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# Noah D.

Manring
Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of MissouriColumbia, Columbia, MO 65211

Designing the Shaft Diameter for Acceptable Levels of Stress Within an Axial-Piston Swash-Plate Type Hydrostatic Pump
In this research, the diameter of the shaft within an axial-piston swash-plate type hydrostatic pump is considered from a stress point of view. To analyze the loading of the shaft, the components within the pump are studied using a force and torque diagram and it is shown that the loads are applied differently for three main sections of the shaft. From the force and torque diagram, the actual shaft loads are determined based upon the geometry of the pump and the working pressure of the hydraulic system. Using well-accepted machine design practices, governing equations for the shaft diameter are produced for the various regions of loading along the shaft. These equations consider both bending and torsional stresses on the outer surface of the shaft. Results for the required shaft diameter are then computed for a typical pump design and compared to the geometry of an actual shaft. It is noted that stress concentrations can signicantly alter these results and that the required shaft diameter can be reduced by applying the proper heat treatments and increasing the shaft strength. Finally, the designer is cautioned regarding the deection difculties that can arise when the shaft diameter is reduced too much. S1050-0472 00 01704-9

Introduction
Background. Axial piston machinery is used in uid power applications for converting mechanical power to hydraulic power and visa versa. A most striking attribute of axial-piston hydrostatic machinery has been its ability to convert large amounts of power using relatively small components. This attribute is referred to as power density and can best be illustrated by comparing the size of other machinery of similar power ratings to the size of an axial-piston machine. For example, consider the size of a diesel engine which is used to convert chemical energy into mechanical energy, and the size of an electric motor which converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. Table 1 is generated to compare the power and size of these devices to an axial-piston pump, which converts mechanical energy into hydraulic energy. In this table, the power rating is self explanatory, the volume refers to the physical space that the device takes up on a shop oor, and the power density is the ratio of output power to the volume. Another way of considering the same information is to say, for machines of similar size, the piston pump transmits 27 times as much power as the diesel engine and 13 times as much power as an AC motor. This comparison illustrates one of several motivations for using hydraulic power versus diesel or electrical power. While the power density of hydrostatic equipment is noted as a positive attribute of these machines, it is often accompanied with more severe loading and higher stresses on internal parts than may be expected for other types of machinery. Since the input shaft of the axial-piston pump is used to transmit the power between mechanical and uid-power generating components, it is expected that the shaft will undergo signicant stresses during the normal operation of the machine. From a design perspective, the shaft of the axial-piston machine
Contributed by the Stress Analysis & Failure Prevention Committee for publication in the JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL DESIGN. Manuscript received Jul. 1999. Associate Technical Editor: J. Gao.

is obviously central to the other working parts of the machine. That is to say that, the other machine parts are designed around the shaft and that various machine dimensions are determined based upon the diameter of the shaft itself. For instance, once the shaft diameter is determined, the minimum piston pitch-circle is also roughly determined. Once the piston pitch-circle is determined, the piston diameters themselves are also sized to transmit the specied amount of uid ow. The piston diameters are then used to determine aspects of the slipper design and the location and width of the ports within the head of the machine. All of this is to say that, the shaft diameter must be properly designed along with the rest of the machine; because, if it is not, then any needed changes to the shaft diameter that manifest themselves after the machine is designed and built will create necessary changes to all of the other machine parts as well. In this event, the machine design will have to be restarted from scratch. This scenario gives rise to the motivation for designing the shaft diameter properly from an a-priori point of view. Machine Description. The hydrostatic pump consists of several pistons within a common cylindrical block. The pistons are nested in a circular array within the block at equal intervals about the shaft centerline. As shown in Fig. 1, the cylinder block is held tightly against a port plate using the compressed force of the cylinder-block spring. A thin lm of oil separates the port plate from the cylinder block which, under normal operating conditions, forms a hydrodynamic bearing between the two parts. The cylin-

## DECEMBER 2000, Vol. 122 553

torque diagram and it is shown that the loads are applied differently for three main sections of the shaft. From the force and torque diagram, the actual shaft loads are determined based upon the geometry of the pump and the working pressure of the hydraulic system. Using well-accepted machine design practices 13 , governing equations for the shaft diameter are produced for the various regions of loading along the shaft. These equations consider both bending and torsional stresses on the outer surface of the shaft. Results for the required shaft diameter are then computed for a typical pump design and are compared to the geometry of an actual shaft.

