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II.

d Applications of Double Integrals

We have already considered applications of double integrals, in fact we actually
started with an application: nding the mass of a plate of variable density. We have
also found volumes of solids.
We consider here further applications. These are based on formulas which we
rst obtain from localized cases, say for a particle. We then extend them to two
dimensional regions, by summing and taking limits (i.e., integrating) just like we
did before.
We recall the following: Suppose we have a particle of mass m positioned at
(x
0
, y
0
). Then
x
0
y
0
x
0
y
0
y
x
( )
,
m
M
x
= 1st moment with respect to the x-axis = my
0
,
M
y
= 1st moment with respect to the y-axis = mx
0
,
I
x
= 2nd moment (moment of inertia) with respect to the x-axis = my
2
0
,
I
y
= 2nd moment (moment of inertia) with respect to the y-axis = mx
2
0
,
I
0
= 2nd moment (moment of inertia) about the origin (polar moment) = m(x
2
0
+ y
2
0
).
Now let us suppose we are given a at plate D with density (= mass/area)= f(x, y).
We wish to calculate its moments, center of mass, radius of gyration, etc.
123
dA
D
We decompose the region D into subregions of area dA as shown. We then
nd the mass of the subregion is
f(x, y) dA
and thusas beforethe total mass M of D is
M =
__
D
f(x, y) dA.
In the same way, for the subregion,
M
x
= mass lever arm = yf(x, y) dA
and thus the total M
x
for D is obtained by summing over the subregions and taking
the limit, i.e., integrating. We nd
M
x
=
__
D
yf(x, y) dA.
In the same way,
M
y
=
__
D
xf(x, y) dA
I
x
=
__
D
y
2
f(x, y) dA
I
y
=
__
D
x
2
f(x, y) dA.
124
Then the center of mass of D is (x, y), with x = M
y
/M, y = M
x
of gyration is (x, y), with (x)
2
= I
y
/M, (y)
2
= I
x
/M.
Important Remarks: (1) The integrals should be evaluated in the simplest way
(depending on the boundary of D and/or the form of f(x, y)). I.e., either as dx dy
or as dy dx or in polar coordinates.
(2) If a plate D has constant density, then (x, y) are also the coordinates of the
centroid. Note that in this case f cancels out from the calculations of (x, y). If D is
symmetric, at least one of the coordinates of the centroid can often be guessed at.
Remember that if f is variable, the symmetry of D may not have any connections
with the position of the center of mass! Check that (x, y) calculated is physically
reasonable by noticing its position relative to D. The same check applies for the
centroid coordinates!
(3) Similar principles apply to other physical problems. Suppose, for example,
that the plate D is charged, and f(x, y) (= charge/area) now represents the charge
density. The total charge in a subregion dA is f(x, y) dA and then the total charge
Q on D is given by
Q =
__
D
f(x, y) dA.
We now pass to examples.
Example 1. Calculate the coordinates of the center of mass of the disc D bounded
by the circle x
2
+ y
2
= 2y, if the density is f(x, y) = 1 + y.
125
2
+ (y 1)
2
= 1, of center (0, 1) and radius 1. The mass
then is
M =
__
D
(1 + y) dA =
_
2
y=0
_
+

1(y1)
2
x=

1(y1)
2
(1 + y) dx dy
=
_
2
0
(1 + y) 2
_
1 (y 1)
2
dy.
D
y
x
We could continue, but since the boundary is a circle and we would need trigono-
metric substitutions in the integrals, we switch to polar coordinates.
=
= 0
= / 2
r = 2 sin
D
We then have
r
2
= 2r sin or r = 2 sin
126
and thus
M =
__
D
(1 + y) dA =
_

=0
_
2 sin
r=0
(1 + r sin )r dr d.
This is much easier, and we get
M =
_

0
_
r
2
2
+
r
3
3
sin
_
2 sin
r=0
d
=
_

0
_
4 sin
2

2
+
8
3
sin
4

_
d
=
_

0
[1 cos 2] +
2
3
[1 cos 2]
2
d
=
_

0
_
(1 cos 2) +
2
3
(1 2 cos 2 + cos
2
2)
_
d
=
_

0
_
(1 cos 2) +
2
3
_
1 2 cos 2 +
1
2
+
cos 4
2
__
d
=
_
1 +
2
3

3
2
_
= 2.
In the same way,
M
x
=
__
D
y(1 + y) dA =
_

0
_
2 sin
0
(r sin )(1 + r sin )r dr d
=
_

0
_
2 sin
0
[r
2
sin + r
3
sin
2
] dr d
=
_

0
_
r
3
3
sin +
r
4
4
sin
2

_
2 sin
0
d
=
_

0
_
8
3
sin
4
+ 4 sin
6

_
d
=
_

0
_
8
3
_
1 cos 2
2
_
2
+ 4
_
1 cos 2
2
_
3
_
d
=
_

0
_
2
3
(1 2 cos 2 + cos
2
2) +
1
2
(1 3 cos 2 + 3 cos
2
2 cos
3
2)
_
d.
127
We note
_

