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III.

e Surface Integrals
We once again consider two prototype problems. We mention the rst one
here. The second is considered in Section III.f.
Problem. The copper plating on the dome of the retirement home for mathe-
maticians needs replacing. It is known (after all this is the mathematicians old age
home) that the surface which describes the dome has equation z = f(x, y). If k
denotes the density (mass/area) of copper, nd the amount of copper required.
Before we begin to solve this problem, we must consider some preliminary
material.
We recall that a curve C in space is given by parametric equations
_

_
x = x(t)
y = y(t)
z = z(t)
a t b.
So far, however, our surfaces have had the form z = f(x, y) or x = g(y, z) or
y = h(x, z). Yet it is useful to note that surfaces too can be given in (more general)
parametric form. While C had only one parameter (namely t), a surface S requires
two: u and v. That is to say, we suppose that a surface S, being considered, is
given in (x, y, z) space in parametric form by
x = x(u, v)
y = y(u, v)
z = z(u, v)
for (u, v) in some region D of the (u, v) plane.
We remark the following: If an actual physical surface is observed, for example,
the top of a building or the space shuttle, then to nd parametric equations for
this surface may be incredibly dicult, even if we allowas we did for pathsthe
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possibility of decomposing the given surface into pieces, followed by the separate
parametrization of each piece. Nevertheless, there are some cases which are both
simple and important, and which we now consider.
Very Important Example 1. A surface S is given as z = f(x, y) for (x, y) in B
(see picture). Give parametric equations for S.
Answer.
x
y
z
B
z = f (x , y)
This case is both simple and important. We merely set
_

_
x = u
y = v
z = f(u, v)
for (u, v) in B.
Remark. In the same way, if S is given by x = g(y, z), we can set
_

_
x = g(u, v)
y = u
z = v,
while if S is given by y = h(x, z), then we can set
_

_
x = u
y = h(u, v)
z = v.
Example 2. Write the sphere S : x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
= R
2
in parametric form.
203
Answer. We wish to obtain a description of the sphere of given radius R in terms
of two parameters. It seems reasonable to think of angles, and this leads us directly
to spherical coordinates. We then have
S =
_

_
z = Rcos
x = Rsin cos
y = Rsin sin
_
0
0 2.
Can you imagine how hard this would be without spherical coordinates!
Example 3. Write the cylinder S : x
2
+ y
2
= 1, 0 z 1 in parametric form.
Answer. Again we seek two parameters. It seems reasonable to use (i.e., param-
etrize the circle) and z. We then have
S =
_

_
x = cos
y = sin
z = z
_
0 2
0 z 1
.
Example 4. Parametrize the surface S given by the part of the paraboloid z =
1 x
2
y
2
above the xy plane.
Answer. Using Example 1, this is easy. We set
S =
_

_
x = u
y = v
z = 1 u
2
v
2
for (u, v) in B
where B is the disc of radius 1 (u
2
+ v
2
1) in the (u, v) plane.
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x
y
z
z
B
Remark. Note that there is no need to introduce (u, v) in Example 4. We could
have equally written:
S =
_

_
x = x
y = y
z = 1 x
2
y
2
for (x, y) in B
where B is now the disc of radius 1 in the (x, y) plane.
Before we return to our problem(s) it is also useful to observe the follow-
ing. Let B, C be two given vectors as shown, and let A denote the area of the
parallelogram determined by B and C.
C
B
A

Then
A = |B| |C| sin = |BC|.
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Now, let us suppose S is a surface given in parametric form:
S =
_

_
x = x(u, v)
y = y(u, v)
z = z(u, v)
(u, v) in D.
Choose a point (u
0
, v
0
) in D. Then corresponding to (u
0
, v
0
) we have the point
P = (x(u
0
, v
0
), y(u
0
, v
0
), z(u
0
, v
0
)) in (x, y, z) space. We look at the straight line
1
through (u
0
, v
0
) in D. As we move along this line, we generate the curve
C
1
=
_

