reflecting the continuance of the bodily

humours

normal

state, is
is

called
its

Samagni.
action,

The

digestive

heat

which

irregular in

and which sometimes

helps the process
distension of the

of complete digestion,

and produces
of

abdomen,

colic

pain, constipation

the

bowels, dysentery, ascites, heaviness of the limbs.

320
rumbling

THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA.
in the intestines,
is

[Chap.

Xxxv.

and loose motions

(diarrha;a)

at other times,

called
:-

Vishamagni.
-The digestive heat, which helps

Tikshna'gni
short space of time,
is

the digestion of even a heavy meal within an incredibly
called "

Keen

"

(Tikshnagni) and
begets
helps

which

becoming
or

abnormally augmented
(Atyagni),
meals,

an
a

excessive

voracious appetite
his

glutton

to digest

frequent

and produces a

parched throat, palate and
comforts.

lips,

heat

and other

dis-

Wlanda'g'ni :— The

digestive

fire

or

heat which

causes the tardy digestion even of a

scanty meal, and

produces heaviness of the abdomen and head, cough,
difficult

breathing, water-brash, nausea,

and weariness

of the limbs simultaneously
is

with the taking thereof,

called dull or sluggish (Mandagni).

Metrical Texts :— The
Vishama kind brings on
derangement of the Vayu.
fire

digestive

fire

of the

diseases characterised

by the

A
to

keen (Tikshna) digestive

brings on bilious (Pittcija) affections, while a sluggish
fire

(Manda)

gives

rise

diseases

marked by a

deranged state

of the

Kapham.
fire

Endeavours should be
of

made

to

keep the digestive

the

Sama

type

normal or regular appetite*;
"

in

an unimpaired state.
"appclile."
llie

TIktc

is

a (lifk'iencc Ijclwccn

"Agni" and

Ayni includo

liile

and pancrcalic sccrcliuns, and hence inchcales
Appetite, though
not

stale of

ones

digesis

tion.

an

iinening

indicator

of the

]:)r(jcess,

the

eliecl of

Agni.

Chap.

XXXV.

]

SUTRAStHANAM.
as

321
be cor-

The one known
rected

Vishama

'irregular) should

by

a diet

consisting' of emollient, acid or saline

substances.
fire,

In

a case

of abnormally keen

digestive

the medical treatment should consist in prescriba
diet
in

ing purgatives and

the
fatty

composition
or

of

which

sweet,

cooling,

and

albuminous

matters largely enter.

The same treatment should be
of voracious
its

adopted

in

(Atyagni) as marked in cases

appetite,

and a

diet consisting of buffalo-milk, or
buffalo- butter should

curd
for

(Dadhi) and liquid

be prescribed

the patient in addition. Emetics should be administered
in

a

case

of dull

or

sluggish

digestion

(Mandagni),

and the patient should be restricted to a diet consisting
of articles of a pungent, astringent or bitter taste.

IVIetrical
a person,
is

Texts :— The
its

fire,

that burns within

godly in

subtle

essence,

and possesses
weightIt

the divine attributes of atom-like
lessness, etc.,

invisibility,

and

is

the digestant of food.
of
different
is

takes

up

the

lymph

chyle

tastes

for

the
its

purpose of

digestion,

and

invisible

owing
vital

to

extremely subtle essence.

The

three

Vayus

known

as Prana,

Apana and Samana,

located in their
it

own

spheres within

the organism, feed

and keep

it

burning.

The
as
(i)

three stages of

man may
(2)

be roughly described

infancy or childhood,

youth or middle age,

and (y old age or dotage. Childhood extends up to the
41

322

THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA.
life,

[Chap.

xxxV.

sixteenth year of

and children

may
or

be divided into
are
fed on
rice
first

three different classes, according as they
milk,
alone.

or

on milk and boiled

rice

on boiled up to the
rice

A

child lives exclusively on milk
life,
it is

year of
food)

its

fed

on milk and boiled
is

(hard

up to the second year, and

thenceforward

nourished with boiled rice (hard food).

The middle age

of a

man

extends from the sixteenth
life,

to the seventieth year of his

and exhibits the

traits

of growth, youth, arrest of de^'elopment and decay.

The

process of growth or

building goes

on up to
or

the twentieth

year of
in

life,

when youth

the age

of maturity sets

and holds sway over the body of
life,

a

man up

to the thirtieth year of his
all

—the strength,
the

semen, and

the organs and
full

vital principles of

body

attain

(their

maturity at the age of forty.
sets
in

Thenceforth
seventieth

decay
of

gradually
life.

up

to

the

year

After that the strength and

energy of a
virility

man dwindle day by

dav.

The organs and
The
hair

grow weak and

suffer deterioration.

turns to a silvery white, the parched skin looks shrivelled

and becomes impressed with marks of dotage (crow's
feet-marks).

The

skin hangs
fall

down and becomes

flabby,

the hair begins to

off,

and symptoms of alopecia
pate.

mark the smooth, sheen and balded
tion
like

The

respira-

becomes laboured and

painful.

The body, worn out
fits

an old and dilapidated building, shakes with

of

*=^

Chap.

XXXV.

]

SUTRASTHANAM.
Such a man
is

323
all acts,

distressing cough.

incapable of
all

and does but imperfectly perform

bodily

functions.

He

has grown old.

