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1 Massachusetts Institute of Technology - Prof. de Weck and Prof. Willcox

MSDO Framework

today

Design Vector Simulation Model Discipline A Discipline B Objective Vector

x1 x2 xn

Coupling

J1 J2 Jz

Coupling

2

Todays Topics

Definitions of Modeling and Simulation - physics-based modeling - empirical modeling Model/Simulation Development Process - module identification - module ordering: DSMs and N2 diagrams - module coding: fidelity and benchmarking - model execution = simulation Computational Issues - coupling disparate CAE/CAD tools

3

Definitions

Definitions

Definition: Model

(as used in this class)

A model is a mathematical object that has the ability to predict the behavior of a real system under a set of defined operating conditions and simplifying assumptions.

Simulation is the process of exercising a model for a particular instantiation of the system and specific set of inputs in order to predict the system response.

System

Experiment with Actual System Experiment with Model of System

Physical Model

Mathematical Model

Analytical Solution

Simulation

Law & Kelton (2000), Simulation Modeling and Analysis 3rd ed., McGraw-Hill, Inc.

6 Massachusetts Institute of Technology - Prof. de Weck and Prof. Willcox

The following chart includes additional detail to emphasize the factors that differentiate a model and a simulation Simulation/Model Factors: Real World Variability Reaction to Events

Models should not include all the details for all purposes

They quickly become unwieldy & expensive

7 Massachusetts Institute of Technology - Prof. de Weck and Prof. Willcox

Analysis Methods

Purpose:

System

Experiment with Actual System Experiment with Model of System

Physical Model

Mathematical Model

Law & Kelton (2000), Simulation Modeling and Analysis 3rd ed., McGraw-Hill, Inc.

8

Start Process Define Master Table DSM Diagram

Code Modules

Integrate Modules

10

This is how we want system to behave Define Objectives J Define Design Variables x Things about system we can change Define Constraints and Bounds g, h Must satisfy this Determine important fixed parameters p Fixed, outside our

Influence Matrix

x1 Ji

gj

11

+

o

xn o

+

+

+

+ influence

o no influence

model relationships

Massachusetts Institute of Technology - Prof. de Weck and Prof. Willcox

Start with governing equations Continuum Mechanics for physical systems Introduce Boundary Conditions Introduce Initial Conditions External forcing functions Discretize system

12

Governing Equations

Continuum (Structural) Mechanics

x xy y zy xz yz y

yx zx

stress tensor

F3

F1

F2

u x

strain

Fi

x

13

0 E x

dx' dx dx

Mx Cx Kx

Geometry Connectivity Material Properties Boundary Conditions Loads

F

Mass and Inertia Matrix

Z X Y

Natural Frequencies Mode Shapes

14

Transient

Empirical Modeling

Derive a model, not from physics and first principles, but from observation, i.e. data Usually leads to low order models Only valid under similar operating conditions Many cost models are of this nature

15

Engi ne Si z e v s . HP 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 0. 0 2. 0 4. 0 6. 0

In-line engine image removed due to copyright restrictions. Animation can be found at HowStuffWorks.com.

Hor s epower

Engi ne Si z e ( Li t er s )

Linear Regression

HP = 51.48*ED + 23.12

16

HP

ED

What to do when system is new - no experience ? First define black boxes or modules based on: disciplinary tradition, degree of coupling of governing equations or availability of analysis software Crisply define inputs and outputs of each module

Ref: Rogers, J.L.: A Knowledge-Based Tool for Multilevel Decomposition of a Complex Design Problem, NASA TP2903, 1989

17 Massachusetts Institute of Technology - Prof. de Weck and Prof. Willcox

Partitioning of Equations

E1 E2

x1 x2 2 x3 2 0 x2 3x5 9 0 x1 x4 x5 x2 x5

X1 X2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

1. Solve x2,x5 from E2 and E4 2. Solve x4 from E5 3. Solve x1 and x3 from E3 and E1

E3

E4 E5

x3 10 0 x2 9 0

X4 X5

9 x5 3 x2 7 0 x2 x4

X3 1 1 1 1 1

X2 E2 E4 E5 E3 E1 1 1 1 1

X5 1 1 1 1

X4

X1

X3

E1 E2 E3 E4 E5

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.

