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# II.

## c Double Integrals in Polar Coordinates (r, )

Let us suppose that the region boundary is now given in the form r = f() or
= h(r), and/or the function being integrated is much simpler if polar coordinates
are used.
We begin with a brief review of polar coordinates.
We recall that a point P with coordinates (x, y) can also be specied by giving
its polar coordinates (r, ) where
x = r cos r =
_
x
2
+ y
2
y = r sin tan =
y
x
.
r
x
y
( x , y )

P
r
x
y
( x , y )

P
Note that is always assumed given in radians. Clearly, and unlike the (x, y)
situation, a specic point has many (r, ) coordinates obtained by increasing
(decreasing) by multiples of 2. We shall allow r to be negative as follows.
Let r < 0. Then the point P = (r, ) can be located by noting the diagram
95

- r
P
y
x
I.e., this is the same point as given by (r, +). We note that in some books
r is not allowed to be negative. This can actually make a dierence in a problem.
To conclude this brief review, we plot a couple of graphs.
Example 1. Sketch r = .
Answer. We mean the curve in the (x, y) plane, since in the (r, ) plane r = is a
straight line! We start at = 0 and increase . When = 0 we have r = 0 and we
are at the origin. When = /2, r = /2 and as increases so does r. This means
that the curve spirals away from the origin.
( , )
(2 , 2)
( / 2, /2)
y
x
We must not forget what happens for < 0. We also get a spiral as follows:
96
x
y
(2 , 2)
( / 2, / 2)
( , )
So the nal picture is two spirals:
x
y
( , )
Example 2. Sketch r = cos .
Answer. We mean the curve in the (x, y) plane not in the (r, ) plane. Again we
start at = 0 and note
= 0 r = 1
r
=

2
r = 0.
Note that r means here we are moving towards the origin. So we obtain Fig a.
97
0 =

2
=
r = 0
,
r = 1 ,
x
y
Fig. a
We now keep on increasing :
=

2
, r = 0
, r
= , r = 1,
and obtain Fig. b.
= , r = - 1
y
x
Fig. b
Observe that here r means we are moving away from the origin and the point is
in the fourth quadrant. By the properties of the cosine (i.e., periodicity), as keeps
on increasing, we shall retrace these curves over and over again, and the same will
98
happen for negative. So the nal total picture is
x
y
.
We can see that this is a circle as follows:
r = cos = r
2
= r cos ,
i.e., a point on r = cos must satisfy (in (x, y) coordinates)
x
2
+ y
2
= x
or
_
x
1
2
_
2
+ y
2
=
1
4
.
I.e., lie on a circle centered at (
1
2
1
2
.
We shall practice sketching more graphs with the examples that follow.
Let us now suppose we have a pie shaped region R as shown.
99
r
R

## Since the area of a circle is r

2
, and there are 2 radians all the way around, then
Area of R = (r
2
)

2
=
r
2
2
.
Consider now the next region as shown, with r, dr, d positive.
r
R

We nd
dA =
(d)(r + dr)
2
2

d
2
r
2
=
d
2
_
2rdr + (dr)
2

= d
_
r dr +
(dr)
2
2
_
.
This formula is exact, but in cases of interest to us we shall let dr 0. We can
neglect the term (dr)
2
/2 in comparison with dr and thus shall state:
dA = r dr d .
An easy way to remember this is to note
100
r
d
dA
dr
r d

## and treat dA as for a rectangle, dA = r d dr. Let us return to our problem.

Consider a region D, bounded by r = h(), r = g(), =
1
, =
2
as shown.

