THENEWYOR: BRONX NEW

LGARDEN
V

10458

THE SPANISH SERIES

GRANADA AND
THE ALHAMBRA

THE SPANISH SERIES
EDITED BY AL BER T
GOYA TOLEDO MADRID
SEVILLE
F.

CA L VER T

MURILLO CORDOVA EL GRECO
VELAZQUEZ

THE PRADO THE ESCORIAL
ROYAL PALACES OF SPAIN GRANADA AND ALHAMBRA SPANISH ARMS AND ARMOUR LEON, BURGOS AND SALAMANCA
VALLADOLID, OVIEDO, SEGOVIA ZAMORA, AVILA AND ZARAGOZA

THE ALHAMBRA
A BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE

GRANADA AND

ANCIENT CITY OF GRANADA WITH A PARTICULAR ACCOUNT OF THE MOORISH PALACE BY ALBERT F. CALVERT WITH 460 ILLUSTRATIONS

LONDON JOHN LANE, THE BODLEY HEAD NEW YORK: JOHN LANE COMPANY MCMVII
:

Priated by EALLANTYNE & Co. LIMITED Tavistock Street, London

TO

THE EMPRESS EUGENIE THIS SOUVENIR OF THAT FAIR GRANADAN HOME FROM WHICH SHE CARRIED THE CROWN OF SPANISH BEAUTY TO GRACE THE THRONE OF FRANCE
H.I.M.
IS

DEDICATED

IN

ACCORDANCE WITH HER MAJESTY'S
GRACIOUS PERMISSION

PREFACE TO FIRST EDITION
ALTHOUGH
the admission

may be

construed by

the censorious as betraying a lack of diffidence, I am tempted to believe

becoming that no

apology will be demanded for the publication of this volume by that section of the reading public for which it has been chiefly compiled. My even further, and I anticipate with temerity goes some confidence that visitors to the Alhambra, and pilgrims to that famous Mecca of Moorish workmanship, will recognise in this book an earnest attempt to supply a long-felt want.
paid my first visit to Granada some years was surprised and disappointed to find ago, that no such thing as an even fairly adequate
I

When

I

illustrated souvenir of this

"

city of the

dawn

'

was

to be obtained.

Many

tomes, costly and

valuable (not necessarily the same thing), have been written to place on record the wonders of " the glorious sanctuary of Spain," but these are beyond the reach of the general public. Many
beautiful pictures have caught

odd

ecstasies of

viii

PREFACE TO FIRST EDITION
superb and perfectly harmonised palace of but these impressions are not available to
is

this
art,

the ordinary tourist.

What

wanted, as

I

imagine,

is

a

concise

history and description

of the

Alhambra,

illustrated

with a series of pictures constituting a tangible remembrancer of the delights of this Granadian
paradise
"

Where

A torch

glory rests 'tween laurels, " to give thee light !

likened to an exquisite which can only be appreciated to the full opera when one is under the spell of its magic influence. But as the witchery of an inspired score can be recalled by the sound of an air whistled in the

The Alhambra may be

it is street, so my hope the pale ghost of this Moorish fairy-land may live again in the memories of travellers through the medium of

this pictorial epitome.

however, to submit an explanation or excuse for the unusual form in which this volume is issued. At the commencement of my
I

desire,

work

I

experienced no

little

difficulty in collecting

the requisite illustrations, for most of the obtainable photographs were ill-chosen and but carelessly

developed, and

I

was compelled

to press

my

own cameras into the service of my scheme. But when my designs became known, I was inundated
with offers of pictures of every description, until

. Conservator of the the son of the gifted Raphael Contreras. who spent seven years in the study of the artistic marvels of the Alhambra. I do not feel called upon to defend. Lewis's drawings. A selection of these here rescued from the obscurity of public libraries and the inaccessible fastnesses illustrations of private collections. and students . to regard their galleries as my own . and of the Alhambra. knowledge of this unique treasure-house of art and I have also laid under contribution the beautiful plates of a Owen Jones. Jones's Grammar of " beautiOrnament. which has been described as ful enough to be the horn-book of the Angels. Contreras. The inclusion of John F. and the reproduction of a series of pictures by James C. who disposed of Welsh inheritance in order to produce his great work on the Plans. who devoted thirty-seven years of his life to the restoration of the Palace his Don Mariano gave me the benefit of . Alhambra. directed my attention to little-known publications on the subject. which occupied him for the greater part of eleven is years. Artists placed their studies at my disposal collectors begged me.PREFACE TO FIRST EDITION ix the embarrassment of artistic treasures entirely upset the original purpose of my book. Murphy. Elevations." Details also contains the result of his researches in the Alhambra. with irresistible Spanish courtesy. Sections.

Dozy's history Mr. I resolved. by Don .x PREFACE TO FIRST EDITION several of which were placed Rafael Garzon. But the multiplicity of my illustrations conof vinced me that if I adhered to my idea furnishing an amount of letterpress sufficient to " carry "the blocks. Washington Irving's . The Mohammedan Dynasties in Spain. to give pride of place to the . I should only end in producing a book that would tax the physical endurance of my readers by reason of its bulk. Richard Ford's reverent appreciations Dr. Don Pascual de Gayangos . and exhaust their patience with a tedious superabundance of minute descriptive pabulum. these and many others have been drawn upon in the following pages. History of the by the learned Spanish Orientalist. containing the autographs. poems. . and The Alhambra Album. represent my disposal the buildings as they appear to-day the drawings were made before the Palace was damaged by at The photographs. fascinating writings . Raphael Contreras' Etude Descriptive des Monuments Arabes. R. authors. presented by Prince Dolgorouki in 1829. and thoughts of succeeding generations of visitors to Granada. historical portions of the description contained in the letterpress I have levied tribute For the on a variety of. 1890. therefore. the disastrous fire of September. Stanley LanePoole's The Moors in Spain.

" HAMPSTEAD. and make my appeal to the public by the beauty and variety of the illustrations I have collected. N. ROYSTON..W. press " letter- A. . F. 1904. and the immensity of elaborate which I have not written.PREFACE TO FIRST EDITION xi pictorial side of the volume . to abandon the traditions regulating the proportions of prose to pictures . C.

.

may is to be be briefly referred to. and it is not required edition own of the author to explain. the is this apologia or justification.PREFACE TO SECOND EDITION THE compilation of a book of this kind reveals in the author a refreshing optimism which does not always survive the ordeal of publication. and at the same time tradition allows him to express the feelings of gratitude and gratification that the occasion inspires. or excuse an issue for which he is not directly responsible. justify. Any revision or amplification. and it is. stands as the last word in his But the demand for a further outcome of an amiable conspiracy on the part of the public. call it and which you defence. out of sympathy with the misgivings that him as he approaches the bar of public and opinion. which found in a second impression. assail perhaps. In his preface he is permitted to explain himself. however. will. It has been my ambition to acknowledge the . that convention cedes to him the privilege of making some apology for the faith critical that is in him.

coloured pictures in this book illustrate designs which are common to the Arabian ornamentation Cordova and Seville. representative they also appear in the companion volume on to be found in Moorish Remains in Spain. as rJeing of the Moresco work of the period. my previous . and. F. C. including some half-tone and coloured plates reproduced from the Monumentos Arquitectonicos de Espana and other sources. the generous manner which the Press and public rewarded A. and by the addition of a number of new illustrations. but that the it may be stated whole of the plates reproduced here are from photographs and drawings secured or In its specially made to illustrate The Alhambra. by having the present edition produced with the greatest care on special paper.xiv PREFACE TO SECOND EDITION favour with which this book has been received. it has been ambition to make my pictorial appeal this edition as ability worthy permit. and I in of its subject as means and an offer this assurance as earnest of my sincere appreciation of effort. which I have acquired since it was first It will be seen that several of the produced.

Three years ago. though not less appreciative. I have endeavoured to condense as much detail and descriptive matter into the letterpress as the limits I had laid down for myself admitted. that the illustrations. being on a reduced scale. but embodies the results of a more critical. too. . as well as in this country. The text is no mere reprint of the matter which appeared in my former work. souvenir of the fascinating city adequate of Granada and its Red Palace. I am now enabled to present an inexpensive and. Bearing in mind. encourages me to hope that the present volume will prove a popular addition to this Spanish Series. when I published The Alhambra to supply what my own experience taught me to be a real want. survey of the last monuments of the Spanish Moor. I trust.PREFACE TO THE NEW EDITION my larger generous appreciation with which book on the Alhambra was received by both the Press and the public in Spain and America. the scale and quality of the illustrations made it impossible to issue the work at a popular price. called for fuller explanation.

and I venture to hope that the its present volume. which surpasses decessors in the to the beautiful costlier pre- number of the plates reproduced. publisher of Junghandel's Die Baukunst Spaniens. had been devoted entirely to the palace of the Alhambra. d'Auvergne for his kind and valuable assistance in the compilation of the text. permission to reproduce many of the additional photographs I am indebted to the courtesy of Don Senan y Gonzalez. all the space allotted for the But little as I liked the idea of further con- densing the letterpress.andthe new pictorial matter so acquir ed threatened to annex text. I was even less inclined neglect the opportunity of enhancing the In dealing with pictorial value of the volume. remembrancer I of its fascinating and an artistic monuments. publisher of Span ic ii nnd Portugal. and for E. if will constitute a serviceable not exhaustive guide Moorish capital. of Herr Ernst Wasmuth of Berlin. the Moorish art of Spain. in previous issues. . I have always recognised that the popular want is for pictures rather than to the printed word. have to acknowledge my obligations to Mr.xvi PREFACE TO NEW EDITION Those limits were still further encroached upon by the additional wealth of illustration which resulted from the decision to include the city of Granada in a work which. B. Uhdes Baudenkmaeler in and of Herr Eugen Twiet- meyer of Leipzig.

C.PREFACE TO NEW EDITION xvii As I have remarked in the preface to the volume on Cordova. for whose delectation they are included here. lend to the book an additional interest in the eyes of students and artists. but it has been my aim so far at to provide the last word on Moorish art least as the pictorial representation of it is con- cerned wherever I have dealt with To the general reader these tracery and elaborate detail may seem superfluous. reproductions of it A. it may be thought that in the present work I have given an excess of detail of Arabian decoration and ornament. but they will. F. I trust. in Spain. .

.

CONTENTS PAGE THE CITY OF THE MOOR THE ALHAMBRA i 25 61 THE GENERALIFE CATHOLIC GRANADA 65 .

.

.. . TITLE PLATE i 2 3 4 5 6 7 . The Palacio de Justicia .... .12 del Salon . .. La Plaza Nueva Monument to Columbus in the Paseo Sierra Nevada in the Distance . .21 . . .. .. .. .. . .. ... . .... . 5 16 .. . . . . ... .. .LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS View of Granada. . .. La Casa de Church los Tiros of Santa Ana Limoges Enamel Triptych which belonged to the Gran (Provincial Museum. .. Ger6nimo View of the Sierra Nevada from the Carrera de Angustias View of the Royal Gate View from the Tower in the Alhambra . ..10 las 9 . the . . Granada) Capitan..19 20 .. . . . .. . .. . .. . showing the Alhambra and the Sierra Nevada General View of the Alhambra View of the Alhambra from the Sacromonte Road The Alhambra from the Moor's Seat La Silla del Moro General View of the Alhambra from San Nicolas View of the Gate of Elvira A View of the Alhambra from the Albaicin (Sketch) View of the Cathedral and the Alhambra from San . .. . Altar in the Church of San Geronimo House in the Calle de Darro..11 . . ..13 14 1 The Street of the Catholic Sovereigns Arab Silk Market . . The House of Castril .. .17 18 ..

. ... Group of Gypsies A Gypsy Family Gypsies bivouacking Gypsies Gypsies clipping a Mule Gypsies Gypsies Gypsy Dance Interior of the Sacristy of the Cartuja Interior of Cartuja The Sacristy : . .24 . . .43 . . . Fa9ade of the Cathedral .. .. Upper . . . .. ... . .. . Fragment of the Altar. Boabdil giving up the Keys of Granada to the Catholic Sovereigns. The Cathedral.38 . de Borgona The Cathedral.. . Typical Gypsies and their Quarters Gypsies in Front of their Dwellings Gypsy-dwellings in the Sacromonte General View of the Gypsy Quarters Interior of a Gypsy's Cave . ...-35 .. .. . General Exterior View of the Royal Chapel Fa9ade of the Cathedral. . . 49 50 52 .39 40 . . . .. . .. . . 34 36 37 Interior of the Cartuja Church .. Exterior of the Royal Chapel General View of the Interior of the Cathedral The Cathedral. . .... General Exterior View of the Royal Chapel. 46 47 48 ...45 ..xxii GRANADA TITLE 1 . ... View of the Principal Nave The High Altar in the Cathedral Altar-piece in the Royal Chapel.. .. . . . Ancient Gothic Entrance to the Royal Chapel ...42 . General View of the Interior .. . .... ..31 .. .... Granada at the Carthusian Monas- Exterior Gate of the Royal Chapel Detail in the Royal Chapel . tery of Exterior of the Royal Chapel .... . .... . by F.. .. .. . .. ..23 PLATE 22 .. Saint Bruno. .. .. The Gate of Pardon and the Exterior of the Cathedral . .. . 44 x cirr ..51 The Inner Choir piece in the Royal Chapel of the Cathedral .25 26 27 28 29 30 32 33 . -53 -54 .. ..41 .. . . by Alonso Cano. . . .. . . . .....

. Detail of a Door in .. . ... . ... Marble Sculpture Plan of the Alhambra Palace at Granada General Plan of the Alhambra General View of the Alhambra from San Nicolas The Red Towers from the Ramparts View of the Alhambra from the Sacromonte General View of the Alhambra and Algibillo Promenade View of the Alhambra from the Cuesta del Chapiz ..84 . ....." at the Summit of the Mihrab Tower. Philip the Handsome Sceptre.......ILLUSTRATIONS TITLE xxiii PLATE The Cathedral. . Sword. 59 Dona Juana and 60 Relics of the Catholic Sovereigns Statue of Queen Isabella the Catholic Royal Chapel : Statue of Isabella the Catholic Chapel of San Miguel in the Cathedral. . ....81 the Court . Crown. erected by Yusuf I.. Tombs of the Catholic Sovereigns in the Royal Chapel View of the Royal Chapel and Tombs of the Catholic Sovereigns. . from the Homage Tower " The Queen's Dressing-room. ... and Coffer of the . by P. 76 77 78 79 80 . Mass-book. . .. . Gonzalvo Royal Chapel.. . . .. .82 83 .. ... . Tombs of Ferdinand and Isabella Vault of the Catholic Sovereigns at Granada Tombs of Ferdinand and Isabella... ..... 62 63 64 66 67 68 . . . ... 72 73 74 75 of the Myrtles The Alhambra and the Nevada Granada. .. 69 70 71 The Red Towers General View of the Alhambra The Tower of the Peaks The Infantas' Tower and Captive's Tower View of the Watch Tower and Granada View of the Ramparts and the Watch Tower The Aqueduct Tower and the Aqueduct The Gate of Justice.. . -55 56 57 58 . Dona Juana and .61 65 . . Sierra .. . . with Distant View of the Generalife The Gate of Justice. .. . . . .. . . Tombs Philip the Handsome of Ferdinand and Isabella.... . ... Catholic Sovereigns . .

. . . ... The Hall of Justice and Court of the Lions . .. .. . . . ... Height. com- monly called of Justice Elevation of the Ancient Gate of Justice Portal commonly called the Wine Gate .xxiv GRANADA The Tower of the Peaks The Captive's Tower Exterior of the Mosque... . . Section showing Heights of the Alhambra Promenades at the Entrance to the Alhambra . .104 . ... Exterior Ancient .. . Vertical Section of the Hall of Justice Details of the Hall of Justice .. ... Hall of Justice Return from Hunting The Death of the Lion at the Hands a Christian Knight . . Part of the Alhambra. the Alhambra Gate of Justice (Sketch] The Gate of Justice Plan... . .. .108 Section of the Hall of Justice (looking towards the Court of the Lions) ... . ....... i Painting on the Ceiling of the Hall of Justice.. ... .112 113 Painting on the Ceiling of the Hall of Justice. . No. .105 .. . ... ... Left Side Hall of Justice. .85 86 -87 88 Rey Chico 89 90 91 Arab Ruins in the 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 ... Private Property Tower of the Aqueduct Ascent to the Alhambra by the Cuesta del The Lesser King Hill Ladies' Tower The Homage Tower... Plan and Window of the Hall of Justice . 102.. showing Fountain of Court of the Lions 107 Section of the Hall of Justice (looking East) . TITLE . .. . Alcazaba Gate of Justice. Hall of Justice... . .....100 .. . . Porch of the Gate of Judgment Elevation of the Wine Gate Transverse Section of Part of the Alhambra . .. 3 114 Part of Picture in the Hall of Justice The Moor's . .in . 99 101 . . and Details of the Gate of the Law. . .. PLATE .109 .no . ..116 . . No. .. ..115 of .. . .106 . . . 103 .. ..

134 . . . . Ambassadors Encaustic. . . Ornament .117 Part of Picture in Hall of Justice Moorish Huntsman . . . . . Hall of Ambassadors of the Hall of . . Arab Lamp Details of in Mosque .121 . . Hall of Ambassadors Inscriptions in the Hall of Ambassadors Kufic Inscriptions.131 Cornice and Window in the Facade of the Mosque 132 Vertical Section of the Mosque . . .139 . .ILLUSTRATIONS TITLE xxv PLATE Part of Picture in the Hall of Justice representing a Christian Knight rescuing a Maiden from a wicked Magician. .119 The Mosque and Generalife . . . . . .124 . . .130 Details of Ornament of Koran Recess near the Entrance Door of the Mosque .141 . 137 . . .Woods . .123 .136 .146 .tile . . . Elevation of the Portico adjacent to the Mosque 125 Detail of the Entrance Door of the Mosque . . Window in the Hall of Ambassadors Entrance to the Hall of Ambassadors . . .118 slaying the Wild Boar Hall of Justice Three Figures from the Picture of the Moorish Tribunal . 144 . . .127 An Arched Window of the Mosque .145 . .129 The Mosque from Koran Recess . Court of the Mosque in the . . Details of the Front of the Mosque of the Harem . . . . . . . . . . .120 .142 143 . . . . .122 . . . Ambassadors Ornament in Panels. . Court of the Mosque Fa$ade of the Mosque Interior of the Interior of the . . .126 An Arched Window of the Mosque . or Wild-Man-o' -the. . . . . Eastern Fa9ade Ornament in Panels. . Mosque in the Alhambra Mosque . .138 . . . Hall of Ambassadors Section and Elevation of the Interior of the Hall of . . . . . . . Work . . . 135 Court of the Mosque Details in the Court of the Mosque.140 . . . . . . . .133 . the Scene of Yusuf's Assassination . . . . . . .128 The Koran Recess in the Mosque.

.169 Interior of the Mosque.163 . . . . . . . . .. The Court of the Lions from the Pomiente Corner 151 View in the Court of the Lions .166 . . 175 Detail in the Hall of the Abencerrages . . . . . .. Fountain'and East Temple in the Court of the Lions Hall of Justice and Court of the Lions . . . . . . . .172 173 Interior of the Mosque. . . Hall of Justice Ceiling of the Hall of Justice The Mosque. . . . .. Balcony in the Hall of Detail of the Hall of Ambassadors the Arched Windows . . .. Court of the Lions . .. . Roman Catholic . . Angle in the Hall of Justice . Jalousies in the Court of the Mosque Entrance to the Hall of Ambassadors . . . and his God An Example from the Hall of AmSuccessors. .. .152 View in the Court of the Lions from the Hall of Justice 153 The Court of the. . . . .154 1 5 5 General View of the Court of the Lions .176 . Corner cerrages North Gallery and Fa9ade of the Hall of the Aben. . .158 . Section. 160 .156 157 North Gallery in the Court of the Lions .171 . converted into a . Roman Catholic . . . . . Church Church . .159 . West Fa9ade . . .. Court of the Lions Pavilion in the Court of the Lions . .168 . ..167 . . . .. .150 .170 . 147 148 149 .165 . . . la Ghalib ! ' ila The Court bassadors of the Lions from the Templete Pomiente Entrance to the Court of the Lions through the Pomiente . Lions . . .164 ..174 . . .161 . . . . and View of the Generalife Exterior of a Window in the Mosque The Mosque. converted into a . . .. . .. and View of the Generalife .162 . . . . . . . . Interior of the Court of Mosque the Mosque.. . . . .xxvi " GRANADA TITLE PLATE Wa -There is no Conqueror but Ala The famous Motto of Mohammed I.

.196 The Court of the Lions. .. . Details of the Centre Arcade of the Court of the Lions 187 189 Frieze over Columns. Metre .198 .193 The Court of the Lions .. . . and the Fountain. . . . .. . . . Fa9ade of the Hall Sisters The Court of the Lions. with a Scale of One . Section of the Hall of the Two Sisters. Court of the Lions Detail of the Central Arch in the Court of the Lions . The Fountain of the Court of the Ornament . . . of the .191 . .. . . .. .. the Court of the Lions 195 The Court of the Lions . xxvii PLATE The Court of the Lions . Fagade of the Hall . . . .. ...182 Section of the Pavilion in the Court of the Lions 183 .. . . Little Temple. . and Section of Part of the Court of the Lions 184..190 Entablature in the Court of the Lions . . December 1885 The Court of the Lions from the West Temple The Court of the Lions from the West Temple . . . 200 West Gallery in the Court of the Lions The Court of the Lions.199 .ILLUSTRATIONS TITLE .. . The First Six Verses of the Inscription around the Basin of the Fountain of the Court of the Lions . . ... . 180 . . . . .188 ... . . .. West Angle . 185 Capital in the Court of the Lions. . . the Court of the Lions . Morocco Embassy. . . .192 Cupola of the Pavilion in the Court of the Lions Entrance to the Court of the Lions. .186 . Sisters The Court . .194 The Little Temple. . . of of the Lions from the Entrance . .201 202 203 Two Two 204 205 . Elevation of the Fountain of the Court of the Lions of the Lions. . . . .197 . Left-hand Angle The Court of the Lions.. . with Details .177 General View of the Court of the Lions . . .. . .. . .178 The Fountain and West Temple of the Court of the Lions 1 79 .181 Plan of the Basin of the Fountain in the Court of the Lions . . .

.218 Entrance to the Court of the Fish-pond Myrtles Gallery in the Court of the Myrtles .214 . . . . . . . of the 227 Myrtles Court of the Myrtles or. .. . .. . or..217 the North Side Myrtles of the . ..219 220 or... East Fa$ade Detail in the Court of the Myrtles 223 Court of the Myrtles. . . . of the Fish- Tower . . The Sultan's Bath . . the Fish-pond . . the Court of the Lions Hall of the Abencerrages . .. . or..231 .. ...212 . of the Hall of Ambassadors Court of the Myrtles or. . of the Fish-pond.. . . . . North and South Sides. of the Fish-pond General View of the Court of the Myrtles . . . of . of the Myrtles ... ..216 . 222 Court of the Myrtles. of ..230 . . Hall of the Abencerrages Gallery in the Court of the Fish-pond . . .210 . Gallery in the Court of the Fish-pond or. . Court of the Fish-pond . . . . .. . pond General View of the Court of the Myrtles and Comares . of the . formed by 228 Yiisuf 1 The Court of the Fish-pond or. . .211 . . .. . . .. . . . . . or. of the . . . . . . of the Myrtles Ornament in the Court of the Fish-pond or. . .213 .. ... . East Fa9ade 224 Exterior of the Gallery in the Court of the Fish-pond or. . . or.... . . or. .. . .215 . . of the Fish-pond. .xxviii GRANADA Detail of the Entrance to the Court of the Lions Detail in the Court of the Lions Mosaics. .221 . . TITLE PLATE 206 207 208 209 Hall of the Abencerrages Hall of the Abencerrages Hall of the Abencerrages Wooden Doors. . . . . . .. . . . of the Myrtles... of the Myrtles 229 The Hall of the Baths . . Myrtles Court of the Myrtles .. . . ..225 226 The Court of the Fish-pond or. Fa9ade .. .

. . .238 .. . Sections of the Infantas' Interior of the Tower Tower of the Infantas. . Sultan's . .. .. Lower Part of the Balcony of . . Upper Part . ." and the Apartments tradi" Lindaraja. . Interior of the Infantas' Tower. xxix PLATE 232 233 .. . .. Lindaraja Alcove in the " Lindaraja " Apartments .. . . Tower from the Entrance .. . Longitudinal Section through the Baths Ground Plan of the Baths in the Alhambra Ceiling of the Hall of the Baths Plan and Section of the great Cistern in the Alhambra A Section of the Baths in the Alhambra . or Plain. . Hall of Justice.251 Balcony of the Favourite.. . .237 .. . . ... Baths. . 239 240 241 242 Chamber of Repose. . ... . I.." tionally said to have been occupied by a favourite Sultana .235 ..261 .. . .236 . Room in the " " 247 248 Captive's 249 ..253 " " Detail. Interior of the Balcony of 254 Lindaraja " " Detail... .. the Chamber of Repose 250 " " . . . .. " .. . 243 244 245 246 The " Captive's Tower Solis) Interior of the Mosque.234 . . " " Balcony of the Captive (Isabel de Solis). .. Section of the Hall of the Baths . . .259 The Queen's Boudoir and Defile of the Darro 260 " " Garden and the Lindaraja's Apartments in which . . Washington Irving stayed . . .. . ..255 Lindaraja " " Detail of the Central Part of the Balcony of Lindaraja 256 The Queen's Boudoir and Distant View of the Generalife 257 The Queen's Boudoir and View of the Generalife 258 The Queen's Boudoir and old Albaicin Quarter . .. . overlooking the Vega. .. ..252 Garden of " Lindaraja..ILLUSTRATIONS TITLE The Sultana's Bath The Baths.. Hall of Repose Chamber of Repose . . of Granada Alcove of the " Captive " (Isabel de Solis) " " Interior of the Tower of the (Isabel de Captive .. Bath constructed by Yusuf ... .