The dose

of medicine should be increased with the
till

age of a patient
the expiry
(

the age of decay, and reduced after
seventieth

of

the

year

to

the

quantity

which

is

usuall}' prescribed for

an youth of

sixteen).

Authoritative verses on the Subject :— Kapham
is

increased during
;

the years

of

childhood and Pittam in middle age

while an increase

of VcCyu (nervous derangement^ marks the closing years
of
life.

The

use

of strong

or drastic purgatives,

and

cauterisation are alike

prohibited in

cases
in

of children

and old men.

They should be used only
if

weakened

or modified forms

found indispensably necessary.
before
thin

It

has been
is

stated

that
or

the
of

body
an

of

a

person

either

stout,

average

(middling)
in

bulk.

A

stout'

person

should be reduced

bulk with
to

depletive

measures,

while a physician
flesh.

should try

make
is

a

thin patient gain in thin

A

human body, which
should be

neither too
its

nor too stout,

made

to maintain

shapely rotundity.

We
body.

have already discoursed on the strength of the

Now

in a particular case

under treatment,
to

it

is

primarily

incumbent

on the physician
is

enquire

whether the patient

naturally weak, or has

become

324

THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA.

[Chap.

XXXy,

so through a deranged condition of the bodily

humours

or old age.

And
all

since

it

is

the strength of a patient
(such
as cauterisa-

which makes
tion,
etc.)

remedial measures
it

possible,

should

be

regarded

as

the

grandest auxiliary to a medical treatment of whatsoever
nature
it

may

be.

lYIetrical
are

Texts

:

—There
;

are

some men who
are

strong
;

though

thin

while

others

weak,
deter-

though stout

and accordingly a physician should

mine the bodily strength of a patient by enquiring
about the capacity of his physical
labour.

endurance

and
(stoic)

Sattvam or fortitude denotes a kind of
of one's

indifference

mind

to

sensations

and sources

of pleasure or pain.

A man

of strong fortitude (Sattvika temperament)

is

capable of enduring everything, or any amount of pain

by repressing
lect.

his

mind with the help
of

of his will or intel(strong,

A man of
may

a Rajasika turn

mind

active,

energetic)

be made to patiently submit to a course

of painful

medical treatment by means of persuasive

counsels and the logic of the inevitable, whereas a
of a Tamasika temperament (a worldly cast
characterised

man
mind

of

by Nescience)

is

simply overwhelmed at

the prospect of bodily pain.

Later on,

we

shall

have occasion to deal with the
treatment and of remedial
country, or a

different types of physical

agents in general.

A

particular

season

Chap.

XXXV.

]

SUTRASTHANAM.
a particular disease or a peculiar particular

^25

of the
living,

year,

mode

of
or

any

kind

of

physical

labour

exercise, or the specific properties

of the water of any

particular locality, or cular taste,
is

day

sleep, or a juice of

any

parti-

or are said to be congenial (Satmya) to
is

a

man, or a man
tions

said to be naturalised to these
fail

condi-

and environments, when they
on
his health,

to produce

any

injurious effect

though naturally unwhole-

some to

others.

Metrical Texts :— A
soever,
or
said to be congenial to a

thing of any taste whatis

any kind of habit or physical exercise

man

which, instead of in any

way

telling

on

his

health,

contributes to his positive

pleasure and comfort.

Features of an Anupa country:—
country

may
An

be classed either as an Anupa, Jangala or a
to
its

Sadharana one, according
features.

distinctive physical

Anupa

watery or

swampy) country
is

contains a large number of pools, and

wooded and
its

undulated
area,

with
is

chains

of

lofty

hills

traversing
its

and which

impassable owing to

net- works

of rivers and sheets of accumulated rain-water rippling
before the
currents of the
gentle,
stout,

humid
shapely

air.

It

is

inhabited

by

a

race

of

and

soft-

bodied men, susceptible to Vatala and Kaphaja diseases.

Features of Ja'ngala and Sardharrana countries — The country, which presents a fiat
:

326
surface

THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA.
and whose
dull

[

Chap.

XXXV.

monotony

is

enlivened here and

there

by scanty growths of thorny shrubs and the tops
hills

of a few isolated

or knolls,

and

in

which the waters
rains,

from springs and wells, accumulated during the

become nearly

drained, and strong

gales of

warm wind
its in-

blow (during the greater part
habitants,

of the year)

making

though

thin, strong, tough,

and sinewy
is

in

their frames, subject

to

attacks

of diseases,

called

Jangala.

A

country, which exhibits features
classes,
is

common
or

to both the aforesaid

called

Sadharana

ordinary.

Authoritative Verses on the Subject — A country derives the epithet of Sadharana
:

from the ordinary character of

its

heat, cold

and rainfall,

and from the
their

fact

of the bodilv

humours maintaining
its

normal state of equilibrium within
originated
in,

confines.

A

disease

and peculiar to a particular
if

country

fails

to gain in
in a

intensity,

brought over

to,

and transplanted

country of a different character.
diet

A
in

man, who observes a regimen of

and

conduct

soothing to the deranged bodih' humours accumulated

the country he has come from, and aggravated and

manifest in the shape of a disease in the country he
has been living for the time being, need not apprehend

any danger from the altered conditions
abode,
diet
for the fact of his

of his

new

not observing a regimen of
beneficial
in

and conduct regarded

consideration

Chap.