Shaft Loading
Force and Torque Diagram. Figure 2 shows a sectioned view of a single piston within the cylinder block as it operates within the pump. In this view, the reaction force between the swash-plate and the nth slipper is shown by the symbol, R n . From the left hand side of Fig. 2, it can be seen that the component of this force in the downward direction is given by F n R n sin , (1)

where is the swash plate angle of the pump. Equation 1 represents the downward force exerted on the shaft by the nth piston. Summing these forces for all pistons within the pump yields the total force exerted on the shaft in the downward direction. This result is given by
N

F
n 1

R n sin

(2)

## Fig. 1 General pump conguration

der block is connected to the shaft through a set of splines that run parallel to the shaft. A ball-and-socket joint connects the base of each piston to a slipper. The slippers themselves are kept in reasonable contact with the swash plate by a retainer not shown in Fig. 1 where a hydrostatic and hydrodynamic bearing surface separates the slippers from the swash plate. The swash plate angle, , may generally vary with time; however, for this research, the swash plate is considered to be held at a xed angle which may be discretely adjusted for steady-state considerations. The entire machine is contained within a housing that is usually lled with hydraulic uid. While the port plate is held in a xed position against the head, the shaft and the cylinder block rotate about the shaft centerline at a constant angular speed, . The reader should recall that the shaft and cylinder block are connected through a set of splines that run parallel to the shaft. If the machine is operating as a pump, the shaft drives the cylinder block. If the machine is operating as a motor, the cylinder block drives the shaft. During this rotational motion, each piston periodically passes over the discharge and intake ports on the port plate. Furthermore, because the slippers are held against the inclined plane of the swash plate, the pistons also undergo an oscillatory displacement in and out of the cylinder block. As the pistons pass over the intake port, the piston withdraws from the cylinder block and uid is drawn into the piston chamber. As the pistons pass over the discharge port, the piston advances into the cylinder block and uid is pushed out of the piston chamber. This motion repeats itself for each revolution of the cylinder block and the basic task of displacing uid is accomplished. The intake and discharge ow of the machine are distributed using the head component which functions as a manifold to the rest of the hydraulic system. Objectives. In this research, the diameter of the shaft within an axial-piston swash-plate type hydrostatic pump is considered from a stress point of view. To analyze the loading of the shaft, the components within the pump are studied using a force and 554 Vol. 122, DECEMBER 2000

where N is the total number of pistons within the pump. The torque on the shaft is generated by the downward component of the reaction force between the nth piston and the swash plate, multiplied by the distance of the nth piston away from the z-axis. From Fig. 2, it can be seen that the piston is located a distance away from the z-axis by the expression, r cos( n), where r is the piston pitch radius and n is the circular position of the nth piston. Multiplying this distance by the right hand side of Eq. 1 yields the following result for the torque exerted on the shaft by the nth piston: T n R n sin r cos
n

(3)

Summing these torques for all pistons within the pump yields the following result for the total torque exerted on the shaft
N

T
n 1

R n sin

r cos

(4)

Note: Figure 3 serves to graphically illustrate the total downward force given by Eq. 2 and the total torque given by Eq. 4 . Figure 3 will be discussed later. Piston Reaction. The reaction between the nth piston and the swash plate may be determined by summing the forces which are acting on the piston in the x-direction and setting them equal to

Fig. 2 Force and torque diagram for loads exerted on the shaft

## Transactions of the ASME

scribed by the piston pressure prole which is shown in Fig. 3. In this gure, the pressure is shown by the outside prole around the port plate. The downward reaction forces between the pistons and the swash plate are graphically shown in Fig. 3 as well for an instantaneous position of the cylinder block. In Fig. 3 it can be seen that the piston pressure remains constant over the intake and discharge ports of the pump P d or P i and that the piston pressure changes smoothly from one pressure to the other as the piston crosses top or bottom dead center. The average angular displacement over which the pressure transition occurs is shown by the angular dimension, . This dimension is commonly referred to as the pressure carry-over angle because it describes how far the pressure is carried over at the top and bottom dead centers. Using Fig. 3, a discontinuous expression for the approximate pressure within the nth piston chamber may be written as Pd Pn
Fig. 3 Piston pressure prole

/2
n

n n n n

/2 3 /2 , (8)