_
x = x(u, v
0
)
y = y(u, v
0
)
z = z(u, v
0
)
on S.
r
u
l
1
(u , v )
0 0
x
y
z
P
S
C
1
u
v
D
The tangent vector to C
1
on S is then in the direction
r
u
=
x
u
i +
y
u
j +
z
u
k.
We do the same thing interchanging u and v and get straight line
2
, curve C
2
,
direction vector
r
v
=
x
v
i +
y
v
j +
z
v
k.
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r
u
l
1
(u , v )
0 0
l
2
C
1
C
2
r
v
x
y
z
S
u
v
D
N
Now since r
u
, r
v
are tangent to C
1
, C
2
respectively on the surface S the normal
vector N to S at P is either r
u
r
v
or r
v
r
u
depending on the direction in which
we wish N to point.
We can nally consider our problem: Suppose we look at rectangle from u to
u + du and from v to v + dv in the (u, v) plane of area dA (= dudv).
r
u
du
r
v
dv
r(u , v)
r(u , v + dv)
r(u + du , v)
dS
x
y
z
S
dA
u
v
D
dv
du
We associate with dA an area dS of the surface S in the (x, y, z) space as follows:
when we increase u by du and keep v constant in (u, v) plane, we go from
_

_
x = x(u, v)
y = y(u, v)
z = z(u, v)
to
_

_
x = x(u + du, v)
y = y(u + du, v)
z = z(u + du, v)
in the (x, y, z) space. I.e., from r(u, v) = x(u, v) i + y(u, v) j + z(u, v) k to r(u +
du, v) = x(u +du, v) i +y(u +du, v) j +z(u +du, v) k. Now r(u +du, v) r(u, v)

=
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(r/u) du, with equality holding in the limit. In the same way as u is held constant
and we increase v by dv, we go from r(u, v) to r(u, v + dv) in (x, y, z) space, and
r(u, v + dv) r(u, v)

=
r
v
dv
with, again, equality holding in the limit. So associated with the area dA in the
(u, v) plane we have the area
dS =

r
u

r
v

dA
on the surface S in (x, y, z) space.
As you may imagine, to solve our original problem, we chop D into subregions
of area dA, calculate the mass on S associated with each subregion and then add
and take limit to get the nal answer. Before doing this, it is useful to see what all
these formulas become in the case of S given by z = f(x, y).
Important Example. Suppose we have a surface S given by z = f(x, y) as
shown. Here we can visualize the situation much better.
D
dA
x
y
z
dS
S
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Note that we can parametrize S by
_

_
x = x
y = y
z = f(x, y)
(x, y) in D
where we have used (x, y) directly in place of (u, v). Then
r(x, y) = x i + y j + f(x, y) k
and so
r
x
= i +
f
x
k, r
y
= j +
f
y
k.
We conclude
| r
x
r
y
| =

det
_

_
i j k
1 0
f
x
0 1
f
y
_

i
_

f
x
_
j
_
f
y
_
+k

1 +
_
f
x
_
2
+
_
f
y
_
2
.
And so,
dS =

1 +
_
f
x
_
2
+
_
f
y
_
2
dA,
where, in this case dS is the piece of surface directly above dA! The term
_
1 + (
f
x
)
2
+ (
f
y
)
2
physically corresponds to the fact that dS is bigger than dA
due to the bending of the surface!
We can now answer the problem with which we started.
Answer to prototype problem. With each rectangle of size dA in the (x, y) plane
under the surface S, we associate a surface dS (straight above it in this case).
209
dS
D
dA
x
y
z
S
z = f (x , y)
Now
Mass of dS = (density)(area) = k dS = k

1 +
_
f
x
_
2
+
_
f
y
_
2
dA.
So, to nd the total mass M of S, we sum (and take the limit) of the mass of dS
associated with all dA, i.e.,
M =
__
D
k

1 +
_
f
x
_
2
+
_
f
y
_
2
dA.
We observe that to nd the moments M
xy
, M
yz
, M
xz
we would simply integrate
= (arm) (density) dS so that M
xy
(for example) would be:
M
xy
=
__
D
zk

1 +
_
f
x
_
2
+
_
f
y
_
2
dA
where, on S, z = f(x, y)! The same applies to the second moments, etc.
Motivated by this example, for any function g(x, y, z) given on a surface S,
given in parametric form by
_

_
x = x(u, v)
y = y(u, v)
z = z(u, v)
(u, v) in D,
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we dene
__
S
g(x, y, z) dS =
__
D
g(x, y, z)|r
u
r
v
| dA
where (x, y, z) in g are given by x(u, v), y(u, v), z(u, v), respectively.
Important Remark. Note that dS = |(r/u r/v| dA, with dA = dudv.
So that if u = r, v = (i.e., the parameters are the usual polar variables and we are
careful to distinguish between r (radial parameter) and r (position vector) ) then
we just have du = dr, dv = d (i.e., dA = dr d, not rdr d) and we integrate over
the (r, ) plane (not the (x, y) plane). The missing factor r is actually inside
|r/u r/v|. To see this, suppose the plate is at. Then
r = xi + yj + 0k = r cos i + r sin j + 0k.
So
r
r
= cos i + sin j, r