Ornament. .. . Isabel de Solis . . . . Wine Gate. Windows of the Hall of the Two Sisters Two 282 Two Sisters .. . .. . Tower of the Captive..274 275 276 277 278 279 281 from the Entrance Door. " Lindaraja .. Ceiling of the Hall of the Two Sisters Detail of the Upper Story. . ...285 ... . ... Hall of the Two Sisters. Hall of the Two Sisters 289 Mosaic in Dado of Recess.. . 272 Hall of the Hall of the Two Sisters Two Sisters . . Exterior of the Captive's Tower .. . . ..... Mosaic in Dado of the Entrance to the Hall of the Two Sisters 290 Mosaic in Dado of Hall of Ambassadors. . .. . of the . Upper Balcony of the Hall Hall of the Sisters .271 . . Detail of the Lateral Sisters Detail in the Hall of the Panel. The Tower of the Captive. Temple and Fa9ade of the Hall of the Two View in the Hall of the Two Sisters Hall of the Two Two Sisters by Y u suf I.. 287 Details of the Glazed Tiles in the Dado of the Hall 288 of the Two Sisters Band round Panels in Windows. . Balcony of ..265 .. PLATE 262 263 264 . West Fagade .. Upper Part Interior of the Infantas' Tower . Entrance to the Hall of the Interior of the Hall of the Two Sisters Two Sisters . . and Inscriptions in the Hall of the Two Sisters Inscription in the Hall of the Two Sisters Frieze in the Hall of the Two Sisters . . 292 ... . Mosaic in Dado of the Hall of the Two Sisters . Isabel de Solis Interior of the Infantas' Tower.283 284 . .xxx GRANADA TITLE " Angle of the Balcony of Lindaraja of the favourite "Lindaraja" Balcony Interior of the ". 266 267 268 .. .291 . . . . . .. . . .. ... ..286 Panel on Jambs of Doorways.273 .. from the Entrance Door . ..280 . .. Sisters . Hall of the ...270 .. . Detail of the Upper Part Sisters of the . " 269 Hall of the Two . .. built Two Sisters .

Alhambra. . 1492 Gold Coin (obverse and reverse) of Mohammed I. . .ILLUSTRATIONS Detail of the only ancient the Alhambra xxxi PLATE El Jarro.. now in the Museum of the Alhambra Arabian Sword Capitals from the Courts and Halls of the Alhambra . . once known as the House of the Weathercock Courtyard of a Moorish House in the Albaicin Interior of an Arab House in the Albaicin The Proclamation of Boabdil.. commonly " " The Sword of Boabdil called .297 .312 -313 ... The Surrender of Granada by Boabdil to Ferdinand and Isabella. January 2.301 302 303 by the Count of Tendilla. . the Founder A. . . .314 .. 308 309 310 Miscellaneous Ornament in the Alhambra The Fable of Jupiter and Leda in the Alhambra Bas-relief. Capitals. ... 304 . 315 .. of Carbon . .... Mosaic Pavement in the Queen's Dressing-room (Tocador de la Reyna).D. El Jarro. 305 306 307 The Author (National Exhibition of Beaux Arts. of the Fortress in 1492 . .. .. who reigned 1232-1272 . Hall of the Two Sisters of the Fourteenth Century in the Niche wherein it stood until the Year 1837 296 Sword of the last Moorish King of Granada. .... .... .. Mosaic.. or House of Carbon. 298 of the . By Placido Frances . . . . . .300 .. 1884) in the Alhambra Cornices... . . to commemorate the Surrender .311 . . . . . .. and Columns in the Alhambra. . and Arabian Capitals Gothic Inscription set up in the Alhambra and . .. from a Fragment in the Alhambra The House of Carbon The ancient Granary Market and House Elevation of the Casa del Carbon. . ... Arab Vase now in the Museum of the Palace The Arabian Vase and Niche in which it ...295 formerly stood.. . . . .. 299 Details The Inscriptions. " TITLE " Jalousie remaining in 293 294 An Arab Vase . .

. . . . . drawn for the Spanish . The Generalife.. . Gallery in the Generalife .324 . . . .xxxii Encaustic-tile GRANADA TITLE PLATE Work . . . View of the Alhambra from the Homage Tower Interior of the Palace of Charles V. . . in the . . A Corner in the Acequia Court The Cypress of the Sultana in the Generalife ..338 -339 . Elevation of the Portico of the Generalife The Acequia Court in the Generalife A Corner of the Acequia Court in the Generalife . . . . . .326 . . Santo Domingo . . Porch of the Palace of Charles V. from the West Roman Court. . . .. .. . The Alhambra. .316 Various Mosaics from the Alhambra . . . The Generalife The Principal Court of the Generalife. Early Fourteenth Century .317 Inscriptions in the Alhambra . .. .330 . Gallery in the Acequia Court The Generalife. Doorway of the Palace of Charles V. . .329 . . . .336 -337 . . . . . . 327 . . Series] Part of Exterior of the Palace of Charles V. . (Specially . ..332 -333 -334 -335 . . . Section of the Palace of Charles V. . Entrance to the Portrait Gallery Garden of the Generalife . . .319 General View of the Alhambra from the Homage Tower 320 Ancient Cistern. .318 Plan of the Palace of Charles V. . Elevation of the Palace of Charles V. . . and of the Subterranean Vaults of the Alhambra . . .341 . ..325 . . . The Court of the Fish-pond in the Generalife Promenades and Gardens of the Generalife The Generalife Front View of the Portico of the Generalife .. Palace of Charles V. Room .331 . .. . . Fountain of the Emperor Charles V. Transverse Section of the Royal Villa of the Generalife 340 . .328 . 322 323 . . Cypress Court.. . 342 343 344 345 346 347 348 349 . of .321 .. . ... . Bas-relief in the Palace of Charles V. . Ground Plan of the Generalife at Granada . .. .. Royal .

. .. . . . .. the Cathedral.. .. . . East Fa9ade 366 Environs of the Alhambra.. ... . . ... Interior ..ILLUSTRATIONS TITLE xxxiii PLATE . .. South Fa9ade of the Palace of Charles V. . Bas-relief in the Palace of Charles V. Tower of the Peaks 367 . ... 380 . . 355 . The Acequia Court from ... 363 Gate of Justice.. .354 . 368 the Silla del 369 37 of the Alhambra from the Gypsy . Ceiling in the Generalife The Generalife. ...... ... Fountain of Charles V. .. Principal Entrance to the Alhambra 364 Gate of Justice 365 Wine Gate. A 350 the . .. . .... . . . The Acequia Court from the .. .... : . . Tower of the Peaks. The Generalife.. - 356 357 359 Bas-relief in the Palace of Charles V. . .. . ... . Gate of the Granadas 360 Promenades and Hotels of the Alhambra . The Acequia Court from the Interior Generalife. Main 351 Entrance .. Caves Carrera del Rio Darro their .. ... ... . 352 Exterior View of the Generalife The The Entrance to the Generalife Court of the Sultana's Cypress Generalife. ..381 C . ..358 .. .. . . . . General View of the Alhambra from General Moro View Quarters General View of the Alhambra from the Generalife View of Granada and the Alhambra from the Sacromonte 372 General View of the Alhambra from San Nicolas 373 The Watch Tower.....361 The Gate of Justice and Fountain of Charles V. . . .... .. and Granada 374 Villas on the Banks of the River Darro -375 A View of the Alhambra 376 Villas on the Banks of the River Darro 377 The Watch Tower and Cathedral 378 The Red Tower 379 The Homage Tower and Gypsy Quarters exterior of ... -353 . . . 371 . 362 Environs of the Alhambra. .

. -383 -384 -385 .. . General View of the Chancel and High Altar 400 Bas-relief in the Altar-piece of the Royal Chapel .. 392 393 394 395 396 397 398 399 . ... Catholic Catholic Sovereigns Sepulchre of Ferdinand Sepulchre of Isabella the Catholic Portal of the Church of San Juan de Dios Sepulchre of Alonso Cano in San Geronimo. . .. Gothic Pinnacle on the Royal Chapel The Cathedral.. .. .. Exterior of the Royal Chapel of the Catholic Sovereigns Detail of the Exterior of the Royal Chapel Exterior of the Royal Chapel Exterior of the Cathedral Exterior of the Royal Chapel Exterior of the Cathedral... . . . . .xxxiv The Gate of Elvira... .410 . . . .. .411 . . .. The Royal Chapel.. . .. Head of John the Baptist.... 389 General View of the Exterior of the Cathedral 390 Entrance to the Royal Chapel . The in the TITLE PLATE old Entrance to the Fortifi- 382 Washing Place Puerta del Sol .... .... . GRANADA cations . . . .. ... 403 Detail of the Sepulchre of the 404 405 406 407 408 409 Sculpture of King Ferdinand the .. Sepulchre of the Catholic Sove. A . .. .. ... . 386 Interior of an old House in the Albaicin 387 The Cathedral and General View 388 General View of the Cathedral. .. .. .... .... . . . . Courtyard of an Arab House Moorish Archway Interior of an old House in the Calle del Horno de Oro.. . ..413 . . reigns The Royal Chapel...401 General View of the Chancel in the Cathedral 402 The Royal Chapel. . Head of John the Baptist. . .. Exterior of the Cartuja Monastery .... View from the Choir The Cathedral.. .. . . ...391 .. . . Head of John the Baptist. . The Gate of Pardon ... .. . .412 . ... ..

. . ... . The Crucifixion of Our Lord. .. . The Baptism Cotan The Holy Family.... .. 420 By Murillo St. Amaya ..... Exterior of the Caves The Gypsy Quarters. . . . Sancta Sanctorum . . ... ... .. . . . . a Monk of the Order The Immaculate Conception. .. J... .. . . Joseph and the Child. Cartuja.. . ... . .. Cartuja..441 . ..415 . By Sanchez 424 425 . . .416 . Carlo Cartuja. . Right Side Cartuja.. Mary Magdalene. 422 423 Sanchez Our Lord... . .. . Altars in the Cartuja. By Sanchez Cotan By Morales By Morales. . now the Property of a Spanish Nobleman 438 The old Town Hall 439 The Royal Gate and Street of the Catholic Sovereigns 440 Monument to Columbus in the Paseo del Salon .. Sculpture by Alonso Cano . . Market Ancient Arab Silk Market Exterior of an old House... .. Left Side Sacristy in the Cartuja.431 . The Virgin of the Rosary. Detail of the Cupboards in the Sacristy Cartuja. .. . . The Gypsy Quarters. 426 427 428 429 430 Bridge of the Genii 434 General View -435 General View of the old Albaicin 436 General View from the Watch Tower -437 Old Arab Palace..421 St. Horsemen hanging Martyrs.. 414 . Cotan Cartuja. .. .. Cuesta del Pescado Silk Market. . . Sculpture by Alonso Cartuja. Pictures by Sanchez y Cotan. An " At Home " Gypsy Dance in their Quarters Gypsy Types at the Doors of their Caves Gypsy Dance in their Quarters Gypsy Dancers and their Captain. . The Conception of Our Lady. Cartuja..ILLUSTRATIONS TITLE xxxv PLATE . ..432 -433 . . By of . ... The Raw The Raw Silk . 417 418 . .. Sacristy in the Cartuja. . 442 443 444 . By Murillo 419 Cartuja. . .. . . . ...

.. . 460 page Plan of Granada s ..452 . . . .. . . (Specially drawn JOY the Spanish Series) 459 .. ... . Sierra Nevada. Arms of Granada .. .. . . . . and the " of the Moor Sigh Carrera de Genii and View of the Sierra Nevada Plaza de Mariana Pineda... . 445 446 447 448 . Michael . .. . and View of the . . . -451 General View of the Alhambra and of the Sierra Nevada from St. .. Arab House. . Huetor High Road and View of the Sierra Nevada 453 Villas on the Borders of the River Darro 454 Defile of the Darro . . . . .. . . .. 89 .xxxvi The Court of Justice Carrera del Darro Calle de Market and Gypsy Fair San Anton " Last Antequeruela Quarter. .455 The Green Bridge and View of the Sierra Nevada 456 View of the Sierra Nevada -457 General View of the Sierra Nevada and the River Genii 458 Granada. TITLE GRANADA PLATE in the Triunfo .. . . . .. . 449 450 Sierra Nevada . .. ... .

Now it subsists merely as a great monument to a vanished race and a dead civilisation. Ibn Al Ahmar by name. it became the centre of kingdom. and withered with its decline. Almohade Empire was breaking up. we need concern Its real interest dates from the establishment of the Nasrite dynasty in the It was the first half of the thirteenth century. Under the Christian. them the record of their glory The Pomegranate. With Granada before an independent ourselves but little. as its con- ripened only in the warm sunshine of Islam. had not a young man of Arjona. it fell from the rank of a queror styled splendid capital to a poor provincial town. determined to fashion for himself a kingdom out of A . Probably all Andalusia would have shared the fate of Cordova and Seville. it. time when the great and the conquests of the Catholic kings been anticipated by two centuries.GRANADA THE CITY OF THE MOOR GRANADA history is the of creation of the Moors. Its is all and their fall.

no He proved highly. was a patron. and in 1241 he was recognised as Lord and Sultan of all the territory between the Sierra Morena and the Pillars of the fragments of empire. and he resorted it. and obtained possession of Granada itself in 1237. he neglected no means He . himself a true national hero and the father of his monarch prized peace more people. and he offered every inducement to Muslims from the provinces conquered by the Christians to settle within his dominions. and encouraged immigration by every means in his power. like all his race. A far-sighted statesman.2 GRANADA he seized With an ever-increasing upon Jaen in 1232. Granada was the last hope of Islam in Europe. Above all. Tlemsen. City after city opened its gates to him. Hercules. For all his valour and prowess on the battlefield. was this founder of the Nasrite dynasty. he perceived that a state so limited in area as his own could only hope to exist by virtue of an unusual density of population. He fostered industry and agriculture. and Tunis. of arts and letters. and even of distant Baghdad. A great man. in every sense. to all possible means to safeguard concluded alliances with the rulers of Morocco. His presence was fine and commanding. following. his courage worthy of the heroic age. including Malaga and Almeria. from Ronda to Baza. his manner bland and amiable.

but. binding himself to attend the Cortes (a curious stipulation for a Mohammedan) and to attend the king in his wars with 1500 lances.THE CITY OF THE MOOR of Castilian. and was hailed enthuas a conqueror upon his return to Granada.. All his diplomacy. whether his conscience approved his action or not. he courteously received the revolted and exiled Infante Don Enrique when he sought refuge at Granada. but sent him on to Tunis with letters recommending him to the Sultan of that country. Ahmar dreaded the might of Castile. That the assistance he rendered was not looked upon as altogether voluntary by the siastically people of Seville is shown by the fact that thousands of them migrated to his dominions and settled there. religionists of Seville. This latter part of the bargain he was speedily called upon to fulfil. let that Ibn Al Ahmar probably looked Almohade all citizens of Ishbiliah as heretics. Careful not to give offence to his dreaded neighbour. 3 humouring and conciliating the irresistible He negotiated an alliance with Fernando III. in rest and consolidation. Ibn Al The only hope lay. for the Mohammedans of Spain he knew. and against his own coIt seemed an unnatural be said upon the it warfare. could not avert a . however. he contributed in no small measure to Fernando's success. to palliate the iniquity. At events.

at the asked of him a boon. He is described as a warrior and a statesman. . In this he was Queen Violante. under the style of Mohammed II. his charger threw He as he rode at the head of his army. him. Malaga. A few miles of his capital. by the roadside. the Walis of Guadix. During his reign of twenty-nine years. 1273. on January 21.. he crushed the rebel Walis at Antequera. and then paid a visit to Alfonso X. he was almost conSoon after his accession tinuously at war. to leave the Walis to fight their Ibn Al Ahmar. Al Ahmar's son. an old man of eighty years. Arabic historians have lavished their encomiums upon him. successful. beyond the gates surrounded by his weeping warriors. succeeded him at the age of thirty-eight years. with a view to detaching the Castilian king from his alliance with the defeated insurgents. But an insurrection soon after broke out in Castile. and add to his troubles. and Alfonso was compelled own battles. as a man of letters and a poet of considerable ability. and Comares revolted against his authority. conclusion of his however. at Seville. It was a dark night for Granada. visit. breathed his last at sundown. But had come at last. wearily girded of the campaigns he his time for rest on his armour for another had learned to hate. as indeed upon most of his dynasty.4 GRANADA to war with Alfonso.

he returned to Granada in maturing plans for the complete overthrow of his enemies. This he effected with the aid of the Sultan Yusuf of Morocco. The Africans. and spent the year and had the mortification possess of seeing the Africans themselves of Algeciras. according to the custom of the times. even for those rough times.THE CITY OF THE MOOR 5 which. Smouldering with rage. was father. having been removed He from his office by the Sultan. He recovered possession of the latter town by bribing the governor to exchange it for the town . way with Ibn Nasr.000 men landed at Tarifa in 1275. fighting against whom he died. that he had been tricked into granting a year's truce to the Walis. whose army of 100. exerted himself . as a true knight. proved dangerous Mohammed found himself embroiled in a allies. traitors. long and absolutely unprofitable war with Castile. as on previous occasions in Moorish history. too late. He then discovered. of Salobrena. the governor of Guadix. and Malaga. Mohammed III. to be held as a personal acquisition and rid himself at last of the trouble- some Africans by means of an alliance with Sancho of Castile. Tarifa. But in 1302 we find him again at war with the Christians. he was bound to grant. the worthy son of his and is specially commended took a short for his in- defatigable energy.

perhaps excited the jealousy of the Catholic powers. The new Sultan began his reign with some military successes (1309). Abu-1-Walid. in the year With the rich spoils of the foray. but as a set-off. the most formidable of these being headed by his nephew. Attacked on either side the Kings of Castile and Aragon. In the midst of these complications a curious incident occurred. and had him slain there and then in his presence. The luckMohammed did not long survive his partisans' mistake. he 1306.. He forced Jaime of Aragon to raise the siege of Almeria. was stricken with apoplexy and His deposed brother. Nasr dead. he had to deal with conspiracies and rebellions at home. hearing of built a magnificent summoned him mosque dent with gold and silver.6 to GRANADA form a faction this. in his favour. A more honourable exploit was his conquest of the town of Ceuta.. On his return to his capital he was seized in the Alhambra itself by a band of conspirators and forced to abdicate in favour of his brother. resplen- jasper and marble. Mohammed to court. III. then released by some courtiers left for Mohammed to Granada. and brought that the usurper had recovered his health and his crown. But retribution speedily . His success at Granada. opposite Gibraltar. only to find less was III. he was by forced to conclude a humiliating peace. Muley Nasr.

who did not complain at meeting the fate to which he had subjected others.THE CITY OF THE MOOR overtook his brother. and when invited by Pedro I. Nasr conducted himself with the dignity of a philosopher. Abu-1-Walid He was fond Ismail. . Don Juan and Don Pedro his victorious arms eastwards. among the slain being and the Infantes. allotted to him. had approached Granada. in God and his of saying that he believed only good sword. he patriotically declined. wrested carrying Baza and Martos from the enemies of his race. His rival's triumph chagrined him not at all. Perceiving his sovereign to be at the point of death and resolving to avert the horrors of a disputed succession. 7 He was forced to yield to Abu-1-Walid. the Wizir summoned the chief men of Granada to . He was a brave man. Like a another Agamemnon. His faith in the latter weapon was He annihilated a Spanish army which justified. and was glad to be allowed to retire to Guadix. was a fighter and a fanatic. a victim to the poniard beautiful prize of appropriated the young Mohammed of the man he had injured. the sovereignty of which was Usurper though he was. But others also reposed their faith in the sword. Three days after his of Algeciras. into his capital he fell at the triumphal entry gates of the Alhambra. to join him in an attack on Granada. The new monarch of Granada. the he captive.

He was ill repaid.8 GRANADA palace. having sent his army . allies and a day or two with their inability to hold the fortress later. and lost it again to Abu-1-Hasan of Fez. The royal order was that all present should take the oath to the boy-prince. and announced that Abu-1-Walid was recovering from his wounds. he was imprudent enough to reproach his African to the appeal. In August 1333. to fight hard to hold his own against the Spaniards on one side and the Africans on the had took Gibraltar. When this command had been obeyed. and raised the siege. When he had freed himself from the control of an unpopular regent. fortress He against the Christians. It must be admitted that Arab historians have been somewhat too partial to this line of kings. as successor to the kingdom. the young Sultan displayed qualities of heart and mind in no way inferior to those of his progenitors. for there is hardly one who is not described more or less explicitly Mohammed IV. Mohammed fell like generously responded a thunderbolt upon the Spanish camp. as a paragon of all the virtues. This was in the the wily Wizir announced the death year 1325. of Abu-1-Walid and the accession of Mohammed IV. . Muley Mohammed Ben the Ismail. But the African king was soon after obliged to ask his help to hold the other.

of course. that to was more glorious remedy prises. Abandoning for once his settled policy. His body. He was badly beaten. almost a passionate. Redwan. this prince was The ill-fated exceptional in being an ardent. Granada. Alfonso of Castile died. at his prayers in the mosque. was as virtuous and as unfortunate as his father. says Don Francisco Pi Margall. He had reigned but four . No attempt seems to have been made to identify or to punish his murderers. He built a magnificent palace at and the great aljama or mosque at Malaga. At the end of that time. While possessed. while in the year 1354. naked and mangled.THE CITY OF THE MOOR 9 home. and quickly despatched by their poniards. He it believed. He was followed by some among those he had reproached. was found at the foot of the Rock. and was glad to negotiate a truce of ten years. of the virtues which seem to have been inherent in the Nasrite dynasty. than to attempt perilous enterAssisted by his able Wizir. brother. Mohammed V. Mohammed was succeeded by his Yusuf L. made an excursion to the summit of the Rock. Abu-1-Hejaj. and the Sultan of Granada was stabbed to death by a madman. he evils revised the laws and purified the administration of justice. of which no trace remains. lover of peace. and conveyed to Malaga. he joined the Africans in a war against Castile.

the kingdom may be considered . and in the disguise of a slave eluded his pursuers and made his way to Guadix. but enemies by murdering Abu Sai'd when the latter incautiously paid a visit to Seville. Pedro accordfreed Mohammed from his ingly withdrew. and raised Granada to a high pitch of prosperity. according to the contemporary writer. Ismail II.io GRANADA years when he was attacked in his own palace by the partisans of his half-brother. Moor would not consent to remount the throne at the cost of his people's blood. and mindful of the services rendered him by Pedro. Meantime. Narrowly escaping death. and the Moorish sultan devoted the remainder of his reign to improving the condition of his subjects." Abu Said. of Castile espoused the cause of the lawful sultan and invaded the But the magnanimous territory of Granada. El Khattib. Ismail. and the common fatherland of all nations. the emporium of commerce. ran a brief and inglorious career. Mohammed was reinstated on his throne. became the metropolis of the Mediterranean. The city. Pedro I. The tragedy of Montiel made a continuance of the struggle useless. Under Mohammed V. and was dethroned and slain (1360) by the "Red King. He founded charitable institutions and asylums. advanced to his support with a Grenadine army against Enrique de Trastamara. he fled to his harem..

he penetrated to Toledo.. and emphatically dis- avowed by Enrique III. as was usual in those days. and negotiated in the heart of The peace thus conCastile with Enrique III. * by a series of forays. cluded was soon interrupted. directed his wild expedition defeated. Yusuf II.'s . the Quixotic Master of Calatrava.. The war continued with varying fortunes. and putting himself at the head of the army lately arrayed against him. Accompanied by only twenty-five horsemen. and the pacific monarch was disposed to abdicate rather than draw the sword. of course. Thence to its nadir we count but a century of years. of Castile. It was against this peace-loving sultan that Don Martin de la Barbuda. was so averse to war that his subjects suspected him of Christian sympathies. His son rose against him. by the writers who Sultan to the usurper of Mohammed V. and was carried on. he ravaged Murcia with fire and sword. title of reckoned as Mohammed VI. who succeeded his father in 1391. and Mohammed was quickly waging war throughout the length and breadth of Andalusia. Yusuf's younger son and successor.THE CITY OF THE MOOR to n have reached its zenith.* was a prince of a very different stamp. Mohammed VII. neither side He is deny the throne. The exhortations of the Moroccan ambassador induced him to take a manlier course.

and before he had made the move. Yusuf ultimately found peace and a valuable ally as the outcome of a strange story of fraternal animosity. sent a messenger to command his Yusuf was playing chess with the of the castle when the fatal mandate governor arrived. his end approaching.12 GRANADA effort to making any determined take the other's On feeling capital or to secure his conquests. The Sultan of that realm sent his hated brother. the news arrived of the death of He Mohammed and Granada. to take possession of the town. the survivors of which founded the suburb of Antequeruela adj acent to Granada. Abu Sa'id. Yusuf showed himself of his proclamation as Sultan of as calm and at his accession to the throne as when he had stood upon the threshold of death. Yusuf. whom he had confined in the castle of Salobrena. As peaceably disposed as his father. finish the final asked leave of the emissary to game. Yusuf III. had to withstand some of the most determined assaults upon his doomed kingdom. and treating him as David . In his reign took place the celebrated siege of Ante- unmoved quera by the Castilians. The people of Gibraltar revolted against Granada and proclaimed themselves the subjects of Fez. him Mohammed execution. Fearing that the captive might now supplant his own son. the warlike Sultan bethought of his elder brother.

invading Morocco. at Abu Said soldiers of Granada. Alvaro de Luna. not Juan II. Yusuf IV. and. drove his perfidious brother from the throne. requesting that he might be poisoned. earthquake desolated the distracted kingdom and we may suppose that Mohammed VIII. Yusuf. the support of which he had to purchase with humiliating concessions. A Castilian history of of The almost army ravaged the Vega up to the walls of the Granada itself would have fallen. was driven into exile by a namesake reckoned as the ninth of his name. The new sultan. treated the captured prince with generosity. left 13 him at the mercy of the enemy. been recalled to Castile by the disorders which resulted in the latter's overthrow. however. held his throne as a fief of Castile. and then restored by a counter-revolution. was not altogether sorry when he abandoned his throne to a pretender and fled to Malaga.THE CITY OF THE MOOR did Uriah. Mohammed VIII. Yusuf III. Granada is henceforward one continuous revolution and tumult. had capital. He . and showed him a letter which he shortly after received from the Sultan of Fez. and the great Constable. passed away in 1417. Thirsting procured arms and Granada. Thereafter he was the sworn ally of the Sultan for vengeance.. whom Castile and Aragon no longer ventured to trouble. An .

on being Mohammed"* X. Archidona. 's star was never long ascendant. But Mohammed VIII. Muley Hassan. and was then forced to make room for Mohammed VIII. were at once renewed.i4 GRANADA . were lost. The intermittent warfare went on as before. Jaen. * Ibrahim. reverse seems to have maddened Osmin. deprived of support. 's cousin Said. despite the desperate valour of the Prince. by his kinsman. was proclaimed Hostilities with Castile at Granada (1432). who routed their opponents at Illora. but his army suffered This at last a bloody defeat at Alporchones. the powerful family of the Abencerrages and. Archidona. who henceforward conducted himself as a tyrant of Revolutions had now the old Roman type. all for peace. Mohammed VIII. Christian captives released all in vain. was finally expelled from his kingdom. and of the Chieftain. become as frequent in Granada as in some South American states. Gibraltar. of Castile. and Castril. Granada was Tribute was paid to Enrique IV. their in the He quarrelled with . who. anticipated inevitable assassination by dying and for the after sixteen months of authority third time. Aben Osmin. Known as . The usurper ran his brief career. This time the fortune of war was with the Moors.* The usurper was victorious over the Christians and took several strongholds.

