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FPSO Full Ship Analysis

Integrated Strength and Hydrodynamic Analysis using Sesam


Fan (Joe) Zhang, Sesam BD Manager, DNV Software October 15, 2012

Topics
Strength assessment of FPSOs and related software from DNV Global modelling Hydrodynamic analysis Ultimate strength analysis Submodelling Fatigue analysis

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FPSO Package for design and analysis


Risk Analysis Safeti Hydrodynamics Seakeeping Wave loads HydroD Topside GeniE

3D Hull modelling GeniE

Main scantlings Nauticus Hull

Turret Local analysis GeniE

Fatigue Simplified, Spectral Nauticus Hull Stofat

Risers DeepC

Mooring Mimosa

Proven solutions in use by major companies around the world


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SESAM strength assessment analysis system and interfaces


Workflow manager
Modelling, structural analysis and code check
GeniE

Stability and wave load analysis


HydroD

Mooring and riser analysis


DeepC

Model Loads

Model Results

Global analysis 1 Global analysis 2 Global analysis n

Wave load 1 Wave load 2 Wave load n

Stability 1 Stability 2 Stability n

Analysis 1 Analysis 2 Analysis n

Local analysis

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Sesam a fully integrated analysis system


1. Stability and wave load analysis 2. Pressure loads and accelerations

Wave scatter diagram

Load transfer

Local FE analysis

5. Local stress and deflection & fatigue

FE analysis

4. Global stress and deflection & fatigue screening


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3. Structural model loads


(internal + external pressure)

Sesam Workflow Manager

Key features
- Model and file management

Benefits
- Automatic re-run of analysis hierarchy to re-produce analysis after model updates - Facilitate alternate engineers to re-run analysis - Documentation/description of models and analysis can be linked into the explorer - Supports best engineering practice and workflow

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GeniE
Key features
- Modeller for all hydrodynamic and structural applications within the Sesam system - User interface for FE analysis, post-processing and code checks for both hull, topside and jacket

Benefits
- One common model for strength and hydrodynamics - Efficient modelling and code checks within one user environment - Easy to implement updates and changes to geometry and properties - Different level of detailing of FE model derived from one global model by adjusting mesh densities - Mesh automatically adapts to changes in the model

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HydroD
Key features
- Hydrostatics and stability calculations - Linear and non linear hydrodynamics

Benefits
- Handling of multiple loading conditions and models through one user interface and database - Sharing models with structural analysis - Direct transfer of static and dynamic loads to structural model

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Analysis Overview
Task Global modelling Purpose Make global model for hydrodynamic and strength analysis Calculate loads for fatigue and ultimate strength Calculate hull girder strength Fatigue screening on nominal stress Local fatigue analysis Calculate long term stress based on spectral method Input Ship drawings Loading manual Global FE model Wave data Global FE model Snap shot load files from HydroD Global FE model Frequency domain load files from HydroD Global FE model Frequency domain load files from HydroD Output Global FE model

Hydrodynamic analysis ULS analysis

Load files for structural analysis Ultimate strength results Calculated fatigue lives Long term stress

Spectral fatigue analysis Spectral ULS analysis

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Analysis Overview
Task Global modelling Purpose Make global model for hydrodynamic and strength analysis Calculate loads for fatigue and ultimate strength Calculate hull girder strength Fatigue screening on nominal stress Local fatigue analysis Calculate long term stress based on spectral method Input Ship drawings Loading manual Global FE model Wave data Global FE model Snap shot load files from HydroD Global FE model Frequency domain load files from HydroD Global FE model Frequency domain load files from HydroD Output Global FE model

Hydrodynamic analysis ULS analysis

Load files for structural analysis Ultimate strength results Calculated fatigue lives Long term stress

Spectral fatigue analysis Spectral ULS analysis

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Creating the Global Model


Model requirements The global model is used to calculate loads and strength and must represent the actual properties of the ship For direct strength calculations essential properties are
- Buoyancy and weight distribution - Compartment loads - Structural stiffness and strength

