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Calculus-Double Integrals in (x,y) Coordinates

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In the previous section we encountered iterated integrals. We rst practice

working these out, and later consider applications.

Example 1. Evaluate the iterated integral

_

2

0

_

y

0

cos(y

2

) dx dy.

Answer. This is really

_

y=2

y=0

_ _

x=y

x=0

cos(y

2

) dx

_

dy

where the inner integral is with respect to x, so y is treated as a constant! Then

_

2

0

_ _

y

0

cos(y

2

) dx

_

dy =

_

2

0

_

x cos(y

2

)

x=y

x=0

_

dy

=

_

y=2

y=0

y cos(y

2

) dy =

_

u=4

u=0

cos u

du

2

(put u = y

2

, du = 2ydy)

=

1

2

[sin 4 sin 0] =

1

2

sin 4.

Example 2. Evaluate the iterated integral

_

4

0

_

x

0

xy dy dx.

Answer. Again, this is

_

4

0

_ _

x

0

xy dy

_

dx =

_

4

0

_

xy

2

2

x

y=0

_

dx

=

_

4

0

x

3

2

dx =

x

4

8

4

0

=

4

4

8

.

82

Example 3. Evaluate

__

D

(x

2

+ y

2

) dx dy if D is the triangle bounded by y = x,

x = 2, and the x-axis.

Answer. You may think of this as, for example, nding the mass of a triangular

plate with density x

2

+ y

2

.

The rst step in these problems is to sketch D. It does not have to be a work

of art, but should be clear enough to enable you to nd the limits of integration.

In this case we have:

dx

dy

y = x

D

x = 2

y

x

We cut D into rectangles of side dy dx, one of which is shown in the picture. We

then have:

Mass of a rectangle = (x

2

+ y

2

) dy dx.

We now assemble the rectangles into strips. Note that our strips can run either left

to right or up and down. We illustrate both ways. Consider the mass of the strip

between x and x + dx, (i.e., we assemble the rectangles up and down).

83

y = x

D

y

x

x + dx

x x = 2 0

Mass of strip = sum of mass of rectangles+take limit as dy 0

(i.e., integrate with respect to y.)

=

_ _

y=x (last rectangle ends)

y=0 (rst rectangle starts)

(x

2

+ y

2

) dy

_

dx.

Note that the upper limit of integration is not y = 2! Indeed, not all columns are

the same height! It depends on what x is! Next, we sum the masses of all the strips

and take the limit as dx 0 (i.e., integrate with respect to x). This gives us

__

D

(x

2

+ y

2

) dA =

_

x=2 (last strip ends)

x=0 (rst strip begins)

_ _

y=x

y=0

(x

2

+ y

2

) dy

_

dx

=

_

2

x=0

_ _

x

2

y +

y

3

3

_

x

y=0

_

dx

=

_

2

x=0

_

x

3

+

x

3

3

_

dx =

4

3

_

2

x=0

x

3

dx =

1

3

2

4

.

We show next that if the rectangles are assembled into strips from left to right we

get the same answer.

Once again, we start with

(x

2

+ y

2

)dy dx (= (x

2

+ y

2

)dx dy).

84

x = 2

y

x

y = x

y

y + dy

But now mass of strip between y and y + dy is

_ _

x=2 (strip ends)

x=y (strip begins)

(x

2

+ y

2

) dx

_

dy

and now assembling the strips gives

__

D

(x

2

+ y

2

) dA =

_

y=2 (last strip ends)

y=0 (rst strip starts)

_ _

x=2

x=y

(x

2

+ y

2

) dx

_

dy

=

_

2

y=0

__

x

3

3

+ y

2

x

_

2

x=y

_

dy

=

_

2

y=0

__

2

3

3

+ y

2

2

_

_

y

3

3

+ y

3

__

dy

=

_

2

y=0

_

2

3

3

+ 2y

2

4y

3

3

_

dy

=

2

3

3

2 +

2

3

2

3

=

1

3

2

4

=

2

4

3

which is the same answer as before!

Example 4. Find the volume of the solid bounded by the cylinder x

2

+ z

2

= 1,

the planes x = 0, y = 0, x = 1 y in the rst octant.

