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STUDY NOTES for NISM SERIES I : CURRENCY DERIVATIVES CERTIFICATION EXAM ( CD )


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PLAN A : Rs 250 for 5 Online Model Tests PLAN B : Rs 400 for 10 Online Model Tests PLAN C : Rs 500 for 15 Online Model Tests Discounts available on Bulk Booking for Corporates & Colleges NO HARDCOPY / SOFTCOPY of the tests will be provided www.modelexam.in provides you with basic information, study material & online model exams to succeed in major NCFM (NSE's Certification in Financial Markets), BCFM (BSE's Certification in Financial Markets) and NISM exams (National Institute of Securities Markets). Both Premium (Paid) & Demo Versions are available in the website. The contents have been prepared by our Company AKSHAYA INVESTMENTS, a Madurai based Financial Services & Training firm. We are into NISM / NCFM / BCFM / AMFI (Mutual Fund) Training, Stock advisory, Life & Health Insurance, Mutual Funds distribution and Tax Planning. Training Profile of AKSHAYA INVESTMENTS We have been training individuals in NCFM, BCFM and NISM modules for the past 7 years. Over the last 7 years, we have delivered over 10,000 Hours of mass outreach education to Financial intermediaries, Bankers, Individual agents, Students etc in over 20 Cities. Our Profiles: http://www.linkedin.com/pub/ramkumar-a/22/216/b1a http://www.linkedin.com/pub/srinivasan-thiagarajan/43/ab2/587

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================================================================== We have been empanelled as Trainers in the following organizations National Stock Exchange (For their Financial Literacy Program) Bombay Stock Exchange (For their Investor Awareness Programs) Reliance Mutual Fund (EDGE Learning Academy) NJ India Invest (NJ Gurukul) ICICI Securities (I-DIRECT)

We have conducted NCFM / BCFM / NISM / IAP sessions in more than 50 Colleges & Universities including Madurai Kamaraj University, Vellore Institute of Technology, Pondicherry University, PSG Institute of Management etc. We have trained the employees of more than 100 organizations including Reliance Mutual Fund, ICICI Bank, Aditya Birla Money, HDFC Bank, Deutsche Bank etc We provide training on ALL modules of NISM, NCFM & BCFM. We provide training on any subject related to Stock market. TRAINING FOR COLLEGE STUDENTS Training can be given for MBA, M.Com, B.Com, BBA students to pass NISM / NCFM exams which will help in their placement in Banks, Share broking Offices, Mutual Fund Companies etc. Kindly Contact Mr.Ram @ 0 98949 49987 for training on NISM Certifications. NISM SERIES I: CURRENCY DERIVATIVES Assessment Structure The examination consists of 100 questions of 1 mark each and should be completed in 2 hours. The passing score on the examination is 60%. There shall be negative marking of 25% of the marks assigned to a question Chapter 1: Introduction to Currency Markets (FX) is the value of one currency of one country versus value of currency of other country. Each country has its own brand alongside its flag. When money is branded it is called currency. Whenever there is a cross-border trade, there is need to exchange one brand of money for another, and this exchange of two currencies is called foreign exchange or simply forex (FX). The documented history suggests that sometime in 1870 countries agreed to value their currencies against value of currency of other country using gold as the benchmark for valuation. As per this process, central banks issue paper currency and hold equivalent amount of gold in their reserve. The value of each currency against another currency was derived from gold exchange rate. For example, if one unit of gold is valued at Indian Rupees (INR) 10,000 and US