XXXV.

]

SUTRASTHANAM.
features

327
place.

of

the physical
of

of

the
origin

latter

A
and

disease

recent growth' or
or

unattended with

any

distressing

unfavourable
of the

complications,

unsuited to
of

the nature

country*, the season
§

the

year,t

the temperament,; and
traits

the adopt-

ed or congenial or naturalised
of a of
patient

of the physique

with a

regular

and

unimpaired

state

digestion

(Samagnij,

and who exhibits

traits

of

strength,

fortitude

and longevity and commands the
four

co-operation

of

the

commendable

factors

of

a

course of medical treatment, readily yields to medicine.

A
while
the

disease,

which

is

marked by

features

other than

those described above, should be regarded as incurable,

the

one

exhibiting

traits

common

to

both

abovesaid types, should be looked upon as ex-

tremely hard to cure.
In the case of a former

medicine proving abortive,

a different one should not be resorted to as long as the effect of the
first

would

last,

inasmuch as a mixture

or a confusion of medicinal remedies tends to produfce a positively injurious effect.
*
in a

A

medicine or any medicinal
to

As
As
in

the

development of a disease due

the

deranged

Kapham
\'5laja

country of the JAngala type.
the attack of a bilious

+

distemper in
atifectiun in

forewinler, or

of a

malady

autumn, or of a Kaphaja
the

summer.
in

J
§

As

appearance of Kaphaja disease

a

patient

of

bilious

temperament.

As

the

appearance of

a Kaphaja
taste.

disease

in

a subject habituated

to the use of viands of

pungent

328

THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA.

[

Chnp.

XXXV.

measure, failing to produce any tangible

effect,

may
or

be

repeated

in

quick
if
it

succession

in

a

difficult

dangerous disease,

be

empirically

found to be
intelligent

beneficial in the case

under treatment.

The

physician,
etc., fully

^vho,

considering the

nature of the season,

conforms to the abovesaid rules of medical
conquers the bodily distempers and dispels
skill.

treatment,

the gloom of Death from the world with his medical
Thus ends

the Thirty-fifth Chapter of the Sulrasthinam in the Sushrula

Samhila, which treats of clinical oliservalions.

CHAPTER XXXVI.
Xow we
treats
(lYI

shall

discourse

on the Chapter,

which
etc.

of

miscellaneous remedies for

swellings,

ish raka-

m ad hyayam)

*
.

Metrical Texts :— A

medicinal plaster, com-

posed of Matulanga, Agnimantha, Devadaru, Mahaush-

dham, Ahinsra, and Rasna pasted together and applied
to the seat of the affection, leads to the

resolution

of a

swelhng, due to the action of the deranged Vayu.

A

plaster

composed of Durva, Xalamulam, Madhuas well as plasters

kam, and Chandanam,

composed of

drugs of cooling properties,t brings about the resolution
of

an

inflammatory

swelling

of

the

Pittaja type,
swelling,

and proves

similarly beneficial to a traumatic
its

or to one which has of the blood.

origin

in the vitiated

condition

Measures, laid

down

in

connection with a swelling

resulting from the effects of poison,

would lead to the

resolution of a Pittaja swelling as well.
*

The nomenclature
on the
fact

of
its

the chapter

is

based,

according to certain
processes
;

authorities,

of

jointly treating of eight principal

of absorption, suppuration, spontaneous bursting, etc. of a swelling

while

some
the

there are

who

hold that the

name

of the

chapter

is

derived

from
)

fact

of

its

containing

remedial
ulcers.
(

measures

commonly

(Mishrakam

beneficial to swellings

and

t
the

Belonging to the groups
their
first

Gana

)

of medicinal herbs, which go by

names of

components, such as the Kakalyadi group (Gana),

the Utpalidi group etc.

42

330

THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA.
plaster,

[

Chap.

XXXVI.

A

composed of Ajagandha, Ashvagaiidha,

Kala, Asarala, Ekaishika, and Ajashringi pasted together,

and applied
a

to

the spot, leads to the resolution
(appearing at

of

Kaphaja

swelling

any

part

of the

body).

A

plaster,

composed of the components of the abovedrugs and Lodhram,

said groups of medicinal

Pathya,

Pinditakam, and Ananta, brings about the resolution
of a swelling due of
to

the simultaneous derangement

the

three

fundamental

humours

of

the

body

(Sannipatikam).

A

medicinal plaster, prescribed

for

a

swelling due

to the deranged ^'ayu, should be applied

by mixing
or

it

with a
butter.

little

rock

salt,

acid (Amla), and

oil

clarified

Similarly, a plaster, prescribed for the resolution

of a Pittaja swelling, should be applied cold, and with a
little

quantity of milk added to
of a

it.

A

plaster

for

the

resolution

Kaphaja swelling should be applied

warm

to the affected part,

and with the addition of a

considerable quantity of an alkali and cow's urine.

Pare ha na

Plasters :— A
(enzyme),

piaster

composed

of the seeds of Shana, Mula, Shigru, Tila and Sarshapa,

Yava-powder, Kinva

and

linseed

pasted

together, or one consisting of thermogenetic drugs (such
as Kustha, Aguru, etc.),

would

establish

suppuration in

a swelling.

Chap.

XXXVI.]