Ibn Ismail obtained peace for his wretched country by a personal interview with Enrique. outside the walls of Granada.THE CITY OF THE MOOR 15 vanquished. and Mohammed were accomplished. and warlike. however. the distracted of a ravine. industry. and has been familiar to English readers by the works Even our brief survey. reigns of Ali Abu-1-Hassan. He was arrogant. Christians. The character of Muley Ali Abu-1-Hassan was Prescott. the reverse of his predecessor's. Mohammed XII. of his he let slip the opportunity of attacking the new .. however. a fanatical hater of the and a zealous Muslim. has already filled The history of these events made of many bulky tomes. plunged on horseback into the depths At last. impetuous. in Europe was sounded over his bier. be concluded without a summary of the cannot last chapter of the story of Granada. during which the downfall and extinction of the kingdom (Boabdil). The XI. and agriculture in his dominions labour that did not benefit even those who were to succeed him and died at Almeria The knell of the Moorish in the year 1465. (AzZaghal) covered the years 1465-1492. and proved himself over the But strong enough to quell a revolt at Malaga. He devoted the remainder of his reign to the encouragement of commerce. In the first reign he gained some successes years feeble Enrique IV. Empire .

to the Christians are dead that here we manu- facture only iron spear-heads for our enemies.16 GRANADA sovereigns of Spain." nor did he make any attempt to effect an alliance with their numerous enemies. first act in the long-drawn-out drama was the capture of Zahara by the troops of Granada. returned Abu-1to his Hassan. and put to the sword." These words sealed the fate of the Moors in Spain. Ferdinand and Isabel. but when Ferdinand of Aragon made the payment Ismail a condition proud of the tribute stipulated by Ibn of the treaty. The rest of the inhabitants were carried off in captivity to Granada. The Christian garrison was surprised during a furious tempest. . the Moor's " Return to your sovenature revolted. in 1481 provoked by the predatory incursions of the Marquis of Cadiz. Abu-1-Hassan condescended to sue for a renewal of the alliance with the Queen of Castile . State-craft does not appear to have been possessed to any great extent by the descendants of Al Ahmar. though the ruler who uttered them probably thought them merely the prelude to just such a frontier war as had raged intermittently for so many The years. when they were engaged in war with the partisans of " La Beltraneja. In 1476. inflated with pride. sultans who paid tribute . reigns." " he said and tell them that the to the Spanish ambassadors.

Abu-1- with 53. The fiery chivalry of Andalusia were not slow after the capture of Zahara. the more important Grenadine stronghold of Alhama was taken by storm by the forces to retaliate. Ferdinand the Catholic. The news produced the utmost consternation in Granada. 17 There were popular rejoicings. Sidonia.000 men. hurried to its relief but he had only reached Lucena set out .THE CITY OF THE MOOR capital. Two months of the Marquis of Cadiz. before which the Moors retired. 1482.000 men fell far short of Ferdinand's requirements and expectations. the Duke of The Catholic sovereigns made their triumphal entry into Alhama on May 14. and Ferdinand resumed his advance. who had now conceived the idea of reducing the whole kingdom of Granada. but the army actually Loja on July i 16. and invested the place. by Medina tidings arrived of the raising of the siege the Marquis's hereditary foe. who repulsed the B . Great Castile preparations were made throughout assembled before and Aragon for the prosecution of the war. Ali Atar. Hassan at once when Abu-1-Hassan returned to the attack a few weeks later. but the wiser Moors shook their heads and predicted that the ruins of Zahara would fall upon their own city. The town was ably defended by one of the bravest Moorish chieftains.

it is said.) . a beautiful of the But Christian captive. might have turned the scale in favour of the Moors. U. but Baza. obliged Abu-1-Hassan to seek refuge at Malaga. she fomented a conspiracy against her aged lord. or el Chico (the little)." II. though ultimately benefiting the Spaniards. " His- tory of Spain.i8 GRANADA The King of Christians with severe loss. treason always followed closely on the heels of victory. in the course of time. or perhaps antagonised by the first Sultana. had been added to the Sultan's harem. and was compelled Abu-1-Hassan swept the to beat a retreat. and. him a son. reigned in his stead. of a Greek slave. Burke's statement of the relationship between Abu-1-Hassan.* Now. Ayesha. contributed * I adopt Mr. if it had been followed up. Zoraya. Thence they contrived to escape. and was imprisoned with her son in theAlhambra. R. as far as the Rio Frio. at Granada. Guadix. she bore Under the name of Zoraya. and other eastern towns remained faithful to their old allegiance. daughter Governor of Martos. and rose to the rank of favourite Sultana. Abu Abdullah. better known as Boabdil. (Burke. Doiia Isabel de Solis. Aragon narrowly escaped with his life. and Boabdil. p. These dissensions among the Moors. jealous. Years before. exciting the populace in their favour. 98. country Such a success. Abu Abdullah.

headed by the Marquis of Cadiz and the Grandmaster of Santiago. named Martin Hurtado.THE CITY OF THE MOOR indirectly to one of the 19 disasters most serious For an expedition against Malaga. Eight hundred Spaniards were left dead on the field. . but to assist with supplies the Spanish troops passing through his dominions to attack his own father. The Moors were that befell the latter during the campaign. This was finally effected by a most dishonourable treaty. Boabdil. Boabdil was accorded a two years' truce. to find that the old King had possessed himself of the Alhambra. their bravest general. emulous of the glory his father had acquired. covering all places that acknowledged his authority. and gave battle to the enemy under the Count of Cabra. Having thus exchanged his honour for his liberty. but his mother and followers at once made proposals for his release. Ali Atar. was slain. marched out of Granada with 9700 men. and Boabdil himself captured by a private soldier. Abu-1-Hassan. and in return bound himself. and cut to pieces. while threading its way through the passes of the Ajarquia. was attacked by the lieutenants of the old lion. not only to pay a tribute of twelve of his enemies. totally defeated. this unlucky prince been left in the hands war might have had a different result. the Had thousand golden ducats. near Lucena. the miserable Sultan returned to his capital.

but failed. whereby both were to reign in . Meanwhile. were bringing about the ruin of his country. The alfakis and ancients at length arranged an armistice. more than the prowess of the Spaniards. Abu-1Hassan. alas ! to secure the person of Boabdil. the other in the Alhambra. fled to This event strengthened Boabdil's claims upon the and he entered into a compact tottering throne with his uncle. a strong man appeared on the scene in the person of Abu-1-Hassan's brother. Not long after. who Cordova and placed himself under Ferdinand's protection. He . Granada. and Boabdil was suffered to retire to Almeria. the one in the Albaicin. Abdullah Az-Zaghal. For the next four years.20 GRANADA collision A between the two factions deluged the streets of Granada with blood. Determined to put an end to the divisions which. took prisoner Zoraya. the Catholic sovereigns abstained from any important military demonstration. contenting themselves with ravaging the wretched country and harrying its frontiers with incessant forays and marauding expeditions. and died at Mondujar. which was assigned to him as capital and residence. abdicated in favour of his warlike brother. aged and worn out. this prince swept down upon Almeria. slew the governor. the newly restored monarch attacked the Christians near Loja with vastly inferior forces. Anxious to redeem his reputation.

years afterwards. He was not. One of the most desperate occurred sultans. as he is styled by Moorish historians. in 1487. including Almeria and Guadix. they invested and captured VelezMalaga and the important city of Malaga. after the province . he bowed. in indigence and obscurity. however. to the will of Allah.where he died. . Meanwhile. disposed to yield the crown to his rival. Mohammed XIII.. not- withstanding Az-Zaghal's efforts to relieve both The brave Sultan now abandoned the places. The old dual arrangement seems to have been temporarily resumed. the strong city of Baza. retired to Algeria.THE CITY OF THE MOOR 21 was soundly beaten and forced to take refuge in the Alcazar of Loja. the intervention and. in repelling an invasion of his but in the following year. and established his head- He succeeded throughout the year 1488. Ferdinand and Isabel once more took the field. whence he was only allowed to emerge on renewing the humiliating treaty he had concluded at Cordova. capital to his nephew. surprised and seized the Alcazaba. conflicts recorded in the history of the city then between the partisans of the rival Further bloodshed was at last averted of ambassadors sent by by Ferdinand. and fall of surrendered all the places in his possession. and returning to Granada. as he himself expressed it. quarters at Almeria. to the Catholic sovereigns.

The population of Granada was swollen by refugees from all parts of the kingdom to thrice its normal figure. including some of the first chivalry of all Europe. took Alhendin and Marchena by assault. resolution to He formed the manly hard-won crown as dearly as possible. almost This perat the gates of the threatened city. and laid waste the country in possession of the Christians. Summoned by Ferdinand and Isabel to surrender the city in accordance with an alleged treaty. tunate Boabdil. manent establishment of the Infidels on their native plunged the Moors into profound ray of hope remained to the unforgloom. soil No the Sultan most reluctantly entered upon in . With 20. he entered the Vega. Boabdil. of which Mohammed sell his XII. of all the Moorish dominions in Europe. The Spanish king perceived that the surest method to reduce it was by blockade. he replied. towards which country the wretched people still turned in expectation of The negotiations for the capitulation which help.22 GRANADA There remained now. The Spanish fleet precluded all hope of supplies from Africa. but the single city of Granada. The city endured the horrors of a famine.000 men. was at last undisputed sovereign. and built the town of Santa Fe. He sallied from Granada. that his proud and exasperated subjects would not permit him to do so.. and probably with truth.

through the populace. had endured seven hundred and eighty-one a period only sixty years short of that years which has elapsed since the Norman Conquest of England. besought Ferdinand to accelerate fear On January 2. Indeed. we cannot . at the last moment. with profound secrecy. the Sultanate of Granada had survived the virtual break-up of the Saracen empire by over two centuries.THE CITY OF THE MOOR October 1491. When we consider its limited area. surrendered the keys to the Catholic his entrance into the city. the might and the inveterate hostility of the neighbouring states. in danger of his life. 1492. The story of his stopto gaze for the last time on his former ping kingdom. had of 23 to be conducted. More remarkable still. sovereigns on the banks of the Genii. attended by fifty accordingly. Boabdil. is well known. and of the rebuke administered to him by his mother. its isolated position. passing on to the domain allotted him by the conquerors in the rocky Alpuj arras. the Moorish king. horsemen. We are not told whether his eye caught the gleam of the great silver cross hoisted dinal Mendoza by way over the Alhambra by Carof signal to the Spanish host that the occupation of Granada was completed and that the dominion of Islam in Spain was It for ever at an end. and the attacks to which it was unceasingly subjected.

The Moors of Granada knew how to fight a losing fight . of Abdurrahman. For the spirit of Tarik. often the theatre of contending factions.24 but feel GRANADA the liveliest admiration for the valour of its rulers and sagacity ness of its people. even in the brave but ill-starred sovereign to whom alone historians ascribe the downfall of the kingdom. accuse of effeminacy and weakness. when they had lost the tricks. monument of the Mohammedan dominion in Spain is Granada the noble and the memorable. strangely enough. and of Almansur was not altogether dead. . and have endured to our own day as a western Turkey. They proved themselves worthy of their ancestors and the finest. and whom they. Had and the stout-heartednot the Court been too the Sultanate of Granada might have outworn Spain's military and national vigour. as it was also the latest. . in gambler's parlance. had not those factions turned their swords against each other. they struggled to win the honours.

the Sultans of Granada did not disdain the advice artists of Christian the embellishment of their palaces. If the Muslims left a deep impression upon Spanish thought and art. it must not be supposed that they altogether escaped the influence of their Christian neighbours. Palace. The wave of the Renaissance did not leave untouched the shrunken Moorish empire. The Alhambra remains a thoroughly Moham- . especially as regarded art always the reflection of the customs and spirit of a people. is which the Muslims have endowed Europe. belongs art. During the last two centuries of their occupation the rigid puritanism of their creed was greatly relaxed.THE ALHAMBRA THE Alhambra. Granada. the Acropolis of the finest secular monument with or It Red to the last period of Spanish-Arabic culture when the seed of Mohammedan ideas and had long since taken deep root in the soil and produced a style which might more properly be called Andalusian than Moorish. and if Castilian kings did not hesitate to employ Muslim their artisans in the con- struction in of cathedrals.

for these great buildings sions of ideas and aspirations peculiar which have long ago perished. attaches to it. The easternmost of these is crowned by the Generalife. as it seems to have of been. The Alhambra stands as the high-water civilisation. or new Pyrawere the expresto societies any more than a new Parthenon mids . the westernmost by the ancient fortifications known as the Torres Bermejas or Vermilion Towers. but one which a phase of Mohammedan culture and almost peculiar to one country and epoch.26 GRANADA symbolises institutions medan monument. the Red Palace of Granada is not interesting merely as a Mohammedan edifice left isolated in the far west of Europe. in between the two shape aptly compared by Ford to a grand hill The . Thus. and is divided by two clefts or barrancos into three eminences. too. but as the monument of a people and a civilisation long dead and gone. Nowhere else and never since has Islam reached such a pitch of refinement. mark of its art and There will never be produced a new Alhambra. A sadness. with so much of light and beauty to the Christian and the Muslim worlds. The Sierra Nevada thrusts forward a spur which overlooks Granada on the south-east. proceeding from the memory the violent extinction of that people with a mission unfulfilled fraught.

Al Khattib refers to the Citadel of Granada " The southern part of the city in these terms commanded by the suburb of the Alhambra is or Medina Alhamra. collectively styled the Alhambra. Ibn Jaffir. : crowning it with its turrets. by their splendour . are reared. according to Al Khattib. to disAlhamra." as Riano thinks. tinguish it from the Alcazaba in the Albaicin quarter. dated from the earliest period of the Arabic domination. and Al Ahmar found here. on taking possession of Granada. and Ford names Habus Ibn Makesen At all events. overlooking the Vermilion . its strong bastions. or perhaps from some confusion of the new building with the old The builder. . When the Moors came they erected a fortress the Alcazaba on the point of the Alhambra hill. Here there existed a settlement in remote Celtiberian days and the later city of Illiberis or Elvira stood here. the structure as the founder. and perhaps extended to the Torres Bermejas. who lived Towers. a small town girdled with walls and defended by a citadel. and other wilich sumptuous edifices. its magnificent Alcazar. the court of the sultanate. its lofty towers. To this they gave the name of "the red. was one Saw ar Alcaysi. r in the second half of the ninth century though Contreras says it was known as the Tower of .THE ALHAMBRA piano is 27 that on which the various buildings.

with fine azulejos or glazed To the left is the Torre de Homenage. At torrents domain the foot of the walls are spacious gardens. with loopholes Cornelia. overflowing in from the tanks and reservoirs. too. of the walls. being the oldest part of the palaceof the fortress. in short. through the dense greenery of which the white battle- ments gleam like around the circuit stars. It is entered by the Torre and Casa de las Armas. The Alcazaba. embedded by the Moorish tiles. communicating by a dark and narrow staircase. should be studied first. through a horseshoe arch in red brick. Roman votive altar. it is interesting to note. a gently." . no spot that is not planted with gardens and orchards." The scene has not greatly changed since the Arab wrote. builders in the masonry. the of the Sultan. or Watch Tower. Gurgling brooks still run down the slopes Alhambra Hill. At the opposite extremity of the Alcazaba is the Torre de la Vela. whose sonorous murmurs are heard afar off. with which war and time have not dealt too It contains. and leafy groves. It is in two storeys. such an abundance of waters that. There is.28 GRANADA ravish the eye and the soul. grateful Valerius to his and inscribed by " the most indulgent wife. and nightingales sing in the thick woods of elm. they form on the declivity streams and cascades. There is.

and formerly known as the Paniagua and Cristobal del Salto names suggesting legends custom. is as extensive as it At the foot of the Torre de la Vela is beautiful. now forgotten. at Loja. Of these remains exist. referred to as the Torre de la Tahona. defended by two towers. according to the most recent researches. and the Tower and Room of Machuca. thirty miles away." the Torre de Alquiza. no trace remains. Cardinal The view from the platform. to 29 In this tower is hung a famous be heard. now styled de los Hidalgos and de la Polvora. extends the place of arms. on which day it is the according to local superstition. of city and snow-clad Sierra. the Torre del Adarguero.THE ALHAMBRA in the wall. It is rung on the anniversary of the Conquest of Granada. the Torre de Hontiveros (now the Torre de las Gallinas). On the summit of this tower first planted by el tercer rey. was separated from the site of the * Here was lodged the cavalry of the Moorish Sultans. .* bell. the cross was Mendoza. all their strength. An ancient document at Simancas names among the towers connecting the Alcazaba with the rest of the fortress. " the Tower in which dwelleth the servant of Doctor Ortiz. but of another tower. and whitewalled towns and villages. it is said. The Alcazaba. for desirous of husbands. luxuriant Vega. to strike it with damsels.

cisterns were constructed by order of the Conde de Tendilla and over which the existing Plaza de los Algibes was formed. after the Conquest. we leave behind us the early Moorish works. These works appear to have necessitated the demolition of a wall which ran across from the Torre de las Gallinas on the north to the beautiful Puerta del Vino on the south. The story which credits Al Ahmar (Mohammed the Red Palace in I. The Puerta del Vino was probably the entrance to the courts and gardens of the palace. Sultan Mohammed V. Over the horseshoe arch is an inscription in stucco. with a G in Kufic characters perhaps the initial letter of the city. appears Over the arch again is a fine double window or ajimez. The interior fagade has a large horseshoe arch and the twin-windows above. invoking the Divine protection for the builder.30 palace GRANADA by a ravine where. and approach the buildings which owe their foundation to the Nasrite or Grenadine dynasty. so often figuring as a symbol in all parts of the Alhambra. This gateway is now quite isolated from the wall of circumvallation.) with the creation of the middle of the thirteenth century appears to . On the keystone is seen the key. Having crossed the Plaza de los Algibes. of the usual Moorish character. It to commemorate some striking victory.

Since the Reconquest changes and additions have been made notably the Palace of Charles V. it is 31 be well-founded. many of the Alhambra hill was probably Ahmar's time. and Mohammed V. During the two and a half centuries of the Nasrite rule. that Yusuf I. of . restoration of the edifice. tions the palace underwent many radical transformaand renovations. To the same hands may be safely attributed the great outer wall of the Alhambra which girdles palace and fortress. so that it is difficult to distinguish between the works of the various Ford infers. population thus dwelling at the foot of the throne in later times at least.. rightly as it seems to us. and it continued to be so during the reigns of his successors. These words were uttered by him in mournful deprecation of the acclama- tions of his subjects on his return from assisting the Christians in the Conquest of Seville. had the largest share in the embellishment and sultans. for when the Alhambra is referred undoubtedly the Alcazaba that is meant. following the inequalities of the hill's contour. Wa ha ghalib ila Allah (There is no conqueror but God). in many parts of the building. to which detailed reference will be made later. Al Ahmar has left his device.THE ALHAMBRA to as existing in earlier times. The The summit peopled in Al was mainly composed. from the frequent repetition of their names upon the walls.

Such powerful tribes Beni in Serraj. extensions. as the and ambassadors.Arabic architecture. The precise limits of the palace. On the other hand. the remarks We worth quoting in extenso : penetrate into every Arabic monument through an outlying tower. have never been ascertained. except . ex-favourites and discarded sultanas. soldiers of fortune. which exercised so of much Nasrite rule. permanent and extraordinary. ulemas and doctors of the law. stages would also have had quarters for their leaders influence here. and restorations since the fifteenth century. of the last or third period of On of Contreras are the general plan of the edifice. or between two towers. even at the time of the Conquest of the Catholic sovereigns. the last The little had no parallel which seems to have before or since extended from town the eastern extremity of the hill to within as near the doors of the palace as the temper of the monarch for the time being may have permitted. it is recorded in the archives of the Alhambra that various private houses were acquired for the purpose of enlarging the older building.32 GRANADA hangers-on at the Court. But making due allowance for demolitions. Portions of it were undoubtedly demolished to make room for the palace of Charles V. we have before us in the Palace of the ficent Alhambra a magni- example Hispano.

or c . halls of The a house of this kind. And if chambers are now found disposed according to the strict alignment of Mudejar eaves. us. according to its rank or grandeur. as various in their style of decoration as the tents of a Turkish camp. extreme end are reflected in the waters of the basins. not permitting those crests. are oblong naves following which cross each other at right angles to the where the cupolas or turrets of the innermost dwelling apartments rise majestically above the level of the edifice and of the building. thus determining the distribution into two wings By the meeting of the two axes is found the entrance. it is an indication that the severe genius of the Christian conquerors has transformed them. long.THE ALHAMBRA in the dwelling-houses of the people. with light and Behind the second gallery. in 33 which case the entrance is by a small. before which we find those effects of perspective which are so fantastic in these buildings. narrow hall cuts the axis perpendicularly. cupolas. where the quarters beside those of the these rows of of an Amir may be found common soldiers. A of the edifice. Following the ingress we find a court with tanks and fountains. a portal useless among though seen with frequency in the ancient houses of Andalusia. were arranged in little pavilions on the long sides of the courts. square opening. graceful arcades. the same central axis.

while diminishing or prolonging the arms of the axis as much as the dependencies of the largest palaces might require. and every design may be resolved into a symmetrical arrangement of lines and curves . at regular distances. then. be admitted that order is much more conspicuous in the decoration than in the ground plan of the palace. they never departed from the This. All these lines flow from a parent stem. system. forbade the delineation of living objects was not. . which we may compare to a cross with the transverse arm prolonged and cut at various distances by perpendicular arms parallel to each other. however. and it is quite other than that conceived by the classicists of the eighteenth century. and squares." It must. wherever they might build. with its fagades.34 steeples which decoration. angles. but of different length. the Spanish Arabs found no other easy method of building. absolutely classical. and no or ornament is introduced at random. " GRANADA disturb the symmetry of the Outside this plan. figure . Moslem ornamentation abhors irregularity and The law of Islam which rejects symbolism. The intersection of lines at various angles is the secret of the system. All Moorish ornamentation is based on a strictly geometrical scheme. so that. . is the true scheme of the Alhambra.

points especially falls. The decoration of the surfaces seems to have been planned with strict regard to the colouring they were to receive.THE ALHAMBRA 35 however. always observed in this palace of halfEuropeanised Arabs. ' and get a vision of the blue sky that appears But it beyond as a little cloud of sapphires. . John " at some more of detail it is Lomas. allowance must always be made for innovations since the Alhambra passed into Christian hands. " Let us look for a moment. it Wherever the eye fine bit of may rest upon some arcading or peristyle. that one marvels how such fairy-like construction could ' Lovers' stand for even a single generation. time having of the metallic pigment employed. Both as regards decoration and colour. as changed the tint to-day was formerly blue. and they tell one tears they to stand just within the dim hall or vestibule. red. The secondary The in the dados of mosaic. and at its first slenderness of pillar." writes Mr. Simplicity and a love of the elementary characterise also the colouring of the decorations. On the stucco work only the primary colours were and yellow. so delicate in the transparent tracery of its spandrils. of the ornamentation. colours occur only green groundwork of much of the ornamentation used : blue. call this lace-work. in the rich work of its capitals.

. What could be more satisfactory than this range of exquisite arcading. drils ? and the fairy filigree. And. are uneven of self-will . them on the respective sides in no way corre. . sometimes sometimes grouped. and yet there are . " Some seem almost of the irregularities which obtain here incredible.36 is GRANADA surely better an insight into a piece of truer art to stand outside the eastern kiosk of the Lion's Court and looking through spandril." "As an In a foot-note Mr. : . . is a triumph of accurately judged effect. the doorways are the personification the columns are placed. its gracefully stilted arches. of effect. and the numbers of singly. or width the upper galleries in breadth at every turn . That it is translike parency meet with the architect who thought ! indeed One would to out.work of the spanThere seems to be not one single point that can offend the justest eye. the distant opposite windows. catch the light glinting through bule. it may be mentioned that the exact relation between the irregular widths of cloistering on the long and spond. there is an allThe whole prevailing symmetry and harmony. vestiand sala. or height. its slender palm-like stems. Lomas adds instance of the careful way in which the architects of these olden days went to work. nearly a dozen different archings. nevertheless. differing in the cloister varies form.