Occurrence matrix showing the system of equations partitioned into three subsets

Module Definition

What is a module in MSDO ?

A module in multidisciplinary system design optimization is a finite group of tightly coupled mathematical relationships who are under the responsibility of a particular individual or organization, and where some variables represent independent inputs while others are dependent outputs. The module frequently appears as a black box to other individuals or organizations .

x1 ... xn

19

Module A

y1 ... ym

A module within a simulation architecture may be defined as a piece of computer code which:

Performs a compact set of calculations. Contains a single entry point and exit point. May be tested in isolation.

High internal coupling within the module

All sub-functions within the module contribute to form a single primary function.

Minimize the number of variables that flow between modules.

Data flow is processed sequentially from input to output.

20

Info fed to upstream (feedback) Info coming from upstream (feed-forward)

Input Output

Module i

Input

Output

21

Module Example

sensors actuators (e.g. CMGs) pointing requirement vehicle inertia matrix disturbance torques

I

d

Output

Attitude Control

Output

Input

Example: Spacecraft Design

22

The N2 Diagram

An NxN matrix used to develop and organize interface information. Similar to a Design Structure Matrix (DSM) Each module within the simulation architecture is placed along the diagonal. Provides a visual representation of the flow of information through the simulation architecture. Helps to identify critical modules that have many inputs and outputs. The fidelity of critical modules should be thoroughly tested and verified. Explicitly defines all inputs and outputs for macro-modules and modules. Allows for plug and play

Independent testing Alternative modules easily analyzed Can increase overall model fidelity incrementally

23

feedforward

Execution sequence goes from upper left corner to lower right corner

feedback

24

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.

Ordered sequence

The Need

Identify coupling between discipline or subsystems in a complex system.

The Solution

Automatic identification of subsystems based on interdependence of design variable and constraints.

25

TMAS N-Squared Diagram

Design Const. Env. Apert. Vector Vector Module Conf. Module Spacecraft Payload and Bus Module Dynamics, Control, & Stability Module Deployment & Operations Module GINA Systems Analysis Module

Design Vector 1 2,3,4 2,4 1,2,3 2,3,4 2,3 1 2,3,4 2,3,4 1,2,3,4 3 1 1,2,3 1,2 2 2,3,4 1,2,3,4 Architecture Constants Vector 11 2 2,3 3 1,2 4 13,14 14,31 15,16 11,32-40 3 5 to 11 2,12 all Environment 1 1,2,3 Aperture Configuration 1 1 1 1 Payload 3,4 1,2 1,2 Power 1,6 6,7 6,7 2,3 2,3,5,6 Thermal 1,4 4 Propulsion 3 6 Communications 5 1 to 8,10 6 Structure 6,10 3,4,5 6,9 6 Sub-Modules Truss Design 1,2 1 Design Vector State-Space Plant Model 1,2 1 Architecture Constants Vector Attitude Determination and Control Environment Model Integration 3 Aperture Configuration Performance Assesment 1 Payload Orbit Transit1,2,3 4 Power Launch 2 Thermal Operations 2 1 Propulsion Capability 7,8,9 Communications Performance 4 Structure Cost 6 Truss Design Cost Per Function 1 State-Space Plant Model Adaptability Attitude Determination and Control Model Integration Performance Assesment Orbit Transit Launch Operations Capability Performance Cost Cost Per Function Adaptability

Inputs

Outputs

m-file

Outputs

Inputs

26

Coding - Benchmarking

Coding of modules can be done in parallel, once the I/O structure has been decided Use dummy input data to exercise modules in isolation Integrate modules step-by-step starting from upper left corner in N2-Diagram Do end-to-end simulation test before release Benchmark (validate) simulation against known cases (experimental data)