0
cos 2 d =
sin 2
2

0
= 0
_

0
cos
2
2 d =
_

0
1 + cos 2
2
d =

2
_

0
cos
3
2 d =
_

0
(1 sin
2
2) cos 2 d
=
sin 2
2

sin
3
2
6

0
= 0
and so
M
x
=
_

0
__
2
3
+
1
2
_
+
_
2
3
+
3
2
_
cos
2
2
_
d
=
7
6
+
13
6

2
=
27
12
,
while
M
y
=
__
D
x(1 + y) dA =
_

0
_
2 sin
0
(r cos )(1 + r sin ) r dr d
=
_

0
cos
_
8 sin
3

3
+ 4 sin
5

_
d
=
2
3
sin
4
+
4
6
sin
6

0
= 0.
And so
x =
M
y
M
= 0, y =
M
x
M
=
27
12
1
2
=
27
24
.
128
To conclude, we see where this point is in the circle.
y
x
Since the density does not depend on x and increases with y, the location of x, y
seems reasonable. So it may be wrong, but its not silly.
Example 2. Find the coordinates of the center of mass of a lamina (i.e., at plate)
in the shape of the triangle with vertices (0, 0), (0, 1), (1, 0), if the density at any
point is directly proportional to the square of the distance from the point to the
origin.
Answer. Let a point (x, y) be given. Then the density (x, y) is given by
(x, y) = k[(x 0)
2
+ (y 0)
2
] = k(x
2
+ y
2
)
where k = constant of proportionality.
y
x
y = 1 - x
( 0 , 0 ) ( 1 , 0 )
( 0 , 1 )
129
Again (as before) we nd
M =
_
1
x=0
_
1x
y=0
k(x
2
+ y
2
) dy dx =
_
1
x=0
k
_
x
2
y +
y
3
3
_
1x
0
dx
= k
_
1
0
_
x
2
(1 x) +
(1 x)
3
3
_
dx = k
_
x
3
3

x
4
4

(1 x)
4
4 3
_
1
0
= k
__
1
3

1
4
_

1
12
__
= k
_
2
12
_
=
k
6
,
M
x
=
_
1
0
_
1x
0
ky(x
2
+ y
2
) dy dx
=
_
1
0
k
_
x
2
y
2
2
+
y
4
4
_
1x
0
dx =
_
1
0
k
_
x
2
(1 x)
2
2
+
(1 x)
4
4
_
dx
=
_
1
0
k
_
x
2
2x
3
+ x
4
2
+
(1 x)
4
4
_
dx =
k
2
_
1
3

1
2
+
1
5
_
+
k
4

1
5
=
k
2
_
1
3

1
2
+
1
5
+
1
10
_
=
k 4
60
,
M
y
=
_
1
0
_
1x
0
kx(x
2
+ y
2
) dy dx =
_
1
0
_
1x
0
k(x
3
+ xy
2
) dy dx
=
_
1
0
k
_
x
3
(1 x) +
x(1 x)
3
3
_
dx = k
_
1
0
_
x
3
x
4
+
x 3x
2
+ 3x
3
x
4
3
_
dx
= k
_
1
4

1
5
+
1
3
_
1
2
1 +
3
4

1
5
__
= k
_
1
20
+
1
3
_
1
20
__
= k
4
60
.
So, nally,
x =
M
y
M
=
k4
60

6
k
=
2
5
y =
M
x
M
=
k4
60

6
k
=
2
5
.
Again, x, y appear reasonable: the problem is completely symmetric in x and y,
and we got x = y. Furthermore, (
2
5
,
2
5
) is inside the the plate.
Example 3. Find the moments of inertia I
x
, I
y
, I
0
for the lamina D bounded by
130
x = y
2
and x = 1, if the density (x, y) = 1.
y
x = 1
x = y
2
x
We have
M =
_
1
y=1
_
1
x=y
2
1 dx dy =
_
1
1
(1 y
2
) dy =
_
y
y
3
3
_
1
1
=
4
3
I
x
=
_
1
1
_
1
y
2
y
2
dx dy =
_
1
1
y
2
(1 y
2
)dy
=
y
3
3

y
5
5

1
1
=
_
1
3

1
5
_

1
3
+
1
5
_
=
4
15
I
y
=
_
1
1
_
1
y
2
x
2
dx dy =
_
1
1
_
x
3
3

1
y
2
_
dy =
1
3
_
1
1
(1 y
6
) dy
=
1
3
_
y
y
7
7
_
1
1
=
1
3
__
1
1
7
_

_
1 +
1
7
__
=
1
3
_
6
7
_
2 =
4
7
I
0
= I
x
+ I
y
=
4
15
+
4
7
=
88
105
.
So
x =
_
I
y
M
=
_
4
7

3
4
=
_
3
7
y =
_
I
x
M
=
_
4
15

3
4
=
_
3
15
.
131
Further Exercises:
1) Find the center of mass of the plate bounded by y = x, x = 0, x
2
+ y
2
= 1 if
the density is proportional to the distance from the orgin.
2) Find the coordinates of the radius of gyration for the plate of example 1.
3) Find the coordinates of the center of mass of the plate bounded by the lines
x = 1, x = 1, y = 1, y = 1 if the density is given by 1 if y 0, by 2 if
y 0.
4) Find the center of mass of the region bounded by y+x
2
2x = 0 and y+2x = 0
if the density is x + 1.
5) A at plate is bounded by the circle x
2
+y
2
= 4 and the square x = 1, x = 1,
y = 1, y = 1. Calculate the mass if the density if k (a constant).
6) Calculate the mass of a plate whose boundary is the ellipse x
2
+ 4y
2
= 1 if
the density is k (a constant).
7) Find the radius of gyration for the plate of example 6.
8) Calculate the coordinates of the centroid of the region bounded by y = x,
y = (x 2)/2, x = 0, y = 2 x.
9) Find the moment of inertia of a plate, whose boundary is the circle x
2
+y
2
= 1,
about the line y = 1 if the density is constant.
10) Find the mass of the plate bounded by x
2
+ y
2
= 1 and x
2
+ y
2
= 2y if the
density is (x, y) =
_
x
2
+ y
2
.
132