Pd m Pi Pi m

/2 3 /2

/2 /2 3 /2

/2 3 /2

the pistons time rate-of-change of linear momentum. Writing this equation, and rearranging terms, yields the following result for the reaction force between the nth piston and the swash plate: Rn M px n P nA p , cos (5)

where m ( P d P i )/ . The motive for presenting this result is that it can be used analytically in this work. For a more accurate prediction of this quantity, a numerical solution for the uid pressure within the nth piston chamber must be sought; and, the reader is referred to previous research 4 for a suggested method of solving the numerical problem. Average Force and Torque. The general expressions for the downward force and torque exerted on the shaft are given in Eqs. 2 and 4 . These equations describe the instantaneous loads that are exerted on the shaft which tend to oscillate at certain dominant frequencies depending upon the number of pistons within the pump and the rotational speed of the shaft. If the pump is designed with a sufciently large number of pistons, the amplitude of the oscillations can be reduced and the frequency of the oscillations can be increased. In general, it should be noted that, for a 9-piston pump, the amplitude of the oscillations which occur for the instantaneous downward-force are less than 10% of the average force while the amplitude of the oscillations which occur for the instantaneous torque are less than 1.5% of the average torque. Again, the size of these amplitudes will vary depending upon the number of pistons which are used in the pump design. If it is assumed that the oscillatory effects of the instantaneous force and torque are small compared to their average effects, then the oscillatory effects may be neglected and the average force and torque may be used to consider the loading of the shaft. Using Eqs. 2 and 4 , the average quantities of force and torque may be computed using the integral-averaging technique. This technique yields the following general forms: F N 2 N 2
2 2

where M p is the mass of a single piston, x n is the pistons accel eration in the x-direction, P n is the uid pressure within the nth piston chamber, and A p is the pressurized area of a single piston. Piston Kinematics. From Fig. 2, it can be seen that the position of the nth piston-slipper ball joint in the x-direction is described by the equation x n r tan sin
n

(6)

Differentiating this equation twice with respect to time yields the nth pistons acceleration in the x-direction. This result is given by xn r tan
2

sin

(7)

where is the angular speed of the pump shaft. Note: in Eq. 7 the swash-plate angle, , and the angular speed of the pump, , are assumed to be constants. Piston Pressure. A remaining quantity of interest for this analysis is the uid pressure within the nth piston chamber which is denoted by the symbol, P n . To begin this sub-topic, it should be noted that previous research has addressed the complex problem of evaluating the uid pressure within a single piston chamber 4 . In this research, a model for describing the uid pressure within the nth piston chamber was presented; and, due to the non-analytical nature of the model, a numerical solution was generated. In these studies, it was observed that the piston pressure remained essentially constant while the piston transversed directly over one of the ports; but, when the piston crossed over from one port to another it would occasionally experience pressure spikes in the transition zone. It was determined that these spikes result when the volumetric compression or expansion of the chamber exceeds the ow capacity of the uid, which either enters or exits the piston chamber depending upon the direction of ow potential. It was also determined that the pressure spikes could be eliminated by altering the geometry of the port-plate slotting or by operating at adequately high enough pressures. Since industry typically designs port plates to avoid creating pressure spikes in the piston chamber, it is reasonable to assume that the pressurespike conditions rarely occur and that smooth transitions between ports are most commonly observed. If this is the case, then the pressure within the nth piston chamber may be graphically deJournal of Mechanical Design

R n sin
0

, (9)

R n sin
0

r cos

Substituting the results of Eqs. 5 , 7 , and 8 into Eq. 9 , and performing the discontinuous integration of the pressure terms, yields the following results for the average force and torque exerted on the shaft: F NA p P d P i tan 2 , T NA p P d P i r tan . (10) Note: these results have been linearized for small values of . It is interesting to observe that these results are completely independent of the piston mass, M p , and the angular speed of the shaft, , which says that the average effects of piston inertia on the DECEMBER 2000, Vol. 122 555

quantities of shaft force and torque are zero. In fact, this is true for any arrangement of pistons; however, if the pistons are spaced evenly within a circular array about the centerline of the shaft, it can be shown that the instantaneous and average effects of the piston inertia are identically zero. This may be proven by using the instantaneous forms of Eqs. 2 and 4 with the Lagrange trigonometric identities 5 . Note: unlike a centrifugal pump, the torque exerted on the shaft of a hydrostatic pump is independent of the angular shaft speed. This is because the discharge pressure within a hydrostatic pump is generated by compressing the uid as opposed to a centrifugal pump that uses the Bernoulli trade-off between uid velocity and pressure. If it is assumed that the discharge pressure of the pump, P d , is much, much greater than the intake pressure, P i , then the intake pressure may be ignored and the average force and torque results may be written as F 1 NA p P max tan 2 , T r NA p P max tan , (11)

