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# III.

c Greens Theorem
As mentioned repeatedly, if F is not a gradient eld then
_
C
F dr must be
worked out from rst principles by parameterizing the path, etc. If however C is a
simple closed path in the (x, y) plane, we can evaluate
_
C
F dr in terms of a double
integral by means of Greens Theorem.
We rst note the following:
A path C is a simple closed path if and only if the starting point
= the end point and C does not intersect itself otherwise.
For example,
(a) Simple closed path:
C
(b) Not a simple closed path:
(c) Not a simple closed path:
(d) the circle:
_
x = cos
y = sin
0 2
is a simple closed path, but the circle:
_
x = cos
y = sin
0 4
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is not.
We also need the following observation.
Remark.
_
x=b
x=a
_ _
y=h(x)
y=g(x)
f(x, y)
y
dy
_
dx =
_
x=b
x=a
_
f(x, y)

y=h(x)
y=g(x)
_
dx
=
_
b
x=a
{f(x, h(x)) f(x, g(x))} dx.
We can now state the Theorem.
Greens Theorem. Let C be a simple closed path and F = M i + N j, as found
in practice. Let D = region bounded by C as shown, and suppose M/y, N/x
exist on C and inside D.
D
C
Then
_

C
F dr =
__
D
_
N
x

M
y
_
dx dy
where
_

C
means C is traversed counterclockwise (also termed: positively oriented).
Proof: We sketch a proof only for a special C, D. Suppose C, D are as shown.
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y = g (x)
x = a
y = h (x)
x = b
C
2
C
1
x
y
Note that C = C
1
+ C
2
. Now on C
1
we have y = g(x) for a x b. This can be
easily parametrized as follows:
C
1
=
_
x = x
y = g(x)
a x b.
Here we denote t by x for convenience in what follows. In the same way, C
2
traversed backwards, i.e., C
2
is given by:
C
2
=
_
x = x
y = h(x)
a x b.
So
_

C
M dx =
_
C
1
M dx +
_
C
2
M dx
=
_
C
1
M dx
_
C
2
M dx
=
_
b
x=a
[M(x, g(x)) M(x, h(x))] dx
=
_
b
x=a
[M(x, h(x)) M(x, g(x))] dx.
By our Remark, this is
=
_
b
x=a
_ _
g(x)
y=h(x)
M
y
(x, y) dy
_
dx
187
=
__
D
_
M
y
_
dA.
In the same way, we can show
_

C
N dy =
__
D
N
x
dA
and the result.
Before giving examples, we look at some consequences.
(1) Note that if N/x M/y, then F is a gradient eld, and we just get
the old result:
_

C
F dr = 0. Otherwise, the theorem gives another way
to calculate
_

C
F dr (by a double integral) and another way to calculate
__
D
{N/x M/y} (by a path integral). Often there is no advantage to
be had from this, but sometimes there is. See the examples.
(2) Note
_

C
F dr =
__
D
_
N
x

M
y
_
dx dy.
(3) Note also this: We know area of D =
__
D
1 dA. Suppose we choose M, N
so that N/x M/y = 1. Clearly there are many choices, so to keept it
simple, we pick M = 0 and N = x. Then
Area =
__
D
1 dA =
_

C
x dy.
So we get the area as a path integral. In the same way, if density is constant,
M
x
=
__
D
y dA.
Now choose M, N so that
N
x

M
y
y.
Again simple choices are N = 0, M = y
2
/2, but M 0 and N = xy would
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also work. We then get
M
x
=
_

y
2
2
dx.
M
y
, I
x
, I
y
and even M (if the density is simple) can be found by path integrals
in this way.
(4) Suppose D is a region with holes H
1
, H
2
as shown.
D
H
H
2
1
We obtain a Greens Theorem for this case as follows: Cut the region as shown, so
that the holes are removed.
C
1
C
4
C
3
C
5
C
6
2
C
C
7
D
Then
__
D
_
N
x

M
y
_
dx dy =
_

C
1
F dr +
_

C
2
F dr +
_

C
3
F dr
+
_
C
4
F dr +
_
C
5
F dr +
_
C
6
F dr +
_
C
7
F dr.
Note that we have
_
C
2
and
_
C
3
since C
2
, C
3
are traversed clockwise. Furthermore,
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C
5
= C
6
, C
4
= C
7
and so these integrals cancel. We conclude:
__
D
_
N
x

M
y
_
dx dy =
_

C
1
F dr
_

C
2
F dr
_

C
3
F dr.
We now pass to examples.
Example 1. Verify Greens Theorem for
F = y i + x j
if C is the path consisting of the semicircle x
2
+y
2
= 1, y 0 and the straight line
from (1, 0) to (0, 1).
Answer. To verify Greens Theorem means to calculate both
_

C
Fdr and
__
D
{N/x
M/y} dA and show they are identical. In this case,
D
C
x
y
-1 1
__
D
_
N
x

M
y
_
dA =
__
D
[1 (1)] dA = 2 area of D = ,
while, we decompose C into C
1
and C
2
and parametrize each. Be careful to traverse
these in the right direction.
C
C
1
2
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Now
C
1
=
_
x = 1 + 2t, 0 t 1
y = 0
C
2
=
_
x = cos
y = sin
0 .
Then
_
C
1
F dr =
_
1
t=0
_
M
dx
dt
+ N
dy
dt
_
dt
=
_
1
t=0
[1 + 2t] 2 dt = 2 + 2 = 0,
_
C
2
F dr =
_