2
r = h ( )
r = g ( )

x
y
D
Our problem is to nd
__
D
f(x, y) dA.
We now decompose the region into circular caps of area dA = r dr d. These
replace dx dy. We then have
f(x, y) dA = f(r cos , r sin ) r dr d.
Now assemble the caps into spikes (these replace the strips).
101

2
r = h ( )
r = g ( )

x
y
D
The spike between and + d contributes:
_
r=f() (spike ends)
r=g() (spike starts)
f(r cos , r sin ) r dr d.
Finally, assembling all the spikes gives:
__
D
f(x, y) dA =
_
=
2
=
1
_
r=h()
r=g()
f(r cos , r sin ) r dr d.
We shall illustrate this below. Before, note that if the boundary of D is given by
= h(r), = g(r), r = r
1
, r = r
2
, then we assemble the caps the other way around
and get
__
D
f(x, y) dA =
_
r=r
2
r=r
1
_
=h(r)
=g(r)
f(r cos , r sin)r dr d.
102
= h ( r )
= g ( r )

r = r
1
r = r
2
x
y
One more remark: We found dA = r dr d under the assumption that r, dr,
d are all positive. Since r can be negative, this formula may not hold (if r < 0,
dr > 0, d > 0, then dA < 0!). We have several ways to deal with this problem and
some are as follows:
(1) If r = f() changes sign, break the problem into r > 0 and r < 0 regions.
(2) Where possible, use symmetry. This is the easiest.
(3) If r = f() is negative, rewrite the curve as r = g() with g positive.
(4) If r = f() is negative, then take both r and dr negative.
We illustrate the above four ways with the following example.
Example 3. Find the area enclosed by the curve r = cos .
Answer. As we saw in Example 2 this is the circle
_
x
1
2
_
2
+ y
2
=
1
4
,
1
4
.
103
x
y
We however ignore this and use the example to practice the four ways indi-
cated. Note that r = cos changes sign at = /2, so we split the problem by
considering rst between 0 and /2 and later between /2 and .
Now as varies between and /2 we get a semicircle.
= 0
= / 2
r = cos
r = 0
The area is
_
/2
=0
_
cos
r=0
r dr d =
_
/2
0
cos
2

2
d =
1
4
_
/2
0
[1 + cos(2)] d
=
1
4
_
+
sin(2)
2
_
/2
0
=

8
.
A not unexpected result. Since the gure is symmetric (its a circle, or from the
properties of the cosine), we use this fact, and obtain that the total area is 2
(/8) = /4 as we know. We now practice the other ways for the purposes of
104
illustration. Keep in mind that we are trying to calculate the area enclosed by
r = cos , r = 0, =

2
, = .
The next way (changing to positive r) gives as follows: A point P = (r, ) is
on r = cos for some between /2 and i P is also given by (r, +). I.e., if
we plot (cos , + ) with /2 < < , we will get the same curve.
P ( r , )

- r
+
y
x
Put = +. Then our curve is also given by r = cos() with 3/2 < < 2,
and now r is positive.
= 2
= 3 / 2
x
y
105
So we get
A =
_
2
=
3
2
_
cos()
r=0
r dr d =
1
2
_
2
3
2
cos
2
( ) d
=
1
2
_
2
3
2
1 + cos(2( ))
2
d =
1
2
_
2
3
2
1 + cos(2)
2
=
1
4
_
1 +
sin(2)
2
_
2
3
2
=
1
4
_
2
3
2
_
=

8
.
For the nal way: We now keep between /2 and . Suppose we increase
by d and decrease r (remember r is negative!!) by dr.
d
- r
dA
x
- dr
d
y
We then obtain in the fourth quadrant a dA given by
dA = (r d)(dr) = r d dr.
This looks the same as before, except now both r and dr are negative! We calculate
the area of a spike, from the biggest (least negative) r to the smallest (most negative)
rsince our dr are negativeand get
_
cos
r=0
r dr d.
106
So that, since d is positive, we get
A =
_

2
_ _
cos
r=0
r dr
_
d =
_

2
cos
2

2
d =
1
4
_

2
(1 + cos(2))d =

8
.
It is obvious that symmetry (when it exists) yields the easiest approach! We
now consider more examples.
Example 4. Evaluate
__
D
(x + 3y) dA if D is the circle centered at the origin of
Answer. Note that the boundary of D is given by x
2
+ y
2
= 4. This is the
motivation for changing to polar coordinates, since we can describe D in the much
simpler form r = 2!
x
y
We then have:
_
2
=0
_
2
r=0
(cos + 3 sin)r
2
dr d =
_
2
=0
(cos + 3 sin)
r
3
3