F M 1 L2

x , L1 L2

M 2 L1 1 F T2 , T

x L1 L2 T3 , T

M 3 0, (12)

T 1 0,

where M 1 , M 2 , and M 3 are the internal bending-moments in Regions 1, 2, and 3 respectively, and T 1 , T 2 , and T 3 are the torques exerted on the shaft in these same regions. Note: in these equations x is the distance along the shaft beginning from the left bearing reaction. Average Load Point. The instantaneous load point for the downward force, F, along the x-axis relative to the origin of the coordinate system shown in Fig. 2 is given by the centroidal expression X 1 Fn
N 1

F nx n ,

(13)

where P d has been replaced by a maximum discharge pressure, P max , since this is the quantity of interest in this research. Internal Bending-Moment and Torque Diagrams. Figure 4 shows a free-body-diagram of the shaft with the average force and torque loads applied as shown in Eq. 11 and with the support bearing reactions. In this gure, it is shown that there are three regions along the shaft which experience different types of loading. In Region 1, the shaft experiences an internal bending moment due to the downward force, F ; but, there is no torque exerted in this section of the shaft since the torque loads are applied only between the cylinder-block spline and the input spline of the shaft. In Region 2, there is an internal bending-moment acting on the shaft plus a torque load resulting from the input torque to the pump, . In Region 3, there is no internal bendingT moment; however, the torque load continues to exist in this area due to the input torque on the shaft. Using Fig. 4, it can be shown that the internal bending-moment and the torque within each main region of the shaft are given by the following expressions:

where F n , F, and x n are given in Eqs. 1 , 2 , and 6 respectively. Rearranging terms and taking the integral average of both sides of the equation yields the following expression:
2 2

FXd
0

n 0

F nx nd

A p tan2

r Pd Pi

. (14)

Since and are much less than one, it can be seen that the right hand side of Eq. 14 is small and perhaps negligible. Since F is clearly not small, the only way for Eq. 14 to be satised is for the centroidal dimension, X, to be small or nearly zero. If we assume that X is zero, then we can say that the average load point for the downward force, , is located at the origin of the x, y, z F coordinate system as shown in Fig. 2. Another way of describing this point is to notice that there is a plane which always contains the centers of the piston-slipper ball joints. The average load point is then located at the intersection of this plane and the centerline of the shaft. By placing the load point in this position, the dimensions L 1 and L 2 shown in Fig. 4 can be determined based upon the load carrying points of the right and left bearings.

Governing Shaft-Equation
Goodman Line. Figure 5 shows a schematic of the Goodman line. This diagram is based upon experiments which have indicated that a uctuating applied stress, comprised of a mean and an alternating component, tends to reduce the life of the shaft compared to a steady applied stress which is only comprised of a mean component. If a combination of mean and alternating stresses are applied to the shaft, experiments have shown that they should exist below the Goodman line if the shaft is to exhibit an innite life. The Goodman line of Fig. 5 is shown for a generalized situation where the desired safety factor of ones calculation, n f , can be chosen. The equation of the Goodman line may be expressed by
a

Sf nf

Sf S ut

(15)

where a is the von Mises alternating stress component, m is the von Mises mean stress component, S f is the fatigue strength of the material, and S ut is the ultimate tensile strength of the material. The von Mises stress is dened as a uniaxial tensile stress that creates the same distortion energy as the actual combination of applied stresses. For a two dimensional stress state which is combined of only one normal stress and a shear stress, the von Mises equivalent stress is shown in Fig. 6 and the mean and alternating components of this stress may be separately expressed as
Fig. 4 Internal bending moment and torque diagrams for the shaft
2 a

2 a

and

2 m

2 m,

(16)

## Transactions of the ASME

Similarly, the alternating and mean components of stress on the surface of the shaft in Region 2 may be written as
2a

kf

32M 2 d3 2
2m

2m

0, (19)

2a

0,

k f sm

16T d3 2

where M 2 is the internal moment on the shaft which is described in Eq. 12 , d 2 is the shaft diameter at the location of interest within Region 2, k f s m is the mean shear-stress fatigue concentration-factor, and is the shaft torque shown in Eq. 11 . T Using Eq. 16 , it can be seen that the von Mises equivalent stresses in Region 2 may be written as
2a

## Fig. 5 Goodman line based upon experiments

kf

32M 2 d3 2

and

2m

k f sm

16T d3 2

).