SUTRASTHANAM.
plaster

33

Darrana Plasters :^A
the

composed of

Chiravilva, Agiiika, Danti, Chitraka,

Hayamaraka and

dung of pigeons, vultures and storks (Kanka) pasted
would lead to the spontaneous bursting of a

together,
swelling.

An

alkali, or

its

ingredients

should be

re-

garded as a powerful auxiliary in bringing about the

spontaneous bursting of a swelling.

Pi dan a Plasters :— A
the
roots

plaster
trees

composed of
Shelu,

and bark of slimy

(Shalmali,

etc.),

or of barley, wheat,

and Masha pulse powdered
pus from

together,

would increase the secretion of
has burst.*

an

ulcer, or a swelling that

ShOdhana Plasters
tion)

:— A Kashayat

decoc-

of Shankhini, Ankota,
or
as

Sumanah, Karavira, and
to

Suvarchchala,

of drugs belonging

the group

(Ganas)

known

the

Aragvadadi-Varga, should be

used in washing and purifying (asepsising) the contents
of an ulcer, or a secreting swelling.

ShOdhana
ya,

Varti :— A
Patha,

lint

saturated

with a

plaster of Ajagandha, Ajashringi, Gavakshi, Langalahva-

Putika,

Chitraka,

Vidanga,

Ela,

Renuka,

Tri-katu, Yavakshara, the five kinds of

salt,

Manahshila,

*
free

The

plaster should be applied all

round the swelling, leaving

its

head

and exposed.
t

A

decoction with one part

of a drug

mixed with

four,

eight or six-

teen parts of water, the whole being boiled
entire quantity.

down

to a quarter

pan of

the

332

THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA.
Haritala
ari

[Chap.

XXXVI

Kasisa, Trivrita, Danti,
mrittikjl,

and the Saurashtraopen swelling,

and inserted into

ulcer or an
its

brings about the purification of

interior,

and these

drugs and substances should be regarded as the ingredients of

Shodhana Vartis

(aseptic plugs).

Shodhana Kalka :—A kalka
possesed of the virtue
ulcer, or

(aseptic paste),
is

composed of the preceding drugs and substances,
of purifying the
interior

of an

open swelling.
prepared with the aforesaid

Oil or clarified butter

Ajagandha, Ajashringi,
Jatikanda, and the

etc,

and Kasisa,

Katurohini,
to

two kinds of Haridra, and applied
its

an ulcer or open swelling, purifies

interior.

The

medicated
juice

Ghritam
roots,

prepared

with
the

the

expressed
juice

of Arka

Uttama,

milky

of

Snuhi plants, drugs abounding in

alkalis, Jati-roots,

the

two kinds Haridra, Kasisa, Katurohini and the
plug-drugs (Sodhana-Varti) pasted

aforesaid

together, should be

regarded as possessed of a virtue similar to the preceding one.

A

medicated

oil

prepared

with

Mayuraka,
Tila,

(Apang),

Rajabriksha,

Ximva,

Kosh^taki,

Vrihati, Kantakari, Haritala, Manahshila,

and the afore-

said

plug-drugs (purgative drugs according to others),

should be used for the purpose of purifying the interior
of an ulcer.

A

pulverised

compound consisting of

Kasisa,

Saindhava, Kinva, Vach.1, the two kinds of Haridra,

Chap.

XXXVI.]
the

SUTRASTHA'NAM.
drugs
of

333
aseptic
for

and

component
together,

the

plug
puri-

powdered
fication

should
of

be

used

the

of the

cavity

an

ulcer.

For the same

purpose a condensed extract (Rasa-Kriya)* should be

made

of the

essence

of the

drugs belonging to the

Salsaradi, Patoladi,

and Triphaladi groups.

Dhupanam — A wise physician should fumigate
:

(Dhupanam) an
consisting

ulcer with

the fumes

of a

compound

of Sriveshtaka,

Sarjarasa, Sarala, Devadaru,
to

and

the

drugs belonging

the

Salsaradi

group,

pulverised together and
ing

made

into an raseptici

fumigat-

compound.

A

cold

infusion

(Shhita-Shritam)
etc.)

of trees (Vata,

Audumvara, Ashvattha,

which are cooling and
healing or

astringent in their virtue, should be used in
setting

up a process of granulation

in

an

ulcer.

The Ropana-Varti

:— Plugs

of drugs such as

Soma, Amrita (Gulancha), and Ashvagandha, or of those
belonging to the Kakolyadi group, or of the sprouts
of milk-exuding
trees

(Kshirivrikshas such
inserted
into

as,

Vata,

Audumvara,
to

etc.)

and

an ulcer tend
paste (Kalka) of
(red^

help

its

granulation (Ropana).

A

Samanga,

Soma,

Sarala

wood,

Soma-Valka,

*

The

process consists in mixing the drugs wiih

water weighing eight
to

or sixteen times their

combined weight, and then boiling them down

an eighth or sixteenth part of the entire quantity.

334

THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA.
drugs belonging
to

[

Chap,

xxxvi.

