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lculus-Green's Theorem

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c Greens Theorem

As mentioned repeatedly, if F is not a gradient eld then

_

C

F dr must be

worked out from rst principles by parameterizing the path, etc. If however C is a

simple closed path in the (x, y) plane, we can evaluate

_

C

F dr in terms of a double

integral by means of Greens Theorem.

We rst note the following:

A path C is a simple closed path if and only if the starting point

= the end point and C does not intersect itself otherwise.

For example,

(a) Simple closed path:

C

(b) Not a simple closed path:

(c) Not a simple closed path:

(d) the circle:

_

x = cos

y = sin

0 2

is a simple closed path, but the circle:

_

x = cos

y = sin

0 4

185

is not.

We also need the following observation.

Remark.

_

x=b

x=a

_ _

y=h(x)

y=g(x)

f(x, y)

y

dy

_

dx =

_

x=b

x=a

_

f(x, y)

y=h(x)

y=g(x)

_

dx

=

_

b

x=a

{f(x, h(x)) f(x, g(x))} dx.

We can now state the Theorem.

Greens Theorem. Let C be a simple closed path and F = M i + N j, as found

in practice. Let D = region bounded by C as shown, and suppose M/y, N/x

exist on C and inside D.

D

C

Then

_

C

F dr =

__

D

_

N

x

M

y

_

dx dy

where

_

C

means C is traversed counterclockwise (also termed: positively oriented).

Proof: We sketch a proof only for a special C, D. Suppose C, D are as shown.

186

y = g (x)

x = a

y = h (x)

x = b

C

2

C

1

x

y

Note that C = C

1

+ C

2

. Now on C

1

we have y = g(x) for a x b. This can be

easily parametrized as follows:

C

1

=

_

x = x

y = g(x)

a x b.

Here we denote t by x for convenience in what follows. In the same way, C

2

traversed backwards, i.e., C

2

is given by:

C

2

=

_

x = x

y = h(x)

a x b.

So

_

C

M dx =

_

C

1

M dx +

_

C

2

M dx

=

_

C

1

M dx

_

C

2

M dx

=

_

b

x=a

[M(x, g(x)) M(x, h(x))] dx

=

_

b

x=a

[M(x, h(x)) M(x, g(x))] dx.

By our Remark, this is

=

_

b

x=a

_ _

g(x)

y=h(x)

M

y

(x, y) dy

_

dx

187

=

__

D

_

M

y

_

dA.

In the same way, we can show

_

C

N dy =

__

D

N

x

dA

and the result.

Before giving examples, we look at some consequences.

(1) Note that if N/x M/y, then F is a gradient eld, and we just get

the old result:

_

C

F dr = 0. Otherwise, the theorem gives another way

to calculate

_

C

F dr (by a double integral) and another way to calculate

__

D

{N/x M/y} (by a path integral). Often there is no advantage to

be had from this, but sometimes there is. See the examples.

(2) Note

_

C

F dr =

__

D

_

N

x

M

y

_

dx dy.

(3) Note also this: We know area of D =

__

D

1 dA. Suppose we choose M, N

so that N/x M/y = 1. Clearly there are many choices, so to keept it

simple, we pick M = 0 and N = x. Then

Area =

__

D

1 dA =

_

C

x dy.

So we get the area as a path integral. In the same way, if density is constant,

M

x

=

__

D

y dA.

Now choose M, N so that

N

x

M

y

y.

Again simple choices are N = 0, M = y

2

/2, but M 0 and N = xy would

188

also work. We then get

M

x

=

_

y

2

2

dx.

M

y

, I

x

, I

y

and even M (if the density is simple) can be found by path integrals

in this way.

(4) Suppose D is a region with holes H

1

, H

2

as shown.

D

H

H

2

1

We obtain a Greens Theorem for this case as follows: Cut the region as shown, so

that the holes are removed.

C

1

C

4

C

3

C

5

C

6

2

C

C

7

D

Then

__

D

_

N

x

M

y

_

dx dy =

_

C

1

F dr +

_

C

2

F dr +

_

C

3

F dr

+

_

C

4

F dr +

_

C

5

F dr +

_

C

6

F dr +

_

C

7

F dr.

Note that we have

_

C

2

and

_

C

3

since C

2

, C

3

are traversed clockwise. Furthermore,

189

C

5

= C

6

, C

4

= C

7

and so these integrals cancel. We conclude:

__

D

_

N

x

M

y

_

dx dy =

_

C

1

F dr

_

C

2

F dr

_

C

3

F dr.

We now pass to examples.

Example 1. Verify Greens Theorem for

F = y i + x j

if C is the path consisting of the semicircle x

2

+y

2

= 1, y 0 and the straight line

from (1, 0) to (0, 1).

Answer. To verify Greens Theorem means to calculate both

_

C

Fdr and

__

D

{N/x

M/y} dA and show they are identical. In this case,

D

C

x

y

-1 1

__

D

_

N

x

M

y

_

dA =

__

D

[1 (1)] dA = 2 area of D = ,

while, we decompose C into C

1

and C

2

and parametrize each. Be careful to traverse

these in the right direction.

C

C

1

2

190

Now

C

1

=

_

x = 1 + 2t, 0 t 1

y = 0

C

2

=

_

x = cos

y = sin

0 .

Then

_

C

1

F dr =

_

1

t=0

_

M

dx

dt

+ N

dy

dt

_

dt

=

_

1

t=0

[1 + 2t] 2 dt = 2 + 2 = 0,

_

C

2

F dr =

_

=0

[(sin)(sin) + (cos )(cos )] d =

_

0

1 d = .

So

_

F dr = 0 + = =

__

D

_

N

x

M

y

_

dA.