(20)

Again, the alternating and mean components of stress on the surface of the shaft in Region 3 may be written as
3a

0,

3m

0, (21) 16T d3 3 ,

3a

0,

3m

k f sm

where, d 3 is the shaft diameter at the location of interest within Region 3. Using Eq. 16 , it can be seen that the von Mises equivalent stresses in Region 3 may be written as
3a

0 and

3m

k f sm

16T d3 3

).

(22)

Shaft Equations. By substituting Eqs. 18 , 20 , and 22 into Eq. 15 , and by using the results of Eqs. 11 and 12 , the minimum shaft diameter for the three main sections of the shaft may be written as
Fig. 6 Equivalent von Mises stress in two dimensions

d1 d2 kf L1 1 Sf d3 where

kf

L2 x S f L1 L2 x L1 L2 k f sm r ) S ut

1/3

, r ) S ut
1/3

where a and a are the alternating normal and shear components of the actual stress state and m and m are the mean normal and shear components of the actual stress state. Shaft Stresses. The maximum applied stresses on the surface of the shaft are different for the three main sections of the shaft as shown in Fig. 4. In Region 1, the only stresses on the shaft surface are due to bending and, because the shaft is rotating, these stresses are alternating about a mean value of zero. In Region 2, the stresses on the shaft surface result from the alternating bending stress and the mean torsional stress due to the shaft torque. In Region 3, the only stresses in the shaft are the mean torsional stresses. For Region 1, the alternating and mean components of stress may be written as
1a

k f sm
1/3

(23)

(24)

## Stress Concentration Factors

Equation 23 shows results that depend upon the stress concentration factors, k f and k f s m . These factors are used to account for the stress concentrations which occur along the shaft at crosssections where the smooth contour of the shaft is disrupted. Examples of such disruptions include grooves for o-ring seals, steps for bearings, notches for key-ways, or splines for the cylinderblock interface. At these locations of abrupt geometry change, the actual stresses may be two to three times what would normally be characterized by a smooth shaft with no disruptions. Stress concentration-factors for typical geometries have been studied and collected in standard textbooks. See Norton 6 , Spotts and Shoup 7 , or Shigley and Mitchell 8 for tables of stress concentrationfactors. These references show that reasonable values for stress concentration factors range between 1 and 3. Note: these factors are dimensionless. In general, the value of a stress concentration factor depends upon the notch radius and its depth; and, even DECEMBER 2000, Vol. 122 557

kf
1a

32M 1 d3 1 0,

,
1m

1m

0, (17)

0,

where k f is a stress fatigue concentration-factor, M 1 is the internal moment on the shaft which is described in Eq. 12 , and d 1 is the shaft diameter at the location of interest within Region 1. Using Eq. 16 , it can be seen that the von Mises equivalent stresses in Region 1 may be written as
1a

kf

32M 1 d3 1

and

1m

0.

(18)

## Journal of Mechanical Design

more importantly, it depends upon the actual diameter of the cross section being examined. Since the dependency of k f and k f s m on the shaft diameters d 1 , d 2 , and d 3 is typically nonlinear, there is not a closed-form solution for Eq. 23 in the vicinity of a stress concentration. From Eq. 23 it can be seen that the presence of a stress concentration requires that the shaft diameter be designed larger than it normally would be if the stress concentration was absent. By ignoring stress concentrations i.e., setting k f and k f s m equal to unity a minimum requirement for the shaft diameter, from a stress point of view, may be established along the entire length of the shaft. The user of these results must keep in mind, however, that in the vicinity of an abrupt geometry change, the actual shaft diameter may need to be 10 to 40 percent larger depending upon the physical characteristics of the stress concentration itself.