Chandana, and
group,
is

the

Kakol)'adi
ulcer.

recommended

for the healing of

an

A
parni,

medicated Ghritam, prepared with the Prithak-

Atmagupta, Haridra, Daruharidra, Malati,

Sita,

and drugs belonging to the Kakolyadi group, is renowned
for
its

healing properties.
Kalanusari,

A

medicated
Haridra,
is

oil

prepared

with

Aguru,

Daru- Haridra,

Devadaru, Priyangu, and Lodhra,
efficacy.

possesed of a similar

A
of

pulverised

compound
Kasisam,

consisting

of

Kanguka,
barks
is

Triphala, Lodhra,

Shravana and the

Dhava

and

Ashvakarna

powdered
property.

together,

possessed of a similar healing
pulverised

The

use

of a

compound

consisting of Priyangu, Sarjarasa,

Pushpa-kasisa,
is

Tvaka, and Dhava powdered together
for

commended
(

the healing of an ulcer.
)

A
)

condensed

extract
trees
(

Rasakriya
as as

of

the

bark

of

milk-exuding

such

Vata,

Ashvattha

etc.

and

the

drugs

known

the Triphala, should be successively

used for the healing of an ulcer.

Utsardanam
ing to the

:

—The drugs

known

as

Apam^rga,

Ashvagandha, Talapatri, Suvarchhala and those belongKakolyadi group, should be used
an ulcer
(

for the

growth of

flesh in

Utsadana

).

Avasa'danam
K^sisa,

:

—A

compound
salt
),

consisting

of

Saindhava

(

rock

Kinvam, Kuruvinda,

Chap.

XXXVI.]

SUtRAStHi^NAM.
the shell
of a

335

Manalishila,
Jati

hen's

egg, the blossoms of

flowers, the

seeds of .Shirisha, and Karanja, and
(

powders of the abovesaid metals
gether,

Dhatus

)

mixed

to-

should be used in destroying the
{

fleshy super-

growths of an ulcer

Avasadanam
all

).

A

wise physician should use

the

drugs and sub-

stances as have been enumerated in connection with the

healing or establishing of suppuration, etc. in an
or as

ulcer,

many

of

them

as

would be available

at the time.
Sushruta

Thus ends

ihe ihirly-sixlh Chapter of ihe Sulrasthdnam in the

Sanihitd which treats of miscellaneous remedies for inflammatory swellings.

CHAPTER XXXVII.
Now we
commended
herbs
shall discourse

on the Chapter, which deals
soil

with the distinctive traits of the different classes of
for

the

growth or culture of medicinal

(Bhumi-Pravibha'ga-Vijna'niyamadhyaryam).
These are the general features of a ground which
is

recommended
herbs.

for

the

culture of medicinal

plants

or

A

plot of ground,

whose surface

is

not broken or

rendered uneven by the presence of holes, ditches, gravel

and stones, nor

is

loose in
ant-hills,

its

character,

and which

is

not disfigured by

nor used for the purposes of

a cremation or execution ground, and which does not

occupy the

site

of a holy temple,

is

favourable for the

growth of medicinal herbs.
soil

A

ground which possesses a
black,

which

is

glossy,

firm, steady,

yellowish

or

red and does not contain any sand, potash or any other
alkaline substance,

and

is

favourable to the germination

of plants and

easily

pervious to the roots of plants

growing thereon, and

which

is

supplied

with the

necessary moisture from a close or adjacent stream or
reservoir of water,
is

recommended

for

the growth of

medicinal plants and herbs.

Plants should be regard-

ed as partaking of the virtues of the ground they grow
upon.

A

plant,

growing

in
its

such a commendable
being infested with

site,

should be examined as to

worms

Chap.

XXXVII.

]

SUTRASTHANAM.
as to
its

337

or insects,
poison,

or

being anywise infected with

or

cut

with an arm, or affected by winds,
or

atmospheric heat,

an animal's body.
in

It

should

be culled or uprooted
sound,
healthy,

the event of

it

being found

deep-rooted,

full-bodied,

and

of

matured sap.

The gatherer should look towards the

north at the time of culling.

A

plot of ground with a pebbly, steady, heavy,
soil,

dusky

or dark coloured

and which conduces to the growth

of large trees, and yields rich harvests of corn, should

be regarded as permeated with the specific virtues of
essential Earth-matter.

A
which

ground having a cool, glossy, white coloured
is

soil,

adjacent to water, and whose surface
of

is

covered

with a lavish growth

glossy weeds and luscious

shady
the

trees,

should be considered as characterised by
properties

essential

of
soil

water (Amvuguna
of varied colours,

.

A
and

ground having a gravelly

which contributes only to the germination of scanty and
yellowish sprouts, should be looked upon as permeated

with the attributes

of essential

fire

(Agmguna).
,

A
soil,

ground with an ash-coloured or ass-coloured (grey

and on which withered looking,
of stunted growth,

sapless, large-holed trees

somehow eke

out

a

miserable

existence, should be considered as

being controlled by
;

the specific properties

of air

(Anilaguna)

while the

one having a
43

soft, level surface

with large trees and lofty

338
hills

THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA.

[

Chap. XXXVII.

cropping up at intervals thereon, and which

is

covered with growths of weeds and under-shrubs, and

is

endued with a dark

soil,

kept moist and sappy by the

percolation of invisible (subterranean) water, should be

looked upon as permeated with the essential properties
of sky (Akashaguna).

According to certain authorities, the roots, leaves,
bark, milk\^

exudations,

essence and fruits (seeds) of

medicinal plants and herbs, should be respectively culled
in the early part of the rains (Pravrit)

and in the rainy
fore- winter

season proper (Varsha\

autumn, (Sharat),

(Hemanta), spring (Vasanta)

and summer (Grishma).