The Shadow of the Most High [be] : ! upon all " ! This text III. It is square in shape and has long been walled up. in 1621.THE ALHAMBRA short sides of the court 37 is that of the squares the sides of a right-angled triangle. ." We will now proceed to a more detailed description of the Palace of Al Ahmar. THE PATIO DE LA MEZQUITA AND ADJACENT BUILDINGS. The chapel. At that time a fine chimney-piece in the Renaissance style was converted into an altar. is believed to refer to Mohammed (1302-1309). the Patio de la Mezquita. Recent researches have shown that the ancient ingress to the Palace of the Alhambra was by a doorway leading into what is now the chapel. Above it may be deciphered the following inscrip" tion O place of the high kingdom and asylum Thou hast achieved a of prodigious aspect and the merits of the work and of great victory. the artificer [are] the glory of the Imam Mohammed. with an exquisite . The apartment contains is but few remains of its Moorish builders Without. which had been established by Ferdinand and Isabel adjacent to the Patio de los Leones. This upon obtaining of beautiful symmetry through irregularity is a strangely lost art. was transferred to this part of the Palace of Philip IV.

fell a victim to the poniard of an assassin in the year 1354. mented with mosaic work and tracery of the most beautiful and intricate patterns intermixed with : silver flowers and graceful arches. in various sorts of arabesques. who. supported by innumerable pillars of polished marble indeed. entirely destroyed it. the elegance of the design." Little more remains of this superb temple than the small oratory entered through a door in the wall opposite the altar of the chapel. sentences extolling the sultans. The inscription round the central window refers to Mohammed V. Here the mihrab is still Before it. . the Wizir of Yusuf I." and with device. much disfigured by a modern gallery. in the to be distinguished. An account of it has been left to us by Ibn-ul" It is ornaKhattib. according to Gayangos. (1354-1391). The grand Mosque of the Alhambra was built in 1308 by Mohammed III. act of prayer. what with the solidity of the structure which the . and I have frequently heard our best architects say that they have never seen or heard of a building which can be compared with it. Sultan inspected in person.38 GRANADA fagade. The walls are adorned with the oft-recurring " God alone is Conqueror.. and the beauty of the proportions. Yusuf I. the building has not its like in this country.. and was in good preservation until the occupation of the French.

the silence murmur that reigns all about all oppress the soul at the same time. the of the breezes that agitate the dense myrtles. which presents many architectural points of difference from the rest of the palace. This is the court first entered is It visitor through the modern entrance.THE ALHAMBRA 39 Adjacent to the mihrab is the ruined tower of Punales. one of the most beautiful parts of the palace. by the One feels immediately transported to the East. the airy galleries. and gives a foretaste of the glories that lie beyond. the splendid apartments of which glimpses are obtained through its arches. " The originality of the architecture [says Don Francisco Pi Margall]. Retracing our steps across the Patio de la Mezquita. The lattices similar to those seen in Constantinople and Cairo. the fountains and foliage. and has features which may have suggested these characteristics of the Mudejar style seen principal in other parts of window of the tower was furnished with a wooden balcony with Andalusia. and leave us for some moments submerged in a sea of sensations which reveal to us little more than the harmony of the whole . the transparency of the sky. the reflection of its stuccoed walls in the waters of the pond. its rich alhamis or alcoves. or de la Alberca). we reach the spacious Court of the Myrtles or of the Fishpond (Patio de los Arrayanes.

The court is redolent of the languor. the central one reaching up to the cornice. perforated much lower. extended on rich carpets and divans. but differing At each angle in degree of ornamentation. Each arcade is composed of seven semicircular arches. to the south by the walls of the Palace of Charles V. and bears seven small cupolas over the central arch of the northern gallery is a single cupola painted with little gold stars on a blue ground. their roofs are of the stalactite pattern. . prospect To the north. The walls of these little places are encrusted with reliefs in stucco. and splendour of the East. and two round basins at either end. Thereof of the southern gallery is of artesonado or troughed form.40 scene. and to the east and west by walls pierced with doors and twinwindows covered with arabesques. while the others. . its margins hidden by orange trees The clear water gushes up into myrtles." GRANADA The court forms an oblong. voluptuousness. Through one of the entrances can be seen the fountain in the Patio de los Leones. bounded and south by two galleries supported on eight columns of white marble. Along the middle of the court extends the alberca or fish-pond. are closed with wood work or lattices. where the Moors we find an alhami or alcove. the is closed by the battlemented Tower of Comares. at the north were accustomed to laze away the day.

&c. headed dome of wood of the most elaborate . into the Sala de la Barca. and that with a principal or guiding figure made out by colours. endowed shining in with every beauty and perfection. was seriously damaged in the fire of 1890. formerly radiant with colours. This fine apartment. including the Patio de los Leones. We pass through a beautiful arch decorated with tasteful floral designs. says Owen Jones." am like the nuptial array of a bride. splendour. or ante-room of the Hall of Ambassadors. and the Harem." In the Patio de la Alberca is an arch differing altogether from all others in the Palace. Only one surface is decorated." " Truly Ibn Nasr is the sun. The ornaments approximate more closely than is usual in Moorish architecture to natural forms. " Go and tell true believers that Divine help for and ready victory are reserved " I them." " May he continue in the noontide of his glory even unto the period of his decline. frequented by the general public. which the following are the most important. and the arch has very much of a Persian character. The " is a wagonceiling of this hall. or private quarters. which we have already described. This court is believed to have constituted the division between the male apartments.THE ALHAMBRA of 41 In this court there are numerous inscriptions.

The hall lacks its former pavement of marble. Owen Jones is of opinion that the present ceiling replaced an earlier one. by 75 occupied high up by the Sala de Embaj adores. or gazed on the attesting the wonderful battles in the Vega. we behold a glorious. its central . Lifting our eyes. receiving its support from pendentives of mathematical construction so curious that they may be rendered susceptible of combinations as various as the melodies which may be produced from the seven notes of the musical scale . The ft. The view from the summit of the massive battlemented tower is magnificent. the proud monarchs of Granada and their queens have watched the approach of Christian armies. From this platform. the receptionroom of the Sultans. with stars and painted angles. The real supports have been purposely kept out of sight. It is the largest and perhaps the most imposing of the halls of the to the centre of the dome. appearing to rest on the slenderest pillars and almost to be balanced in the air.42 GRANADA patterns. which was supported by an arch of brick. The is walls of the tower are of surprising thickness. Alhambra. of artesonado work." Beyond this hall rises the Tower of Comares. airy dome. interior. Washington Irving remarks. power and effect obtained by the repetition of the most simple elements. which a square of 37 is ft.

the motto of Al Ahmar being frequently repeated. " the south-eastern quarter of the Palace. There is no part of the edifice that gives us a more complete idea of its original beauty and magni- than this. replaced entrance was the site of the Sultan's throne. Opening on to the hall are nine alcoves. with the chambers opening on to it. The archi- . as the long poetical inscriptions testify. In the centre stands the fountain famous in song and story. The alabaster basins still shed their diamond drops and the twelve lions. 43 and the lattices that filled in its twin- windows. each with balconies. cast forth their crystal ficence " for . The Patio de los Leones (Court of the Lions) occupies. Numerous are the Kufic and African inscriptions introduced into the decoration. which have The alcove opposite the gorgeous assemblies must have in filled this saloon bygone years and what tumultuous scenes and fateful decisions must have been here enacted ! THE PATIO DE LOS LEONES AND ADJACENT APARTMENTS. But it is still adorned by a beautiful mosaic dado (known as sofeisfa) reaching to the wooden cornice. none has suffered so little from the ravages of time." says Washington Irving. What twin-windows. which support them.THE ALHAMBRA fountain. streams as in the days of Boabdil.

the shocks of earthquakes. sometimes in pairs an arrangement which does nothing to mar the general impression of harmony. the violence of war. looks it is difficult to believe that so much has survived the wear and tear of centuries. On each side is The supporting marble columns are 124 in number and ii ft. lecture. and the walls are covered to a height of five feet with a dado of blue and yellow azulejos. and the quiet. and adorned with verses from the Koran. 66 ft. The space above the arches is filled in with the usual arabesque work." The court is an oblong measuring 116 ft. They are placed irregularly.44 GRANADA . by is a peristyle or portico. that the whole is protected popular by a magic charm. The ceilings of the porticos are enriched with delicate stucco work. pilferings of it the tasteful almost sufficient to excuse the tradition. like that of all other parts of the palace. high. and a bespeaking When one disposition to indolent enjoyment. The arches exhibit a similar variety of curve. bordered with . is characterised upon the fairy tracery of the peristyles. by elegance rather than grandeur a delicate and graceful taste. sometimes singly. and spring from capitals decorated with rich foliage of various designs. and at either end a graceful pavilion with a fine dome. though no traveller : less baneful. and the apparently fragile fretwork of the walls.

THE ALHAMBRA 45 blue and gold enamelled escutcheons bearing an Arabic motto on a bend. the Alhambra were evidently not over-strict in the observance of their religion. and runs into forty-four lines of Castilian. are rudely but heraldically carved. and their legs like bedposts. while a water-pipe stuck in their mouths does not add to their dignity. tion referred to has been versified The inscrip- by Valera.Saracenic tombs in Apulia and Calabria. are in all probability unique the builders of ." seems ludicrously unneces- and their manes cut like the scales of a griffin. so called because it is believed to be the scene of the massacre of thirty-six chiefs of that tribe by order of Boabdil. for life is wanting to enable them to show their fury. This is composed of two basins (in Moorish times there was but one) supported by twelve marble lions. remarks Ford. In the centre of the court is the fountain from which it derives its name. A reddish vein in ." Indeed. " Their faces are barbecued. These Arabian sculptures. that there is nothing to be feared from As specimens of Arabian sculpture they sary. the consolatory reminder contained in the tremendously long inscription round the basin. " these creatures. and closely resemble those to be seen supporting Norman. On is the south side of the Patio de los Leones the Sala de los Abencerrages (Hall of the Beni Serraj).

thousand stalactites. Yet which crosses the pavilion . prolonged on the east and west by two alhamis or alcoves. and was first circulated by a writer of the name of Gines Perez indelible de Hita. its complicated polygons. indecipherable. with pendants and sixteen windows in its vaultings. depressions and projections. The chamber is a square. who to lived in the sixteenth century. " Its archings. does not seem a likely place for deeds of blood. Osmin was beheaded here by order of the prince (1446) Muley Hassan but others. perhaps the most elegant in the Alhambra." writes Don Fran" cisco Pi Margall. growing out of. It is entered fled to the mountains.46 GRANADA the marble flooring is pointed out as the victims' The story has only the bloodstains. present it at first sight as something confused. its cones. through a wonderfully graceful arch. writing of that confused period of Granadine history. the usurper Aben This chamber. and Way. marble shafts. rather than springing from. the Milky of the heavens. like resplendent. the glory of the Sala de los Abencerrages roof its But is its plan like that of a star. indefinable. some. the effects of chiaroscuro. slenderest historical foundation. that broad band. its its cro\vns of stars. which are entered through exquisitely-curved arches. its innumerable or stalactites.its vague. say the tyrant According . accidents of light. its colours.

which communicates on the right with the upper storey. is the marble basin beside which the Beni Serraj are fabled to have been slain. now vanished. from which the ladies of the Harem would gaze into the patio below. two being entrances. . An exquisite arch gives admittance from the court to a narrow corridor. as graceful." The azulejos which face the walls date from In the centre of the hall the time of Charles V. on the north side of the the Sala de las Dos let Hermanas two twin the of Two Sisters). as suggestive of Eastern luxury and repose as that which we have just left. The slabs marble into the as rich. and their combinations change so rapidly. the others admitting to alcoves somewhat more shut off than in other parts of the Alhambra. patient study. The roof exhibits the same marvellous combinations of geometrical forms. In each wall is an arched opening. Above each arch is a window correhall is sponding to the apartments in the upper storey. so called after pavement. of is hall. (or. 47 most regular. and with the mirador or latticed balcony. although irregular in the compass of the geometrician appearance had more to do in planning it than the genius of but its lines are so many.THE ALHAMBRA in reality it is . Opposite this Lions' Court. that the scheme is only to be comprehended after a long and the artist .

Indeed. as are seen in the Sala de los Abencerrages. is described by Baron Davillier in his work on Spanish Pottery. little a long.48 GRANADA the same confused symmetry. which tradition says was discovered in one of the subterranean chambers of the Palace. the beauty of which has become proverbial. us "to look attentively at my elegance and reap the benefit of a commentary on decoration here . full of gold. are columns ornamented with every perfection. Inscriptions on the sixteen medallions and cartouches have been deciphered into a long poem by Ibn Zamrek. composed in honour of Mohammed V. The surface of the hidden beneath costly reliefs of stucco and azulejos. decorations are larger hall. this hall is generally (but not universally) considered the more admirable walls is of the two. . Beyond the Hall of the Two Sisters los is narrow apartment called the Sala de Its (Hall of the Twin Windows)." In this magnificent apartment formerly stood the famous vase (el jarron). which dates from the fourteenth century. It is now in the little Alhambra Museum. and gold. and is beautifully enamelled in white. Ajimeces ceiling and inferior to those of the On Mirador de a delightful view of the garden beyond. The vase. and translated into eleven One verse exhorts verses of Spanish by Valera. or prospect-chamber.. affording the north side opens the exquisite Lindaraja. blue.

more probably. who were formerly supposed to be judges.THE ALHAMBRA bower 49 In wealth of detail and ornamentation. whence the name given to the hall. They were intended. of the central alcove or alhami is adorned by a painting representing ten personages. is perhaps the finest in the whole Palace. this little of fifteen by ten feet surpasses all other of the Palace. or divan. When their eyes wearied of the prospect Returning to the Patio de los Leones. we enter. like those in the other alcoves. to represent the first ten sultans of the Nasrite dynasty. and are separated by three larger oblong apartments. The four small rooms are square. D . at its eastern extremity. the same profusion of geometrical ornamentation. here as elsewhere in the Alhambra The arch over the central small chamber. the Sala del Tribunal. they could scan the numerous poetical effusions traced upon the walls. or de la Justicia. The same gorgeous colouring. But what renders this hall the ! most remarkable in the edifice is that it contains what are probably the only existing specimens The ceiling of mediaeval Muslim figure painting. The painting. is done in bright colours (gold. In Moorish days the Sultanas parts could look from behind the lattices of the three windows across the town and the plain of the Vega. This hall consists of seven chambers opening on to a common vestibule.

) on leather prepared with gypsum. tian knight. a castle with square towers and battlements is seen outside it is a lion led in chains by a maiden. whose hands are rudely grasped by a savage with shaggy hair and beard. The designs appear to have been sketched in brown. part for following the chase against a tree. armed cap-a-pie. &c. the same knight On is the other side shown attacked by a Moorish cavalier. The huntsmen are also seen returning and offering the spoils of the chase to their ladies. his breast. red. is entirely devoted to Moors are seen chasing the wild boar. and a page is seen. The paintings in the other alhamis are In the of an even more interesting character. who plunges a lance into The Moor is evidently out hunting. of the picture both knights are shown. beneath the combatants' horses his dogs are chasing the wild boar and fox.50 GRANADA green. a benign and warrior kneels to the lady and offers his prize. while the Christians occupy themselves with bears and lions. presumably . with evident In another pleasure. first. A rescuer hurries to her assistance in the person of a Chris. leaning with sword and shield. The second painting hunting scenes. of the picture. awaiting his master's return. . greets his sultana with the Christian condescending air The Moor . From the towers of the castle two fair ladies observe. the Christian's overthrow.

A parallel instance . deer. this was designed in According 1305 for the service of the mosque. In the Sala de la Justicia was found a basin for ablutions. and here that the cross was set up by Cardinal Mendoza. It was in this hall that Ferdinand and Isabel caused Mass to be celebrated after the Reconquest. to the inscription. It should also be said that in the opinion of some modern Muslim doctors the prohibition of sculpture and painting is not to be taken as absolute. Gayangos has pointed out remarkable similarities between these paintings and those in the Campo Santo at Pisa and on the whole it is probable that they were executed by an Italian artist. a fact which seems to support the view of the authorities just mentioned. of casuistry is that of London Jews. The devices of the Catholic sovereigns . who on certain feasts employ Christians to perform forbidden menial offices. on which are interesting reliefs of lions. and eagles.THE ALHAMBRA The most competent critics 51 have now arrived at the conclusion that these paintings are of the fourteenth century. Whether they were the work of a Mohammedan it is not so easy to say. and therefore executed under of the the Muslim sovereigns. in defiance of the precepts Koran. now in the Museum. whom the Muslims may not have scrupled to employ to do a thing for them unlawful.

my I was dissatisfied with being lodged in a modern apartment. a door communicating apparently with an extensive apartment locked I procured the key. and of a prince Abu-1-Hejaj. the door opened however.. . was fitted up for It was in front reception. without difficulty a range of vacant chambers of European to . opposite the Mirador de Lindaraja. and the long. called the Rauda. The niches till in which the titrbehs were placed may distinguished.52 the GRANADA Yoke and Sheaf of Arrows have been to the south introduced into the decoration of the alcoves. in a remote gallery. The ruinous tower and apartment of the Hall of Justice.. at the side of the Patio de Lindaraja. narrow . Of the few remaining apartments of the Alhambra. I found. This was the apartment occupied by Washington On according to his own showing abode in the Alhambra.. and Mohammed II. : " tecture. one end of taking up my a suite of empty chambers of modern archiIrving. probably the former's son. In the Museum may be seen three tablets with be the epitaphs of the Sultans Yusuf III. the most interesting perhaps is the Tocador.rough used for the purification of the corpse.. of the Palace. . .. .. appears to have been the mausoleum of the Sultans. intended for the residence of the governor. against the public. or Queen's Dressing-room.

. One of the loftiest chambers had been her sleeping-room. opened on to the delightful belvedere. which ran at right angles with a side of the garden I found that it was an apartment fitted up at the time when Philip V. 53 architecture. which still retains the name of the tocador.THE ALHAMBRA . and the Vestals' Fire. Neptune. painted and decorated with the figures of Faith. and of Charity. . Plenty. These paintings were the work of two Italians. Jupiter. Amir of the Round the boudoir runs a gallery Muslims : ' ! nine arches on Arabic pillars. Hope. painted and gilded. . . may be read the invocation " The help and protection of God and a glorious victory for our Lord. and Temperance. . representing the legend of Phaeton. an open gallery with balustrades. I determined at once to take up my quarters in in . though built over a Moorish arcade." This exquisite apartment is adorned by four sixteenth-century paintings. apartment. and a narrow staircase leading from it . and the beautiful Elizabeth of Parma were expected at the Alhambra.. originally a mirador of the Moorish sultanas. On the artesonado ceiling. Abu-1-Hejaj. Strength. Justice. and was destined for the Queen and the ladies of her train. This fanciful suite of rooms terminated . but I was not diverted from my this humour. My determination occasioned great surprise.

or garden of the palace of Ayesha. Between this garden and the court of the Alberca lie the baths those indispensable adjuncts enchanting spot to An the Muslim household most skilfully artistically restored by Contreras. and citron-trees rising from trim hedges orange. or " Manners vapour-bath. dates and three arcades The fountain in the century. with . we enter the Sala white marble bath and pavement of glazed tiles. centre from seventeenth this. which intervenes regal boudoir and the Moorish or between mirador. both pupils little The charming daraja this garden or patio of Lin- Daraja. Passing through the Sala de las Cdmas or Unrobing Room. the hararah. appears to have been originally called Jin Dar Aja. de Bafios. that usually followed throughout and The plan is the East.54 Giulio Aquila of Raphael. with its cypress. from a high gallery the songs of the odalisques were wafted down to the sultan reclining in one of the alcoves. The old Moorish garden that used to extend as far as the Tower of of Comares is now confined by the walls of the Sala de las Ajimeces the is modern construction. and described in Lane's and Customs of the Modern Egyptians " and its . GRANADA and Sandro Mainere. of myrtle and rose. This corresponds with the apartment called by the Arabs. where.

The chamber is lighted from above through star-shaped apertures. counting as one the two buttresses that defended the gate of the Siete To this number should properly be added Suelos. remains unimpaired. the Torre de las Armas. bathing-apartments consist of three halls men called the THE TOWERS AND GATES OF THE ALHAMBRA The wall of the Nasrites. vulgarly Infantas' Baths.THE ALHAMBRA it 55 was under the graceful arcades which support dome that the bathers underwent the kneading and rubbing processes lately introduced among us. The thickness of the towers varies according to their situation and purpose. " moreover. and was defended by twenty-six towers. fortified. them ranging from 34 to At the present day metres approximately. corre- sponding to as many gates. measured about 1400 metres from one extremity to the other." 64 the distance between . by five bastions. of which traces remain in the modern alamedas. which is pierced by a gate common to the Alcazaba and Alhambra. and is The citadel was therefore also a Nasrite work." writes Senor " of which scarcely a patch Fernandez Jimenez. in this palace of delight. The inscriptions refer to the the felicity awaiting The and two smaller chambers. and by various external defences.

and with the symbol of the key. Justicia. la de la Cautiva. the signification of which is a matter of controversy. the we can count only which are la : names of las la Aguas. las Gallinas. las Damas. The Puerta de the principal entrance to the Alhambra. erected by the Alcaide Mendoza in 1545. to pray. and the commandments. to fast. The arch which gives egress from the tower shows some fine enamelling and festoons.. administered in in 1348. los Hidalgos. and Justicia It is Infantas. los Punales. and to make the pilgrimage to Mecca. by the Sultan Here justice was after Moorish days the old Above the arch is carved an patriarchal fashion. open hand. la Vela. the five fingers typifying Faith in God and the Prophet. The entrance is continued through another gate. las los Armas. a fountain in the Greco-Roman style. as the inscription over the arch relates. los Siete Suelos. It is ornamented with the Imperial arms. and sculptured . las Cabezas. The inner arch is beautifully decorated with that it is arabesques. with winding passages contrived so as to embarrass an enemy. was built. Just outside this gate is the Pilar de Carlos V. las del Candil. Polvora. Picos. to give alms.56 GRANADA fifteen towers. is The most probable explanation a religious symbol. Yusuf Abu-1-Hejaj.

Four subterranean chambers have been investigated. the interior of which a perfect model of the smaller Oriental dwellinghouse. its plan. The tower is one of the most interesting parts of the Somewhat less complete and regular fortress. Here tradition places the site of much buried treasure. At the south-eastern angle of the enceinte is the ruinous Torre del Agua. Through a small vestibule we reach a covered-in patio with a fountain in the centre.THE ALHAMBRA heads Beiro. Genii. and The double Torre de gateway. The ornamentation is graceful and original. los Siete Suelos flanks a now walled up. and fables are told of phantom guards and enchanted sentries. which derives its name from the aqueduct that at this point spans the ravine. The tower is so called because it is believed to descend seven storeys underground. which was formerly the principal entrance to the fortress. of 57 the river gods. Darro. Here the inscriptions resound the praises of Abu-1-Hejaj . is the adjoining Torre de la Cautiva (Captive's Tower). and alcoves opening out on three sides. Through it the unfortunate Boabdil is said to have passed on his way to exile and obscurity. but even more elegantly decorated in with rose-coloured tiles. On the north-eastern side we reach is the Torre de las Infantas.

The Torre de Ismail. two Moorish Strangely enough." the kiblah or easterly niche and other indications of the Muslim rite can still be made out. Between the Torres de los Picos and de las mihrab or oratory built on the it was appropriated to wall. The ruined tower of Pufiales has some curious stucco decorations. about the time of the Spanish Reconquest. the portal is guarded by lions brought from the old Mint the injunctions of the being thus ignored in its Mohammedan own temple ! religion Santa Maria. writing of the deeds of The parish church 1581. occupies the site of . and has a richly decorated belvedere and a hall very tastefully ornamented. erected in the Mosque of which Al Khattib appears to speak. the private use of one Astasio de Bracamonte. " restoraThough it has undergone deplorable is Damas a little At the Reconquest tions. or de las Damas (Ladies' Tower). was given by Mohammed V. differing from those found in other parts of the palace. to his son Ismail. but some relics of the Nasrite rule remain in the shape of some beautifully moulded twin windows.58 GRANADA refer to the and Lion residing within these walls ! a very different occupant from a captive The Torre de los Picos seems to have been so styled from the peaked battlements which crown It evidently underwent extensive remodelling it.

storey is of the Tuscan order. whence buildings. V. 1538. with all that it contained of elegance and decoration. St. and cements as well as lamps of pure silver and other In front of the Mosque were the great marvels. mosaics. THE PALACE OF CHARLES The which forlorn. and contains nothing of note. referring to the construction of three temples. The lower facades. palace.THE ALHAMBRA of 59 " Mohammed III. the upper. Some of decoration the marble portals are very fine. erected with the money levied from the baths. the greatest and most was the construction of the great Mosque or Alhambra. And among remarkable his great actions. in he could contemplate the beauties of the Moorish The building is a quadrangle of four each seventeen metres high. in the years 594 and 607. seems so out of place amid these Oriental was begun by order of the Emperor It was never completed. Christians in his dominions. Charles V. and St. John. except a Visigothic inscription. Aljama of the . . dedicated to St. (1302-1309). roofless palace in the classical style. In the appear allusions to the campaigns. Stephen. Ionic. Vincent. With the receipts from these baths the Mosque and its ministers were maintained. The Flemish Caesar's intention seems to have been to establish a permanent residence here." The modern church is of brick.

with a gallery supported by thirty-two columns. Plus oultrc.60 GRANADA on sea and land. directed by the Emperor. and altogether the palace. interior of the palace is occupied by an imposing circular court. his motto. The staircase is loftily The designed. if it had been completed and built almost anywhere else. and the emblem of the Golden Fleece. . would have been a dignified memorial of Charles's reign.

arcade resembles that of the Court of the Fishpond. hall adjoining have been fagade and the spacious The altered in order to make a large vestibule. believed to have " been derived from Jennatu-l'arif. who adopted the name of Don Pedro de Granada.70 by 12. and connects with the Acequia The arcaded southern (or canal) de la Alhambra." The palace appears to have been built by a Moor called Omar. from whom it was purchased by the Sultan Abu-1-Walid. and whose descendants. are to The Generalife cannot be regarded as an important monument of Moorish architecture. which measures 48. the family of Campotejar. the garden The name of the architect. Sidi Yahya. runs the conduit which irrigates the whole estate. overlooks the is rugged walls of the Alhambra. and exhibits a poetical inscription declaring .80 metres. Through the central court. At the Reconquest it became the property of a renegade prince. this day the actual owners.THE GENERALIFE in ACROSS an ivy-draped ravine a perfect study green and red the Palace of Recreations. the Generalife.

and tall the finest trees in all Spain. In the city of Granada itself the memorials of the Moorish domination are scanty and fast . that of Boabdil. cedars. and many of the magnificent trees have been cut down. moistens the roots of myrtles..62 that GRANADA Abu-1-Walid restored the palace in the year 1319. of Juana la Loca and her husband. are the most important. the gardens are a veritable bower of beauty and Water bubbles up everywhere and delight. But if the palace is in no way remarkable. Among the portraits of the Granada family is one supposed to be that of Ben Hud Al Mutawakil. The halls of the Generalife are of little interest in themselves. and ancestor This seems to be the portrait of Sidi Yahya. which English travellers persist in mistaking for doubtful authenticity. But the garden is ill-kept. The legend of the Abencerrage discovered in dalliance with a Sultana. cypresses. is absolutely destitute of any sort of foundation. the rival of Al Ahmar. beneath one of these cypresses. The nature of the spot so eminently fitted for love and lovers' trysts may have suggested the story. and of the fourth wife of Philip II. and contain several portraits of Those of Ferdinand and Isabel.