= r sin i + r cos j
and
|r
r
r

| = |(r cos
2
+ r sin
2
)k| = r
and as needed, dS = rdr d.
We now pass to examples.
Example 1. Calculate the z coordinate of the center of mass of the hemisphere
x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
= 1, z 0, if the density = 1 + x
2
+ y
2
.
Answer. We do this problem in two ways to practice. First, we parametrize as
211
follows:
S =
_

_
x = sin cos , 0 2
y = sin sin, 0 /2
z = cos .
S
x
y
z
We then have
r

= [cos cos ] i + [ cos sin ] j [ sin ] k


r

= [ sinsin ] i + [sin cos ] j + 0 k.


Thus
ds = |r

] dd
=

det
_
_
i j k
cos cos cos sin sin
sin sin sin cos 0
_
_

dd
=

i[sin
2
cos ] j[sin
2
sin ] +k[cos sincos
2
+ cos sin sin
2
]

dd
=
_
sin
4
cos
2
+ sin
4
sin
2
+ cos
2
sin
2
dd
= | sin |dd = (sin )dd
and so the mass M is given by:
M =
_
2
=0
_
/2
=0
[1 + sin
2
cos
2
+ sin
2
sin
2
] sindd
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=
_
2
0
_
/2
0
[ 1 + sin
2
] sin dd
=
_
2
0
_
/2
0
[2 cos
2
] sin dd
=
_
2
0
_
2 cos +
cos
3

3
_

/2
0
d = 2
_
2
1
3
_
= 2
_
5
3
_
.
Second way: We may write the hemisphere as z =
_
1 x
2
y
2
.
S
y
z
dx dy
d
S
x
B
Then
ds =

1 +
_
z
x
_
2
+
_
z
y
_
2
dx dy.
Now to calculate z/x, z/y (and to avoid

) it is easiest to dierentiate both


sides of x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
= 1. So we get
2x + 2z
z
x
= 0
z
x
=
x
z
2y + 2z
z
y
= 0
z
y
=
y
z
,
and so,
ds =
_
1 +
x
2
z
2
+
y
2
z
2
dz dy =
_
x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
z
2
=
1
|z|
dx dy =
1
_
1 x
2
y
2
dx dy.
213
Thus
M =
__
B
1 + x
2
+ y
2
_
1 x
2
y
2
dx dy =
_
2
=0
_
1
r=0
1 + r
2

1 r
2
rdr d.
x + y = 1
B
x
y
2 2
Now
_
1
r=0
r

1 r
2
dr = (1 r
2
)
1/2

r=1
r=0
= 1,

u=1r
2
du=2rdr
while
_
1
r=0
r
2

1 r
2
r dr =
_
u=0
u=1
_
1 u
u
1/2
__
du
2
_
=
1
2
_
1
u=0
[u
1/2
u
1/2
] du

u=1r
2
du=2rdr
=
1
2
_
2u
1/2

2
3
u
3/2
_
1
0
=
1
2
_
2
2
3
_
.
And so
M =
_
2
0
_
1 + 1
1
3
_
d =
5
3
2.
The same as before. We now calculate M
xy
, but will do it only one way.
As before ds = (sin) dd, and so
armdensitydS = z[1 + sin
2
] sindd
214
but on the hemisphere,
z =
_
1 x
2
y
2
=
_
1 sin
2
cos
2
sin
2
sin
2

and thus
M
xy
=
_
2
=0
_
/2
=0
_
1 sin
2
(1 + sin
2
) sin dd
=
_
2
=0
_
/2
=0
(cos )(1 + sin
2
) sin dd.
(Here we used fact | cos | = cos for 0 /2!)
M
xy
=
_
2
=0
_
sin
2

2
+
sin
4

4
_
/2
0
d
= 2
_
3
4
_
=
3
2
and so
z =
M
xy
M
=
3
2

3
10
=
9
20
.
Example 2. Evaluate
__
S
xz dS where S is the boundary of the region enclosed
by the cylinder x
2
+ y
2
= 1 and the planes z = 0, z = 1.
Answer. Note that our S is the surface of a can and thus has 3 pieces S
1
, S
2
,
S
3
as shown.
215
y
z
S
2
S
3
x
S
1
We parametrize each separately, since it would be too hard to do all of S at once.
Now S
2
is easy:
_

