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Master of Business Administration MBA Semester I MB0038 Management Process and Organizational Behaviour- 4 Credits (Book ID: B1127)

) Assignment Set- 2 (60 Marks)

Q1. What are the consequences of conflict in organisations? Ans: Organizational conflict is a state of discord caused by the actual or perceived opposition of needs, values and interests between people working together. Conflict takes many forms in organizations. There is the inevitable clash between formal authority and power and those individuals and groups affected. There are disputes over how revenues should be divided, how the work should be done, and how long and hard people should work. There are jurisdictional disagreements among individuals, departments, and between unions and management. There are subtler forms of conflict involving rivalries, jealousies, personality clashes, role definitions, and struggles for power and favor. There is also conflict within individuals between competing needs and demands to which individuals respond in different ways. Conflict sometimes has a destructive effect on the individuals and groups involved. At other times, however, conflict can increase the capacity of those affected to deal with problems, and therefore it can be used as a motivating force toward innovation and change. Conflict is encountered in two general forms. Personal conflict refers to an individual's inner workings and personality problems Another facet of personal conflict has to do with the multiple roles people play in organizations. Behavioral scientists sometimes describe an organization as a system of position roles. Each member of the organization belongs to a role set, which is an association of individuals who share interdependent tasks and thus perform formally defined roles, which are further influenced both by the expectations of others in the role set and by one's own personality and expectations. For example, in a common form of classroom organization, students are expected to learn from the instructor by listening to them, following their directions for study, taking exams, and maintaining appropriate standards of conduct. The instructor is expected to bring students high-quality learning materials, give lectures, write and conduct tests, and set a scholarly example. Another in this role set would be the dean of the school, who sets standards, hires and supervises faculty, maintains a service staff, readers and graders, and so on. The system of roles to which an individual belongs extends outside the organization as well, and influences their functioning within it. As an example, a person's roles as partner, parent, descendant, and church member are all intertwined with each other and with their set of organizational roles Organizational Conflict can have both positive and negative consequences. Positive Consequences 1. 2. 3. Leads to new ideas Stimulate creativity Motivates changes Negative Consequences Diverts energy from work Threatens psychological well-being Wastes resources

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Promotes organizational vitality Helps individuals and groups establish identities Serve as a safety valve to indicate problem

Create a negative climate Break down group cohesion Can increase hostility and aggressive behaviours

Functional, constructive forms of conflict support the goals of the group and improve its performance. Conflicts that hinder group performance are dysfunctional or destructive form of conflict. Task conflict relates to the content and goals of the work. Dysfunctional conflict: dysfunctional conflict is an unhealthy, destructive disagreement between two or more people.

Q2. State the characteristics of management? Management is a distinct activity having the following salient features or characteristics: 1. Goal-oriented: Management is a purposeful activity. It co-ordinates the efforts of employees to achieve the goals of the organization. The success of management is measured by the extent to which the organizational goals are achieved. It is imperative that the organizational goals must be well-defined and properly understood by the mangers at various levels. 2. Economic Resource: Management is one of the factors of production together with land, labour and capital. It is the most critical input in the success of any organized group activity. It is the force which assembles and integrates other resources, namely, labour, capital and materials. These factors do not by themselves ensure production; they require the catalyst of management to produce goods and services required by the society. Thus, management is an essential ingredient of an organization. 3. Distinct Process: Management is a distinct process consisting of such functions as planning, organizing, staffing, directing and controlling. These functions are so interwoven that it is not possible to lay down exactly the sequence of various functions or their relative significance. In essence, the process of management involves decision-making and putting of decisions into practice. 4. Integrative Force: The essence of management is integration of human and other resources to achieve the desired objectives. All these resources are made available to those who manage. Managers apply knowledge, experience and management principles for getting the results from the workers by the use of non-human resources. Managers also seek to harmonize the individuals goals with the organizational goals for the smooth working of the organization. 5. Intangible Force: Management has been called an unseen force. Its presence is evidenced by the result of its efforts-orderliness, informed employees, buoyant spirit and adequate work output. Thus, feeling of management is result-oriented. People often remark of the effectiveness (or ineffectiveness) of management on the basis of the end results, although they cant observe it during operation. 6. Results through Others: The managers cannot do everything themselves. They must have the necessary ability and skills to get work accomplished through the efforts of others. They must motivate the subordinates for the accomplishment of the tasks assigned to them.\

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A Science and an Art: Management has an organized body of knowledge consisting of well-defined concepts, principles and techniques which have wide applications. So it is treated as a science. The application of these concepts, principles and techniques requires specialized knowledge and skills on the part of the manager. Since the skills acquired by a manager are his personal possession, management is viewed as an art.