A. Tradition avers that the palace (for such the house at one time was) was built by Badis Ibn Habus. mounted and armed with shield and spear. old times the chief bazaar. . ruled about 1070 a governor of Granada. who by whose direction a vane was made in the shape of a warrior.. An " inscription beginning. In the Name of God. rule. and vestibule with dome and alcoves. is a building formerly styled the Casa del Gallo de Viento (Weathercock House). Entered from the Carrera de Darro is the once handsome Moorish bath house. In later years the building The only notable served as a corn exchange. and now known by the commonplace designation of Casa del Carbon (Charcoal House). and the columns and capitals of a primitive order. to date from the earliest period of Mohammedan The arches are of the old horseshoe type. by the present owner of the site. Adjacent to the Casa del Carbon is the house of the Duque de Abrantes. without any exploration or examination.THE GENERALIFE 63 In the Zacatin. which was in disappearing. now in the last It is believed stages of dilapidation and neglect. Beneath it is said to be a subterranean passage communicating with the Alhambra blocked up. features are the entrance with its horseshoe arch and twin-windows. oddly enough.D. owing to its having been appropriated to the storage of that useful product.

The effacement serves to of the Moorish character of its Granada. Charles V. and Philip II. Ferdinand. and Pedro I. the Compassionate . approached the works of their Mohammedan foes and subjects presented a very favourable contrast to that manifested by the Catholic sovereigns. the usual alhamies. The old Moorish mint was demolished in 1643. The spirit in which St. the Merciful." may still be made out. and the famous Gate of Bivarrambla can no longer be described in any sense as a Moham- medan work. as compared with survival in Seville.64 GRANADA . Alfonso el Sabio. can also be traced. . the various chambers of repose and disrobing. show how much more intense the and racial bias became in Spain religious during the two hundred and odd years that elapsed between the conquests of the two cities. . The bath itself.

ported by a number of small stone columns. after serving the purposes of the Catholic rite for two centuries. but the chapel of the Alhambra remained for some time the cathedral of the new See. which for the most in the city. harmoniously arranged. as some writers pretend. disappeared between 1705 and 1759 to make room for the from the earliest centuries of the E . The whole was suppart were not even joined.CATHOLIC GRANADA ALMOST the first act performed chief by a Spanish king on his entry into a conquered Mohammedan city mosque (aljama) into a Christian church. The building. writing in 1669." Jorquera says the mosque was composed of five low naves. and the roof covered with tiles. Whether or not it was originally a Visigothic church. as square. or rather longer than wide. Rouen is described by the Abbe Bertaut of " (quoted by Valladar). This was also done at Granada. The mosque was to convert the afterwards elevated to that rank. and the was long famous as the Torre Turpiana. the temple probably dated Muslim occupatower which contained the mihrab tion. without vaults.

partly gilt. 1561. and was made in 1522 by of Maestre the Bartolome. and completed in the year 1517 a year after the king's death and thirteen years after the queen's. which is the most striking interesting It memorial of the Conquest of Granada. dedicated on August 17. Ferdinand and Isabella. partly of iron.66 GRANADA As a cathedral. being exact says Ford. There letters : is a suggestion of Gothic influence in the magni- ficent railing or grille. under the direction of the famous Enrique Egas. &c. These. . which divides the nave from the transept. The chapel is shaped like a Latin cross. The Catholic sovereigns are kneeling figures on either side of the high altar. had been superseded by the adjoining and existing edifice. building." &c. The decoration of the interior consists almost entirely in a frieze bearing a long inscription in gilt " This chapel was which reads ordered to be built by the most Catholic Don Ferdinand and Dona Isabella. it present sacristia (sacristy). was begun in 1505 as a mausoleum for the Catholic sovereigns. seen " are very remarkable. Older by about a quarter of a century than the foundations of the cathedral is the Royal Chapel and (Capilla Real). contrasting strongly with the ornate and elaborate structures of the succeeding age. and is one of the latest specimens of the Spanish Gothic It is a comparatively modest and simple style.

and halberdiers. Behind are ladies. In that which illustrates the 'surrender of the Alhambra. and costumes is the victorious banner of lived absorbing policy for which both the conquest of the Moor and the conversion of the infidel are embodied beneath and died them in singular painted carvings these have been attributed to Felipe Vigarny.CATHOLIC GRANADA behind Ferdinand Castile. which the dismounted Boabdil presents. and unquestionably more vigorous also more in harmony with the structure generally. Conversion of the Infidel in it the reluctant flock is represented as undergoing the ceremony of wholesale baptism. Few things of the kind in Spain are more interesting. while captives come out of the gates in pairs. contrasts with the chubbiness of the king and queen." women still Roman fascia those worn Tetuan by These reliefs are and artistic. forms. the principal actors being shorn of the monks. who sits on his trapped mule. The the at mufflers and leg-wrappers are precisely their descendants. He opens his hand to receive the key. knights. than the gorgeous Renais- . and are certainly of the highest antiquarian interest. between represented riding on a white palfrey Ferdinand and the great Cardinal Mendoza. holding it by the wards. like Wolsey. . while the 67 : representations of their faces. ' The other basso-relievo records the ' . He alone wears gloves his pinched aquiline face Isabel is .

the unhappy Queen Juana. the sepulchre is seated one of the four Doctors of the Church. the escutcheons. the faces expressing At each corner of infinite dignity and repose. Medallions on two of the four sides represent respectively the Baptism and Resurrection of Jesus. George and St. sepulchre of Ferdinand and Isabella's daughter. The reliefs represent the Nativity. and. and much is of the heraldic decoration. and John the Very beautiful are the figures of children. order of Juana's . and St. James. Cardinal In the niches are figures of the (not conspicuous in Philip at the corners the statues of Virtues during Divine. Beautifully done are the figures of the Twelve Apostles. and Saints Michael. George. are shown lying side by side. the Adoration in design and of her of the Magi. below whom is a Sphinx. and execution. the Agony in the Garden. in fact. The two great sovereigns Bartolome Ordonez. the Handsome. Andrew. all the details of this grandiose but unimpressive monument. The whole in the most florid style of and was carved son. and the Entombment. Charles V. Philip L. The adjacent is inferior husband. at Genoa by the Renaissance.68 sance GRANADA cenotaphs of Ferdinand and Isabella most probably the work of the Spanish sculptor. The heads of the recumbent figures are not faithful portraits. life).

CATHOLIC GRANADA Very of 69 different are the actual resting-places the sovereigns so gorgeously commemorated in stone above. of Juana and Philip. without finding in the dregs even that lethargy which the excess of grief procures for some. heroes and fathers of heroes Here they lie kings who retreated before the face of danger. who can restrain his pity for love . Who can enter this murky precinct without feeling his heart swayed by contrary emotions without inclining with reverence before the lead which covers the men who rescued the nations from the anarchy of feudalism ? While a tear may drop on the bier of that great princess [Isabella]. Here. Herein repose the remains of Ferdinand and Isabella. never battle." together in the dim light of three dynasties united in less than a century for the greater writes Pi Margall. fathers and sons. . returning from the found rest and refreshment in the arms of and unhappy souls who drained their beloved the cup of suffering. with iron bands. we find five rude coffins. . inaugurated the Modern Era. and queens whose lives were consumed in the fire of profound fortunate ones who. and of their son. Descending to a narrow vault beneath the cenotaphs. Prince Juan. Ferdinand's " coffin may be identified by the letter F. lie " monarchs here lie the last princes glory of the fatherland of the Mediaeval Age. and those who at its close .

70 GRANADA that unhappy queen [Juana] who. The pillars on each side are adorned by the statues of kings-at-arms. and some rich Gothic vestments. and cherubim are mingled in the decorawhich is beautiful and not over-elaborate. Amusing instances are recorded of the bad blood existing between the cathedral canons and the This royal chaplains. to the ends of the world. the crown and sceptre of the Catholic preserved queen. and ascend to the chapel. Over an altar on the south side is a Descent from the Cross. The Chapel Royal. has an entirely independent ecclesiastical organisation of its own. though architecturally forming part of the cathedral building. with its own chapter and clergy. religious emblems. There In the sacristy are is not much more to see. the sword of Ferdinand. passed the night waiting for the dawn to break that she might go forth. of which Ford speaks highly. Heraldic devices. intoxicated with love. in search of her adored husband. The Chapel Royal communicates with the cathedral by a noble portal in the Late Gothic style. enmity (says Valladar) . and reliefs of saints tion. Above the entrance an eagle upholds the Arms of Spain. alone. passing away to nothingness in their dark palace. and would not leave closed ' his coffin till the tomb had of a upon it ? We last leave these great and unhappy ones bygone age.

nor can the edifice be said to deserve the descriplast " tion. The chaplains had the right of passage across the arrested. THE CATHEDRAL The Cathedral of Granada was built adjoining and connecting with the Chapel Royal and sacristy or old mosque. Strange that such ludicrous bickerings should have arisen out of a mausoleum a foundation which commemorates the grandest and most epoch-making events in the national history. but at consented to the adoption of the designs of Diego de Siloe. Charles V.CATHOLIC GRANADA was carried so bishop Carrillo far 71 that once. but the plan is distinctly Gothic. The church is described by Ford as one of the finest examples of the GraecoRoman style. the chaplains refused to admit them. cathedral which is transept to the Puerta del Perdon. attended by his canons. between the years 1523 and 1561. The archbishop accordingly caused the disobliging priests to be whereupon a long lawsuit ensued. preferred the Gothic style. the most magnificent temple in Europe It is after the Vatican. the official or state entrance to the royal privilege which seems to have galled the canons to the quick." impressive in its severity . when the Archde Alderete wished to visit the chapel. there is Truly from the sublime to the ridiculous but one step.

three On this rest four pillars. The by adjoining buildings. The Alonso Cano. facade.72 GRANADA as dignified and vastness. as we have said. The great tion of decorated with huge escutcheons. the side-doors with reliefs of the Incarnation by the Annun- and Assumption. as is so often the case on the Continent. which is paved with . At the foot of these pillars. styles walls of the Cathedral are. heraldic is flanking columns of the portal are The introduc- tecture symbols into religious archinowhere more conspicuous than at Granada. are statues of the Apostles. is Diego de Siloe's masterpiece. allegorical figures uphold a Over the arch tablet on which inscribed a dedication to the Catholic monarchs. . rises seventy-five The tower on the left metres above the level of the its three stages are in the three present floor of Grecian architecture respectively. to a great extent. hidden. sustaining deep. which. and may be described rather than beautiful. and two is is elaborately sculptured. The interior of the church. officially belongs to the Chapel Royal. gloomy vaultings. The Puerta del Perdon. on the cornice. The principal door is adorned with a high ciation relief of Risueno. said to have been designed by is flanked by towers (one unfinished) and divided by four huge stone columns which support a cornice.

and on the upper course are the seven beautiful paintings of scenes from the Blessed Virgin's Between the courses are life. the work of executed. resting on eight pillars. high. but its .CATHOLIC GRANADA black and white marble. and the Flemish stained glass in the fourteen windows is beautifully rich in colour and well The high altar itself. Between the lower columns are the elliptical arches referred to. altar at the east end of Above the high the structure rises a noble dome. 220 ft. supported by five piers. by Alonso Cano. is in a depraved style . profusely supported on twenty-two is columns in two courses. Jose de Bada. the effect it contrived creating a wonderful looking at it from the elliptical arches appears to be extended and on the point of way : it is falling level. and opening with a bold main arch. 190 ft. each of which is composed of four Corinthian pillars. Much of the statuary is good." away through having sunk below Capilla its The Mayor ornamented Corinthian fabric. " The daring of the main arch is admirable. The expansion of the Capilla Mayor (principal chapel) at this point into the segment of a circle Lafuente says. high. interesting paintings by Juan de Sevilla and Bocanegra. is 73 of five composed naves with a cross -vaulting in the Gothic style. is a clever feat of architecture. a handsome.

above the pulpits. The only things notable within it are the fine organs. one of the greatest of Andalusian painters. and by the bold. and a minor canon of the Cathedral. The chapel is beautifully adorned with red San Miguel marbles and serpentine. Archbishop His tomb is by the sculptor Moscoso. In the centre of the middle nave. of Virgin de la Soledad of the Capilla de is to be seen over the altar (the first chapel on the right on entering the church). One of his most characteristic pictures the choir. separated from the Capilla Mayor by the transept. Beneath the choir is entombed Alonso Cano (died 1667). In the chapel are placed we do not know why two elegant Chinese vases. and to the left of it a small picture. St. is the in that debased Churrigueresque style which every one speaks ill. was accustomed . and recovered in the city shortly after. It was built by that high-minded.74 GRANADA badness is redeemed by the two kneeling statues of Ferdinand and Isabella on either side by Mena and Madrano. before which that really saintly saint. beneficent prelate. Folch. John of God. great heads of Adam and Eve. It was stolen in 1873. Between this and the next chapel is the entrance to the sacristy or old mosque. and the crucifix by Pablo de Rojas. in 1804. carved and painted by Alonso Cano.

presented to the Cathedral by the City in 1640. please note) on the anniversary of the Reconquest. and was told by the if testy architect to sculpture the Devil himself he wanted to. There are genuine Riberas (The Child Jesus. Egas . the extravagant fine equestrian statue of the Patron Saint of Spain. Maeda was wag enough to take him at his word. January 2. The chapel of Santa Ana covers the vault . It is publicly venerated (not del worshipped or adored. we pause before the Puerta del Colegio. among them a Trinity by Cano.CATHOLIC GRANADA to pray. Gothic door of the Chapel Royal. Laurence. 75 The Capilla de la Trinidad has some good paintings. The old painting of the Virgen with a Perdon was given to Isabella the Catholic Innocent VIII. He applied to Siloe for permission to give a proof of his skill. Passing the Cathedral sacristy with its handsome door by Siloe.. Joseph by Maratta. and St. and copies of works by Raphael and Ribera. and used to be carried about by by the queen. Mary Magdalene) and more works by Cano in eighteenth-century chapel of After this comes the handsome Jesus Nazareno. Behind the sculptured Ecce Homo. by Enrique and beyond that the Chapel of Santiago. two miniatures on copper by the same artist. St. is said Maeda carved a Lucifer of it extraordinary beauty. a Death of St.

is the noble porch. or Sala Capitular. We of Saints Jerome and Isidore are by Mora. who is buried here near another occupant of the episcopal The fine reliefs throne. with its figures of Justice and Prudence. and contains a good sixteenth-century altar-piece. after a Gothic image greatly venerated by Ferdinand the Catholic. . was erected by Adam and Aguado. Of the retablo by Cornejo. have now reached the entrance doors. Don Bienvenido Monzon. The fourth chapel on the left side of the Cathedral is named La Virgen de la Antigua. not a Spaniard) by Bocanegra. style. and a St. The six chapels that follow present no features of interest. three pictures over the allegories. Here are two portraits by Juan de Sevilla of Ferthe king is clad dinand and Isabella at prayer in armour. The first chapel. Jean de Matha (a Frenchman.76 GRANADA intended for the archbishops. the better. at the expense of Archbishop Galvan. the less said Cano's realistic heads of Saints and Paul reflect the fondness of the pietists John of his day for the morbid they are in the Chapel del Carmen. on each The side of which hangs a good painting. of the Virgen or baptistry. and regarded with great reverence by the devout of Granada. doors represent mystic the chapter The most interesting feature of room. which. The paintings are in the Venetian .

and the monstrance presented by Isabella. an historical interest. The signet ring of Sixtus III. Pandora's to this one The ! Queen's Missal. examples of the silversmith's craft. high Those interested in arms will handle with curiosity the sword of Ferdinand the Catholic the hilt has a spherical pommel and drooping quillons with branches towards the blade.. . by Juan de Sevilla and a Mary Immaculate by Bocanegra. the work of Francisco Flo res. the royal standards used at the Reconquest. It is placed on the altar on the anniversary of the Reconquest. the Catholic sovereigns are their sceptre. and two small statues by him a Crucifix by Montanez a Holy Family. and a chasuble said to have been em- broidered by the Queen. attributed to Maeda. If this is box was as nothing compared true. the It Cathedral. The treasury contains some wonderfully embroidered vestments. 77 may be safely Before leaving should be visited. Other relics of . . which is grooved for about two-thirds of its length. .CATHOLIC GRANADA with the group of the Trinity. Isabella's crown. and good. the sacristy contains Cano's Assumption . but not extraordinary. is beautifully illuminated. have of course. who are assured pawned bus's that in which were placed the jewels by Isabella to provide funds for Colum- first voyage. A casket it is is also shown to visitors.

a San Jose by Cano. El Salar. and a darkish passage. the site of the old mosque. including of whose works the Cathedral buildings. This exploit earned for him and his descendants the extremely valuable privilege of wearing their hats in the Cathedral. and it is well that the responsi- bility for so meretricious a piece of architecture should be divided." as the inscription records. By the door next to the Capilla de Pulgar. De Pulgar's bones have fared better than those of the good Archbishop de Talavera. Fernando del Pulgar. the Chapel Royal may be entered. This valiant knight and true. contain a fine selection. and set a lighted taper on the floor of the mosque. several The Sagrario a possesses good paintings. and. of Lord nailed a paper bearing the Ave Maria on the door. rode into the city with fifteen horsemen. as may have been noticed. It may be dismissed as of ' Churrigueresque. as others say. In one of the chapels is buried the magnificent cavalier. fortunately. during the last campaign against Granada. which were scattered when the old mosque was demolished. devoid interest. It is not. . which it replaced in 1 705 It was designed by Don Francisco Hurtado and Jose de Bada.78 GRANADA By the door next to the Capilla de San Miguel into the Sagrario (sacristy) occupying we pass . The oldest purely Christian building in Granada is the convent and chapel of San Jeronimo.

and others. ideal which bore others little fruit. Caesar. Strange. in the by the de plain. one containing a fine retablo.CATHOLIC GRANADA foundation transferred 79 here from immediately is after the Reconquest." Very Renaissance is the decoration of the chapel with the statues of the worthies of the classic followers confined to world. Santa Fe The convent now a cavalry barracks. this admiration for a pagan civilisation co-existent with violent religious fanaticism against contemporary non-Catholics The whole church was practically dedicated to the memory of Spain's greatest soldier. Pompey. much in the spirit of the plateresque. since some of his themselves to the strictest the development of the classicism. The church. the Great all ! . Siloe. The walls dignified. and is not to be inspected curious. frescoes representing scenes are adorned with chapel exhibits Siloe's skill at its best. He is said " his lofty ideal to have realised in its construction an of effecting a truly Spanish Renaissance . The principal portraits of the Fathers of the Church. is of a Latin cross from the Passion. with the Entombment as subject. Eight chapels open on the aisles and nave. Hannibal. and angels on the harp and singing. They were playing executed in 1723 by an obscure painter called Juan de Medina. Homer. side by side with Old Testament characters. form built by Diego stern.

Martin. Jerome. being and the Crucifixion. Eustace. George. and composite Orders respectively. is adorned with figures of the Apostles. Katharine. divided into several compartments filled with reliefs and statues. the kind in Spain. to the Great Captain. over which rises a magnificent retablo. the subjects compartments immediately above the Immaculate Conception. St. The horizontal sections are in the Doric. of Saints Barbara. kneeling in prayer shown. The lowest central compart- ment of the three occupied by the Tabernacle.80 GRANADA Captain. this old designed by Siloe. and Pedro de Raxis. Corinthian. and Lucy. formerly one of the treasures of the chapel. Over all is shown the figure is This splendid work. Gonzalo de Cordova. among them Juan de Aragon. but whose ashes have been transferred to Madrid. and Francis. on either side of the high altar. was carried off by Sebastiani during the Peninsular War. and the warrior-saints. The frescoes. The beautiful shell-like vaulting above of the Eternal Father. Pedro de Orea. Ionic. who was buried here. representing the . SebasThe sword given by the Pope tian. Magdalen. seems to have been best of its executed by a variety of artists. The hero and his duchess are sculptured. There are a great many beautiful things in church which seem to escape the ordinary The seats in the choir were traveller's notice.

All that is interesting in of it is the portrait of the saint. repose in the hospital characterised by chapel. God ashes. The single nave ornamentation is disfigured by over-elaborate copy The name of the F . a one in Madrid. together with the church. The saint's years after his death. In the neighbourhood of the Great Captain's chapel is a monument to a hero and a great Spaniard of a very different type. a gorgeous structure. and procured him canonisation in 1669. as St. remains. in 1552. The restoration of the fabric has often been denounced. in a silver coffin. or suppressed Carthusian monastery. and bad taste.CATHOLIC GRANADA Triumph of the Church. the Assumption. The trail of the serpent costliness of Spanish architecture Churriguera is over all. A tribute to his John of memory which he would have no doubt appreciated better is the large hospital founded two that is. after his death. 81 and of the Eucharist. however. The monastery.are very well done. the site of which was his gift. was pulled down in A small portion of the buildings. 1842. but it is difficult to see how it could have been better carried out. begun in 1516. of the Virgin. Juan de Robles devoted himself to the sick and the suffering with a zeal which earned for him confinement His virtues were recognised in a madman's cage.&c. Great Captain is associated with the Cartuja..

82

GRANADA
The doors
of the choir

in the plateresque style.

ebony and mother of pearl, cedar and tortoise-shell, and were the work of a friar, Manuel Vazquez, who The sanctuary, in the baroque died in 1765. is enriched with precious marbles, some style, On some of the slabs richly veined with agates. the hand of Nature has traced the semblances of human and animal forms. In the adjoining been combined so sacristy, various marbles have as to produce an effect dazzling and gorgeous in the extreme. The hall is certainly one of the most remarkable in Spain. Scarcely less marvellous are the exquisitely inlaid doors and presses. The generally bad style of the church is also redeemed by a statue of St. Bruno, the founder
are richly

and

tastefully inlaid with

of the Carthusian Order, ascribed to Alonso Cano,

and some pictures by Bocanegra, Giaquinto, and Cotan. The last named, a friar, was responsible
for the pictures in the cloister, representing the martyrdom of Carthusian monks in London by

the tyrant Henry VIII. and the brigands acted as his officers.

who

The Cartuja was formerly much richer in works of art, but, like San Jeronimo, it was
ransacked by the French under Sebastiani, who exhibited, as on all occasions, the discrimination of a dilettante coupled with the rapacity of a
bandit.

CATHOLIC GRANADA

83

In front of the church of Santos Pedro y Pablo is a very handsome mansion built in 1539 for Hernando de Zafra, secretary of the Catholic
sovereigns.
first

the The portal is in three stages contains the entrance, a square doorway, the second bears the between Doric columns
:

;

escutcheons of the family,
sculptured griffins

above them being
;

and

lions

the third,

a bal-

cony between pilasters, carved in delicate relief. In a line with this is another balcony, bearing
Cielo

the

curious

"Looking
are
is

inscription, for it from

Heaven."
his

Esperandola del These

words
Zafra
of

explained by a tragic legend.

De

daughter suspected To satisfy his attachment. doubts, he burst into her room one day, and found her page assisting the lover to escape
a clandestine

said to have

by the window.
turned,

Baulked
death
in

with

of his prey, the father his face, upon the

boy.

"Mercy!"

for it in

Heaven " answered the Don,
!

shrieked the page.

"Look
as

he

hurled his daughter's accomplice from the balcony into the street below. So runs the legend.

De

Zafra does not

appear,

according to the
;

records, to

have

left

any children
'

but

his

daughter may not have survived the terrible After all," consequences of her amour. " was easier in the remarks Valladar, nothing
sixteenth century than to throw a page out of the

84

GRANADA

window without

attracting the attention of the or magistrates." police Granada is by no means as rich in ancient

churches and houses as Seville. The house of the Great Captain now forms part of the convent of Carmelite nuns. On the facade a tablet sets " forth that In this house lived, and on December
1515, died, the Great Captain Don Gonzalo Fernandez de Aguilar y de Cordoba, Duke of Sessa, Terranova, and Santangelo, the Christian hero, and conqueror of the Moors, French, and Turks." The early sixteenth-century Casa de los Tiros
2,

the property, like the Generalife, of the Marques de Campotejar seems to occupy the site, if it did not actually form part, of a Moorish fortified
dwelling.
of the fortifications

Some think it was an advanced work known as the Torres Bermejas.
certainly shows Arabic influence. was probably built by Moors, and

The The
hall.

interior

staircase

there are rich azulejos

and a splendid artesonado

adorned with busts of various Spanish celebrities, with the graven heads of Moors and Christians, and with reliefs of Lucretia,
This
is

Judith, Semiramis, and Penthesilea.

In this house is preserved an Arabic sword with a magnificent hilt and scabbard, said to The scabbard, at have belonged to Boabdil. all events, is unquestionably of workmanship

CATHOLIC GRANADA
;

85

be a
king.

posterior to the Reconquest and it is well to little on one's guard in the matter of the
relics

numerous

ascribed

to

the

last

Moorish

Of old Granada, in truth, not much more remains than the buildings we have already named. We may glance at the tower of San
los Reyes, so badly restored that its Moorish architecture, more markedly peculiar Eastern than that of any other Grenadine monument, has been almost entirely effaced. And in the old Casa de Ayuntamiento there are some

Juan de

historical curiosities, notably the original draft of the charter granted to Granada by the Catholic

sovereigns,

and the handsome

official shield

of

the city. Many sites, such as the Plaza de Bibarrambla, commemorated in the songs and stories of old Spain, have been completely modernised. But there is a monument a simple column

surmounted by an iron cross more deeply inThe teresting than any reared by the Moors. inscription on the pedestal records that on this spot, on May 26, 1831, Dona Mariana Pineda was publicly garroted at the age of thirty-two She died a martyr for liberty and a years. victim of the strange absolutist frenzy which did much to ruin Spain in Ferdinand VI I. 's reign. Dona Mariana's house had been a centre for liberal gatherings, and when raided by the police

86

GRANADA
to contain a tricolour flag.

was found

She met

her death with a courage worthy of her cause. Five years later, when the nation had recovered
its sanity,

her ashes were carried in state to the

Ayuntamiento. The magistrate who had condemned her was in his turn executed. On the same site many Spanish patriots were shot by the French their labour and their lives being given to replace Ferdinand VII. on the throne

The square, formerly called the Campillo, is now named after Mariana Pineda. You may see there her statue in marble, sculptured by Marna and
Morales.

The

hill

called the Sacro

Monte

is

a curious

memorial

In 1594 one of human credulity. Francisco Hernandez reported to the Archbishop Don Pedro Vaca de Castro that he had discovered
the relics of several local martyrs in the caves A church of no architectural merit was here.
raised on the spot, and became a place of pilgrimage the evidence that the martyrs referred

had ever existed being meanwhile wanting. Within the church are preserved some leaden books, inscribed in Arabic characters, and supposed to contain the acts, of the saints. These works were the subject of a furious controversy
to
in

the

seventeenth

century.