_
x = x
y = y
z = 1
x
2
+ y
2
1.
S
3
is also easy:
_

_
x = x
y = y
z = 0
x
2
+ y
2
1.
S
1
is slightly harder:
_

_
x = cos
y = sin 0 2
z = z 0 z 1
.
Remark. Alternatively, we could split S
1
into S
4
and S
5
and
S
4
=
_

_
x = x
y =

1 x
2
, 1 x 1
z = z 0 z 1
S
5
=
_

_
x = x
y =

1 x
2
, 1 x 1
z = z, 0 z 1
.
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1 - x
2 y = - (
)
( y = 1 - x
2 )
y
z
S
2
S
3
x
S
S
5
4
So
__
S
xz dS =
__
S
1
xz dS +
__
S
2
xz dS +
__
S
3
xz dS.
Now
dS
2
= |r
x
r
y
| dx dy = |i j| dx dy = dx dy
dS
3
= |r
x
r
y
| dx dy = |i j| dx dy = dx dy.
(You could also see dS
2
, dS
3
from the fact that S
2
is given by z = 1, and thus
dS
2
=

1 +
_
z
x
_
2
+
_
z
y
_
2
dx dy =

1 dx dy = dx dy.
Same for S
3
.) While
dS
1
= |r

r
z
| d dz = |((sin ) i + (cos ) j) k|d dz = d dz.
Thus
__
S
1
xz dS =
_
2
=0
_
z=1
z=0
(cos )z d dz =
_
2
0
(cos )
_
z
2
2

1
0
_
d = 0,
__
S
2
xz dS =
_
1
1
_

1x
2

1x
2
x 1 dy dx = 2
_
1
1
x
_
1 x
2
=
2
3
(1 x
2
)
3/2

1
1
= 0,
217
__
S
3
xz dS =
__
S
3
x 0 dS = 0.
So
__
S
xz dS = 0 + 0 + 0 = 0.
To practice, let us check that
__
S
1
xz dS =
__
S
4
xz dS +
__
S
5
xz dS. Note that on
S
4
, we have y as a function of x. Thus
__
S
4
xz dS =
_
1
z=0
_
1
x=1
xz

1 +
_
y
x
_
2
+
_
y
z
_
2
dx dz
=
_
1
z=0
_
1
x=1
xz

1 +
x
2
y
2
+ 0 dx dz
=
_
1
z=0
_
1
x=1
xz
_
x
2
+ y
2
|y|
dx dz
=
_
1
z=0
_
1
x=1
xz
1

1 x
2
dx dz
=
_
1
z=0
z
_
(1 x
2
)
1/2
_
1
x=1
dz =
_
1
z=0
z 0 dz = 0.
We now calculate
__
S
5
xz dS. We have
__
S
5
xz dS =
_
1
z=0
_
1
x=1
xz

1 +
_
y
x
_
2
+
_
y
z
_
2
dx dz
=
_
1
z=0
_
1
x=1
xz

1 +
x
2
y
2
dx dz =
_
1
z=0
_
1
x=1
xz
_
x
2
+ y
2
|y|
dx dz.
But now |y| = y, because y is negative on S
5
. So |y| = y =

1 x
2
!!! (For this
problem, it would actually not make a dierence, since the answer is zero.) Thus
_
1
z=0
_
1
x=1
xz

1 x
2
dx dz = 0,
just like before.
218
Further Exercises:
1) Evaluate
__
S
z dS if S is given by z = 1 x
2
y
2
, z 0.
2) Evaluate
__
S
x
2
dS if S is the part of x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
= 1 in the rst octant.
3) Calculate the z coordinate of the radius of gyration of the hemisphere z =

_
4 x
2
y
2
if the density is proportional to the distance from the z-axis.
4) Calculate the center of mass of the plate given by x + y + z = 1 in the rst
octant, if the density is constant.
5) Calculate the coordinates of the centroid of a plate in the shape of the cone
z =
_
x
2
+ y
2
, bounded above by z = 1 if the density is constant.
6) Find the mass of a plate in the form of the paraboloid z = x
2
+y
2
below z = 4
if the density is = x
2
+ y
2
.
7) Find the surface area of the plate given by the part of the plane z = y inside
the cylinder x
2
+ y
2
= 1.
8) Find the surface area of the part of the sphere x
2
+y
2
+z
2
= 4 in front of the
plane x = 1.
9) A closed metal can has boundary given by x
2
+ y
2
= 4, z = 0, z = 1 and
density (x, y, z) = y. Find the mass of the part of the can to the right of the
plane y = 1.
10) Find the z-coordinate of the center of mass for the part of the can given in
problem 7.
219