Challenges Modelling of hull form Creating compartment and loads Mass tuning

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Global Modelling with GeniE

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Benefits of GeniE for Global Modelling


One common model for hydrodynamic and structural analysis

Geometry modelling
Advanced surface modelling functions Re-use data from CAD Parametric modelling using JavaScript Use of units

Compartment and loads


- Compartments are created automatically - GeniE calculates tank volumes and COG - Loads are generated from compartment fillings and automatically applied to tank boundaries

Mass tuning
- Scaling mass density to target mass

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Analysis Overview
Task Global modelling Purpose Make global model for hydrodynamic and strength analysis Calculate loads for fatigue and ultimate strength Calculate hull girder strength Fatigue screening on nominal stress Local fatigue analysis Calculate long term stress based on spectral method Input Ship drawings Loading manual Global FE model Wave data Global FE model Snap shot load files from HydroD Global FE model Frequency domain load files from HydroD Global FE model Frequency domain load files from HydroD Output Global FE model

Hydrodynamic analysis ULS analysis

Load files for structural analysis Ultimate strength results Calculated fatigue lives Long term stress

Spectral fatigue analysis Spectral ULS analysis

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Hydrodynamic Analysis
Model requirements
Hull shape as real ship Correct draft and trim

Challenges
Obtain correct weight and mass distribution Balance of loading conditions

Weight and buoyancy distribution according to loading manual


Mass and buoyancy in balance

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HydroD

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Benefits of HydroD
One common program and model for
Stability calculations Linear hydrodynamic analysis Non-linear hydrodynamic analysis With or without forward speed

Supports composite panel & Morrison models Support both standalone and integrated analysis
- Models can made in HydoD or based on structural models

Loading conditions
- Multiple loading conditions by changing compartment contents

Balancing the model


- Auto balance of loading conditions by draft and trim or compartment fillings

Built in roll damping module


- Stochastic linearization - Quadratic damping

Strong postprocessing and graphical results presentation Load transfer to FE analysis


- Snap shot or frequency domain - With splash zone correction for fatigue

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Analysis Overview
Task Global modelling Purpose Make global model for hydrodynamic and strength analysis Calculate loads for fatigue and ultimate strength Calculate hull girder strength Fatigue screening on nominal stress Local fatigue analysis Calculate long term stress based on spectral method Input Ship drawings Loading manual Global FE model Wave data Global FE model Snap shot load files from HydroD Global FE model Frequency domain load files from HydroD Global FE model Frequency domain load files from HydroD Output Global FE model

Hydrodynamic analysis ULS analysis

Load files for structural analysis Ultimate strength results Calculated fatigue lives Long term stress

Spectral fatigue analysis Spectral ULS analysis

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Ultimate Strength Analysis


Global structural analysis with load transfer from hydrodynamic analysis

Snap shot load transfer of non linear loads for selected design conditions
Yield and buckling check with PULS

Benefits of global analysis with direct load transfer


- Eliminate effect of boundary conditions - Loads applied as a simultaneous set of sea and tank pressures according to the calculated design wave No need for conservative and/or uncertain assumptions - Integrated buckling check

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Design Wave Determination Example


1. Calculate long term response (100 years return period for FPSO)
100 years wave bending moment: 2.184E9 Nm

2. Find peak value, phase and corresponding peak period in transfer function
Peak value: 2.33E8 Nm Phase angle: resp= 128 deg (relative to incoming wave) Period: 12 s

3. The design wave is then


Amplitude Period Phase: 100 year response/peak value 2.184E9/2.33E8*2=18.75 m 12 s
wave = 360 - resp = 360 128 = 232 deg.