2
0
d
=
_
2
0
(cos + 3 sin )
8
3
d
=
8
3
[sin 3 cos

2
0
= 0.
107
Imagine we tried to do this problem using (x, y).
4 - x y =
2
y = - 4 - x
2
- 2 2
x
y
We would have:
_
2
x=2
_

4x
2
y=

4x
2
(x + 3y) dy dx.
This can be done, but the integrals are more complicated.
Example 5. Find
__
D
(x
2
+ y
2
) dA where D is the cardioid r = 1 + cos .
Answer. Since the boundary of D is given in polar coordinates, we use this system.
Can you imagine how complicated this would become if we tried to switch to (x, y)?
We rst need to sketch the cardioid.
= 0 r = 2
r
=

2
r = 1
r
= r = 0
108
r
=
3
2
r = 1
= 2 r = 2.
We only plot the graph for 0 2 since cos is periodic.
= / 2 , r = 1
= , r = 0

= 0 , r = 2
y
x
We now write the integral in polar coordinates:
x = r cos , y = r sin
and so
x
2
+ y
2
= r
2
.
We then have
(x
2
+ y
2
)dA = (r
2
)(r dr d)
and so
__
D
(x
2
+ y
2
) dA =
_
2
=0
_
1+cos
r=0
r
2
r dr d
109
=
_
2
0
r
4
4

1+cos
0
d =
1
4
_
2
0
(1 + cos )
4
d.
Note that
(1 + cos )
4
=
_
(1 + cos )
2
_
2
= (1 + 2 cos + cos
2
)
2
= 1 + 4 cos + 6 cos
2
+ 4 cos
3
+ cos
4

= 1 + 4 cos + 6
_
1 + cos 2
2
_
+ 4 cos
3
+
_
1 + cos 2
2
_
2
= 1 + 4 cos + 3(1 + cos 2) + 4 cos
3
+
1
4
[1 + 2 cos 2 + cos
2
2]
= 4
1
4
+ 4 cos + 3
1
2
cos 2 + 4 cos
3
+
1
4
cos
2
2
= 4
1
4
+ 4 cos + 3
1
2
cos 2 + 4 cos
3
+
1
4
_
1 + cos 4
2
_
= 4
3
8
+ 4 cos + 3
1
2
cos 2 + 4 cos
3
+
1
8
cos 4.
So, nally,
1
4
_
2
0
(1 + cos )
4
=
1
4
_
2
0
_
4
3
8
+ 4 cos + 3
1
2
cos 2 +
1
8
cos 4 + 4 cos
3

_
d
=
1
4
_
4
3
8
2 + 4
_
2
0
cos
3
d
_
=
1
4
_
4
3
8
2 + 4
_
2
0
cos
2
cos d
_
=
1
4
_
4
3
8
2 + 4
_
2
0
(1 sin
2
) cos d
. .
put u=sin, du=cos d
_
=
1
4
_
4
3
8
2 + 4
_
sin
sin
3

3
_

2
0
_
=
1
4
_
4
3
8
_
2.
110
Example 6. Find the area of one loop of r = cos 2.
= 0 r = 1
r
=

4
r = 0
r
=

2
r = 1
r
=
3
4
r = 0
r
= r = 1
r
=
5
4
r = 0
r
=
3
2
r = 1
=
7
4
r = 0
= 2 r = 1.
111
x
y
= / 4
= / 2
= , r = 1
= 3 / 4
= 3 / 2 , r = -1
= 0

,
r = - 1

Note that the graph has four equal and symmetric loops, and that r changes from
positive to negative and back again. What I feel is the easiest way is to calculate
the area for between 0 and /4 and multiply by 2. We get
Area of a loop = 2
_
/4
=0
_
cos 2
r=0
r dr d
=
_
/4
=0
_
cos
2
2

d
=
_
/4
0
1 + cos 4
2
d =
1
2
_
+
sin 4
4
_

/4
0
=
1
2
_

4
_
=

8
.
This seems the best way. To practice, let us calculate the area for between /4
and /2 and again multiply by 2.
112