=0
[(sin)(sin) + (cos )(cos )] d =
_

0
1 d = .
So
_
F dr = 0 + = =
__
D
_
N
x

M
y
_
dA.
Example 2. Use Greens Theorem to evaluate
_

C
F dr if
F = [e
x
2
+ tan
1
x
3
+ y
2
] i + [sin
5
(y
3
) + y
100
x] j
and D is the region determined by the curves x = y
2
, y = x.
Answer. Here we must evaluate
_

C
F dr by actually working out
__
D
{N/x
M/y} dx dy. Note that here M, N are real dogs, but N/xM/y = 12y
which is simple.
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x = y
2
y = x
x
y
D
So
_
C
F dr =
_
1
y=0
_
x=y
x=y
2
(1 2y) dx dy =
_
1
y=0
(1 + 2y)(y y
2
) dy
=
_
1
y=0
(y + y
2
2y
3
) dy =
_
1
2
+
1
3

1
2
_
=
1
3
.
Example 3. Use Greens Theorem to evaluate the area of the region bounded by
the cardioid r = 1 + sin .
Answer. As before, we need to choose M, N so that N/x M/y = 1. So
we choose N = x and M = 0. Then Area =
_

C
x dy. We need to parametrize
r = 1 + sin .
r = 1 + sin
Now
x = r cos = (1 + sin ) cos
y = r sin = (1 + sin ) sin
0 2.
192
Thus
A =
_

C
x dy =
_
2
0
[(1 + sin ) cos ][cos + 2 sin cos ] d
=
_
2
0
[1 + sin ][1 + 2 sin ](cos
2
) d
=
_
2
0
[1 + 3 sin + 2 sin
2
](cos
2
) d
=
_
2
0
(cos
2
) d +
_
2
0
3 sin cos
2
d + 2
_
2
0
sin
2
cos
2
d.
Now
_
2
0
cos
2
d =
1
2
_
2
0
[1 + cos 2] d =
_
2
0
sin cos
2
d =
_

cos
3

3
_
2
0
= 0
_
2
0
sin
2
cos
2
d =
_
2
0
(1 cos 2)(1 + cos 2)
4
d
=
1
4
_
2
0
(1 cos
2
2) d =
1
4
_
2
0
_
1
(1 + cos 4)
2
_
d
=
1
4

1
2
2 =

4
.
And so
A = + 2
_

4
_
=
3
2
.
Just to check (by Double Integrals):
A =
_
2
=0
_
1+sin
r=0
r dr d
=
1
2
_
2
0
(1 + sin )
2
d =
1
2
_
2
0
[1 + 2 sin + sin
2
] d
=
1
2
_
2
0
_
1 + 2 sin +
1 cos 2
2
_
d =
1
2

3
2
2 =
3
2
.
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Example 4. Use Greens Theorem to calculate I
x
for the region D between the
circles x
2
+ y
2
= 1, x
2
+ y
2
= 4 if the density is constant.
Answer. Since I
x
=
__
D
y
2
dA, we need M, N such that N/x M/y = y
2
.
So we choose N = 0, M = y
3
/3. Next, D has a hole,
D
C
C
x
y
2
1
so
__
D
y
2
dA =
_

C
1
_

y
3
3
_
dx
_

C
2
_

y
3
3
_
dx.
Now
C
1
=
_
x = 2 cos
y = 2 sin
0 2,
_

C
1
_

y
3
3
_
dx =
1
3
_
2
0
(8 sin
3
)(2 sin) d =
16
3
_
2
0
_
1 cos 2
2
_
2
d
=
4
3
_
2
0
_
1 2 cos 2 +
1 + cos 4
2
_
d =
4
3

3
2
2 = 4,
while
C
2
=
_
x = cos
y = sin
0 2,
_

C
2
y
3
3
dx =
1
3
_
2
0
(sin
3
)(sin) d =
1
3
_
2
0
sin
4
d.
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We evaluated
_
2
0
sin
4
d in the previous step, and got
_
2
0
sin
4
d =
4 3
8 2
=
3
4
,
and so
I
x
= 4

4
=
15
4
.
Again, to practice we check I
x
by Double Integrals. We have
r = 2
r = 1
I
x
=
__
D
y
2
dA =
_
2
=0
_
2
r=1
(r
2
sin
2
) r dr d
=
_
2
=0
sin
2

(2
4
1)
4
d
=
15
4
_
2
0
1 cos 2
2
d =
15
4
.
195
Further Exercises:
Verify Greens Theorem if:
1) F = yi xj, R is the circle of radius 3 centered at (0, 0) and C is its boundary.
2) F = yi xj, R is the disc between the circles of radius 1 and 3 and C is its
boundary.
Find the area of a region R by means of path integrals if:
3) R is the ellipse
x
2
4
+ y
2
= 1.
4) R is the region bounded by r = 1 sin .
5) R is the region in the upper 1/2 plane bounded by y = 1 x
2
, x
2
+ y
2
= 4,
y = 0.
6) R is the region bounded by r = 2 + cos and r = 1.
Evaluate the following path integrals.
7) if
_

C
(e
x
2
sinx y)dx + (tan
1
y + x)dy if C is the path which bounds the
region limited below by the parabola y = x
2
1 and above by the parabola
y = 1 x
2
.
8)
_

C
(sin
100
(x
2
) + 3)dx + x
2
dy if C is the boundary of the square with vertices
(0, 0), (1, 0), (1, 1), (0, 1).
9)
_

C
(sin
1
(x
2
) + x
2
y)dx + (cos
1
(y
2
) + (x
3
/3) + y)dy if C is the boundary of
the triangle with vertices (0, 0), (1, 1), (2, 4).
10) Employ a path integral to nd the x coordinate of the center of mass of the
region within x
2
+ y
2
= 2y and x
2
+ y
2
= 4 if the density is (x, y) = 4 + x.
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