Resulting values:

232 deg hogging 52 deg sagging


Which is sagging and hogging must be evaluated separately

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Verify the applied loads


Reaction forces Sestra.lis
- Reacting forces close to zero compared to the global excitation forces (<~1%) - E.g. stillwater load case
Max Fz < mass*g/100

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Verification of applied loads


Visual check using Xtract
- Pressure mapping - external and internal pressures - Deflections - Nominal stress level

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Verification of applied loads


Global sectional loads Cutres
- Cutres calculates and integrates the force distribution of cross sections and is ideal to evaluate the hull girder shear forces and bending moments - Large deviations Improper load balance
- Small deviations will occur since HydroD only consider vertical loads (mass) from internal tank pressures

- NB! Check position of neutral axis in HydroD sections and Cutres results Vertical shear force distribution Vertical bending moment distribution
0
Vertical bending moment

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

Vertical shear force

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

WASIM CUTRES

WASIM CUTRES

Distance from AP

Distance from AP

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Cutres main features


Relevant for long and narrow structures that may be viewed as beams, e.g. ships Two basic features:
- Presentation of stress resultant diagrams for user defined sections through the FE model

Integration of stress resultants over sections and presentation of force and moment graphs along ship axis

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Sections created in Cutres

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Display section diagram

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Still water bending moment

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Vertical shear force and bending moment

Postresp: 2.33E8 * 9.375 = 2.18E9 Cutres: 2.207E9

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Cross sections positions adjust

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PULS Advanced Buckling & Panel Ultimate Limit State

PULS is a code for buckling and ULS assessments of stiffened and unstiffened panels

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Benefits of PULS
Characteristics
- Higher accuracy than traditional rule formulations and classic buckling theory - Quick and easy-to-use design tool for calculation of ULS capacity - Valuable information about failure mode and buckling pattern - Effective to evaluate
Py

Px

Benefits
t 12 (MPa)

250
Abaqus PULS DNV Rules GL Rules

- Design optimization with increased control of safety margins

200

150

100

50

0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140

s 2 (MPa)

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PULS - Element library

Un-stiffened plate element

Stiffened plate element (S3)

Corrugated plate element (K3)

Stiffened plate element (T1)


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PULS Code Check in GeniE


Buckling capacity panels are automatically generated from the plate and beam concepts Colour code presentation of Utilization Factors (UF) Support for multi-core parallel buckling calculations Numeric and colour code presentation of result Worst case - colour code presentation of the maximum UF from all load cases Buckling panels can be exported to PULS Advanced Viewer and PULS Excel for further postprocessing
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Combination of still water and wave loads results


Design wave load transfer from Wadam results in separate result cases for static and hydrodynamic loads
- RC1 still water load - RC2 wave loads

Create result combination in GeniE


- Alternative: Combine results in Prepost

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Code check
Code check according to DNV-RP-C201 Pt 2 (PULS) by CSR Tank Note: Default parameters are according to CSR Tank and must be modified according to the RP

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Modified CSR Tank PULS code check


FPSO ULS 3 hold or global model
- Design wave approach with direct load transfer from HydroD or Maximum hogging and Maximum sagging condition (according to DNV-RP-C102, App D). - Check only longitudinal structure - Method 1 (Ultimate Capacity), according to DNV-RP-C201 Pt 2 (PULS) - Stiffened panel type - Allowable usage factor = 0.8 (loadcase design condition must be harbour or seagoing) - Meshing rules: Gross scantlings, (dont use co-centric stiffeners).