The caves are

interesting on account of their natural peculiarities, and were quite probably catacombs used by

CATHOLIC GRANADA
the
early

87

Christians

of

Illiberis.

may

be noticed, in parts

Some rocks worn away by the

repeated kisses of devotees. There is a superstition that the person who kisses the stone the first time will marry within the year, and that a second kiss will ensure to those already married

an early dissolution

of the conjugal tie. the opposite side of the city, also in the outskirts, is a little Mohammedan oratory, now

On

is

disfigured and restored called the Ermita de

beyond recognition. It San Sebastian, and was

the place where Boabdil gave up the keys of

Granada to Ferdinand and Isabel. When we walk through the streets of the modern Granada, with its tawdry churches and commonplace private houses, it does not seem
that the city has gained much by its change of masters. But its decline was not at least very

marked till many years after the Reconquest. The French invasion, and still more the ruin of the silk industry, completely undermined the prosperity of the place. During the last century it lost its rank as the seat of a Captain General. But

new day is dawning for the proudest city of the Granada is content no Moor, as for all Spain. longer to brood over its splendid past indeed, its citizens seem to prize but lightly the monuments of those days. There is a general appearance of wealth and elegance about the promenaders
a
;

88

GRANADA
;

on the broad, well-lighted paseos and, thanks to the newly introduced manufacturing industry of beetroot sugar, the Vega has already resumed the flourishing smiling aspect it wore when a Mohammedan amir called it his and the cry muezzin was heard from a hundred of the
minarets.

PLAN OF GRANADA

REFERENCE TO PLAN OF GRANADA
BUILDINGS AND PLACKS
1.

2.

3. 4.
5. 6.
7. 8.

Hospital of San Lazaro. Church of San Juan de Lctran. Hermitage of Santo Cristo de Yedra. San Bruno and the Cartuja. The Sacro Monte.

56. 57. 58.
59, 60,

The Holy Tomb.
Cavalry Barracks, and San Jer6nimo. San Juan de Dios. San Juan de Dios (Street). Lunatic Asylum. Bull Ring. (Plaza de Toros.)

61, 62. 63,
64,

San Juan de los Reyes. Ex-Convent of The Victory. Watch-tower of the Alhambra (Torre de la Vela). The Alhambra. Gate of Las Granadas. Gate of Judiciary Astrology (Judiciaria).

9.

The

Generalife.
of

10. 11.
12.

Gate of Hierro. San Francisco (formerly Convent
St. Francis).

San Ildefonso, and Avenue del
Triunfo.

13. 14. 15.
1 6.

Pay

Office.

65. 66,

The Chair of The Tower

the
of

Moor
the

Gate of Elvira. Gate of Monaita. San Andres.
Office for Civil Affairs.

Moro) Seven Storeys

(Silla del

(Alhambra).
67, 68, 69. 70. 71. 73.

The Fountain

of Expiation.

17. Children's Hospital.
1 8.

19. Santos Justo and Pastor. 20. Institute of Music. 21. Botanical Garden and Nunnery of

74.
75, 76. 77. 78.

Gate of the Sun. Convent of Santa Catalina. Ecce Homo. San Cecilio, and Military Hospital. Santa Escolastica. Capuchin Convent and Santa Maria
Egipciaca.

Piety.

Square of Rull and Godines. 23. Convent of the Incarnation. 24. Santa Paula. 25. Elvira (Street). 26. San Jeronimo.
22. 27. 28.

San Anton. Gas Works.
Public Shambles. San Sebastian and Avenue del Violon. Las Angustias. El Salon. Convent of Santiago. Museum of the Academy of Fine
Arts.

Orlando's Balcony.

29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. El Salvador. 35. San Jos6. 36. Convent of the Angel. 37. Ecclesiastical College. 38. The Cathedral. 39. High School and Palace of the

San Diego. San Gregorio. San Luis. Arab Ramparts. San Miguel the Greater. Gate of the Standards.

79. 80. 81.

82.

83. Monument of Mariana. 84. Artillery Barracks. 85. Principal Theatre (Plaza 86. Square.

New

de Bailen).

87. Zacatin. 88. Fish Market. 89. Church of Santiago. 90. San Nicolas. 91. Convent of Tomasas. 92. Bermeja Towers. 93. Palace of Charles V. 94. Gate of the Mills. 95. San Basil. 96. Recreation Grounds. 97. Cemetery. 98. Convent of San Bernado

40. 41.
42.

43.

Province of Granada. School of Economics. Market Place, and Palace of the Archbishop. Court of First Instance (Plaza de Rib-Rambla). Convent of Augustines and La Magdalena.

and Church

44. House of Grace. 45. Puentezuelas (Bridge). 46. Square of Marshal Prim. 47. Town Hall. 48. Santa Teresa. 49. Convent of the Holy Spirit. 50. Military Office. 51. Carmelite Convent. 52. Hospital for Leprosy. 53. Santa Ana. 54. Santa Ines. 55. Convent of the Conception.

99. 100. 101. 102.

of San Pedro. San Bartolome. Avenue of San Basil. San Crist6bal.

103.
104. 105. 106. 107.

Hospital of Corpus Christi. Santa Isabel la Real, and San Miguel
the Less.

Santa Maria (Ancient Mosque of the Alhambra).

San Matias. Gate of Fajalanza. M6ndez Nunez (Street).

GRANADA

PLATE

i

a
f.

a E h O

O

O

VI K 2 a .i'l.

PLATE 3 O P < O O H O *-^ 5 .

O O OS oi PQ h . C cr.. \ IK 4 O X.

PLATE 5 O u C/} ^> O a <.. . cc a a &.

I'l A I I. 6 .

I'l.ATK 7 <2. 5 ca w K h i f *1 O fc ^:> .

I'l ATE 8 tu o ftj H Q Q fa] U faj .

PLATE 9 C/3 h D (/) O a Q U b < a T: a H O a > .

ATK 10 n h < o > H- < >H O Di K E t o .I'l.

PLATE n u H fc M O c a o Qi a r ^ - .

PLATE 12 D- .

PLATE 13 ad V a sb H a ^ X D ^ < Q < > o r w ~1 O a .

PLATE 14 THE STREET OF THE CATHOLIC SOVEREIGNS .

PLATE 15 ARAB SILK MARKET .

PLATK 16 LA CASA DE LOS TIROS .

PLATE 17 CHURCH OF SANTA ANA .

GRANADA) .I'LATI-: 18 LIMOGES ENAMEL TRIPTYCH WHICH BELONGED TO THE GRAN CAPITAN (PROVINCIAL MUSEUM.

PLATE 19 ALTAR IN THE CHURCH OF SAN GERONIMO .

PLATE 20 * - 1-1 HOUSE IN THE CALLE DE DARRO THE PALACIO DE JUSTICIA .

PLATE 21 THE HOUSE OF CASTRIL .

ATE 22 c/: cc .I 'I.

- ' ' - V - S:-r%!k GYPSIES IN ^^< < < .PLATE 23 >. A FRONT OF THEIR DWELLINGS . . X '3V *'O^fc .

PLATE 24 GYPSY DWELLINGS IN THE SACROMONTE .

PLATE 25 GENERAL VIEW OF THE GYPSY QUARTERS .

PLATE 26 INTERIOR OF A GYPSY'S CAVE .

PLATE 27 a h I C/3 CL > o Cu. D O od O .

Pl.ATK 28 A GYPSY FAMILY .

^-' J: ^ ^ b^^W^ ' - ^^v. 9&^l^fiK & ^-irf' /'3aW GYPSIES BIVOUACKING .PLATE 29 >' *~* .^3?7fHfo w-. ". r^^M^ri^^ r^C*^. --..

I'LATI. 30 '" GYPSIES .

PL ATI-: 31 < o u C/3 Ed rH > .

I 'I. \TK 32 v GYPSIES .

PLATE 33 GYPSIES .

IM vii: 34 GYPSY DANCE .

PLATE 35 INTERIOR OF THE SACRISTY OF THE CARTUJA .

ATI: 36 ' C/3 I-M Oi U D H U w ffi i_ fc.Pi. o Dd o 5 .

I 'i. A i K 37 INTERIOR OF THE CARTUTA CHURt 1 1 .

38 SAINT BRUNO.1'I.A I I. AT THE CARTHUSIAN MONASTERY OF GRANADA . BY ALONSO CANO.

PLATE 39 EXTERIOR OF THE ROYAL CHAPEL .

' 1 i \ 1 1-: 40 THE GATE OF PARDON AND THE EXTERIOR OF THE CATHEDRAL .

41 OF THE CATHEDRAL .PL ATI.

I'l A I I. JS < v * ! ! F EXTERIOR GATE OF THE ROYAL CHAPEL .

PLATE 43 DETAIL IN THE ROYAL CHAPEL .

I 'i A 1 1: 44 V ANCIENT GOTHIC ENTRANCE TO THE ROYAL CHAPEL .

ATF. 45 < cu w cu OH D a PL. U l j i o Oi < > a a a* o HH a H X w w z w CJ .Pr.

ATK 46 u SSBSSU ?! .I'l.

<j o U X o -v' o a H a OS . H E U w ft._.PLATE 47 Q ._.

Pi. ATI: 48 GENERAL VIEW OF THE INTERIOR OF THE CATHEDRAL .

GENERAL VIEW OF THE INTERIOR .PLATE 49 THE CATHEDRAL.

PLATE 50 THE CATHEDRAL. VIEW OF THE PRINCIPAL NAVE .

PLATE 51 THE HIGH ALTAR IN THE CATHEDRAL .

I'l \ 1 1 53 ^ ALTAR-PIECE IN THE ROYAL CHAPEL. BY F. DE BORGON \ .

PLATE 53 a i H <! cu I .

PLATI 51 U W ffi Q W K H < O as ( H h O M U DC H .

TOMBS OF THE CATHOLIC SOVEREIGNS IN THE ROYAL CHAPEL .PLATE 55 THE CATHEDRAL.

I'l. \ll u ^^ E u < U a o So 03 X J < 'J II . a H fe O .

PLATK ROYAL CHAPEL. TOMBS OF FERDINAND AND ISABELLA .

I'I.M K o h O ^^ a Di w o m u I ( nJ I H < U w fc. O O . .

PLATE 59 Q {25 O i ^ fcj 51 /3 ffi Q a C/2 QQ O H .

Pi Nil .

CROWN.PLATE 61 SCEPTRE. MASS-BOOK. AND COFFER OF THE CATHOLIC SOVEREIGNS . SWORD.

I'l.ATK 62 RELICS OF THE CATHOLIC SOVEREIGNS .

STATUE OF QUEEN ISABELLA THE CATHOLIC .PLATE 63 ROYAL CHAPEL.

' I I \ I I STATUE OF ISABELLA THE CATHOLIC .

PLATK 65 CHAPEL OF SAN MIGUEL IN THE CATHEDRAL. MARBLE SCULPTURE .

!'l A I ' I .

PLATE 67 ffi J ffi ^ w J o .

\ 1 1 . 68 O OS W ffi O td O .r i .

PLATE 69 en H UJ O .

P. .IM \ i r 70 W T: o O .V 5 < r.

PLATE

71

W
Q

M

6
q
t
' i
i

co

J <
Cd

as

PL.ATI

-

N
CU

X u
1

<;

3
G

LH

^ o

&
_u

<
Oi CO

S J
H
UH

O ^

PLATE

73

H

O

I'l

\

IE 74

~
P^
*r;

re

< w

Ci

PLATE

75

W
0,

H

O O
H
Cd

Cn

I'l.ATK 76

>

THE INFANTAS' TOWER AND CAPTIVE'S TOWER

PLATE

77

Qi

u
'

a

w >

I'l

Ml

w

o

r-'

a x c X
C/3

o:

a I h

-

PLATE

79

'

v

.

-

THE AQUEDUCT TOWER AND THE AQUEDUCT

v.a2^&
.

THE GATE OF JUSTICE. DETAIL OF A DOOR THE COURT OF THE MYRTLES

IN

PLATE

81

THE ALHAMBRA AND THE SIERRA NEVADA

I'l

\l

I

':

Marf

*

GRANADA. FROM THE HOMAGE

TOWER

THK SUMMIT OF TOWER." AT THE MIIIRAP. WITH DISTANT VIK\V OF TIIF GENERALIFE .PLATE 83 'HE QUFFX'S DRESSING-ROOM.

84 THE GATE OF JUSTICE.I 'i \ i r. ERECTED BY YUSUF I .

PLATE 85 THE TOWER OF THE PEAKS .

I 'I \ I I THE CAPTIVE'S T< >WER .

UE. PRIVATE PROPERTY .PLATE 87 EXTERIOR 01" THE MOSO.

I 'I \l! TOWER OF THE AQUEDUCT .

89 ASCENT TO THE ALHAMBRA BY THE CUESTA DEL KEY CHICO LESSER KING HILL .PLATE.

I'l \ 1 1 THE LADIES' TOWER .

EXTERIOR .I'LATK 91 PART OF THE ALHAMBRA.

.1 I ! \ I I 02 * k* ' ..-i c* : '^ " THE HOMAGE TOWER. ^^ . -". ANCIENT ARAB RUINS THE ALCAZABA IN .

PLATK 93 GATE OF JUSTICE. THE ALHAMBRA .

O 6 !^ "'"'I < - d r *! .I'l \ II :^_ _ *^" > '^^ ~ f.

-.PLATE 95 -.:. THE GATK OF TUSTI< !E .a*.

I 'I A I i 96 ^ i j PLAN. HKIGHT AND DETAILS OF THK GATE OF THE JUSTICE LAW COMMONLY CALLED OF .

PLATE 97 ELEVATION OF THE ANCIENT GATE OF JUSTICE .

1 I ! \ I 1 PORTAL COMMONLY CALLED THE GATE OF THE VINE .

i PORCH OF THE GATE OF JUDGMENT . .PLATE 99 f .

. . * \ L - J rk - ^:. ELEVATION OF THE WINE GATE .'I A I K 100 I rl.

PLATE 101 pq mM H a U C/2 a > C/3 .

I 'I Ml-. .i K SECTION SHOWING . [02 .

ATE 103 HEIGHTS OF THE ALHAMBRA .I 'I.

.I'l A I I 104 u < OS h H W a Q < X f.

D Ct. O ~ . H ^ D O u r. A- I ^ .PLATE 105 3P**S) ->^r -t Z o E H O - h - <(jj.

LEFT SIDE .I'LAII: 106 HALL OF JUSTICE.

PLATK 107 O u O g < X O h C/3 U Cd .

I'LATK 108 h s. < z W o o o tJ u HH H O J o h w u .

PLATE 109 . O O c 2 1 u a a " a ffi O O r U .

- s: \ --_ " . \TK 110 * . VERTICAL SECTION OF THE HALL OF JUSTICE .Pi.

PLATE nt DETAILS OF THE HALL OF JUSTICE .

* .: # * * * o * # " * .I 'I All II.

f^. W u .Eii 4^. _ J^s?" -^3^.. E E .' ' '-'^^^ - . . y - v' Sia r : :- .-?.- - ( x gl ^ '..-. V^VV ' . ' Egp^s* ^- jgaa ' . '.^l^^% ' : &trF*l r^^t/i/^ r? ^ '- ...>. A IK i ?3iil .:^*-_*^-* ft ft ^^'--.-a .y * - -"li-^s- /' .' ^- - . x ^Li. > ''"' v. t^.-.^ -I> . <s> *am '-V- -M! .--->i-:cr ' r rC.-- . - :---*' O ?^^i s fte^^ -' *T 3 ' -S>1 O w u O " ' / di>v-r ^ " . -^ ^.^i .iT--V-^-t *S ^Sak.J(^'... ./ ( r '^ -/'' &''-' . i * ^^^y^^ /^ ' -^-\.' t **t./ "^^^ . vT ' n'ijH^^ '. /^: " .i" " '!. VXV li .- v .._t ^ iLTV O ^-'f-^' /^' fe _ '-':i'-- r \ --- .j^ ^* -- .Pi."T r - - D TV^. ..( -f ..:*\VV-' ^- ~W.>.^ ' "' >:.'.- -.! -" . ? T. :x ." :V^I -^^~^^^~^^m^^ Sib V> ^^^M^x ^/'V .>./ v-/.-.^.^^~{. .

^^ - - ^ . l^iffi^ n^^ ^ : ^-.:--. -^ V . =*p^ - - ._ "TVtS. T- gJ$&]f ' CO /> ' C J -^^.^4. rf ^ ^ r ^tL J* f 1 r C ^P/:i--^^S2 6*^ ^^ ^r>^" w - ' * . =- r > =' :. i . "=*" . .?. --^^ ^S^ ?^ E JL.I'l A I I I 14 VX M (.-"-- feM / \ u ^M'V^ c^S1 ^ t^^S f 1 .^? > ^iS2M%^ :mMfe ! '^^3^^ Vr-.s "N . O O z ^S^^^V^5^il4^.V'"^^ ! /.--^ ii --^fe^^ ^^ ^S ji = ' ' " _^r< -Hi ~ '--4i-= if-^--'' ^S ~&& 3^ ~=^V -"->>. 'V 6 yV f -C-~" ' &*// ^ - . 0.Ari^fej ^---X^-^.\ X d X .. !{{M>^ i. s^ ^. .^jTrT.__ .-^L__l5^_BJ5- o O .

PLATE 115 PART OF PICTURE IN THE HALL OF JUSTICE- THK MOOR'S RETURN FROM HUNTING .

A II M" HALL OF JUSTICE THE DEATH OF THE LION AT THE HANDS OF A CHRISTIAN KNIGHT .I'l.

SLAIN BY A MOORISH WARRIOR . IN TURN.PLATE 117 PART OF PICTURE IN THE. OR \\TLD-MAN-O'-THE-\YOODS. THE CHRISTIAN KNIGHT IS. HALL OF JUSTICE REPRESENTING A CHRISTIAN KNIGHT RESCUING A MAIDEN FROM A \YICKED MAGICIAN.

I'l VI I I I PART OF PICTURE IN HALL OF JUSTICE-MOORISH HUNTSMAN SLAYING THE WILD BOAR .

PLATE 119 HALL OF JUSTICE THREE FIGURES FROM THE PICTURE OF THE MOORISH TRIBUNAL .

120 V D "~V d .I'l A IT.

PLATE 121 * ' COURT OF THE MOSQL'K .

HI ^^^^ I Nfesig : ' FACADE OF THE MOSQUE .- mammmm .

PLATE 123 *fl CO M D w E H a f-H 55 .

Pi vri-: 124 5 o C/3 O ^-^ ai .

.- U r -:''I ' :-~.' .". r '?'' H. . _K 7s - ' r .'" ij. '-w 7 ' -" .. -VT.Ji--'^'-s. iV -' '" -"~" ..PLATE 125 ' ' ' - "^ '!>. 7 " - '"if.. . '' " ''P'" ^ TV \ ~'~--*~- '.- _*.

- * * < - - "4*"*"* *' vv vv* **."*..."-*.**.*-' s i . : *> *v****. - -.PL ATI i - *& /.*. ** DETAIL OF THE ENTRANCE DOOR OF THE MOSQUE .**v * - * ** * * * < .

I'l.ATF. 127 AN ARCHED WINDOW OF THE MOSQUE .

1 I ! \ I I. 128 AN ARCHED WINDOW OF THE MOSQUE .

PLATE 129 Mmyj&gf. ^p i-. THE SCENE OF YUSUF'S ASSASSINATION .AS*>.pi^Q| ~ff$ -fa*-* *i SlAi '^-v^-l^ ' THE KORAN RECESS IN THE MOSQUE.\r-v l||i.

THE MOSQUE FROM KORAN RECESS .I'l \ I K 130 tfv f iff?* ify$$'* '' m s ': ?.

Pl. OG - /f : ' "" U M ~ ^. < X X < - O H Oi OJ Cd Q .ATK H h tf W ' ^ * t c- ~ " ' 73 * < ~ rO ftj r.

I'l \ CORNICE AND WINDOW IX THE FACADE OF THE MOSQUE .

-: fcl .* VI-:RTICAL SECTION or THK MOSOUE . r_> <*!. "(.PLATE 133 - MM. iAAA *AiA4 4tA Ai ' ' .

' I I \ 1 1 ARAB LAMP IN MOSQUE .

PLATE 135 w a D CC/3 o s a o DC '- w ac H O C/3 Eb .

I'l \ I K DETAILS OF ORNAMENT IX THE COURT OF THE MOSQUE .

w < 'tM&'* " * < ^s^^m-. -^ 1 ' i /^ \ .x V *^. o S : "> ! r >N\' % ' r\-\ > v--*'.. - ^ a p f.'g^' ? ^ '-i ^x *^ 1 t^XS\^ xv -TV - - : O u w C/3 . v T^~~ .PLATE 137 x */ >. -" >T ! rJ cfL.

\MI-:NT IX PANELS. VI I Ok\.I 'I. COURT OF THE MOSQUE .

ATE 139 \VIND(.AV IN THI-: HALL OF AMBASSADORS .1'I.

Pi A IK I (O ^ ENTRANCE TO THE HALL OF AMBASSADORS .

PLATE t_|t C/5 < 03 f- o J .

~j y x-v->~y--x y-> -N . .I'l \ 1 1 "V-^-^-V-\~l~ ~\ ^. - a' *--^ f- "^ -* ' frtt~-_~-?t . I .-V-. > "V-> .'-\-N^ . " .

r. : ji O C -X < 03 A.s* r.-jtel'liA: D < U J? w . O ^ ^ O ^ *T~ V* ** *4eSli '^CfeV^ fc-_ O -^ **J&^ . ^. ATI-: 143 *& :$:K* v. w E t.IT.

Pi vii 144 rP? viT l^filiill ** - Nfesbrc -v %fie ORNAMENT IN PANELS. ^ -is^w . Mmm Jt A.--^^^^^"^ HALL OF AMBASSADORS .

mum. 145 ~m &zM&M*MM. . All.J I I. INSCRIPTIONS IN THE HALL OF AMBASSADORS .

'J. HALL OF AMBASSADORS .. 'j. 1 I ^ r ' \f v i i I x t 4 ^ -. r- s < X :^t M <^ ' ''* f .I'l \ 1 1 I ' '1*1 r^"^* I I ) I i I - .^ d "h ' ^ y LV "\r'' KUFIC INSCRIPTIONS.

PLATE 147 ' -V > os : /. C - x - < jg x^- ^ - ill L -f. < - C J C . .

PLATE 148 h X H W w h w r- o u .

ATK~I49 ENTRANCE TO THE COURT OF THE LIONS THROUGH THE POMIENTE CORNER .l'I.

y HE O M-.I'l Ml f. c .

Pi. ATI-: 151 O U OJ O E O - o p i j E 5 .

I'l A I I V1KVV IX THE COURT OF THE LIONS .

PLATE 153 VIEW IN THE COURT OF THE LIONS FROM THE HALL OF JUSTICE .

ATK 154 C/3 o - c D O w .I'l.

J ^^ M E a: D O W w ^ a o .PLATE 155 c/: 6 H-t .

I'l VII 156 O D O u .

PLATE 157 NORTH GALLERY IN THE COURT OF THE LIONS .

I'l \ i i 1^ ' w u .

ATE 159 PAVILION IX THE COURT OF TIIK LIONS .1'I.

I'l \ ii 160 FOUNTAIN AND EAST TEMPLE IN THE COURT OF THE LIONS .

1'LATb: 161 o X. D O u u ^ t-M C/3 ffi .

* '. --: ' : XXX ANGLE IN THE HALL OF JUSTICE . ^ %&:< TV ^ *i * *~ ' : : iHi^r *.*.*** $|! I ' : :.' . .I'l.. Mr.AlH l62 i f ' >.

PLATE 163 HALL OF JUSTICE .

CEILING OF THE HALL OF JUSTICE .

165 .

Pi \TE 166 EXTERIOR OF A WINDOW IN THE MOSQUE .

ATF. AND \\Y\\ OF THE GKNKRALIF1- . 167 ' THE MOSQUE.PT.

>. . .|^B rr >.Pi ATE 168 ' ffitt'j _. .'?*"" '. '*aT>: > *y . . Ill V. C- O p- E o " * .- V-I- '- 5 H . *# a T. ' .' ^?55%X ^?-%^ I'WL' ^ \ i \ .

ATE 169 COURT OF THE MOSQUE.PT. WEST FA'ADE .

a os > D S 1 ai "^ P U 55 Ci2 X O 5 .

171 - ^ .2 "^ u i o V .

Pi VTF. t- O f. r 1 O O D u X r. W^^-9i^fw3^^K<2?'^M .

173 ENTRANCE TO THE HALL OF AMBASSADORS .PL ATI-.

I 'I Ml I- \ BALCONY IN THE HALL OF AMBASSADORS .

PLATE 175 O Q r -> W E t- 1 O h a Q .

\M 176 \ " U c PS! . .I'l. ' N Jfc. M U X _ e: :N o x.

PLATE THE COURT OF THE LIONS .

V 1 I.ATK I ? GENERAL VIEW OF THE COURT OF THE LIONS .

PLATE 179 THE FOUNTAIN AND WEST TEMPLE OF THE COURT OF THE LIONS .

180 f f 1 ** I I * 9.I M A i r. * *** ELEVATION OF THE FOUNTAIN OF THE COURT OF THE LIONS .

z is w c w ffi 't :. H I--. .^| g . o < .PLATE 181 o C/2 < [^ Q ' . t I 1 IX < . !| ' ^ ^ . .

182 PLAN OF THE BASIN OF THE FOUNTAIN OF THE LIONS IN THE COU RT .I 'I A II.

PLATE 183 -4 SECTION OF THE PAVILION IN THE COURT OF THE LIONS .

AND . 184 SECTION OF THE HALL OF THE TWO SISTERS.\ 1 1.

PLATE 185 . ' : SECTION OF PART OF THE COURT OF THE LIONS .

PLATE 186 CAPITAL IN THE COURT OF THE LIONS. WITH A SCALE OF ONE METRE .

: ': . I &^p.lv>"-.T: :ir .Cfe>s ^. PH*P?3 - i$m^ I1WA*S8 ^-rVcfe. ~ .^(p'^kj ^~^J\.. ^fei?Misy DETAILS OF THE CENTRE ARCADE OF THE COURT OF THE LIONS . .^ T. i i ! -~ .-! ' S'liSfStf -* " 2 ' K ^8? Ml fi> ^'-^i^ '. Oil - -' I r'>. ''{ iOli -.V.-ViS^^ T . . .x.1. I /.PLATE " ' 187 . ! - -A.}._i i i?~'..

