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# II.

## b Double Integrals in (x, y) Coordinates

In the previous section we encountered iterated integrals. We rst practice
working these out, and later consider applications.
Example 1. Evaluate the iterated integral
_
2
0
_
y
0
cos(y
2
) dx dy.
Answer. This is really
_
y=2
y=0
_ _
x=y
x=0
cos(y
2
) dx
_
dy
where the inner integral is with respect to x, so y is treated as a constant! Then
_
2
0
_ _
y
0
cos(y
2
) dx
_
dy =
_
2
0
_
x cos(y
2
)

x=y
x=0
_
dy
=
_
y=2
y=0
y cos(y
2
) dy =
_
u=4
u=0
cos u
du
2
(put u = y
2
, du = 2ydy)
=
1
2
[sin 4 sin 0] =
1
2
sin 4.
Example 2. Evaluate the iterated integral
_
4
0
_
x
0
xy dy dx.
Answer. Again, this is
_
4
0
_ _
x
0
xy dy
_
dx =
_
4
0
_
xy
2
2

x
y=0
_
dx
=
_
4
0
x
3
2
dx =
x
4
8

4
0
=
4
4
8
.
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Example 3. Evaluate
__
D
(x
2
+ y
2
) dx dy if D is the triangle bounded by y = x,
x = 2, and the x-axis.
Answer. You may think of this as, for example, nding the mass of a triangular
plate with density x
2
+ y
2
.
The rst step in these problems is to sketch D. It does not have to be a work
of art, but should be clear enough to enable you to nd the limits of integration.
In this case we have:
dx
dy
y = x
D
x = 2
y
x
We cut D into rectangles of side dy dx, one of which is shown in the picture. We
then have:
Mass of a rectangle = (x
2
+ y
2
) dy dx.
We now assemble the rectangles into strips. Note that our strips can run either left
to right or up and down. We illustrate both ways. Consider the mass of the strip
between x and x + dx, (i.e., we assemble the rectangles up and down).
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y = x
D
y
x
x + dx
x x = 2 0
Mass of strip = sum of mass of rectangles+take limit as dy 0
(i.e., integrate with respect to y.)
=
_ _
y=x (last rectangle ends)
y=0 (rst rectangle starts)
(x
2
+ y
2
) dy
_
dx.
Note that the upper limit of integration is not y = 2! Indeed, not all columns are
the same height! It depends on what x is! Next, we sum the masses of all the strips
and take the limit as dx 0 (i.e., integrate with respect to x). This gives us
__
D
(x
2
+ y
2
) dA =
_
x=2 (last strip ends)
x=0 (rst strip begins)
_ _
y=x
y=0
(x
2
+ y
2
) dy
_
dx
=
_
2
x=0
_ _
x
2
y +
y
3
3
_

x
y=0
_
dx
=
_
2
x=0
_
x
3
+
x
3
3
_
dx =
4
3
_
2
x=0
x
3
dx =
1
3
2
4
.
We show next that if the rectangles are assembled into strips from left to right we
get the same answer.
Once again, we start with
(x
2
+ y
2
)dy dx (= (x
2
+ y
2
)dx dy).
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x = 2
y
x
y = x
y
y + dy
But now mass of strip between y and y + dy is
_ _
x=2 (strip ends)
x=y (strip begins)
(x
2
+ y
2
) dx
_
dy
and now assembling the strips gives
__
D
(x
2
+ y
2
) dA =
_
y=2 (last strip ends)
y=0 (rst strip starts)
_ _
x=2
x=y
(x
2
+ y
2
) dx
_
dy
=
_
2
y=0
__
x
3
3
+ y
2
x
_