27 Massachusetts Institute of Technology - Prof. de Weck and Prof. Willcox

Recap

Start Process Define Master Table DSM Diagram

Code Modules

Integrate Modules

28

Example

de Weck, O. L. and Chang D., Architecture Trade Methodology for LEO Personal Communication Systems , 20th International Communications Satellite Systems Conference, Paper No. AIAA-2002-1866, Montral, Qubec, Canada, May 12-15, 2002

29

Design (Input) Vector

Simulator

Can we quantify the conceptual system design problem using modeling and simulation?

30 Massachusetts Institute of Technology - Prof. de Weck and Prof. Willcox

The design variables are:

Astrodynamics Satellite Design Network Constellation Type: C Orbital Altitude: h Minimum Elevation Angle: Satellite Transmit Power: Pt Antenna Size: Da Multiple Access Scheme MA:

min

Design Space

Polar, Walker 500,1000,1500,2000 2.5,7.5,12.5 1.0,2.0,3.0 MF-TDMA, MF-CDMA [km] [deg] [m] [-]

200,400,800,1600,2400 [W]

C: h: emin: Pt: DA: MA: ISL: 'walker' 2000 12.5000 2400 3 'MFCD' 0

yes, no

[-]

X1440=

31

Performance (fixed)

Data Rate per Channel: R=4.8 [kbps] J1440= Bit-Error Rate: pb=10-3 Link Fading Margin: 16 [dB]

Consider

Cs: Clife: LCC: CPF: 1.4885e+005 1.0170e+011 6.7548e+009 6.6416e-002

Capacity

Cs: Number of simultaneous duplex channels Clife: Total throughput over life time [min]

Cost

Lifecycle cost of the system (LCC [$]), includes:

Research, Development, Test and Evaluation (RDT&E) Satellite Construction and Test Launch and Orbital Insertion Operations and Replenishment

32 Massachusetts Institute of Technology - Prof. de Weck and Prof. Willcox

Constants Input p x Vector Vector

msat

Spacecraft

h,

min

Constellation

msat

Launch Module

LV

Cost

T, p

ISL

Pt , Da , MA

nspot

Satellite Network

nGW

Link Budget

LCC

Rs

Capacity

Cs

33

nspot Number of spot beams nGW Number of gateways LV Launch vehicle selection

Output J Vector

Massachusetts Institute of Technology - Prof. de Weck and Prof. Willcox

Governing Equations

a) Physics-Based Models Energy per bit over noise ratio:

Eb N0

PG r G t kL space L add.Tsys.R

(Link Budget)

b) Empirical Models

msat

38 0.14 Pt

mprop

0.51

(Spacecraft)

Scaling models derived from FCC database

34

Benchmarking

Benchmarking is the process of validating a model or simulation by comparing the predicted response against reality.

Benchmarking Result 1: Simultaneous channels of the constellation

Number of simultaneous channels of the constellation

Lifecycle cost (billion $)

6.00 5.00 4.00 3.00 2.00 1.00 0.00 1 Iridium Iridium and Globalstar 2 Globalstar actual or planned simulated

1 Iridium

2 Globalstar

Number of satellites in the constellation

70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Iridium 1 Globalstar 2 Orbcomm 3 SkyBridge 4 actual or planned simulated

Iridium 1

Globalstar 2

Orbcomm 3

SkyBridge 4

35

Simulation Results

10

Iridium actual

Iridium simulated Globalstar actual Globalstar simulated

Pareto Front

10

10

10

10

10

10

36 Massachusetts Institute of Technology - Prof. de Weck and Prof. Willcox

37

Design of a geosynchronous communications satellite

Satellite

Earth

S

t

Pbus

Ground Station

Main Lobe

D

Antenna Bus Solar Panel

r = 6378 [km]

38

Design problem (Define D.V., objectives, constraints): How should antenna (D) and solar array (A) be sized for a given orbital period (p) such that a data rate requirement (R=Rreq) is met, while minimizing cost (C) ?