= / 2
= / 4
- r
dr
Here r is negative and we choose dr < 0. Then
Area = 2
_
/2
/4
_
cos 2
0
r dr d =
_
/2
/4
cos
2
2 d
=
1
2
_
/2
/4
[1 + cos 4] d =
1
2
_
+
sin 4
4
_

/2
/4
=

8
as before.
Example 7. Find the volume outside the cone z =
_
x
2
+ y
2
and inside the
sphere x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
= 1.
Answer. Note that it is easiest to gure out just the volume common to the cone
and sphere, and subtract this from the volume of the sphere.
113
z = r
2 2
z + r = 1
We can set up the problem using (x, y) and then switch to (r, ) or start right away
with (r, ). Let us start with (r, ) directly. If we look down on our solid we see a
circle coming from the intersection of the sphere and cone, i.e.,
z
2
+ r
2
= 1, z = r
or 2r
2
= 1 or r = 1/

2.
2
r = 1 /
y
x
114
We now cut the disc into regions of size dA = rdr d and obtain that the volume of
a column over dA = (height)(cross-sectional area)
= (
_
1 r
2
. .
from the
sphere
r
..
from the
cone
)r dr d.
Hence
volume over a spike =
_
1/

2
r=0
(
_
1 r
2
r)r dr d
and volume V , common to sphere and cone, is:
V =
_
2
0
_
1/

2
r=0
(
_
1 r
2
r)r dr d
=
_
2
0
__ _
1/

2
r=0
_
1 r
2
r dr
_

_
1/

2
r=0
r
2
dr
_
d
=
_
2
0
_

1
3
(1 r
2
)
3
2

r
3
3
_
1/

2
r=0
d
=
_
2
0
_
1
3
_
_
1
_
_
1
1
2
_
3/2
+
1
2
3
2
__
d
=
_
2
0
_
1
3
__
1
2
2
3
2
_
d =
1
3
_
1
1

2
_
2.
Volume of sphere V =
4
3

2
3
_
1
1

2
_
=
4
3

_
1
2
+
1
2

2
_
.
Example 8. Find the volume bounded above by the cone z = r and below by
y = 0, y = x, x = 1 and the xy plane.
Answer. Since the altitude is z = r (simple), we do this problem using (r, ), even
though the boundary is given by y = f(x). We rewrite the boundary of the base
115
triangle as:
y = 0 = 0
y = x r sin = r cos tan = 1 =

4
x = 1 r cos = 1 r = sec .
r = sec
x
y
z
= / 4
= 0
y
x
So,
Volume over dA = altitude cross sectional area
= (r)(r dr)d.
And we get
V =
_
/4
=0
_
sec
r=0
r
2
dr d =
1
3
_
/4
0
sec
3
d.
Now to evaluate:
_
/4
0
sec
3
d =
_
/4
0
sec
2