2
x=y
_
dy
=
_
2
y=0
__
2
3
3
+ y
2
2
_

_
y
3
3
+ y
3
__
dy
=
_
2
y=0
_
2
3
3
+ 2y
2

4y
3
3
_
dy
=
2
3
3
2 +
2
3
2
3
=
1
3
2
4
=
2
4
3
which is the same answer as before!
Example 4. Find the volume of the solid bounded by the cylinder x
2
+ z
2
= 1,
the planes x = 0, y = 0, x = 1 y in the rst octant.
Answer. It is extremely useful to visualize what the region looks like, and make a
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sketch. It is very important to practice this!
x
y
z
x +
2
z
2
1 =
x = y
Now suppose we look down on the solid. We see a triangle. We cut the triangle
into rectangles of sides dx, dy as before.
y
x
dx
dy
x + y = 1
The volume of a column with a rectangle as the base is
height (cross sectional area) = z dx dy =
_
1 x
2
dx dy =
_
1 x
2
dy dx.
y
x
x + dx
x + y = 1
x
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Volume over the strip from x to x + dx then is
_
1x
y=0
_
1 x
2
dy dx.
So total volume is the sum of all volumes of the strips
=
_
1
x=0
__
1x
y=0
_
1 x
2
dy
_
dx
=
_
1
0
(
_
1 x
2
)(1 x) dx
=
_
1
0
_
1 x
2
dx
_
1
0
x
_
1 x
2
dx.
Now
_
1
x=0
x
_
1 x
2
dx
u=1x
2
=
1
3
(1 x
2
)
3/2

1
x=0
=
1
3
1
3/2
=
1
3
and
_
1
0
_
1 x
2
dx =
_
x=1
x=0
_
1 sin
2
cos d
(x = sin , i.e., = arcsin x, dx = cos d)
=
_
x=1
x=0

cos
2
cos d.
Now = arcsin x varies between /2 and /2, so cos is always positive, i.e.,
_
x=1
x=0
cos
2
d =
_
=

2
=0
1 + cos 2
2
d
=

2
+
sin 2
4

2
0
=

4
.
So volume =

4

1
3
.
Remarks. (a) Note that the answer is positive. So it may be wrong, but its not
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silly!
(b) Suppose we assemble the columns left to right. We then have
y + dy
y
x
x + y = 1
y
Volume of strip from y to y + dy =
_ _
x=1y
x=0
_
1 x
2
dx
_
dy.
So
Total volume =
_
1
y=0
_ _
1y
x=0
_
1 x
2
dx
_
dy.
To practice, we work this out too. Now
_
1y
x=0
_
1 x
2
dx =
_
1y
x=0
cos
2
d (x = sin , dx = cos d)
=
_
1y
x=0
1 + cos 2
2
d
=

2
+
sin 2
4

1y
x=0
=

2
+
sin cos
2

1y
x=0
=
arcsin x
2
+
x

1 x
2
2

1y
x=0
=
arcsin(1 y)
2
+
(1 y)
_
1 (1 y)
2
2
.
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This is clearly much harder than the other way! Now Volume V is:
V =
_
1
0
_
arcsin(1 y)
2
+
(1 y)
_
1 (1 y)
2
2
_
dy.
But
_
1
y=0
(1 y)
_
1 (1 y)
2
2
dy
v=1y
=
_
1
v=0
v

1 v
2
2
dv
w=1v
2
=
1
6
(1 v
2
)
3/2

1
v=0
=
1
6
.
While
_
1
y=0
arcsin(1 y)
2
dy =
_
/2
r=0
1
2
r cos r dr
(r = arcsin(1 y), i.e., sin r = 1 y, cos r dr = dy)
=
1
2
_
/2
0
r
..
u
cos r dr
. .
v

parts
=
1
2
r
..
u
sin r
..
v

/2
0

_
/2
0
sin r dr
_
=
1
2
_

2
+ cos r

/2
0
_
=
1
2
_

2
1
_
.
So Volume
V =

4

1
2
+
1
6
=

4

1
3
.
The same as before.
Remark. This example shows that assembling the rectangles in dierent ways
may lead to integrals which are very dierent in their diculty!
Example 5. Sketch the region of integration and change the order of integration
for
_
1
0
_
2x
x
2
f(x, y) dy dx.
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Answer. In this problem, the rectangles have been arranged into strips that run
up and down (rst integrate with respect to y). The problem asks that we reverse
the order, i.e., arrange the strips into rectangles from left to right. For this, we
must nd the region of integration D.
Observe that x runs between x = 0 and x = 1. So our region must lie in the
strip 0 x 1. Next, for any given x between 0 and 1, y runs between y = x
2
and
y = 2 x. So D is as shown.
y
x
y = x
2
y = 2 - x
x = 1
D
We now assemble the rectangles left to right.
y = 2 - x
y = x
2
( 1 , 1 )
Observe that the rectangles end on two dierent curves depending on whether y is
bigger than 1 or not. So we split the problem and get
_
1
y=0
_