Answer. It is extremely useful to visualize what the region looks like, and make a

85

sketch. It is very important to practice this!

x

y

z

x +

2

z

2

1 =

x = y

Now suppose we look down on the solid. We see a triangle. We cut the triangle

into rectangles of sides dx, dy as before.

y

x

dx

dy

x + y = 1

The volume of a column with a rectangle as the base is

height (cross sectional area) = z dx dy =

_

1 x

2

dx dy =

_

1 x

2

dy dx.

y

x

x + dx

x + y = 1

x

86

Volume over the strip from x to x + dx then is

_

1x

y=0

_

1 x

2

dy dx.

So total volume is the sum of all volumes of the strips

=

_

1

x=0

__

1x

y=0

_

1 x

2

dy

_

dx

=

_

1

0

(

_

1 x

2

)(1 x) dx

=

_

1

0

_

1 x

2

dx

_

1

0

x

_

1 x

2

dx.

Now

_

1

x=0

x

_

1 x

2

dx

u=1x

2

=

1

3

(1 x

2

)

3/2

1

x=0

=

1

3

1

3/2

=

1

3

and

_

1

0

_

1 x

2

dx =

_

x=1

x=0

_

1 sin

2

cos d

(x = sin , i.e., = arcsin x, dx = cos d)

=

_

x=1

x=0

cos

2

cos d.

Now = arcsin x varies between /2 and /2, so cos is always positive, i.e.,

_

x=1

x=0

cos

2

d =

_

=

2

=0

1 + cos 2

2

d

=

2

+

sin 2

4

2

0

=

4

.

So volume =

4

1

3

.

Remarks. (a) Note that the answer is positive. So it may be wrong, but its not

87

silly!

(b) Suppose we assemble the columns left to right. We then have

y + dy

y

x

x + y = 1

y

Volume of strip from y to y + dy =

_ _

x=1y

x=0

_

1 x

2

dx

_

dy.

So

Total volume =

_

1

y=0

_ _

1y

x=0

_

1 x

2

dx

_

dy.

To practice, we work this out too. Now

_

1y

x=0

_

1 x

2

dx =

_

1y

x=0

cos

2

d (x = sin , dx = cos d)

=

_

1y

x=0

1 + cos 2

2

d

=

2

+

sin 2

4

1y

x=0

=

2

+

sin cos

2

1y

x=0

=

arcsin x

2

+

x

1 x

2

2

1y

x=0

=

arcsin(1 y)

2

+

(1 y)

_

1 (1 y)

2

2

.

88

This is clearly much harder than the other way! Now Volume V is:

V =

_

1

0

_

arcsin(1 y)

2

+

(1 y)

_

1 (1 y)

2

2

_

dy.

But

_

1

y=0

(1 y)

_

1 (1 y)

2

2

dy

v=1y

=

_

1

v=0

v

1 v

2

2

dv

w=1v

2

=

1

6

(1 v

2

)

3/2

1

v=0

=

1

6

.

While

_

1

y=0

arcsin(1 y)

2

dy =

_

/2

r=0

1

2

r cos r dr

(r = arcsin(1 y), i.e., sin r = 1 y, cos r dr = dy)

=

1

2

_

/2

0

r

..

u

cos r dr

. .

v

parts

=

1

2

r

..

u

sin r

..

v

/2

0

_

/2

0

sin r dr

_

=

1

2

_

2

+ cos r

/2

0

_

=

1

2

_

2

1

_

.

So Volume

V =

4

1

2

+

1

6

=

4

1

3

.

The same as before.

Remark. This example shows that assembling the rectangles in dierent ways

may lead to integrals which are very dierent in their diculty!

Example 5. Sketch the region of integration and change the order of integration

for

_

1

0

_

2x

x

2

f(x, y) dy dx.

89

Answer. In this problem, the rectangles have been arranged into strips that run

up and down (rst integrate with respect to y). The problem asks that we reverse

the order, i.e., arrange the strips into rectangles from left to right. For this, we

must nd the region of integration D.