## Discussion and Conclusions

This paper has presented equations that may be used to design the shaft diameter for an axial-piston swash-plate type hydrostatic pump for the purposes of preventing a fatigue failure. From the physical loads that are generated on the shaft, it is clear that three regions which are characterized by differently applied stresses can be identied. For this reason, three governing results are presented in Eq. 23 for designing the shaft diameter within each major region of the shaft. Within each of these results, a common load function, , appears which describes the severity of the loading and thereby tends to drive the diameter of the shaft from a fatigue failure point of view. In the results of this work, the effect of stress concentrations along the shaft have been neglected by setting the stress concentration-factors, k f and k f s m , equal to unity. In general, it has been noted that these factors are determined based upon the nal geometry of the shaft and that they can cause the required diameter of the shaft to increase in the notched areas by as much as 10 to 40% depending upon the severity of the geometry change. Stress concentration factors can be reduced in magnitude by using a large radius to make the geometry changes more gradual. Note: since this is a fatigue analysis, all stress concentrations should be rigorously considered before the design is nalized. See the standard text books in the References section of this paper for tables of stress concentration factors. Within axial-piston pumps, it is often desirable to make the shaft as thin as possible for the purposes of reducing the overall pump size. Equation 23 shows that from a stress point of view, the diameter of the shaft may be reduced by increasing the material strength properties, S f and S ut . This may be accomplished by heat treating the shaft appropriately and by using a steel with sufcient carbon content for achieving the desired strength. A common steel used for shaft design is SAE 4140. When this material is quenched and tempered at 200C, the ultimate tensile strength of the material may get as high as 1,800 MPa and the associated fatigue strength will be roughly half of the ultimate tensile strength. Though heat treating the shaft may increase its strength and cause it to be less susceptible to a fatigue failure, the designer should remember that heat treating a shaft does not alter the shafts modulus of elasticity, E, and therefore, for the same shaft geometry, the deection characteristics stay the same. The reader will recall that the deection of the shaft in the z-direction is given by the following governing equation: d 2z dx 2 M x EI x , (25)

Results
Solutions to Eq. 23 are graphically represented in Fig. 7 for three different fatigue safety-factors: n f 1, 2, and 3. In these solutions, the fatigue strength of the shaft material, S f , has been set equal to 350 MPa, the ultimate tensile strength of the shaft material, S ut , has been set equal to 700 MPa, the concentration factors k f and k f s m have been set equal to unity, the maximum operating pressure, P max , has been set equal to 42 MPa, and other geometrical features have been used from a standard pump design which is typically shown in Fig. 1. The pump parameters that were used in the calculations of Eq. 23 are given in the Appendix. The contour lines in Fig. 7 illustrate the minimum shaft diameter that is needed along the shaft to satisfy the specied safety factor against fatigue failure. Note: these contour lines are a minimum diameter. As shown in Fig. 7, larger diameters exist in certain locations along the actual shaft and this means that the shaft is stronger than it needs to be in these areas. Though these larger diameters are not needed for strength, they may be needed for other mechanical functions like, tting into a standard-size bearing or, guiding a cylinder block spring which wraps around the shaft. As one would expect, a fatigue safety-factor of 1 yields the smallest required shaft diameter while a fatigue safety-factor of 3 yields the largest required shaft diameter. The magnied portion of Fig. 7 shows a critical region along the shaft where a fatigue failure could possibly occur. From this view, it can be seen that the current shaft is designed at best with a safety factor of 2 against a fatigue failure. The actual stress concentration within this region may cause the design to be nearly unacceptablethis would have to be checked using stress concentration studies for the particular geometry shown. Another critical region is shown to be the customer end of the pump where the right-hand-side of the shaft is actually coupled to a motor. Here we see that the shaft must be designed to withstand the mean torsional stress created by the input torque, . Again, this region appears to be T marginal for a safety factor of 2 and is clearly unacceptable for a safety factor of 3.

where M (x ) is the internal bending moment of the shaft and I(x ) is the area moment of inertia given by I x d x 64
2

(26)