Example 2. Use Greens Theorem to evaluate

_

C

F dr if

F = [e

x

2

+ tan

1

x

3

+ y

2

] i + [sin

5

(y

3

) + y

100

x] j

and D is the region determined by the curves x = y

2

, y = x.

Answer. Here we must evaluate

_

C

F dr by actually working out

__

D

{N/x

M/y} dx dy. Note that here M, N are real dogs, but N/xM/y = 12y

which is simple.

191

x = y

2

y = x

x

y

D

So

_

C

F dr =

_

1

y=0

_

x=y

x=y

2

(1 2y) dx dy =

_

1

y=0

(1 + 2y)(y y

2

) dy

=

_

1

y=0

(y + y

2

2y

3

) dy =

_

1

2

+

1

3

1

2

_

=

1

3

.

Example 3. Use Greens Theorem to evaluate the area of the region bounded by

the cardioid r = 1 + sin .

Answer. As before, we need to choose M, N so that N/x M/y = 1. So

we choose N = x and M = 0. Then Area =

_

C

x dy. We need to parametrize

r = 1 + sin .

r = 1 + sin

Now

x = r cos = (1 + sin ) cos

y = r sin = (1 + sin ) sin

0 2.

192

Thus

A =

_

C

x dy =

_

2

0

[(1 + sin ) cos ][cos + 2 sin cos ] d

=

_

2

0

[1 + sin ][1 + 2 sin ](cos

2

) d

=

_

2

0

[1 + 3 sin + 2 sin

2

](cos

2

) d

=

_

2

0

(cos

2

) d +

_

2

0

3 sin cos

2

d + 2

_

2

0

sin

2

cos

2

d.

Now

_

2

0

cos

2

d =

1

2

_

2

0

[1 + cos 2] d =

_

2

0

sin cos

2

d =

_

cos

3

3

_

2

0

= 0

_

2

0

sin

2

cos

2

d =

_

2

0

(1 cos 2)(1 + cos 2)

4

d

=

1

4

_

2

0

(1 cos

2

2) d =

1

4

_

2

0

_

1

(1 + cos 4)

2

_

d

=

1

4

1

2

2 =

4

.

And so

A = + 2

_

4

_

=

3

2

.

Just to check (by Double Integrals):

A =

_

2

=0

_

1+sin

r=0

r dr d

=

1

2

_

2

0

(1 + sin )

2

d =

1

2

_

2

0

[1 + 2 sin + sin

2

] d

=

1

2

_

2

0

_

1 + 2 sin +

1 cos 2

2

_

d =

1

2

3

2

2 =

3

2

.

193

Example 4. Use Greens Theorem to calculate I

x

for the region D between the

circles x

2

+ y

2

= 1, x

2

+ y

2

= 4 if the density is constant.

Answer. Since I

x

=

__

D

y

2

dA, we need M, N such that N/x M/y = y

2

.

So we choose N = 0, M = y

3

/3. Next, D has a hole,

D

C

C

x

y

2

1

so

__

D

y

2

dA =

_

C

1

_

y

3

3

_

dx

_

C

2

_

y

3

3

_

dx.

Now

C

1

=

_

x = 2 cos

y = 2 sin

0 2,

_

C

1

_

y

3

3

_

dx =

1

3

_

2

0

(8 sin

3

)(2 sin) d =

16

3

_

2

0

_

1 cos 2

2

_

2

d

=

4

3

_

2

0

_

1 2 cos 2 +

1 + cos 4

2

_

d =

4

3

3

2

2 = 4,

while

C

2

=

_

x = cos

y = sin

0 2,

_

C

2

y

3

3

dx =

1

3

_

2

0

(sin

3

)(sin) d =

1

3

_

2

0

sin

4

d.

194

We evaluated

_

2

0

sin

4

d in the previous step, and got

_

2

0

sin

4

d =

4 3

8 2

=

3

4

,

and so

I

x

= 4

4

=

15

4

.

Again, to practice we check I

x

by Double Integrals. We have

r = 2

r = 1

I

x

=

__

D

y

2

dA =

_

2

=0

_

2

r=1

(r

2

sin

2

) r dr d

=

_

2

=0

sin

2

(2

4

1)

4

d

=

15

4

_

2

0

1 cos 2

2

d =

15

4

.

195

Further Exercises:

Verify Greens Theorem if:

1) F = yi xj, R is the circle of radius 3 centered at (0, 0) and C is its boundary.

2) F = yi xj, R is the disc between the circles of radius 1 and 3 and C is its

boundary.

Find the area of a region R by means of path integrals if:

3) R is the ellipse

x

2

4

+ y

2

= 1.

4) R is the region bounded by r = 1 sin .

5) R is the region in the upper 1/2 plane bounded by y = 1 x

2

, x

2

+ y

2

= 4,

y = 0.

6) R is the region bounded by r = 2 + cos and r = 1.

Evaluate the following path integrals.

7) if

_

C

(e

x

2

sinx y)dx + (tan

1

y + x)dy if C is the path which bounds the

region limited below by the parabola y = x

2

1 and above by the parabola

y = 1 x

2

.

8)

_

C

(sin

100

(x

2

) + 3)dx + x

2

dy if C is the boundary of the square with vertices

(0, 0), (1, 0), (1, 1), (0, 1).

9)

_

C

(sin

1

(x

2

) + x

2

y)dx + (cos

1

(y

2

) + (x

3

/3) + y)dy if C is the boundary of

the triangle with vertices (0, 0), (1, 1), (2, 4).

10) Employ a path integral to nd the x coordinate of the center of mass of the

region within x

2

+ y

2

= 2y and x

2

+ y

2

= 4 if the density is (x, y) = 4 + x.

196

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