COURT OF THE LIONS . fe ^ f^^^ai^ -f5^g5 ^ U^X. FRIEZE OVER COLUMNS.O j J j J'J -> . rii r> f u^^^^n-^ii ^^ 'x^^^^^\/^^/.\ AMj W/ Vf/f ft h> >iv( !< = :: 1 '.I'l \ 1 1 188 J JJJ . IVI-iK'^VV^ <J(J ^ ^>-/.^tJli! 11 < -)^^r^^^^U^4^ _r \ ^Tis ^fe I L/^ ^ :7 J"v _/ /-j JV J^> Jj ^' p7^ y -JJ j - .

*' DETAIL OF THE CENTRAL ARCH IN THE COURT Of THE LIONS .^.. A >- .\l" ^y ^.. \ > .>i-T~ i^SiK^:. r '~i_ * <ur^?\isl*jm w^mti ^j.PLATE 189 -r * x.- ' > *'+?Kr\.

fe mmmm^&^<^ *P -/ < P/^r .. b* j THE FIRST SIX VERSES OF THE INSCRIPTION AROUND THE BASIN OF THE FOUNTAIN OF THE COURT OF THE LIONS .X 1 I . ^ fr .i vi r. 190 rr .

PLATE 1-9 1 ENTABLATURE IN THE COURT OF THE LIONS .

^\ -. '> ^"--<V /:.i. A^V-^ ^-:^\ mi i^. .Pi ATE 192 ^ > ls> v_.>/ > A 31 < v^ \~<tC'**~.'.x-. I i V ..'^Ji<' ~^-/rr- /Si ^ * { v ^ - / f *++ Jkv r ' ->-.v* I ^'i i r ^ r ".-v-/.^-''" '!i '"v^ > I. ^--. //.-! --" > lr> . > -r . AMs CUPOLA OF THE PAVILION IN THE COURT OF THE LIONS .-. ^ ^^ T^/ ^"' '-* * -? . >' x.^ o. ' / -rr .^A 1 \ / ^ .:..

- .PLATE 193 04 D O u H O w J CL| : c/3 ^^ O 'J r D = 1 < H J5 W -. p^ ^^-.

ATK IQ4 C/3 z o ^ w E H r O h oi D O u H^H .I'J.

PLATE 195 < O Pn D W ~ O HH MH \ \ i - O g a D .o .

O W DC O h O U H K H .PLATE 196 r.

PLATE 197 O en h W O? 6 )> j w i :_ O O u D .

1'I.A 111 198 00 00 03 S a u o u u o .

ATE 199 C/2 CA.1'I. O J i i O H c^ D O u .

I'l All! 200 . O u D .

PLATE 201 D O u w ac - I- a F>S:--V: - : .

JOJ H .I 'I VI I.

PLATE 203 O t- 1 fa o w ffi Z o La: D O u .

FACADE OF THE HALL OF THE'TWO'SISTERS .vi 1: 204 THE COURT OF THE LIONS.

LATE 26 5 THE COURT OF THE LIONS FROM THE ENTRANCE .

I'l V1T.'v^y> &&&* ^ ^^^^^^^W-^ . 206 r.

PLATE 207 o J w DC H Od D O u I LH I H J .

80S 1 ":# * * * ' : * ./.^ o - r : : ^a 5r. ^T ^ -^v :: . . . ^ j r'\ * v U ^ r >'": U -v "^1 ^ '> O > i *1 *.. T * -* t%* r** %* * . \? vm.' O u w p HH CO ffi H co U ' .I'l All. - ./ 1 . *** '& w Q - X . -* P O co of *>.

PLATE 209 r <5' * M3i@& ?&$ > i z CQ u w ^^vlf^S Ct. O .

! ! All HALL OF THE ABENCERRAGES .

PLATE 211 HALL OF THK ABENCERRAGES .

HALL OF THE ABENCERRAGES .

-\ - -r>' 1 1 6zK-' i y\ C C'( C^C- WOODEN DOORS. /->-.. = I ^==1 : & ' - - ' .PLATE 213 . HALL OF THE ABENCERRAGES . -> .

I 'I All 214 H O G Z OH I O ffi O E-i D O u w O .

OR. OF THF FISH-POND.PLATE 215 tit COURT OF THE MYRTLES. FACADE OF THE HALL OF AMI! \SSADORS .

OR. OF THE FISH-POND .PLATE 216 COURT OF THE MYRTLES.

t>LATE 217 c o E O W T: p E o fr] HH > ^ < (XJ a .

I'l \ I K 2l8 h J -L. O . O Di O O 0- fc.

PLATE 219 H OS W -3&v:& ''& J I H O O CH oi E O O 'J D w I \ a u z --> ="? ^ L. r? ^Vti.J^iiilTSAv ! .

.PLATE 220 GALLERY IN THE COURT OF THE MYRTLES OF THE FISH-POND . OR.

O u 1 Ed .PLATE 221 H .

f.- W O D O U . \ 1 1 P H < .I'l. w .

^ . /^"l ) r\ *> i ( ' '^j..fc ' 1 ' '. ..'l' : J i? va f.-. >' -- V4 tf H -V . * ^ ~^" . - % . X . J* .. .PLATE 223 --. . Jl>\-^ ' < H r > >y- fe O O u IP / :." 17 .

u- O O U .PLATE 224 h f.

OF THE MYRTLES . OR.PLATE 225 EXTERIOR OF THE GALLERY IX THE COURT OF THE FISH-POND.

1 I ! \'1T. O u w - D . ' o : ! o Q ^ O - K h ?. 226 1 I M tt.

PLATE 227 Q x o ffi CO w o O L H ^ D O .

Pi A i 1 COURT OF THE MYRTLES OR. . OF THE FISH-POND FORMED BY YUSL/F . I.

PLATE 229 O ' t- 53 55 ^ >X. X x c :: O Q Z a .

J'l \ THE HALL OF THE BATHS .

PLATE 231 THE ST I /FAN'S BATH .

ATK 232 THE SULTANA'S BATH .IM.

PLATE 233 THE BATHS. HALL OF REPOSE .

>. 4- -* CHAMBER OF REPOSE .J }JK>..: ail I ^>>.

-.PLATE 235 8 r . - ^ g ru 1 . . :.1.

- i . - Q D H -E f .PLATE 236 f. a: '- < ~ : CD td O D O H 'O y f.

PLATE 237 GROUND PLAN OF THE BATHS IN THE ALHAMBRA .

1Y \ H E _ ^ .

PLATE 239 AND SECTION OF THE GREAT CISTERN [\ THE ALHAMBRA .

VIT. f - F t C_ ^ ^ T h 1 i H O H a U -:-. .- ... i ' .. . 240 v .r.PI.

* *.*+* .J *.* ****+ **.PLATE 241 1 'If r *-*.: ^ CHAMBER OF REPOSE SULTAN'S BATH CONSTRUCTED BY YUSUF I.+T4.T.f*-r4.^ "jr**** +*+.*'***'..* w-. .*.- | %.

A Ih J4_> INTERIOR OF THE INFANTAS' TOWER .1'l.

.PLATE 243 .

I'LA I 1 02 02 W CL. CL CO w K h 02 W H ~ LH 02 W .

OR PLAIN.245 BALCONY OF THK "CAPTIVE" . OF GRANADA .ISABEL DK SOLISi.kLOOKIXG THE VEGA. OVF.

Pi ATI: 246 ALCOVE OF THE " CAPTIVE 1 ' (ISABEL DE SOLISi .

^"'. ATI-: 247 (. If : * t .itc*r*v! cu _ a H O 5 > p a E- o 5 ^ z . J a iJ r^ - < -! '*^'t*?. . \ -'*<'vv.:'.Pi.

lYATK 248 THE "CAPTIVE'S" TOWER FROM THE ENTRANCE .

PLATE 249 INTERIOR OF THE MOSt >L'E ROOM IN THE "CAPTIVE'S" TO\YER .

- i vj C/3 D fc O .1 I ! \ I ! o .". -*. A *. t .:f V ' . 4*4 td < ~ 'i /: _ a I PQ .

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ALCOVE IN THE "LINDARAJA" APARTMENTS .Pi \ i i ^.

PLATE 253 GARDEN OF " LINDARAJA." AND THE APARTMENTS TRADITIONALLY SAID TO HAVE BEEX OCCUPIED BY "LiNDARAJA" A FAVOURITE SULTANA .

.-".1&!*^J&&&&&<A sx x* te^^A^g^njft^jft^^^^^jF^f^fti 's: s: .. ^i-i _. DETAIL. 1 -3 .* * ** &^z ggjf j .~^ r ^* v * r^ -^ f^^5> f^' .*'* -' *" "V-i J J\f ~t (*f\r r 1 - ' ^^^j- . ^M-^ ^ ^i5%/^'* V v ' r H> >' : . INTERIOR OF THE BALCONY OF " LINDARAJA" .. >K & .-l Ife (H T /* T/* 1 .-^ jsi. '. "/"v"-*-=^i:'l* / --~ "=r53c i* '-. --' a t '. _ * .-*i. 1> ~ = : ifotfUEUWU H-y_?v__jri^ 1 -feiSffl h tr^*. SfilKi^ftP ^ RA l 1 --T ':f ' //% ^ ^ /H te --^k'tP ':. .

.^V^P* ^_ ..*|vt:. 4 ** ww a m ft < Jft AB m ^B 7-!f-t|xL'"f|M?'<ttfr| i *f * * .**'^?!j5?i5i*'>*.*A < JF..'i. * ." ^ : ! ir 4^ i'l *" ij tti*l*'f 4***l^*ll%l? *' DETAIL.A K _ ^ > '*.- <* f<r * >iC'Sv' ^^^ili^p-i's _ t..PLATE 255 ~-v. *. ..!<!>!r*i'"' : i t ' *\ *-. .'. LOWER PART OF THE BALCONY OK "LINDARAJA" . t. ..*i5.%|0.

I'l \ j DETAIL OF THE CENTRA!. PART OF THE BALCONY OF " LINDARAJA" .

THE OUEEN'S HOmOlR AND DISTANT VIEW OF THE GENERALIFE .

I'l \ IK 258 -V w w c w C X o O C2 'Jj Q D Cd D fy .

PLATE 259 u o o Q D O CQ - c j a .

I'l \ 1 1 o a: p u: H O (b O D O W W - Q O .

< * :- <g EC .PLATE 261 O ~ O r.

I'l \ 1 1 ANGLE OF THE BALCONY OF LTNDARAJA .

.PLATE 263 J w D O fc. O > O u < ac 2.st .

-. * - :jfar ' x._. % '"' .-.>i^--..r x' --. Ed u b] H O O [H O zL O - r&ff^.' ^/ ^/fad^:U*r.-.*.' -.Pi \ 1 1. ". .n'-V^-i.-'."i^' -'- '."'Tl*.-:tii.-. .t V: ^- r. . -..*1^A***-" -**.---^ -"> .u-r? r r if-*/' ^ ' : ' *r r: ' .-: .---^^. J : r. .- v . . .'*~J?a.i--S- ... '-^ - '-. -<'_. 3*** V .WvPi ^StgiP^ l --.: &l&i.r-.'-. 264 ' " 3l. '- <^ Qfc? _\ V*^ir*"v<*^* ---.i .-!.-. . -i"V-^:'' ^<^i i-TV.

o c h x .PLATE JUT 265 O H f.

I

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266

THE TOWER OF THE CAPTIVE, ISABEL DE

SOLIS

PLATE

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ENTRANCE TO THE HALL OF THE TWO

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273

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TEMPLE AND FA' ADE OF THE HALL OF THE TWO SISTERS

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PLATE

277

HALL OK THE TWO SIFTERS FROM THE ENTRANCE DOOR, BUILT BY YUSUF
I.

PLATE 278 UPPER BALCONY OF THE HALL OF THE TWO SISTERS .

PLATE 279 - HALL OF THE TWO SISTERS FROM THE ENTRANCE DOOR .

"' CEILING OF THE HALL OF THE TWO SISTERS . __ C* .PLATE 280 **' y -.->*i?^ : ' "\1 Jfe- \"^^ j *H " i&W^ .-^-^- .' ("- >v* *? -.

I ' ^^^^^J^SSjjS'- w^^^p^ vT^i : "%! '... %** '*?' %*%*?! DETAIL OF THE UPPER STORY..PLATE 281 ~" x . .... '~-~.< ..%.% .. HALL OF THE TWO SISTERS ..>.

PLATE 282 DETAIL OF THE LATERAL WINDOWS OF THE HALL OF THE TWO SISTERS .

PLATE 283 DETAIL IN THE HALL OF THE T\YO SISTERS .

ORNAMENT.PLATE 284 PANEL. AND INSCRIPTIONS IN THE HALL OF THE TWO SISTERS .

PLATE 285 INSCRIPTION IN THE HALL OF THE TWO SISTERS .

O r( V ' ' /. % FRIEZE IN THE HALL OF THE TWO SISTERS .I'l.ATE 286 gfP ^ / ti '.'' < j-%V ' l i.

HALL OF THE TWO SISTERS .PLATE 287 y^^'S" \\fi&y^ "/?^ -'/A ^ *^ V iJfl? ^k^^^Nxfj^ 1 W* 1 1~/"~ _^ ^?v 4X^' ^f>~^ i 1 ^I 5 \\ PANEL ON JAMBS OF DOORWAYS.

PLAT! DETAILS OK THE GLA/ED TILES IN THE DADO OF THE HALL OE THE TWO SISTERS .

HALL OF THE TWO SISTERS .PLATE 289 tV^f^b M IVevp >Yffc\J i^cit/ m 'h^^x^T^-v^v /^X<^.Q^^ BAND ROUND PANELS IN WINDOWS.

.'''r '..* ^." ^ 'r.nS T ^>NT^T MOSAIC IN DADO OF RECESS . ^ >_ k< MOSAIC IN DADO OF THE ENTRANCE TO THE HALL OF THE TWO SISTERS . T . ^ "r. \/. .\ ^t%^ ^.. .'J^. V% k .." 'r'" ^ ^4 ' .i'l \ IT T'V' 1 f F!*rrlAT. j'JK Tj'J/ i^T.% j'J^'iT i'J^-4 . " .M T^i M V 1 ' ' T T T Tj'J. ^ " r - L 4 A : k ^ r WM LI ^Sr ^0A ^r *4 -i > -. i -T' i 'T- I r* rl- i * 7 .

^. MOSAIC IN .. .^.. . ^i^^Tv^ti DADO OF HALL OF AMBASSADORS VX v^ ^___- n> ^_____ Mo 3AIC IN ru Ol- DADO OF TWO TIIF TfALL SISTKKS THE . ATI: 291 ^ r^ ^ ~ ^ ^ ^> A 1 4 > ~o~o~ T_l^ J TPw^ TP^~ | K * 4 it! it^.

WEST FACADE .IM vi i 292 \\YVmi77777 X. >" WINK GATE.

PLATE 293 DETAIL OF THK ONLY ANCIKXT "JALOUSIE" REMAINING IN THE ALHAMBRA .

294 EL JARRO. ARAB VASE NOW IN THE MUSEUM OF THE PALACE .I'l Ml.

CONSIDERABLY MUTILATED.PLATE 295 EL JARRO. HALL OF THE TWO SISTERS. THIi ARAMIAX VASK AND NICHK IN WHICH IT FORMERLY STOOD. THE VASE. IS NOW IN THE MUSEUM OF THE PALACE ' t .

296 AX ARAB VASE OF THE FOURTEENTH CENTURY IN THE NICHE WHEREIN IT STOOD UNTIL THE YEAR 1837 .I 'I \ 1 1.

I 'i. COMMONLY CALLKD " THK SWORD OF BOABDIL" . ATI-: 297 SWORD OF THE LAST MOORISH KING OF GRANADA.

Pi ATI' 298 X.. a: ^ N < g z z 2/ [/] w ffi . < X .

D. I. .. WHO. ATE 299 GOLD COIN (OBVKKSK AND KKYEKSEi OF MOHAMMED THE FOUNDER OF THE AEHAMBKA. REIGNED 1232-1272 A.I' I.

J A&}&A&rc9 53 ..>- Ife^l S?-l U I HI < _ X /.I'l VII jOO 4>r 74*N. X - c :_ U cc fPSIP^ffe^! ~ _ G ..--~ M < s*v'* -^.

ppoiirrofos rnlorr s flmfcmauto )Miay iima Onmasfjit r rcj iTiTiiamtftTO (prrs ououiftavou jiorf m caMnust uullpws rateuiorosmaiitia qii(iiami[5Hifa5 mlanbiiatiffiis altanas c THE GOTHIC INSCRIPTION SET UP IN THE ALHAMBRA MY THE COUNT OF TENDILLA.PLATE 301 losiupalto s ratWuos. TO COM M KMORATE THE SURRENDER OF THE FORTRESS IN 1492 .

4HMHHHMHMH* Jk . '.^3^ X~V V ' T^Cd r . >^A . V^^V -tV = 1 "V yv O=C- i ' :. . */ Vi.::/'. FROM A FRAGMENT IN THE ALHAMBRA . ^r<^ <^=.'._ MOSAIC. Ml..Pi.> v. 302 MOSAIC PAVEMENT IX THE QUEEN'S DRESSING ROOM iTMCADOR DE LA REYXA.

* THE HOUSE OF CARBON .PLATE 303 "-^ :-- - '.

I'l Ml 304 THE ANCIENT GRANARY MARKET AND HOUSE OF CARBON .

OR HOUSE OF CARBON. ATE 305 KLKVATION OF THK CASA DHL CARBON.I'l. ONCK KNOWN AS THE HOUSE OF THE WEATHERCOCK .

Pr.ATK 306 COURTYARD OF A MOORISH HOUSE IN THE ALBAICIN .

PLATE 307 INTERIOR OF AN ARAB HOUSK IN THK AIJSAK'IN .

PLATE 308 w u oo oo as < 62 "!* r X X 32 O O < OH r- Z .

PLATE 309 II IE AUTHOR IN THE ALIIAMBRA .

THE SPLENDID CORNICE AT THE RIGHT-HAND TOP CORNER IS FROM THE LOGGIA OF THE GENERALIFE .ATK 310 ' .- o: . .w*. AND COLUMNS IN THE ALHAMBRA.. NT ^*rt - "- * Err: CORNICES. CAPITALS. <.Pl...

- - I F k - - . 3 4- 5 e 83 --. .wM* vA'te ^gs^- MISCELLANEOUS ORNAMENT IN THE ALHAMBRA .PLATE 311 - "/of m !& 2. tf*>.

I'l VI K X > o u o > HE w .

RA .PLATE BAS-RELIEF. NOW IN THE MUSEUM OF THE ALHAMP.

m!. ARABIAN SWORD . V v*.Pi. % -\^M ^?%+^<&&i i \ - " * . tj x /X V >.^v 7 - " . 314 S & |l * '- *~s *s *?-r* tr'-i . ATI. -v rA^rti -K'/. 8 ^^f '' JKI Kaf^i " " .

Cfl EC C/3 -J H .PLATE 315 CQ w ffi J M "F- r ffi Q H cu D O U ^_.

r. 8"a. %\k.. a*!W5 k V V.^ L^^^. "Wfc. : .a: # 4 > "^( ^ ^ .XCAUSTIC-TILE WORK IN THE ROYAL ROOM OF SANTO DOMINGO ..- f .-V V^"e. > . ::*: ^BSSfiS^! >R^^. -' -:*> '' r < X X Xjr VV X X X -V V- . :*.rvh.I'l \ I K >< r JT :*: X X > '' '' JT :*> d :: *: r .*: -.aissSasBJass^ l. *=*jij s^sj^j -^^\w.k'k.1 as .r'v.>."' * ^ * * . I * .

< C/i O D O i ._ r -_-^ PQ S < E J a u H-< .1'I..ATE 317 9 ^w< .

I'l ATE 318 INSCRIPTIONS IN THE ALHAMBRA .

J ' < Cu O . CT.PLATE 319 a CQ D r. a 3 < .

1 'I \ I I o H O ac H Qi oa ffi H w > I I hJ W O .

KAHLV FOL'K'I Kl-'.N'I' CISTERN.PLATE 321 -i^s***- AN<']|-.N'l II CENTURY .

\ 1 1 322 Js h .

I 'LATH 323 > w I u Ed U J o. H h c a X w < .

I'l \ 1 1 243 . 02TO * X Di u u- c w u o X .

PLATE 325 /. o u o o u v: . 1 .

Vr * . s .I'LATK > C/3 QJ < rn u o Cu Di ffi h .-*: .

PLATE 327

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VIEW OF THE ALHAMRRA FROM THE HOMAGE TOWER

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PLATE 329

DOORWAY OF THK

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CHARLES

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I'okCII

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PLATE 333

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THE GENERALIFE

I'LATF. Ed E H O u tt- O _ > O z H_ Sli'' m . 339 u X G .

. / K .. .vii 340 X ..if i i - - ' -p-^^r^Asi o o b -^ v. - -' -- *. .' o . ~--' ] ''' X * - --j ^ -i rrrr rrrl rl rl rl rl r rl rl i - ..

PLATE 341 GALLERY IN TIIL GENERALIFE .

I'l \ 1 K 342 GALLERY THE GENERALIFE IN THE ACEQUIA COURT .

KNERALIKK THE PORTRAIT (iALLKRV .PLATE 343 KNTRANCI-: TO THK <.

ATK 344 GARDEN OF THE GENERALIFE .I'I.

PLATE 345 ELEVATION OF THE PORTICO OF THE GENERALIFE .

346 THE ACEQUIA COURT GENERALIFE IX THE .I'l \ 1 1.

PLATE 347 A CORNER OF THE ACEQUIA COURT IN THE GENERALIFE .

\ IE 348 D O u D C u u J O U el D O U U .Pi.

PLATE 349 THE CYPRESS OF THE SULTANA IN THE GENERALIFE .

IXG IX o THK GKNKRALIFE .Pi Ml 350 o o o o o O O o - o- ' o A CKIl.

PLATE 351 U H K as W < ac H D O U < D I I a u w OS W O w H ffi .

I'l Ml 352 THK GENKRALIFE. THE ACEQUIA COURT FROM THE INTERIOR .

PLATE 353 ' ' Ed ^ pi . g a X r L ^ .

I 'i \ir 354 ENTRANCE TO THE GEXERALIFE .

PLATE 355 THE GENERALIFE. COURT OF THE SULTANA'S CYPRESS .

Till-: ACKQUIA COURT FROM THE INTERIOR .Pi VIT TIIK (JKNKRALIKK.

.I'i. ATI-: 357 -j SOUTH FACADE OF THK PALACE OF CHARLES V.

I'l ATE 358 w K U a u P3 .

PLATE 359 O w u < < z. f J E U ft! .

I'l. \ II 360 GATE OF THE GRANADAS .

PLATE 361 V EC .

362 .PL.VII.

c ' . y.PLATE 363 f. u < x z c *^ cc c y.

PLATI 364 u u h y: D C .

PLATE 365 : ' 1 ' / 5 * iffi GATE OF Jl'STICE .

EAST FACADE .GATE OF THE VINE.

S o -1 OC w o 6 .PLATE 367 c/: w I H O -^ u.

PLATE 368 TOWER OF THE PEAKS .

PLATE 369 o 06 O ~ *5 s 5 .

]] vii 37 f. .

PL ATI: 371 .

Ml h S : OS *v* s < X < Cd o c ^ w ^ .I'l.

NICHOLAS . \MBRA FROM ST.PLATE 373 'I LL V $ GKXKRAL VIK\V OF THE ALII.

Pi \n 374 a < O X u E I H .

LAS f)X THE BANKS OF THE RIVER DARRO .ATF.Pr. 375 VI F.

376 c: C .1 I ! VIT.

PLATE 377 X <_ 33 .

!'I ATI-. 378 Q a X < U r w ** O E .

w p o M 5 .I'l ATF.

ATF. 380 .Pl.

PLATE 381 o / *^ >*. C 2 .

PLATE 382 .

PLATE 383 < 1 o J-. < .

PLATE 384 COURTYARD OF AN ARAB HOUSE .

*-'lr *'"'l j ~*l' ' A MOORISH ARCHWAY .:.PLATE 385 v^wu^- . ' ft * '. ^ "I.

Pi A I I. 386 INTERIOR OF AN OLD HOUSE IN THE CALLE DEL HORNO DE ORO .

PLATE 387 INTERIOR OF AN OLD HOTS]. IN THE ALBAICIN .

I 'I \ II 38$ ^J 1^ ^ as X O I H .

Pl.ATK 389 .

I'l.A 'O Q J C w a .

KNTKAXCE TO THE ROYAL CHAPEL .

I'l.A I I .

V .:./' ^Ife *>'< ' Bf>4 ^ < PC i u -/ O ^^ pi H X w m-J.ATE 393 D- i-'V" . .I'I. ' P 2FSB' FHv ^^B:K' .

1'L \ 1 1. 394 EXTERIOR OF THE ROYAL CHAPEL .

PLATE 395 EXTERIOR OF THE CATHEDRAL .

I 'I \ 1 1 396 ^f|^| - EXTERIOR OF THE ROYAL CHAPEL .

o : W X w .PLATE 397 2 & < OH <sj O r* < C^ / \ 5 E ^ U o t.

l'i ATI-: 398 GOTHIC PINNACLE ON THE ROYAL CHAPEL .

VIEW FROM THE CHOIR .PLATE 399 THE CATHEDRAL.

Pi \TI 400 THE CATHEDRAL. GENERAL VIEW OF THE CHANCEL AND HIGH ALTAR .

PLATE 401 CU < E U J < o V w Cn >H o X J ( .

Pi. 402 * T >i ffi H < U w HH J U ft. A I I. c o .

PLAT?: 403 THE ROYAL CHAPEL. SEPULCHRE OF THE CATHOLIC SOVEREIGNS .

104 .M I.1'I.

PLATE 405 THE ROYAL CHAPEL. SCULPTURE OF KIXG EERDIXAXD THE CATHOLIC .

ATF.Pl. X V SEPULCHRE OF FERDINAND . 406 i\ .

PLATE 407 SEPULCHRE OF ISABELLA THE CATHOLIC .

Pi VlT. 408 PORTAL OF THE CHURCH OF SAX JUAN DE DIGS .

PLATE 409 Cfl u o \_' r U J D cu .

Pi. ATI-: HEAD OF JOHX THE BAPTIST .