. .
u

(sec
..
v
)d
(u = tan, v

= sec tan)
= tan sec

/4
0

_
/4
0
tan
2
sec d
= tan sec

/4
0

_
/4
0
(sec
2
1) sec d
116
= tan sec

/4
0

_
/4
0
sec
3
d +
_
/4
0
sec d,
or
2
_
/4
0
sec
3
d = tan sec

/4
0
+ ln | sec + tan|

/4
0
= tan

4
sec

4
+ ln

sec

4
+ tan

4

=
2

2
+ ln
_
2

2
+ 1
_
.
And, nally,
V =
1
3
_
1

2
+
1
2
ln
_
2

2
+ 1
__
.
Example 9. Find the volume under the plane 4x + 6y + z = 12 and above the
region in the (x, y) plane with boundary x
2
+ y
2
= x.
2
+y
2
= x (or (x
1
2
)
2
+y
2
=
1
4
) is a circle. We change it to
polar coordinates as follows: r
2
cos
2
+r
2
sin
2
= r cos or r = cos . Observe the
values of which are needed to trace the circle, and the fact that r goes negative!
x
= 0
= / 2
= / 2
y
We could split the problem up into regions where r is positive and where its neg-
117
ative, but the best way is probably to instead have range over /2 /2.
This also covers the circle. Next note that the plane does not cross the circle. In-
deed, in the circle x 1 and y 1/2 and so z = 12 4x 6y 12 4 6
1
2
> 0.
If the plane crossed, we would have to split the problem, since the altitude would
sometimes be z and sometime z. So we get
(12 4x 6y)dA = (12 4r cos 6r sin )r d d
and
Volume =
_
/2
=/2
_
cos
r=0
(12 4r cos 6r sin )r dr d
=
_
/2
/2
_
6r
2

4r
3
3
cos 2r
3
sin
_

cos
0
d
=
_
/2
/2
_
6 cos
2

4
3
cos
4
2 cos
3
sin
_
d.
Now
_
/2
/2
6 cos
2
d =
_
/2
/2
3(1 + cos 2)d = 3
_
+
sin 2
2
_

/2
/2
= 3
_
/2
/2

4
3
cos
4
d =
_
/2
/2
_

4
3
__
1 + cos 2
2
_
2
d
=
_
/2
/2
_

1
3
_
[1 + 2 cos 2 + cos
2
2] d
=
_
/2
/2
_

1
3
__
1 + 2 cos 2 +
1
2
(1 + cos 4)
_
d
=
1
3
_
+ sin 2 +
1
2
_
+
sin 4
4
__
/2
/2
=
1
3

3
2
=

2
.
118
Finally,
_
/2
/2
2 cos
3
sin d =
cos
4

/2
/2
= 0.
(u = cos , du = sin d)
So
V = 3

2
=
5
2
.
Example 10. Convert to polar coordinates and evaluate
_
a
a
_

a
2
x
2
0
(x
2
+ y
2
)
1/2
dy dx.
Answer. We begin by sketching the region D. Note that x varies from a to a, and
for a given x between a and a, y goes from 0 to

a
2
x
2
. But if y =

a
2
x
2
,
then y
2
+ x
2
= a
2
(i.e., on the circle) and y 0. So that D is:
x + y = a
2 2 2
D
x
y
- a a
Now
(x
2
+ y
2
)
1/2
= r and x
2
+ y
2
= a
2
r = a.
119
So we get
_
=
=0
_
a
r=0
(r)(r dr d) =
_

0
a
3
3
d =
a
3
3
.
120
Further Exercises:
1) Evaluate
__
A
y
2
dA if A is the area enclosed by r = 4(1 cos ).
2) Change to polar coordinates and evaluate
_
2
2
_

4y
2

4y
2
e
(x
2
+y
2
)
dx dy.
3) Find the total area enclosed by r
2
= 2 cos(2).
4) Find by means of polar coordinates the area in the circular cap bounded above
by x
2
+ y
2
= 1 and below by y = 1/

2.
5) Find the area of the region common to the cardioid r = 1 + cos and the
circle r = sin .
6) Change to polar coordinates and evaluate
_
1
z=0
_

1z
2
y=0
sin(y
2
+ z
2
) dy dz.
7) Calculate the area bounded by the curves:
= 0, r =

4
, r =

2
, =
_
r
3
8
_
2
.
8) Evaluate
__
B
_
x
2
+ y
2
dx dy by means of polar coordinates if B is the region
bounded by the circle r = sin .
9) Change to (x, y) coordinates and evaluate:
_
2
=

4
_
csc
r=0
r
5
cos
2
sin
2
dr d.
121
10) Evaluate
__
D
(1+x
2
+y
2
)
10
dx dy where D is the region bounded by the curves
y = 0, y = x, x
2
+ y
2
= 1.
11) Evaluate
__
D
_
x
2
+ y
2
dy dx where D is the triangle with vertices (0, 0),
(1, 0), (1, 1).
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