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System of Authority: Management as a team of managers represents a system of authority, a hierarchy of command and control. Managers at different levels possess varying degrees of authority. Generally, as we move down in the managerial hierarchy, the degree of authority gets gradually reduced. Authority enables the managers to perform their functions effectively.

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Multi-disciplinary Subject: Management has grown as a field of study (i.e. discipline) taking the help of so many other disciplines such as Engineering, Anthropology, Sociology and Psychology. Much of the management literature is the result of association of these disciplines. For instance, productivity orientation drew its inspiration from Industrial Engineering and human relations orientation from Psychology. Similarly, Sociology and Operations Research have also contributed to the development of management science.

10. Universal Application: Management is universal in character. The principles and techniques of management are equally applicable in the fields of business, education, military, government and hospital.

Q3. Explain the four process of social learning theory? The social learning theory was proposed by Bandura. Social learning theory explains human behavior in terms of continuous reciprocal interaction between cognitive, behavioral, and environmental influences. Social learning has four processes: 1) Attention processes - People learn from a model only when they recognize and pay attention to its critical features. In order to learn, it is required to pay attention. Anything that detracts the attention is going to have a negative effect on observational learning. If the is model interesting or there is a novel aspect to the situation, it is more likely to dedicate the full attention to learning. 2) Retention processes - A models influence will depend on how well the individual remembers the models action after that it is no longer readily available. The ability to store information is also an important part of the learning process. Retention can be affected by a number of factors, but the ability to pull up information later and act on it is vital to observational learning. 3) Motor reproduction processes - After a person has seen a new behavior by observing the model, the watching must be converted to doing. The ability to store information is also an important part of the learning process. Retention can be affected by a number of factors, but the ability to pull up information later and act on it is vital to observational learning. 4) Reinforcement processes - Individuals will be motivated to exhibit the modeled behavior if positive incentives or rewards are provided. Finally, in order for observational learning to be successful, you have to be motivated to imitate the behavior that has been modeled. Reinforcement and punishment play an important role in

motivation. While experiencing these motivators can be highly effective, so can observing other experience some type of reinforcement or punishment. For example, if you see another student rewarded with extra credit for being to class on time, you might start to show up a few minutes early each day.

Q4. What are the 14 principles of management of Henry fayol? 1. Division of work: tasks should be divided up with employees specializing in a limited set of tasks so that expertise is developed and productivity increased. 2. Authority and responsibility: authority is the right to give orders and entails enforcing them with rewards and penalties; authority should be matched with corresponding responsibility. 3. Discipline: this is essential for the smooth running of business and is dependent on good leadership, clear and fair arguments, and the judicious application of penalties. 4. Unity of command: for any action whatsoever, an employee should receive orders from one superior only; otherwise authority, discipline, order, and stability are threatened. 5. Unity of direction: a group of activities concerned with a single objective should be co-coordinated by a single plan under one head. 6. Subordination of individual interest to general interest: individual or group goals must not be allowed to override those of the business. 7. Remuneration of personnel: this may be achieved by various methods but it should be fair, encourage effort, and not lead to overpayment. 8. Centralization: the extent to which orders should be issued only from the top of the organization is a problem which should take into account its characteristics, such as size and capabilities of the personnel. 9. Scalar chain (line of authority): communications should normally flow up and down the line of authority running from the top to the bottom of the organization, but sideways communication between those of equivalent rank in different departments can be desirable so long as superiors are kept informed. 10. Order: both materials and personnel must always be in their proper place; people must be suited to their posts so there must be careful organization of work and selection of personnel. 11. Equity: personnel must be treated with kindness and justice. 12. Stability of tenure of personnel: rapid turnover of personnel should be avoided because of the time required for the development of expertise. 13. Initiative: all employees should be encouraged to exercise initiative within limits imposed by the requirements of authority and discipline. 14. Esprit de corps: efforts must be made to promote harmony within the organization and prevent dissension and divisiveness. The management functions, that Fayol stated, consisted of planning, organizing, commanding, co -coordinating and controlling. Many practicing managers, even today, list these functions as the core of their activities. Fayol was also one of the first people to characterize a commercial organizations activities into its basic components.