y
x=0
f(x, y) dx dy +
_
2
y=1
_
2y
x=0
f(x, y) dx dy.
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Example 6. Reverse the order of integration and evaluate
_
1
y=0
_
1
x=y
e
x
2
dx dy.
Answer. In this (somewhat rigged) problem we exploit the fact that reversing
the order of integration may lead to easier integrals. Indeed,
_
e
x
2
dx has no
antiderivative in closed form. So we switch the order. To do this, we rst must nd
the region of integration D. Now y is between 0 and 1, and for any such y, x is
between x = y and x = 1. So our region D is as shown.
D
y = 1
x
y
x = y
Reversing, we get
y
x
y = x
_
1
x=0
_
x
y=0
e
x
2
dy dx =
_
1
x=0
xe
x
2
dx =
e
x
2
2

1
0
=
1
2
[1 e
1
].
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Important Remark: In many of the examples we had the option of assembling
the rectangles into strips that went left to right or down and up. Indeed we used
this option in problems involving reversing the order of integration. This option
is usually not available. Actually, the rectangles are assembled depending on how
the boundary of D is specied. If the boundary is given by expressions of the type
y = f(x), then we assemble down to up. If the boundary is given by expressions of
the type x = g(y), we assemble left to right.
Example 6. Find the volume of a solid of height 1, whose cross section D is
bounded by: y = 0, y = 2, x = 0, x = 1 + cos
2
y.
Answer. Note that D looks like this.
2

2
3
2
x = 1 x = 2

D
The key fact is that the complicated part of the boundary is given by x = 1+cos
2
y.
So again we introduce rectangles dx dy. The volume associated with one of these is
height cross-sectional area = 1 dx dy. We assemble the strips left to right (the
other way would really be a mess) and get
V =
_
2
y=0
_
1+cos
2
y
x=0
1 dx dy
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=
_
2
0
[1 + cos
2
y] dy
=
_
2
0
_
1 +
1 + cos 2y
2
_
dy =
3
2
2 = 3.
This is relatively easy. Think what would happen if the strips went the other way!
You would have to worry about cases like this:
2

2
3
2
x = 1 x = 2

A real mess, since the formulas for the start/end of a strip are hard to get in the
wiggly region!
Remark. So what do we do if the boundary of the region is not given as either
y = f(x) or x = g(y)? What if the boundary is given in polar form, say r = h()?
We consider this next.
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Further Exercises:
Evaluate the iterated integrals.
1)
_
1
1
_
x
0
y dy dx
2)
_
1
0
_
cos x
0
x tanx dy dx
3)
_
1
0
_
siny
1
x dx dy
Evaluate
__
D
f(x, y) dA if
4) f(x, y) = x
2
+ y
2
; D is the semidisc 0 y

1 x
2
.
5) f(x, y) = e
x
2
; D is the region between y = x and y = x
3
in the rst quadrant.
6) f(x, y) = arcsin y; D is the region bounded by x = 1, x = 0, y = 1, y = 0.
7) f(x, y) = xy; D is the region bounded by y = x, y = 2x + 1, x = 0, x = 1.
Reverse the order of integration and evaluate.
8)
_
1
0
_
1
y
sin(x
2
) dx dy
9)
_
1
x=0
_
y=2
y=1
ln(y
2
) dy dx +
_
2
x=1
_
2
y=x
ln(y
2
) dy dx
Calculate the volume of the following.
10) The solid bounded by y = x
2
+ z
2
, y = 0 and x
2
+ z
2
= 4.
11) The solid bounded by x = 1 (z
2
+ y
2
) and x = 0.
12) The solid bounded by the surfaces z = x
2
+ y
2
1 and z = 3.
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