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9. STUDY OF NETWORK SIMULATOR AIM To study the properties and uses of network simulator.

NETWORK SIMULATOR NS is a discrete event network simulator, specifically NS-2 and NS-3.Both simulators are used in the simulation of routing protocols, among others and are heavily used in ad-hoc networking research and support popular network protocols offering simulation result for wired and wireless networks alike. A package of tools that simulates behavior of networks. Create Network Topologies. Log events that happen under any load Analyze event to understand the network behavior

Ns-2 was built in C++ and provides a simulation interface through OTcl, an object oriented Tcl. The user describes a network topology by writing OTcl scripts and then the main NS-2 program simulates that topology with specified parameters. Tcl(originally from Tool Command Language, but conventionally rendered as Tcl rather than TCL) is a scripting language created by John Ouster bout. It is commonly used for rapid prototyping scripted applications, GUIs and testing Tcl is used on embedded system platform, both in its full form and in several other small foot printed versions. Cygwin is a UNIX like environment and command like interface for Microsoft windows. Cygwin provides native integration of windows based applications, data and other system resources with applications, software tools and data of the UNIX like environment. Thus it is possible to launch windows application from the cygwin environment as well as to use cygwin tools and applications within the windows operating context. Cygwin consist of two parts: a dynamic link library as an API compatibility layer providing a substantial part of the POSIX API functionality and an extensive collection of software tools and applications that provide a UNIX like look and feel. Network Simulator (Version 2), widely known as NS2 is simply an event driven simulation tool that has proved useful in studying the dynamic nature of communication networks. Simulation of wired as well as wireless network functions and protocols can be done using NS2.In general NS2 provides users with a way of specifying such network protocols and simulating their corresponding behaviors.

Due to its functionality and modular nature, NS2 has gained constant popularity in the networking research community since its birth in 1989.Ever since, several revolutions and revisions have marked the growing maturity of the tool, thanks to substantial maturity of the tool, thanks to substantial contributions from the players in the field. Among these are the university of California and Cornell University who developed the REAL network simulator, the foundation which NS is based on. BASIC ARCHITECTURE NS2 provides users with executable command ns which take on input argument, the name of a Tcl simulation scripting file. Users are feeding the name of a Tcl simulation script as an input argument of an NS2 executable command ns. Ns2 consist of two key languages: C++ and object oriented Tool command Language (OTCL) while the C++ defines the internal mechanism of the simulation objects, the OTcl set up simulation by assembling and configuring the object as well as scheduling discrete events. The C++ and the OTcl are linked together using TclCL mapped to a C++ object, variables in OTcl domains are sometimes referred to as handles. Conceptually, a handle is just a string in the OTcl domain and does not contain any functionality. Instead the functionality is defined in the mapped C++ object. In the OTcl domain a handle acts as a front end which interacts with users and other OTcl objects. After simulation, NS2 outputs either text based on animation based on animation based simulation result. To interpret this result graphically and interactively, tools such as NAM (Network Animator) and XGRAPH are used. To analyze particular behavior of the network users can extract a relevant subset of text-based data and transform it to a more conservable presentation.

RESULT The network simulator has been studied