## Fig. 7 Diameter proles required for three different factors of safety

where d(x ) is the shaft diameter at the location x along the shaft. Note: both the internal bending moment and the area moment of inertia are shown in Eq. 25 to vary explicitly with the axial location along the shaft, x . The internal bending moment of the shaft, M (x ), may be evaluated without knowing the diameter of the shaft itself and, in fact, this information is shown in Fig. 4. On the other hand, the shaft diameter must be known a priori before the area moment of inertia, I(x ), may be determined. By reducing the shaft diameter, the area moment of inertia will also decrease and the shaft deection will increase. If the shaft deection increases too much, the deection itself may become the critical issue in designing the shaft diameter rather than the applied stress. Excessive shaft deections can cause the support bearings and the cylinder-block spline interface to wear adversely. If the shaft deections are unreasonable, they may cause the cylinder-block to tip away from the port plate in which case the Transactions of the ASME

## 558 Vol. 122, DECEMBER 2000

machine cannot function properly. The reader should note that the work of this paper only addresses the shaft diameter from a stress point of view. It is recommended that a shaft-deection study by done prior to completing the shaft design and that these studies be viewed in light of the published limits from bearing manufacturers regarding misalignment and the functional requirements of the machine.

T 1,2,3 T Tn X x xn

Appendix
Ap L1 L2 L3 789 mm 156 mm 107 mm 134 mm
2

N 9 r 67 mm 0.297 rad
n a

Nomenclature
Ap d 1,2,3 E F F FA FB Fn I kf k f sm L 1,2,3 Mp M 1,2,3 m N n nf Pd Pi P max Pn Rn r Sf S ut T pressurized area of a single piston shaft diameter at a location of interest within Region 1, 2, or 3 modulus of elasticity for steel instantaneous load exerted on the shaft by all pistons within the pump average load exerted on the shaft by all pistons within the pump left bearing reaction right bearing reaction downward force acting on the shaft from the nth piston area moment of inertia stress fatigue concentration-factor mean shear-stress fatigue concentration-factor length of the shaft in Region 1, 2, or 3 mass of a single piston internal bending-moment in Region 1, 2, or 3 pressure transition slope on the valve plate total number of pistons within the pump piston counter; i.e., the nth piston fatigue safety factor discharge pressure of the pump intake pressure of the pump maximum discharge pressure of the pump uid pressure within the nth piston chamber reaction force between the nth piston and the swash plate piston pitch-radius fatigue strength of the shaft material ultimate tensile strength of the shaft material instantaneous torque exerted on the shaft by all pistons within the pump

a m m 1,2,3 a 1,2,3 m

torque on the shaft in Region 1, 2, or 3 average torque exerted on the shaft by all pistons within the pump torque exerted on the shaft by a single piston centroidal position of the downward force acting on the shaft distance along the shaft relative to the left bearing reaction-point position of the nth piston-slipper ball joint in the x-direction swash-plate angle pressure carry-over angle on the valve plate circular position of the nth piston alternating component of normal stress von Mises alternating stress component mean component of normal stress von Mises mean stress component alternating component of normal stress in Regions 1, 2, or 3 mean component of normal stress in Regions 1, 2, or 3 von Mises alternating stress component in Regions 1, 2, or 3 von Mises mean stress component in Regions 1, 2, or 3 alternating component of shear stress mean component of shear stress alternating component of shear stress in Regions 1, 2, or 3 mean component of shear stress in Regions 1, 2, or 3 load function for the shaft shaft speed of the pump

1,2,3 a

## 1,2,3 m a m 1,2,3 a 1,2,3 m

References
1 ANSI/ASME Standard, 1985, Design of Transmission Shafting, B106.1M 2 Loewenthal, S. H., 1978, Proposed Design Procedure for Transmission Shafting Under Fatigue Loading, Technical Note TM-78927. NASA. 3 Kececioglu, D. B., and Lalli, V. R., 1975, Reliability Approach to Rotating Component Design, Technical Note TN D-7846. NASA. 4 Manring, N. D., 1998, The torque on the input shaft of an axial-piston swashplate type hydrostatic pump. ASME J. Dyn. Syst., Meas., Control, 120, pp. 5762. 5 Damtew, F. A., 1998, The Design of Piston-bore Springs for Overwhelming Inertial Effects Within Axial-piston Swash-plate Type Hydrostatic Machines, M.S. Thesis. University of MissouriColumbia, Columbia, MO. 6 Norton, R. L., 1998, Machine DesignAn Integrated Approach, Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. 7 Spotts, M. F., and Shoup, T. E., 1998, Design of Machine Elements, 7th ed. Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. 8 Shigley, J. E., and Mitchell, L. D., 1983, Mechanical Engineering Design, 4th ed., McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, NY.