But we cannot subscribe to that opinion inasmuch as
the nature or essential temperament of the earth
cool (Saumya) and hot (Agneya).
is

both

Accordingly drugs of

cooling virtues should be culled during the cold seasons

of the year, and the heat- making ones in the hot season,
as they

do not become divested of their native virtues

at

those seasons of the year.
virtues,

Medicinal plants of cooling
soil

which are grown on a

of cool temperament

and are culled during the cool seasons of the year,

become

intensely

sweet,

cooling

and glossy.

These

remarks hold good of other medicinal plants and herbs.

Herbs of purgative properties, which are grown on
a
soil

permeated

with the specific virtues of water
culled as the

or earth matter, should be

most

effective

of their kind.

Similarly, herbs of emetic virtues should

Chap.

XXXVII.]

SUTRASTHA'NAM.

3.^9

be culled from a ground permeated with the essential
virtues of
fire,

sky and

air.

Herbs exercising both purgative and emetic
should be culled

virtues

from

ground

exhibiting

features
soil.

common
Similarly,

to

both the two aforesaid classes of
possessed
of

herbs

soothing

properties

(Sanshamanam)* are found to exert a stronger action
in the event

of their being reared on a

soil

permeated

with the essential properties of sk5\
All medicinal herbs and

substances

should

be used

as fresh as possible, excepting Pippali, Vidanga,

Madhu,
matured

Guda, and Ghritam, fwhich should be used
condition
i.e.

in a

not before a year;.

The milky

juice or sap

of a medicinal tree or plant should be regarded as strong

and active under

all

circumstances.

Herbs and drugs,

that had been culled or collected within the year, might

be taken and used

in

making up a medicinal recipe

in a

case where fresh ones would not be available.

Authoritative Verses on the Subject — Medicinal
herbs and plants should be recognisof cowherds,

ed and identified with the help

hermits,

huntsmen, forest-dwellers, and those

who

cull the fruits

and edible roots of the
be laid
*

forest.

Xo

definite time can

down

for the

culling of

the leaves and roots of
own
essential properties

Herbs or drugs, which
or

in

virtue of their

soothe

subdue a disease without eliminating

the morbid

humours

or without exercising

any emetic or purgative

action.

340

THE SUSHRUTA
etc.,
is

SAMHITA'.

[

Chap,

xxxvil.

medicinal plants,
the recipe, which
covers, within

such as are used in compounding

called the Patra-lavanam,

and which

its

therapeutic range, diseases, which are
entire

peculiar
etc).*

to

the

organism (such as Vata-vyadhi,

As
classes

soil

admits of being divided into
its

six

different
etc.

according to

smell, colour,

taste,

so

the sap of a medicinal plant
six different tastes

may assume

an}' of the

through
soil
it

its

contact with the peculiar

properties

of the

grows on.
in water,

Tastes such

as^

sweet,

etc.,

remain latent

which imparts them

to the soil in a patent or perceptible condition.

A
five

plot of ground, exhibiting traits peculiar to all the

fundamental material principles (such as the earth
fire,

water,

etc.),

is

said

to

be possessed of a

soil

of general character (Sadharani Bhumi), and medicinal
plants and herbs partake of the
soil the}'

specific virtues of the

grown

on.

Drugs, whether fresh or old, and emitting a contrary
smell,

or in

any way

affected as

regards their natural

sap

or juice,

should not be used for pharmaceutical

purposes.

The

virtues of such medicinal

drugs and substances

such as Vidanga, Pippali, Madhu, and Guda, improve
*

ITence the doctrine, as regards the
as,

culling of the difterent parts of a
different seasons

medicinal plant such
of the year, naturally

the

leaves,

roots, etc., in the

falls to

the ground.

Chap.

XXXVII.

]

SUTRASTHA'NAM.
Accordingly
all

34

(after

a

year.

drugs and n^.edicinal

herbs,
fresh

excepting the preceding ones,

should be used

and unsoiled, or uninjured by
etc.,

insects.

Blood, nails, or hair

of animals,

'^officinally

laid

down

to be used in our Pharmacopoeia), should be taken

from young and healthy animals, and the ordure, urine,
or milk of an animal, (enjoined to be used for medicinal
purposes), should

be collected at a time after

it

has

completed

its

digestion.

The pharmacy and

the medicinal store of a physician
site

should occupy a commendable

and an auspicious

quarter of the sky (Xorth or East), and the collected

medicines should be kept tied
stored in

in

pieces of clean linen, or

earthen vessels and hollow tubes of wood, or

suspended on wooden pegs.
Thus ends the
thirty-seventh

Chapter of
the
etc.

the

Sutrasthanam
of grounds

in the for the

Sushruta Samhit^ wliich treats of
culture of medicinal plants

Classification

and herhs,

CHAPTER XXXVIII.
Now we
with
the
shall discourse

on the Chapter which deals

general classification of drugs according to
properties

their therapeutical

(Dravya-Sangrahaniya-madhyaryam).
These drugs are
usually

made

into

thirty-seven
:

different groups

(Gana) which are as follows

The
known

Vidarigandha'cli
Prithakparni,

Croup:— The drugs
Sariva,

as Vidarigandha,

Vidari, Sahadeva, Vishvadeva,

Shvadanstra,
Sariva,
Vrihati,

Shatavari,

black

Jivaka,

Rishavaka, Mahasaha,

Kshudra-Saha,

Kantakari,

Punarnava,

Eranda,

Hansapadi,
as the

Vrishchikah, and Rishavi, form the group

known

Vidari-gandhadi.