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Code check result

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Analysis Overview
Task Global modelling Purpose Make global model for hydrodynamic and strength analysis Calculate loads for fatigue and ultimate strength Calculate hull girder strength Fatigue screening on nominal stress Local fatigue analysis Calculate long term stress based on spectral method Input Ship drawings Loading manual Global FE model Wave data Global FE model Snap shot load files from HydroD Global FE model Frequency domain load files from HydroD Global FE model Frequency domain load files from HydroD Output Global FE model

Hydrodynamic analysis ULS analysis

Load files for structural analysis Ultimate strength results Calculated fatigue lives Long term stress

Spectral fatigue analysis Spectral ULS analysis

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Simplified vs. spectral fatigue


Simplified
Environment Long term rule Weibull distribution

Spectral fatigue
Actual wave scatter diagram and energy spectrum

Wave loads

Rule formulations for accelerations, pressure and moments on 10-4 probability level

Direct calculated loads - 3D potential theory

Stress calculations:

Rule formulations for stresses. Rule correlations.

Load transfer to FE model. Complete stress transfer function. Hotspot stress models for SCF

Fatigue damage calculation:


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Based on expected largest stress among 10^4 cycles of a rule long term Weibull distribution

Based on summation of part damage from each Rayleigh distributed sea state in scatter diagram.

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Stochastic Fatigue Analysis


Wave Load Analysis
- Input: Global model, wave headings and frequencies - Output: Load transfer functions (RAOs)
Direct Load Transfer

Stress Response Analysis


- Input: FE models and load file from wave load analysis - Output: FE results file with load cases describing complex (real and imaginary) stress transfer functions (RAOs)

Fatigue Damage Calculation


- Input: Stress transfer functions (FE results file), wave data - Output: Calculated fatigue life

Stress Transfer Functions

S-N Fatigue Curves Wave scatter diagram

Fatigue Life

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Typical workflow
Hydrodynamic model

Hydrodynamic analysis

RAOs External pressure Rel. wave elevation Accelerations Full load / intermediate/ ballast ->800 complex lc

Global FE-model
RAOs External pressure Internal pressure Accelerations Adjusted pressure for intermittent wetted areas

Load transfer
Global + local FEmodel

Global stress/deflection

Global structural analysis

RAOs Global stress/deflections Entire global model

Local model boundary conditions

Deflection transfer to local model

Global deflections as boundary conditions on local model

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Typical workflow
Stress distribution for each load case RAOs Local stress/deflections

Local stress/deflections

Local structural analysis

Local stress transfer functions


Notch stress Stress Geometric stress at hot spot (Hot spot stress) Geometric stress Nominal stress Hot spot

Principal hotspot stress

Stress extrapolation

Input Hot spot location Result RAO Principal hot spot stress

Scatter diagram

Fatigue calculations

Input Wave scatter diagram Wave spectrum SN-curve Stress RAO => Fatigue damage

SN data

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Global Frequency Domain Analysis


Loads from HydroD Static load case
- For verification of load balance and static shear and bending compared to loading manual - Enables automatic calculation of mean stress effect in fatigue calculartions - Enables possibility for to calculate long term extreme loads including static stress

Dynamic load cases


- Number of complex dynamic load cases = number of wave headings x number of wave periods (e.g. 12 x 25 = 300)

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Pressure reduction zone

Postresp Long Term Prediction

CN 30.7

Zwl

= *5.626E04/(1025*9.81) = 4.196

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Load Transfer to Global Model

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Fatigue Calculation Program - Stofat


Performs stochastic (spectral) fatigue calculation with loads from a hydrodynamic analysis using a frequency domain approach
RESULTS INTERFACE FILE POSTPROCESSING
STRUCTURAL RESULTS INTERFACE FILE

Deterministic fatigue under development Structures modelled by 3D shell and solid elements Assess whether structure is likely to suffer failure due to the action of repeated loading Assessment made by SN-curve based fatigue approach Accumulates partial damages weighed over sea states and wave directions

Stofat
Shell/plate fatigue

Stofat database

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Global Screening Analysis


Fatigue calculations based on nominal stress from global analysis and stress concentration factors Typical use
- Identify fatigue sensitive areas - Determine critical stress concentration factors for deck attachment and topside supports - Determine location of local models and fine mesh areas - Decide extent of reinforcements based on SCF from local analysis