Observe that x runs between x = 0 and x = 1. So our region must lie in the

strip 0 x 1. Next, for any given x between 0 and 1, y runs between y = x

2

and

y = 2 x. So D is as shown.

y

x

y = x

2

y = 2 - x

x = 1

D

We now assemble the rectangles left to right.

y = 2 - x

y = x

2

( 1 , 1 )

Observe that the rectangles end on two dierent curves depending on whether y is

bigger than 1 or not. So we split the problem and get

_

1

y=0

_

y

x=0

f(x, y) dx dy +

_

2

y=1

_

2y

x=0

f(x, y) dx dy.

90

Example 6. Reverse the order of integration and evaluate

_

1

y=0

_

1

x=y

e

x

2

dx dy.

Answer. In this (somewhat rigged) problem we exploit the fact that reversing

the order of integration may lead to easier integrals. Indeed,

_

e

x

2

dx has no

antiderivative in closed form. So we switch the order. To do this, we rst must nd

the region of integration D. Now y is between 0 and 1, and for any such y, x is

between x = y and x = 1. So our region D is as shown.

D

y = 1

x

y

x = y

Reversing, we get

y

x

y = x

_

1

x=0

_

x

y=0

e

x

2

dy dx =

_

1

x=0

xe

x

2

dx =

e

x

2

2

1

0

=

1

2

[1 e

1

].

91

Important Remark: In many of the examples we had the option of assembling

the rectangles into strips that went left to right or down and up. Indeed we used

this option in problems involving reversing the order of integration. This option

is usually not available. Actually, the rectangles are assembled depending on how

the boundary of D is specied. If the boundary is given by expressions of the type

y = f(x), then we assemble down to up. If the boundary is given by expressions of

the type x = g(y), we assemble left to right.

Example 6. Find the volume of a solid of height 1, whose cross section D is

bounded by: y = 0, y = 2, x = 0, x = 1 + cos

2

y.

Answer. Note that D looks like this.

2

2

3

2

x = 1 x = 2

D

The key fact is that the complicated part of the boundary is given by x = 1+cos

2

y.

So again we introduce rectangles dx dy. The volume associated with one of these is

height cross-sectional area = 1 dx dy. We assemble the strips left to right (the

other way would really be a mess) and get

V =

_

2

y=0

_

1+cos

2

y

x=0

1 dx dy

92

=

_

2

0

[1 + cos

2

y] dy

=

_

2

0

_

1 +

1 + cos 2y

2

_

dy =

3

2

2 = 3.

This is relatively easy. Think what would happen if the strips went the other way!

You would have to worry about cases like this:

2

2

3

2

x = 1 x = 2

A real mess, since the formulas for the start/end of a strip are hard to get in the

wiggly region!

Remark. So what do we do if the boundary of the region is not given as either

y = f(x) or x = g(y)? What if the boundary is given in polar form, say r = h()?

We consider this next.

93

Further Exercises:

Evaluate the iterated integrals.

1)

_

1

1

_

x

0

y dy dx

2)

_

1

0

_

cos x

0

x tanx dy dx

3)

_

1

0

_

siny

1

x dx dy

Evaluate

__

D

f(x, y) dA if

4) f(x, y) = x

2

+ y

2

; D is the semidisc 0 y

1 x

2

.

5) f(x, y) = e

x

2

; D is the region between y = x and y = x

3

in the rst quadrant.

6) f(x, y) = arcsin y; D is the region bounded by x = 1, x = 0, y = 1, y = 0.

7) f(x, y) = xy; D is the region bounded by y = x, y = 2x + 1, x = 0, x = 1.

Reverse the order of integration and evaluate.

8)

_

1

0

_

1

y

sin(x

2

) dx dy

9)

_

1

x=0

_

y=2

y=1

ln(y

2

) dy dx +

_

2

x=1

_

2

y=x

ln(y

2

) dy dx

Calculate the volume of the following.

10) The solid bounded by y = x

2

+ z

2

, y = 0 and x

2

+ z

2

= 4.

11) The solid bounded by x = 1 (z

2

+ y

2

) and x = 0.

12) The solid bounded by the surfaces z = x

2

+ y

2

1 and z = 3.

94

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