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Sf = ts =

rs =

hs = r = h = nR = Lr = d = L = W = NL = NW = D =

Duration of shock for determining allowable body current, sec = Surface layer resistivity, W-m = Surface layer thickness, Soil resistivity, Depth of ground grid conductors, Number of Electrodes m= W-m = m= =

Length of Individual Electrode, m = Diameter of Conductor/Equivalent diameter in case of Flat cond, m = Maximum length of grid conductor in x direction, m = Maximum length of grid conductors in y direction, m = Number of Conductor along the length wise = Number of Conductor along the width wise Average spacing between two conductors = =

Input Parameters for Ampacity calculation: Type of conductor: Tr = Reference Temperature for Material Constants = Amm2 = Minimum conductor cross section area required =

Tm= Fusing Temperature of Conductor = Ta= Ambient Temperature = K0= (1/ar ) Tr = rr =Resistivity of Conductor at Reference Temperature = mW-cm TCAP= Thermal Capacity per Unit Volume= tc= time duration for sizing the eartmat conductor = I= Current for sizing of Earthmat conductor =

Out Put of Earthing Design Calculation Minimum Conductor Cross section area Required Minimum Diameter of Conductor required Value of Grid Resistance Attainable Step Potential #REF! Tolerable 0.00 #REF! 0 0

Touch Potential

#REF!

The Attainable touch as well as Step voltage should be less than tolerable limit.

Reference Drawings:

1. ..

Reference Document :

1. IEEE-80 For Safety in AC Substation Grounding 2. Design of Earthing Mat for High Voltage Sub-Station (CBIP - Manual)

CUSTOMER: .. Prepared & Checked: REV DATE Approved: PROJECT: PO No/ LOA No : Title: EARTHMAT DESIGN CALCULATION abcd ALSTOM PROJECTS INDIA LTD. DOC No. Rev ..

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36

r rs If A Cs d D Em

= = = = = = = =

Soil resistivity [W-m] Surface layer (crushed rock) resistivity [W-m] Symmetrical fault current in substation [A] 2 Total area enclosed by ground grid [m ] Surface layer de-rating factor Diameter of grid conductor [m] Spacing between parallel conductors [m] Attainable Touch Voltage [V] Attainable Step Voltage [V] Tolerable step voltage for human with 50 kg body weight [V] Tolerable touch voltage for human with 50 kg body weight [V] Tolerable step voltage for human with 70 kg body weight [V] Tolerable touch voltage for human with 70 kg body weight [V] Depth of Buriel of Earthing conductors [m] Surface Gravel layer thickness [m] Maximum grid current that flows between ground grid and surrounding earth [A] Symmetrical grid current [A] Reflection factor between different resistivities Corrective weighting factor that emphasizes the effects of grid depth, Correction factor for grid geometry Corrective weighting factor that adjusts for the effects of inner conductors Spacing factor for mesh voltage Spacing factor for step voltage Total length of grid conductor [m] Effective length of L c + L R for mesh voltage [m] Periphery Length of the earthing equivalent area [m] Total length of ground rods [m] Length of Individual electrode Effective length of L c + L R for step voltage [m] Total effective length of grounding system conductor, including grid and ground rods [m] Maximum length of grid conductor in X direction [m] Maximum length of grid conductors in Y direction [m] Geometric factor composed of factors n a , n b , n c , and n d Number of Electrodes Resistance of grounding system [W] Duration of shock for determining allowable body current [sec]

Input Parameters taken for calculation: I f = Sf = ts = Symmetrical fault current in substation for conductor sizing, Fault current division factor Duration of shock for determining allowable body current, Surface layer resistivity, Surface layer thickness, Soil resistivity, Depth of ground grid conductors, Number of Electrodes = = W-m = = W-m = = = = 40000 0.7 1 3000 0.175 20 30 71 3 0.04 47 103 17 35 m m m m m m sec A

rs =

hs = r = h = nR = Lr = d = L = W = NL = NW =

Length of Individual electrode, = Diameter of Conductor/Equivalent diameter in case of Flat conductor = Maximum length of grid conductor in x direction = Maximum length of grid conductors in y direction = Number of Conductor along the length wise = Number of Conductor along the width wise =

Design Steps :

3

Ampacity calculation

mild Steel 20 #REF! C mm2

Type of conductor: Tr= Reference Temperature for Material Constants = Amm2= Minimum conductor cross section area required = ar =Thermal Coefficient of Resistivity at Reference Temperature = Tm= Fusing Temperature of Conductor = Ta= Ambient Temperature = K0= (1/ar ) Tr = rr =Resistivity of Conductor at Reference Temperature = TCAP= Thermal Capacity per Unit Volume= tc= time duration for sizing the eartmat conductor = I= Current for sizing of Earthmat conductor = mW-cm

Amm2

As per "Design of Steel earthing Grids in India" IEEE Transactions on power apparatus and systems, volume PAS- 98 no.6, Nov/Dec-1979. PP 2126-2134, Corrosion allowance is recommended as per following Rules _ In case of conductor to laid in soil having soil resistivity greater than 100 ohm-meter 15 mills = 0.381 mm _ In case of conductor to laid in soil having soil resistivity from 25 to 100 ohm-meter 91.5 mills = 2.324 mm _ In case of conductor to laid in soil having soil resistivity Lower than 25 ohm-meter 180 mills = 4.572 mm dmin with corrosion = = = dmin + Corrosion Allowance dmin + 2 x

9.14

4.572

Minimum conductor diameter with corrosion allowance Minimum Cross section required with corrosion allowance Cross section of selected conductor Selected Conductor Cross section = = = 1000.000 mm2 1256.637 mm2

Calculation for Tolerable Touch and step Potential for Person of 50Kg

The reduction factor (Derating Factor) Cs can be approximated by the equation As specified in IEEE std 80-2000 Equation no: (27)

Cs

Following equation can be used to compute the tolerable touch and step voltages respectively

E step50

E touch50

Calculation for Tolerable Touch and step Potential for Person of 70Kg

The reduction factor (Derating Factor) Cs can be approximated by the equation

Cs

Following equation can be used to compute the tolerable touch and step voltages respectively

E step70

E touch70

Grid Configuration

Refer Annexure -I for Grid Configuration Maximum Length in X- Direction L Maximum Length in Y- Direction W Number of Conductor along the lengthwise NL Number of Conductor along the widthwise NW Number of Electrodes Nr length of Individual Electrode Lr LT Total Area of Earth Mat, A = = = = = = = = 47 103 17 35 71 3 3590.333 m 4841 m2

As specified in IEEE std 80-2000 Equation no: ( 52)

Rg

6

Ohm

Kii D

= =

Geometric factor

As specified in IEEE std 80-2000 Equation no: (85)

Lc Lc Lp Lp LR LR na

= = = = = =

Total Length of Grid Conductor ( L x Nw ) + ( W x NL ) 3377.333 Periphery Length of earthing equivalent Area 300 Total length of all ground rods(electrodes) in m Nr x Lr 213 2x(L+W)

nb

1.038238

nc nd n n

= = =

1 1

for square and rectangular grid for square and rectangular grid and L-shaped grid Equation no: (84)

na x nb x nc x nd

23.3765

Kh Now,

5.567764

Km

#REF!

Ki

Lm Ig

#REF!

Sf x If

Ig

#REF!

Em

#REF!

Ks

#REF!

Ls

#REF!

Es

7

#REF!

Safety check

For the safe earthing design , Attainable step & Touch voltages should be less than Tolerable values respectively.

#REF! #REF!

Tolerable

0.000 0.00

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