IVIetrical

Text

:

—The

present gi-oup of drugs

subdues the action of the deranged Vayu and Pittam

and proves

beneficial in phthisis ;Shosha~^,

Gulma, aching

of the limbs,

Urdha Shvasa and cough.
drugs

The A'ragvadha'di Group :— The
known
as

Aragvadha, Madana, Gopaghonta, Kutaja,
Saptaparna,
of

Patha, Kantaki^ Patala, Murva, Indrayava,

Ximva, Kuruntaka, Dasi-kuruntaka,
Karanja,
Patola,
Kiratttikua,

the two kinds

Guduchi,
the

Chitraka,

Sh^ngshta, and
the Aragvadhjidi.

Susha^•i

form

group

known

as

Chap. XXXVIII.

]

SUTRASTHANAM.
:

343
under
discus-

Metrical Text — The
sion destroys the deranged

group

Kaphani and the

effects

of

poison and proves beneficial in cases of
discharges from the urethra),

Meha

(^morbid

Kushtha, fever, vomiting

and

itching

of the
in

body

and

acts

as

a purifying

(aseptic)

agent

the case of an ulcer.

The Varuna'di Group
as

:

—The

drugs

known

Varuna, Artagala, Shigru,
Putika,

Madhu-Shigi-u, Tarkari,

Mesha-Shringi,

Xaktamala,

Morata,

Agni-

mantha, the two kinds of Sairiyaka, Vimvi, Vasuka,
Vasira, Chitraka, Shatavari,

Mlva, Ajashringi, Darbha,

and the two kinds of Vrihati form the group known
as the Varunadi.

IVIetrical
efficacy
fat

Text —The
:

group

is

possessed of the

of

reducing

the

deranged

Kapham

and

and proves

efficacious in cases of cephalaegia,

Gulma

and internal abscesses.

The
known

Viratarva'di
Gundra,

Group :— The
Kusha,
Kasha,

drugs

as Virataru, the

two kinds
I\'ala,

of Sahachara, Darbha,

Vrikshadani,

AshmaVasira,

bhedaka,
Bhalluka,

Agnimantha,
Kuruntaka,

Morata
Indivara,

Vasuka,

Kapotavanka,

and

Sh^adanstra enter into the composition of the group

known

as the Viratarvadi.

IVIetrical

Text :— The

group subdues

all dis-

orders incidental to

the deranged state of Vata and

344
proves

1*ilE

SUSHRUTA SAMHITA.
in

t

Chap, xxxvili.

curative

Ashmari,

Sharkara,
troubles.

Mutra-

krichhra, Mutraghata

and urinary

The
Salasara,

Sa^Iasara'di
known

Group :— The
Salasaradi,

group of
of

medicinal drugs,

as the

consists

Ajakarna,
Bhurjja,

Khadira,

Kadara,

Kalaskandha,

Kramuka,

Meshashringi,

Tinisha,

Chandana,

Kuchandana,
Arjuna,

Shinshapa,

Shirisha,

Asana,

Dhava,

Tala, Shaka,

Xaktamala,

Putika Ashvakarna,

Aguru and Kaliyaka.
IVIctrical

Texts

;

-The

group of the drugs,

known

as

the Salasaradi

Gana, destroys the germ of
fat

Kushtha, absorbs the deranged
proves beneficial
in

and

Kapham and

morbid discharges from the urethra

(Meha\

chlorosis

or jaundice (Pandu).

The Rodhrardi Group:—The group of medicinal drugs

known

as the

Rodhradi consists of Rodhra,
Kutannata,

Savararodhra,

Palasha

Ashoka,

Phanji,
Sala

Katphala,

Elabaluka, Sallaki, Jingini,

Kadamva,

and Kadali.
IVIetrical
the deranged
properties,

Texts :— The
fat,

group
is

is

antidotal
in

to
its

Kapham and

astringent
uterine
(anti

removes
the

vaginal

and
poison

disorders,

neutralises
acts

effects

of

toxic)

and

as

a stj'ptic and purifying agent in a case of ulcer

and

arrests all secretions

and excretions of the body.
:--The
drugs

The Arkardi Group
as

known
Karanja,

the

Arka,

Alarka,

the

two kinds of

Chap. XXXVIII.]

SUtRASTHANAM.
Bhargi,

345
Indrapiishpi,

Nagadanti,

Mayuraka,

Rasna,

Kshudrashveta Mahashveta, Vrishchikali, Alavana and
Tapasha-Vriksha, enter into the

composition of the

group

known

as the Arkadi

Gana.
group known as the

Metrical Texts:— The
Arkadi
poison.

destroys
It acts as

Kaphani,

fat,

and

the

effects

of

a vermifuge
of an ulcer

and a

specific aseptic

agent in the case
diseases of the skin.

and proves curative

in

The Surasa'di Group :—The
as Surasa, white

drugs

known

Surasa, Fainjjhaka, Arjaka, Bhustrina,

Sugandhaka,

Sumukha,

Kalamala,
Vidanga,

Kashamarda,
Surasi,

Kshavaka, Kharpushpa,
Nirgundi,
vala,

Katphala_,

Kulahala,

Indurakarnika,

Phanji,

Prachi-

Kakamachi and Vishamushtika form the group
as the Surasadi

known

Gana.
group
It

IVIetrical
vermifuge

Texts :—The
an aseptic agent.

acts

as

a

and

is

subdues the
in

deranged

Kapham and

proves beneficial

catarrh,

non-relish for food,

asthma and cough.