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Fatigue Screening Analyses


Fatigue Damage in Lower Hopper Knuckles
- Global screening scaled by results from local analysis
Lower Hopper Knuckle
Screening Result TBHD Pos. Local Model Result 1.250

1.000

Fatigue Damage [-]

0.750

0.500

0.250

0.000 100425

120425

140425

160425

180425

200425

220425

Distance from AP [mm]

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Global Screening

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Local Fatigue Analysis


Local fine mesh model created from global GeniE model by changing the mesh density in the location of the crack Hot spot stress RAOs at the location of the crack established by spectral FE calculation Submodelling techniques is used to transfer the results from the global FE analysis to the boarders of the local model Fatigue damage/life calculated using Stofat
Concept model with mesh densities Calculated fatigue life
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Local fine mesh model

Submodelling

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Fatigue Strengthening and Screening of Extent


Soft bracket added in the local model of the stringer at crack location Re-run sub-model analysis and fatigue calculation to check effect of strengthening proposal Necessary extent of repair evaluated by fatigue screening of global Stress concentration factor used in global screening calculated by the ratio of long term stress from local and global analysis
Local model with new bracket Fatigue results

Results from fatigue screening of global model to evaluate extent of repair


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Analysis Overview
Task Global modelling Purpose Make global model for hydrodynamic and strength analysis Calculate loads for fatigue and ultimate strength Calculate hull girder strength Fatigue screening on nominal stress Local fatigue analysis Calculate long term stress based on spectral method Input Ship drawings Loading manual Global FE model Wave data Global FE model Snap shot load files from HydroD Global FE model Frequency domain load files from HydroD Global FE model Frequency domain load files from HydroD Output Global FE model

Hydrodynamic analysis ULS analysis

Load files for structural analysis Ultimate strength results Calculated fatigue lives Long term stress

Spectral fatigue analysis Spectral ULS analysis

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Stochastic ULS Analysis


Challenge: Determine ULS design wave for areas subjected to a combination of different load effects (e.g. turret area) Typical way: Selection of one or several design waves Uncertainties New solution with Stofat: Spectral stress analysis to determine long term stress distribution directly

Wave Load Analysis


- Input: Global model, wave headings and frequencies - Output: Load transfer functions (RAOs)

Stress Response Analysis


- Input: FE models and load file from wave load analysis - Output: FE results file with load cases describing complex (real and imaginary) stress transfer functions (RAOs)

Direct Load Transfer

Long Term ULS Load Calculation


- Input: Stress transfer functions (FE results file), wave data - Output: Calculated long term stress

Stress Transfer Functions

Wave scatter diagram

Long term stress


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Stofat Features and Benefits


Features
- Stochastic fatigue calculations based on wave statistics
- Supports all common wave models - Predefined and user defined S-N curves - Option for implicit mean stress correction (by static load case)

- Statistical stress response calculations


- Calculation of long term stress and extreme response including static loads

- Graphical presentation of fatigue results and long term stress directly on FE model

Calculated fatigue damage by nominal stress and user defined SCF for an LNG carrier

Benefits
- Unique functionality for spectral fatigue and stochastic long term stress and extreme response calculations - Flexible support all your needs - Transparent all calculation steps can be documented
Calculated long term stress amplitude (left) and fatigue damage (right) for the hopper knuckle in an oil tanker
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Local fatigue check result

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Benefits of Sesam for Advanced Analysis


Complete system Proven Solution
- Cover your needs for strength assessment of ship and offshore structures - 40 years of DNV experience and research put into software tools

Concept modelling
- Minimize modelling effort by re-use of models for various analysis
- Same concept model can be used for global & local strength analysis, stability, linear and non-linear hydrodynamic hydrodynamic analysis

Same system for offshore and maritime structures


- Minimizes the learning period and maximizes the utilisation of your staff

Process, file and analysis management by Sesam Explorer

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Safeguarding life, property and the environment


www.dnv.com

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