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# 4/20/2011

SCHOOL OF ENGINERING-MEDWAY
Supervisor: Dr Kaushika Hettiaratchi | Origin: Amadi, Chinedu (000637208)
MECHANICAL
ENGINEERING-
YEAR 2
ENGINEERING DYNAMICS ASSIGNMENT
(CASE STUDY)

Engineering Dynamics Assignment Page 2

Question 1
The relevant calculations are made in the appendix page

Figure 1: Shows a plot of the amplitude ratio to the normalised frequency for a range of
damping ratios

Plot of Amplitude ratio against normalised Frequency
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Question 2
SIGNIFICANCE OF EQUATION (1) AND DESIGN IMPLICATIONS
The unbalance in the system is as a result of displacement of the centerline from the
rotors axis by an eccentricity in the distribution of the rotor mass. At the start of the
rotation the imbalance will exert centrifugal force tending to vibrate the rotor and its
supporting structure. The higher the speed, the greater the centrifugal force exerted by
the imbalance and the more the violent vibration.

Case 1
From the normalised solution of equation 1, it clearly shows that at low speeds is very
insignificant and the amplitude of the motion of the mass is almost zero. This is also
represented in the plots above and is irrespective of the damping on the system.

Case 2
At very high speeds, the amplitude of the system is independent of any damping on the
system at this region and will remain constant at very high speeds.
Therefore at very high speeds, the amplitude of the motion is directly proportional to the
unbalancing mass, m and the eccentricity of that mass and is inversely proportional to the
mass of the system, M.
Case 3
At this critical point, resonance occurs and the system will begin to act violently and may
eventually self-destruct if it remains in this region for an appreciable amount of time. At this
point and the amplitude of motion will vary significantly depending on the amount of
damping that is on the system.
It should be noted however that a change in damping of 2% does not lead to a 2% change in
the amplitude response of the system. Increasing the damping to 2% will yield a higher
percentage response of the system. This is manifest on the plot in question 1.
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Systems that might be affected by a rotating imbalance and corrective measures
Washing Machines
Imbalance can be encountered in a washing machine when there is an uneven distribution of
clothes in the drum of the machine. This can again cause resonance at high speeds which is
undesirable.
Corrective measures
The washing machine is equipped with dampers attached to the frame of the washer to absorb
the violent vibrations and avoid resonance.
Motor Crankshafts
A rotating unbalance can be experienced in a crankshaft. A ready impression of how this may
occur can be gained by considering a crankshaft layout of a horizontally opposed twin-
cylinder engine. As a result a result of each piston connecting to an individual crankthrow,
the corresponding cylinders cannot be made truly coaxial.

Figure 2: Shows the effect of correcting a rotating imbalance on a twin-cylinder crankshaft
Engineering Dynamics Assignment Page 5

Appendix
Sample calculations

Using the selected values of and Oabove
Equation 1 can be written as:
( )
2 2
2
2
2
4 1 O + O
O
=
Y

| r

Using the values from the first row thus 0.1 and 0.5 for O
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
2
2
2
5 . 0 1 . 0 4 5 . 0 1
5 . 0
+
=
Y
| r

0.330409 =
Y
| r

Table showing the results for 0.1

y/rb1
1 | r
Y

0.1 0.330409
5
1.96
1.428103
1.203978
1.131492

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Table showing the results for 0.3

y/rb2
2 | r
Y

0.3 0.309492
1.666667
1.536511
1.302898
1.158244
1.1049

Table showing the results for 0.5

y/rb3
3 | r
Y

0.5 0.27735
1
1.15462
1.127504
1.08051
1.056896

Table showing the results for 0.7

y/rb4
4 | r
Y

0.7 0.243685
0.714286
0.898063
0.960955
0.9886
0.995342

Table showing the results for 0.9

y/rb5
5 | r
Y

0.9 0.213395
Engineering Dynamics Assignment Page 7

0.555556
0.726824
0.822558
0.896071
0.927844

Table showing the results for 1.1

y/rb6
6 | r
Y

1.1 0.187779
0.454545
0.607537
0.712145
0.810256
0.86008