Massachusetts Institute of Technology - Prof. de Weck and Prof. Willcox

Objective: min C , Constraint: R>=Rreq

Communications: Power:

D t Pt 2 16S

avg

4

[bps]

(link budget)

Pt

A AWo cos

p 1.66 10

Pbus

3/ 2

(power budget)

[W]

Orbits: Cost:

S rE

(orbital period)

[min]

2500 D

10 P t [W]

[$]

Bus Engineering:

39

P bus

(cost budget)

D A p R C Pt Antenna Diameter Solar Panel Area Orbital Period Data Rate Cost Transmitter Power [m] [m2] [min] [bps] [$] [W] design var. design var. design var. constraint objective dependent

40

Pbus Bus Power Sun incidence angle a array/xmit efficiencies a,t, S Orbital altitude constant Wo Solar constant

Input Vector x D

A p

BLOCK DIAGRAM

A

Power

Cost

Pt

D

Pbus

Orbits

Bus Comm

Output Vector

C R

p

41

Comsat N2 Diagram

In p Orbits D S Comm Pt Powe r Pbus Pt Bus Pbus Cost C R A D,A

Out

42

iterative block

Massachusetts Institute of Technology - Prof. de Weck and Prof. Willcox

Computational Implementation

43

Computational Issues

Computer technologies have been changing the environment of engineering design - enabling MDO Hardware: Advances in processor speed, memory and storage Software: Powerful disciplinary analysis and simulation programs (e.g. Nastran, Fluent )

This also creates new difficulties: Most activities involve stand-alone programs and many engineers spend 50-80% of their time organizing data and moving it back-and-forth between applications

Data must be shared between disciplines more easily

44 Massachusetts Institute of Technology - Prof. de Weck and Prof. Willcox

Case 1: Within one application on the same computer

Application

in

in

B B

A C

B E D

out

*

D

* *

E

out

* Interface files

45 Massachusetts Institute of Technology - Prof. de Weck and Prof. Willcox

Case 3: In a LAN or WAN environment

Owner A Owner C

A B B

in

Map out

#

E

46

Owner B

# Server

Owner G

Modeling-Simulation Environments

Integrated Modeling & Simulation ICEMaker

Write functions and integrate via Master script MATLAB, Mathematica are popular environments Developed at Caltech/JPL linked spreadsheets (client server)

Client-server enterprise system Targeted at the corporate environment Phoenix Integration Flagship Product Desktop Integration Environment

47

Lecture Summary

Follow a logical model & simulation development process, dont forget benchmarking Decomposition is crucial in order to facilitate code integration and coupling N2/DSM Matrix is useful tool to organize data Minimize the number of feedback loops

48

Rogers, James L.: DeMAID/GA User's Guide - Design Manager's Aid for Intelligent Decomposition with a Genetic Algorithm, April 1996, NASA TM 110241. Steward, D.V., 1981, Systems Analysis and Management: Structure, Strategy, and Design, New York: Petrocelli. D.V. Steward. Partitioning and Tearing Systems of Equations, SIAM Journal of Numerical Analysis. Ser.B, vol.2, no.2, 1965, pp.345-365 de Weck, O. L. and Chang D., Architecture Trade Methodology for LEO Personal Communication Systems , 20th International Communications Satellite Systems Conference, Paper No. AIAA-2002-1866, Montral, Qubec, Canada, May 12-15, 2002 Ulrich, K.T., and S.D. Eppinger, 1995, Product Design and Development , McGraw-Hill. The Design Structure Matrix Website, http://www.dsmweb.org/

49 Massachusetts Institute of Technology - Prof. de Weck and Prof. Willcox

Spring 2010

For information about citing these materials or our Terms of Use, visit: http://ocw.mit.edu/terms.

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