PLATE HEAD OF JOHN THE BAPTIST .

ATF. 412 HEAD OF JOHN THE BAPTIST .Pl.

PLATE 413 O .- .

PL ATI-: 414 SACRISTY IN THE CARTUJA. LEFT SIDE .

PLATE 415 SACRISTY IN THE CARTUJA. RIGHT SIDE .

1'l.All. 416 CARTL'JA. SANTO SANTORUM .

ATK 417 u E g Q O <-*"< D U .Pl.

X < u . \ I I 418 O v X z x- c u s.M.

419 CARTUJA. THE IMMACULATE CONCEPTION. BY MURILLO .

Pi Ml 420 CARTUJA. BY MURILLO . THE VIRGIN OF THE ROSARY.

! PL ATE 421 CARTUJA. JOSEPH AND THE CHILD. ST. SCULPTURE BY ALONSO CAXO .

MARY MAGDALENE. ST.1">[.ATK 422 CARTUJA. SCULPTURE BY ALONSO CANO .

BY SANCHEZ COT AN .PLATE 423 CARTUJA. HORSEMEN HANGING MARTYRS.

424 CARTUJA. BY SANCHEZ COTAX . THE BAPTISM OF OUR LORD.I 'I \ 1 1.

BY SANCHEZ COTAN .PLATE 425 CARTUJA. THK HOLY FAMILY.

Pi \n 426 THE CRUCIFIXION OF OUR LORD. BY MORALES .

BY MORAL! < .PLATE 427 \ ' THE COXrKITinx OF OUR LADY.

Pi. All u ~ o X .

ATK 429 o < ID O 'sjr. C .I'l.

I'l \M X w u .

PLATE 431 u t w I C-i 3 o o w C-. O . PL.

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Pi VIT 434 W O o r 1 5 .

PLATE 435 o .

Pi \ 1 1 X H u cc O O .

ATI: 437 w ^ p u o ryl W .

I 'I \ 1 1 -138 e o x w ~ < o H t. O u < J < PL. CD .

THE OLD TOWN HALL .

I 'I \ 1 1 440 .

I M. D CQ O u H Z W ^ D Z O . ATI-. o w r. 41-t &- ~ * O J < f.

I 'I \ I I I !_ THE RAW SILK MARKET .

PLATE 443 THE RAW SILK MARKET. ANCIENT ARAB SILK MARKET .

I 'I \TK 444. EXTERIOR OF AN OLD HOUSE. CUESTA DEL PESCADO .

PLATE 445 THK COURT OF JUSTICE .

I 'I \TK 446 .

.PLATE 447 > T.

I'l \ 1 1 I ( ALLE DE SAX ANTON .

I'l. 1 S o - ^ D C' w _ c- .ATh 449 O ^ f.

I'l \ 1 1 450 z w oo W I H ' o Q w a w Q < & W tf OS u <l .

PLATE 451 o r ^ z C/3 D O s: .

w r- -^ pg z w .V ZL T.I'l \ll .

PLATE 453 Q > w z < h f^-i O > Q O X i i 2/ O H .

PLATE 454 o ** Q 5 ^jj "-H H O O r. .

> " ? ' o ^ .'$ pi W J i i fa w Q .. i .. :'' r\ '' i ' /? '< ' i4$ft! - ../<] /r ' -' - i i > ' ..< '-. r * i I . i* # $ -. .*.V* .?! fi^ = feM/'i G u: TJ .PLATE 455 .

I'l \ 1 1 as I h 5 . ^ Q < W Q 2 cc : IT* .

ATK 457 Q oo .Pl.

PLATE 7 Q X w X . O X 3 . ^ E H u.

1'I.ATK 459 to c 4 I .

I 'i \ 1 1: 400 ARMS OF GRANADA 1 .

dealing with and important series of ANEW in Spain in its various aspects... ...THE SPANISH SERIES Edited by ALBERT F. ... Each volume will be complete in itself a uniform binding....165 .. BURGOS AND SALAMANCA . SEGOVIA. ... 2 3 . AVILA AND ZARAGOZA -. 278 ... . series that has 300 pages of Crown 8vo 1 Price 3/6 net with 600 illustrations GOYA TOLEDO . . . ...... CALVERT volumes. some volumes having over reproductions of pictures. and the number and excellence of the reproductions from pictures will justify the claim that these books comprise the most copiously illustrated yet been issued. 200 . 9 10 11 12 13 14 1 THE PRADO THE ESCORIAL ROYAL PALACES OF SPAIN GRANADA AND ALHAMBRA SPANISH ARMS AND ARMOUR LEON. . . etc....300 ... .. 460 386 . . A V ZAMORA.... 462 390 5 VALLADOLID... OVIEDO... . .. its cities and monuments.. ...510 450 MADRID SEVILLE 4 5 MURILLO ..142 223 . 6 7 8 CORDOVA 160 EL GRECO VELAZQUEZ 140 . . its history. ) M j i .

Andalusia. Murillo was the product of his religious era. to the order of the religious houses in his immediate vicinity . sculptors. been compiled. removal. this has been subjected so often to the collection of armour in the world of fire. The various exhibits with which the writer illustrates his narrative are reproduced to the number of nearly 400 on art paper. Many learned and critical works have been written about Murillo. and the selection of weapons and armour has been made with a view not only to render the series interesting to the general reader. has ever received the lion's share of public attention. the great Court-Painter to Philip IV. were forgotten or never known. antiquaries. A HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE ACCOUNT OF THE ROYAL ARMOURY AT MADRID. passing diately out of circulation. and re-arrangement. ILLUSTRATED WITH 386 REPRODUCTIONS FROM PHOTOGRAPHS. but whereas Velazquez has been familiarised to the general reader by the aid of small. and all who are engaged in the repro- ALTHOUGH duction or representation of European armoury. and his own feeling towards his art. imme- UNIFORM WITH THIS VOLUME SPANISH ARMS H. ILLUSTRATED BY OVER 165 REPRODUCTIONS FROM PHOTOGRAPHS OF HIS MOST CELEBRATED PICTURES the names of Murillo and Velazquez are inseparably linked in the history of Art as Spain's immortal contribution to the small band of world-painters. costumiers. MURILLO WHILE painted UNIFORM WITH THIS VOLUME the niche is still empty which it is hoped that this book will fill. that no disturbing influences hand catalogue of the Museum is available.A BIOGRAPHY AND APPRECIATION. popular biographies. . To Europe in his lifetime he signified little or nothing. and. AND ARMOUR QUEEN MARIA CRISTINA OF SPAIN DEDICATED BY SPECIAL PERMISSION TO several valuable and voluminous catalogues of the Spanish " finest to Royal Armoury have. from time " time.M. and of his native province. but to present a useful text book for the guidance of artists. his He works were immured in local monasteries and cathedrals. and this book has been designed to serve both as a historical souvenir of the institution and a record of its treasures. In this volume the attempt has been made to show the painter's art in its relation to the religious feeling of the age in which he lived.

but the greatest mass of wrought granite which exists on earth. world. the city has been described by Wormann as a gigantic open-air museum of the architectural history of early Spain. the author does not share the opinion. and the art of Spain. and to show cause for his faith in the greatness of the Toledo of the future THE ." is lost in the impenetrable mists of antiquity." But while some writers have declared that Toledo is a theatre with the actors gone and only the scenery left. In the text of this book the author has endeavoured to reconstitute the glories and tragedies of the living past of the Escorial. arranged upon a lofty and conspicuous table of rock. the pulleys are jammed from long disuse.UNIFORM WITH THIS VOLUME THE ESCORIAL THE its A HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE ACCOUNT OF THE SPANISH ROYAL PALACE. He believes that the power and virility upon which Spain built up her The machinery of the theatre of Toledo is greatness is reasserting itself. the leviathan of architecture. rusty. not only the incarnate expression of the fanatic religious character and political genius of Philip II. the light of the origin of Imperial Toledo. and twice it has been greatly diminished by fire but it remains to-day. invincible. and to represent the wonders of the stupendous edifice by reproductions of over two hundred and seventy of the finest photographs and pictures obtainable. TOLEDO THE ILLUSTRATIONS " UNIFORM WITH THIS VOLUME A HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE ACCOUNT OF WITH 510 "CITY OF GENERATIONS. and already can be heard the tuning-up of fiddles in its ancient orchestra. Mighty. but has endeavoured to place before his readers a panorama of the city as it appears to-day. Monastery. Both as a review and a pictorial record it is hoped that the work will make a wide appeal among all who are interested in the history. was erected to commemorate a victory over the French in 1557. and Mausoleum of El Escorial. In this belief the author of this volume has not only set forth the story of Toledo's former greatness. but the curtain is rising steadily if slowly. MONASTERY AND MAUSOLEUM. which rears gaunt." unchangeable. grey walls in one of the bleakest but most imposing districts whole of Spain. the world. ILLUSTRATED WITH PLANS AND 278 REPRODUCTIONS FROM PICTURES AND PHOTOGRAPHS Royal Palace." the crown of Spain. free from the time of the mighty Goths. It was occupied and pillaged by the French two and a-half centuries later.. the architecture. the eighth wonder of in the .

THIS . or the coming into an inheritance perience of which one feels the effects to the day of one's death.R. S EVI LLE . and is amazed anew by the astonishing apparition of Velazquez in truth. a rivalry of miracles of art. was one of no little difficulty. Ferdinand. The excellence of the Madrid gallery is the excellence of exclusion it is a Here one becomes conscious of a fresh power in collection of magnificent gems. and that the letterpress will form a serviceable companion to the visitor to The Prado. The task of selecting pictures for reproduction from what is perhaps the most splendid gallery of old masters in existence. and was more probably founded by the Phoenicians. DEDICATED BY SPECIAL PERMISSION TO H. from reasons of devotion or curiosity. . here is. was made the capital of the Goths. an exthe birth of a child. but it is believed that the collection is representative. the lover of art makes the pilgrimage to the Andalusian city to fill his portfolio The seasons of the Church attract thousands to study Murillo in all his glory. became the centre of Moslem power and splendour. where the people pursue pleasure as the serious business of life in an atmosphere of exhilarating enjoyment. and Seville is always gay. And of all these myriad visitors. is still the Queen of Andalusia. who go with their minds full of preconceived notions. enters the Prado for the first time is an important event like marriage. The artist repairs all sorts of people go there with all sorts of motives. Murillo. which became magnificent under the Roman rule. and responsive and fascinating to the receptive visitor.UNIFORM WITH THIS VOLUME A HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE ACCOUNT. the foster-mother of Velazquez and Murillo. the city of poets and pageantry and love.H. PRINCESS HENRY OF BATTENBERG volume is an attempt to supplement the accurate but formal notes contained in the official catalogue of a picture gallery which is conIt has been said that the day one sidered the finest in the world. and fell before the military prowess of St. ILLUSTRATED WITH 221 REPRODUCTIONS FROM PHOTOGRAPHS OF OLD MASTERS. The author has here attempted to convey in the illustrations an impression of this laughing city where all is gaiety and mirth and ever-blossoming roses. THE PRADO . . WITH 300 ILLUSTRATIONS SEVILLE. UNIFORM WITH THIS VOLUME A GUIDE AND HANDBOOK TO THE ROYAL PICTURE GALLERY OF MADRID. which has its place in mythology as the creation of Hercules. not one has yet confessed to being disappointed in Seville.

was a Greek by repute. TOGETHER WITH A PARTICULAR ACCOUNT OF THE CONSTRUCTION. El Greco is typically. and by his disappointment in the discovery that no such thing as an " A BIOGRAPHY AND APPRECIATION.I." : THIS volume is the third and abridged edition of a work which the author was inspired to undertake by the surpassing loveliness of the Alhambra. and with his advent. Spanish painting laid aside every trace of Provincialism. extravagantly Spanish. his place in art is an assured one. and a Toledan by adoption. and has been said to constitute the supreme glory of the Venetian era. " El Greco. and the result is a volume that has been acclaimed with enthusiasm alike by critics. It is impossible to present him as a colourist in a work of this nature. but foreigner as he was.THE ALHAMBRA GRANADA AND A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE MOSLEM RULE IN SPAIN." as he is called.M. Calvert wrote The Alhambra may be likened to an exquisite opera which can only be appreciated to the full when one is under the spell of its magic influence. and stepped forth to compel the interest of the world. passionately. Neglected for many centuries. he essayed to supply it. so it is my hope the pale ghost of the Moorish fairy-land may live again in the memories of travellers through the medium of this pictorial epitome. Keenly conscious of the want himself. " In his preface to the first edition. His pictures in the Prado are still catalogued among those of the Italian School. in his heart he was more EL GRECO IN UNIFORM WITH THIS VOLUME Spanish than the Spaniards. which aims at presenting every aspect of Spain's eminence in art and in her artists. and archaeologists. the work of Domenico Theotocopuli must be allotted a volume to itself. who reflects the impulse. architects. but the author has got together reproductions of no fewer than 140 of his pictures a greater number than has ever before been published of El Greco's works. But as the witchery of an inspired score can be recalled by the sound of an air whistled in the street. AND THE DECORATION OF THE MOORISH PALACE. Mr. THE EMPRESS EUGENIE UNIFORM WITH THIS VOLUME even moderately adequate illustrated souvenir of this glorious sanc" tuary of Spain was obtainable. THE ARCHITECTURE. . artists. WITH 460 ILLUSTRATIONS. and still often misjudged. DEDICATED BY SPECIAL PERMISSION TO H. a Venetian by training. ILLUSTRATED BY REPRODUCTIONS OF OVER 140 OF HIS PICTURES a Series such as this.

to the Retiro. Spain. with its wealth both as a guide and a souvenir. The great Velazquez. a master not only in portrait painting. . and from El Pardo.UNIFORM WITH THIS VOLUME V EL WITH 142 ILLUSTRATED REPRODUCTIONS FROM PHOTOGRAPHS OF HIS MOST CELEBRATED PICTURES RODRIGUEZ DE SILVA Y VELAZQUEZ" our Velazquez. accurate. and it is of illustrations. UNIFORM WITH THIS VOLUME A HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE ACCOUNT OF THE SEVEN PRINCIPAL PALACES OF THE SPANISH KINGS. impressed the grandeur of his superb personality upon all his work. the country whose art was largely borrowed. from the Escorial. built to the attention of Philip IV. to La Granja. but he has put forward his conclusions with modesty he has reproduced a great deal that is most representative of the artist's work and he has endeavoured to keep always in view his object to present a concise. AZ Q~U E Z DIEGO . produced Velazquez. PROFUSELY ILLUSTRATED is beyond question the richest country in the world in the number of its Royal Residences. yet the Editor of this Spanish Series feels that it would not be complete without the inclusion of yet another contribution to the broad gallery of Velazquez literature. to the present time. and through him art became the light of a new artistic life. is crystallised in the Palaces that constitute the patrimony of the OF SPAIN . in landscapes and historical subjects. and readable life of Velazquez. the eagle in art subtle. all are rich in historical memories. divert in which the gloomy mind of Philip II. which is principally associated with Pedro the Cruel. The Royal Palaces of Spain are open hoped that this volume. and while few are without artistic importance. incomparable the supreme painter. which speaks of the anguish and humiliation of Christina before Sergeant Garcia and his rude soldiery from Aranjuez to Rio Frio. from his country's decay . : ROYAL PALACES SPAIN Crown. This greatest of Spanish artists. to visitors at stated times. Thus. but in character and animal studies. to Miramar. is perpetuated in stone. it has been said. Spanish The author cannot boast that he has new data to offer. A BIOGRAPHY AND APPRECIATION. from the Alcazar at Seville. simple. to which a widowed Queen retired to mourn all the history of Spain." as Palomino proudly styles him has been made the subject of innumerable books in every European language. darkened by the agony of a good king. will serve the visitor . is still a guiding influence of the art of to-day. from the splendid days of Charles V.

: . and with her granite massiveness and austerity. she remains an aristocrat even among the aristocracy of Spanish cities. and has preserved their memories in a wealth of excellent and AND ZARAGOZA V ALLADOLI D OVIEDO. Zamora. undisturbed by the touch of a modernising and renovating spirit. and here Charles V. torpid. LEON. SEGOVIA. is a gloomy and depleting capital and Salamanca is a city of magnificent buildings. BURGOS AND SALAMANCA IN . once the capital of the second kingdom in Spain boasts one of the most magnificent cathedrals in Spain.A HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE ACCOUNT. spent by the storms that from time to time have devastated her. and these ancient architectural splendours. WITH 390 ILLUSTRATIONS glory of Valladolid has departed. . and Christopher Columbus died. dilapidated Burgos. a broken hulk. has still all the appurtenances of greatness. but the skeleton remains. with its university. WITH ILLUSTRATIONS in Burgos. AVILA . was the key of Leon and the centre of the endless wars between the Moors and the Christians. and attached to its ancient stones are the memories that Philip II. which still retains traces of the Gotho-Castilian character. UNIFORM WITH THIS VOLUME THE interesting illustrations. and Castile. that here Cervantes lived. though no longer great. In this one-time capital of Spain. which ship of the bones of the Cid is one of the oldest in Europe. which has a history dating from time almost without date. More than seven hundred years have passed since Oviedo was the proud capital of the Kingdoms of Las Asturias. in the Plaza Mayor. and the custodianand in Salamanca. laid the foundation of the Royal Armoury. Yet apart from the historical interest possessed by these cities. They are content with their stories of old-time greatness and their cathedrals. the fires of the Great Inquisition were first lighted. which raged round it from the eighth to the eleventh centuries. the author has selected three of the most interesting relics of ancient grandeur in this country of departed greatness. silent. which was afterwards transferred to Madrid. In this volume the author has striven to re-create the ancient greatness of these six cities. Leon. continue to attract the visitor. was born here. Segovia. UNIFORM WITH THIS VOLUME 462 A HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE ACCOUNT. ZAMORA. they still make an irresistible appeal to the artist and the antiquary. Leon to-day is nothing but a large agricultural village. which Leon.

and a picture as he would have fought a battle. dramatic. A BIOGRAPHY AND APPRECIATION. as he has been Jose de Goya y Lucientes is not so familiarised to English readers as his genius deserves.A HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE ACCOUNT OF THE SPANISH CAPITAL." The genius of Goya was a robust. their most immediate inspiration. Some of the illustrations reproduced here have been made familiar to the English public by reason of the interesting and stirring events connected with the Spanish Royal Marriage. ILLUSTRATED BY REPRODUCTIONS OF 600 OF HIS PICTURES masters and the first of the moderns. sea level. and his genius for expressing all terrible emotions. and revolutionary he painted He was an athletic. .500 feet above the cities in Europe. . or are the work of photographers specially employed to obtain new views for the purpose of this volume. to place every feature and aspect of the Spanish metropolis before the reader. fantastic like Hogarth a naturalist like Velazquez indefatigable painter eccentric. one cannot but admire the uniqueness of its position. Francisco . 8 . . and wind-blown but whatever may be thought of the wisdom of selecting a plain. imperious. and fulminating genius his temperament was passionate. is to be through the academic tradition of imitation accounted as the man whom the Impressionists of our time have to thank for GOYA UNIFORM WITH THIS VOLUME THE their last of the old called. WITH 450 ILLUSTRATIONS is at once one of the most interesting and most maligned It stands at an elevation of 2. and the spacious theatres combine to make Madrid one of the first cities of the world. and the condition of Spanish he broke painting was debased almost beyond hope of salvation " he. capital in such a situation. The splendid promenades. It is impossible to . but the greater number were either taken by the author. the handsome buildings. Madrid bids fair to become one of the M A D Rl D MADRID UNIFORM WITH THIS VOLUME handsomest and most prosperous of European cities. like Rembrandt the last flame-coloured flash of Spanish genius. treeless. waterless. next to Velazquez. and the magnificence of its buildings. reproduce his colouring but in the reproductions of his works the author has endeavoured to convey to the reader some idea of Goya's boldness of style. . He was born at a time when the tradition of Velazquez was fading. . . warlike. having fairly entered the path of progress. iron . j n the centre of an arid. his mastery of frightful shadows and mysterious lights. and one is forced to admit that. and the author has endeavoured with the aid of the camera. most definite stimulus.

depopulated. but she still remains the most Oriental town in Spain. 150 pp. GAY-LOOKING. ill-provided. The most notable work dedicated to the immortal author of Don Quixote that has been published in England. and by the inclusion of a valuable bibliography. Spain. " a mere name. the seat of learning and the repository of the arts. the antiquary and the lover of the beautiful. the city of cities." WITH NUMEROUS PORTRAITS AND REPRODUCTIONS FROM EARLY EDITIONS OF "DON QUIXOTE" Crown 8vo. the successful rival of Baghdad and Damascus." El Graduador. has shrunk to the proportions of a thirdrate provincial town but the artist." El Defensor de Granada. under the Moors the Athens of the West. " Although the book is written in English no Spaniard could have written it with more conscientiousness and enthusiasm." " is more than Westminster Gazette. ." Black and While. Cordova of the thirty suburbs and three thousand mosques to-day she is no more than an overgrown village." " It is made trebly interesting by the very complete set of Cervantes' portraits it contains. " . Cordova. Spain. will still find in its streets and squares and patios a mysterious spell that cannot be resisted. " Price 3/6 net recommend the book to all PRESS NOTICES popular and accessible account of the career of Cervantes." Morning Leader." WITH 160 ILLUSTRATIONS vivacious in its CORDOVA beauty. BY ALBERT CALVERT O F PUBLICATION OF "DON QUIXOTE.UNIFORM WITH THIS VOLUME A HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE ACCOUNT OF THE ANCIENT CITY WHICH THE CARTHAGINIANS STYLED THE "GEM OF THE SOUTH. Cordova was once the pearl of the West. literary shrines. . " Mr. CALVERT is entitled to the gratitude of book-lovers for his industrious devotion at one of our greatest Birmingham Post. Spain. A NEW LIFE OF THE GREAT SPANISH AUTHOR TO COMMEMORATE THE TERCENTENARY OF THE CERVANTES Size " LIFE F." El Nervion de Bilbao. A We those to whom Cervantes interesting A very readable and pleasant account of one of the great writers of all time. A most up facts to the present time resume of all known. silent. once the centre of European civilisation." Daily Chronicle.

the compilation which would credit a life's labour. tempted. Price 2 25." A " "May be counted among the more important art books which have been published during recent years. " A word on the subject. " The most beautiful book on the Alhambra issued in England. The standard work on a splendid Mr. WITH 80 COLOURED PLATES AND NEARLY (NEW 300 BLACK AND WHITE ILLUSTRATIONS EDITION)." " remarkable masterpiece of book Eastern Daily Press. no praise too high." Sphere." " It is the last is " subject. collection of fine plates." Nottingham Express. CALVERT has given us a Book Western Daily Press. Size 10 THE ALHAMBRA x 74-. CALVERT OF GRANADA." any books on the Alhambra which up to the present have appeared in our Building World. THE ARCHITECTURE AND THE DECORATION OF THE MOORISH PALACE. TOGETHER WITH A PARTICULAR ACCOUNT OF THE CONSTRUCTION.M." Hull Daily Mail. production. Australia. "The most complete wonder of architecture record of this which has ever been contemplated." Review of Reviews. 10 ." " One El Graduador. delight. " " " A to the student Morning of Advertiser. Spain. Has a pride of place that is all its own among the books of the month." One of the most artistic productions of the year. BEING A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE MOSLEM RULE IN SPAIN FROM THE REIGN OF MOHAMMED THE FIRST TO THE FINAL EXPULSION OF THE MOORS. perfect treasure of beauty and Keighley News. illustrations." The Globe. is own country " It is or abroad." treasure decorative art.BY ALBERT F." " " Immense The Times. much less atBritish Architect. net PRESS NOTICES It is hardly too this is one of the " much to say that " Has in many respects surpassed most magnificent books ever issued from the English Press. A standard work. one of the most beautiful books of modern times. " of A magnificent work. Beautiful. KING ALFONSO XIII. DEDICATED BY PERMISSION TO H." really puzzled where to begin and when to stop in praising the Bookseller." Daily Telegraph." Publishers' Circular." Ely Gazette." Melbourne Age.

WITH IN SPAIN PERMISSION x 10 ins.. We cheerfully admit Mr. " An excellent piece of work." certainly one of the most interesting books of the year. (7^ TO H.) MANY COLOURED PLATES." Birmingham Daily Post. ." It is "A large and sumptuous volume. of this book must surely have been a veritable labour of love and love's labour has certainly not been lost." Crown." for delightful yet unprofitable Outlook." " " A Daily Telegraph. "Mr.M. truly sumptuous volume." The Connoisseur. DIAGRAMS.. AND OVER 400 BLACK AND WHITE ILLUSTRATIONS.." Tribune. SEVILLE AND TOLEDO. " It is impossible to praise too highly the care with which the illustrations have been prepared.. WITH A PARTICULAR ACCOUNT OF THE MOHAMMEDAN ARCHITECTURE AND DECORATION IN THE CITIES OF CORDOVA. CALVERT into the ranks of those whom posterity will applaud work. net KING Price PRESS NOTICES :< The making . ETC." Pall Mall Gazette. and colour. " The occasional delicacy of design and harmony of colour can scarcely be surpassed . DEDICATED BY ALFONSO XIII." The Speaker. A special feature of a work of peculiar interest and value are the illustrations. " A cademy. Mr.MOORISH REMAINS F. " It is illustrated with so lavish a richness of colour that to turn its pages gives one at first almost the same impresssion of splendour as one receives in wandering from hall to hall of the Alcazar of Seville . . "The illustrations are simply marvels of reproduction." Guardian. CALVERT has performed ful a use- work. which will be particularly appreciated and acknowledged by those who are most acquainted with the subject themselves." Spectator. II " " The Times. a valuable and profusely illustrated volume. " A most gorgeous book. CALVERT has given a very complete account of the evolution of Moresco art. BY ALBERT CALVERT BEING A BRIEF RECORD OF THE ARABIAN CONQUEST AND OCCUPATION OF THE PENINSULA. The illustrations are given with a minuteness and faithfulness of detail. " One of the books to which a simple review cannot pretend to do literary justice." Newcastle Chronicle. " The best age of Moorish architecture in Spain is shown with remarkable vividness and vitality. 2 2s." Liverpool Post. ." The Scotsman. Crown 4to." Dundee Advertiser. . and this is probably the highest compliment we could pay to the book or its author.

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New York Botanical Garden Library DP402.G6 C3 Calvert Albert Fre/Granada and the Alha gen 3 5185 00073 6403 .

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