Q5. Distinguish between internal and external forces of change? Forces for change are of two types: Internal forces External forces. Internal forces Any change in organizations internal factors may also necessitate change. Such a change is required Change in the top management: Change in the top management and consequent change in the ideas to

because of two reasons: change in managerial personnel and deficiency in existing organizational practices. run the organization also leads to change in the system, structure and processes. Each new manager brings his own ideas and way of working into the organization. The formal or informal relationships may change because of changes in top management. Moreover, attitudes, ideology, leadership style of the person may be different from the earlier one, this will reflect in their actions and decisions. The result is that an organization has to change accordingly. Change in size of the organization: Change in the organizations size leads to change in the internal Performance gaps: When a gap between set target and actual results is identified, organizations face the Employee needs and values: With changing needs and values of the employees, organizations change structure and complexity of the operations in the organization. forces to change and reduce the gap. their policies. For example, attractive financial incentives, challenging assignments, vertical growth opportunities and autonomy at work may be provided in an organization to attract and retain its effective employees. Deficiency in existing organization: Sometimes, changes are necessary because of deficiency in the present organizational arrangement and process. These deficiencies may be in the form of unmanageable span of management, large number of managerial levels, lack of co-ordination between various departments, obstacles in communication, multiplicity of committees, lack of uniformity in policy decisions, lack of co-operation between line and staff and so on.

External forces: Changes in social, political, economic, technological, and legal environment force organizations to change themselves. Such changes may result in organizational changes like major functions, production process, labourmanagement relations, nature of competition, economic constraints, organization methods, etc. In order to survive in the changing environment, organization must change. Technology: Technological changes are responsible for changing the nature of the job performed at all

levels in an organization. When the organizations adopt a new technology, its work structures are affected and a new equilibrium has to be established. We have seen that technology has impact on organization structure, organizational processes, and behaviour of people. For example, computers and automation have made significant impact on organizational functioning. Business scenario: Due to rapid changes in the business scenario with increasing competition and global economy, the needs and demands are also changing among the customers, suppliers and other stakeholders. Organizations are, therefore, forced to change their operational methods to meet the demands of the stakeholders.

Since every organization exports its outputs to the environment, an organization has to face competition in the market.

Environmental and National factors: Environmental: factors such as economic, political and

demographic and legal factors play a vital role in devising organizational policies and strategy. Any change in these political and legal factors may affect the organizational operation. For example, organizations may have to change their employment policies in accordance with the government policy, demand of the non-government organizations and changing economic conditions of a country.

Social changes: Social changes reflect in terms of peoples aspirations, their needs, and their way of

working. Social changes have taken place because of the several forces like level of education, urbanization, feeling of autonomy, and international impact due to new information sources. These social changes affect the behaviour of people in the organization. Therefore it is required to make adjustment in its working so that it matches with people

Q6. Ms. Chanchal Das Guptha is a recruitment specialist. For the post of QC Manager, she interviews three candidates. Given below are the physical characteristics of the candidates. Candidate Mr. Ravi Physical characteristics Muscular, thick skin, rectangular shaped

Mr. Gineesh

Thin, dedicate build, large brain, tall

Mr. Ramgopal

Soft , round shaped, under developed muscles

G i v e n b e l o w a r e t h e characteristics of the candidates. From the above descriptions, what personality traits can Ms. Chanchal derive out of the candidates as per Sheldons theory of personality?

Ans: Per Sheldon`s theory of personality, below are the traits that Ms. Chanchalcan derive: Mr. Ravi represents Mesomorph body type. He is well-proportioned. Psychologically he is Adventurous, Courageous, Indifferent to what others think or want, Assertive/bold, Zest for physical activity, Competitive, With a desire for power/dominance, And a love of risk/chance Mr. Gineesh represents Ectomorph body type. Psychologically he is Self-conscious, Private, Introverted, Inhibited, Socially anxious, Artistic, Intense, Emotionally restrained, Thoughtful Mr. Ramgopal represents Endomorph body type. Psychologically he is Sociable, Fun-loving, Love of food, Tolerant, Even-tempered, Good humoured, Relaxed, With a love of comfort, And has a need for affection.