The

lYIushkaka'di
known

Group:—The
Mushkakadi
Chitraka,

group of
of

medicinal drugs

as the

consists

Mushkaka,

Palasha,

Dhava,

Madana,

Shinshapa, Vajra-Vriksha and Triphala.

Metrical
44

Text :— The

present
o-f

group

is

possessed of the therapeutic virtue

destroying fat and

346

THE SUSHRUTA

SAMHITA'.
Meha,
calculi
its

[

Chap.

XXXVIII.

removing the defects of semen.
chlorosis,

piles,

jaundice,

gravels

and urinary

in

the bladder

are the diseases which yield Lo

curative efficac)'.

The Pippalya'di Group:
medicinal drugs
Pippali, Pippali

-The group

of

known

as

the

Pippalyadi consists of

mulam, Chavya, Chitraka, Shringavera,
Harenuka,
Ela,

Maricha,

Hasti-Pippali,

Ajamoda,

Indrayava, Patha, Jiraka, Sarshapa, Maha-Nimva-Phala,

Hingu, Bhargi, Madhurasa, Ativisha, Vacha,

Vidanga

and Katurohini.

IVIetrical

Text
is

:

—The present group acts
The range
of
its

as

a

good appetiser and

an absorbant of intestinal mucous
thera-

and unassimilated lymph chyle.
peutical application

includes catarrh, deranged
for food,

Kapham
colic

and Vatam, non-relish and
gastralgia.

abdominal glands,

The
drugs

Elardi

Group

:

—The group
Tvaka,

of medicinal

known

as the Eladi-Gana consists of Ela, Tagara,

Kushtha, M^nsi,
pushpa, Priyangu,

Dhyamaka,

Patra,

Naga-

Harenuka, Vyaghranakha, Shukti,
Chocha, Choraka,

Clianda, Sthauneyaka, Shriveshtaka,

Valaka,

Guggulu,
Sprikka,

Sarjarasa,

Turushka,
Bhadradaru,

Kunduruka,

Aguru,

Ushira,

Kumkuma,

Punnaga and Keshara.
IVIetrical

Text :— The

therapeutic

virtue

of

the group consists in subduing the action

of

V^yu and

Chap. XXXVIII.]

SUTRASTHANAM.
in neutralising

347
It
is

Kapham and
a

the effects of poison. the
eruption
of

cosmetic

and

arrests*

pimples
urticaria

and other vegetations on the skin such as rash,
etc.

and

checks

the

itching

sensation

incidental

thereto.

The Vach2rcli and Haridrardi Groups :The
groups

known

as

the

Vachadi and

Haridradi

Ganas, respectively consist of Vacha,

Musta, Ativisha,

Abhaya, Bhadradaru, Nagakeshara (Vachadi), Haridra,
Daruharidr^,
(Haridradi).
Kalashi,

Kutaja

seeds

and

Madhuka

IVIetrical
purifiers

Text: —These two
milk

groups are the
act as

of

breast

and

specifically

the
their

assimilators of the deranged

humours of the body,
witnessed
in

curative properties being markedly

cases

of

mucous dysentery

(Amatisiira).

The Shy^mardi Group
as

:

-The drugs known
Danti,

Shyama,

Mahd-Shyam^,
Kampillaka,

Trivrit,

Shan-

khini,

Tilvaka,

Ramyaka,
the

Kramuka,

Putrashroni,

Gavakshi,

Rajavriksha,

two

kinds

of Karanja, Guduchi, Saptala,

Chhagalantri, Sudh^ and

Suvarnakhiri, form the group

known

as

the Shyam^di

Gana.

Metrical Text
acts as an
anti-toxic.

:

— This
It

group

is

possessed

of

the therapeutic virtue of curing abdominal glands and

proves beneficial in An^ha

148

THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA.

[

Chap.

XXXVIII.

'epistasis),

abdominal dropsy and diarrhoea and
in

is

one

of the most reliable purgatives

cases

of obstinate
of urine

constipation

of the bowels with suppression

and distention of the abdomen (Udavarta).

The Vrihatya'di Group
as
Vrihati,

:-^The drugs known Patha

Kantakarika,

Kutajaphala,
the group

and

Madhuka combinedly form
Vrihatyadi Gana.

known

as the

IVIctrical
or assimilator

Text :—The
of the

group

is

a good digestant
It

deranged humours.

subdues
proves

the

deranged Vata, Pitta and

Kapham and

efficacious in cases of nausea, water-brash,

d^'suria

and

non- relish for food.

The
as

Patola'di

Group:— The

drugs

known

Patola,

Chandana, Kuchandana, Murva, Guduchi,

Patha, and Katurohini form the group
Patoladi Gana.

known

as

the

IVIetrical
anti-toxic,

Text

:

—The group

is

a febrifuge and

and

its

therapeutic action consists in destroy-

ing the action of the deran