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================================================================== dollar (USD) 500 than the exchange rate of INR versus USD would be 1 USD = INR 20. This mechanism of valuing currency was called as gold standard. During 1944-1971, countries adopted a system called Bretton Woods System. This system was a blend of gold standard system and floating rate system. As part of the system, all currencies were pegged to USD at a fixed rate and USD value was pegged to gold. The US guaranteed to other central banks that they can convert their currency into USD at any time and USD value will be pegged to value of gold. Countries also agreed to maintain the exchange rate in the range of plus or minus 1% of the fixed parity with US dollar. With adoption of this system, USD became the dominant currency of the world Finally Bretton Woods system was suspended and countries adopted system of free floating or managed float method of valuing the currency. Developed countries gradually moved to a market determined exchange rate and developing countries adopted either a system of pegged currency or a system of managed rate Major currency pairs The most traded currency pairs in the world are called the Majors. The list includes following currencies: Euro (EUR), US Dollar (USD), Japanese Yen (JPY), Pound Sterling (GBP), Australian Dollar (AUD), Canadian Dollar (CAD), and the Swiss Franc (CHF). These currencies follow free floating method of valuation. Amongst these currencies the most active currency pairs are: EURUSD, USDJPY, GBPUSD, AUDUSD, CADUSD and USDCHF US Dollar (USD) The US Dollar reflects its substantial international role as investment currency in many capital markets, reserve currency held by many central banks, transaction currency in many international commodity markets, invoice currency in many contracts, and intervention currency employed by monetary authorities in market operations to influence their own exchange rates. In addition, the widespread trading of the US Dollar reflects its use as a vehicle currency in foreign exchange transactions, a use that reinforces its international role in trade and finance. Japanese Yen (JPY) The Japanese Yen is the third most traded currency in the world. It has a much smaller international presence than the US Dollar or the Euro British Pound (GBP) The nickname Cable is derived from the telegrams used to update the GBPUSD rates across the Atlantic Swiss Franc (CHF) The Swiss Franc is the only currency of a major European country that belongs neither to the European Monetary Union nor to the G-7 countries As per Bank for International Settlements (BIS) survey of April 2010, daily turnover of currencies in the global market is approximately USD 3.9trillion, making it the largest traded asset class

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================================================================== Every trade in FX market is a currency pair. The two currencies are called base currency (BC) and quoting currency (QC). The BC is the currency that is priced and its amount is fixed at one unit. The other currency is the QC, which prices the BC, and its amount varies as the price of BC varies in the market. What is quoted throughout the FX market anywhere in the world is the price of BC expressed in QC. In the interbank market, USD is the universal base currency other than quoted against Euro (EUR), Sterling Pound (GBP), Australian Dollar (AUD), Canadian Dollar (CAD) and New Zealand Dollar (NZD). There are two distinct segment of OTC foreign exchange market. One segment is called as interbank market and the other is called as merchant market. Interbank market is the market between banks where dealers quote prices at the same time for both buying and selling the currency. The mechanism of quoting price for both buying and selling is called as market making. Two way quotes In interbank market, currency prices are always quoted with two way price. In a two way quote, the prices quoted for buying is called bid price and the price quoted for selling is called as offer or ask price. Suppose a bank quotes USDINR spot price as 45.05/ 45.06 to a merchant. In this quote, 45.05 is the bid price and 45.06 is the offer price or ask price. This quotes means that the bank is willing to buy one unit of USD for a price of INR 45.05 and is willing to sell one unit of USD for INR 45.06. The difference between bid and offer price is called as spread. Clearly, a narrow spread indicates a higher liquidity and higher efficiency of the market maker Market timing In India, OTC market is open from 9:00 AM to 5:00 PM. However, for merchants the market is open from 9:00 AM to 4:30 PM and the last half hour is meant only for interbank dealings for banks to square off excess positions Price benchmarks There are two price benchmarks used in the OTC market to price merchant transactions. Banks price large value merchant transactions from interbank rate (IBR). IBR is the price available to the bank in the interbank market. Therefore IBR could differ from bank to bank. For small value transactions, banks publish a standard price for the day called as card rate. On most days for most banks, the card rate is same for the whole day. However on the days of high volatility, banks revise the card rate multiple times during the day. The difference between IBR and card rate is high to cover the risk of price fluctuation. Card rate could vary significantly from bank to bank. RBI reference rate RBI reference rate is the rate published daily by RBI for spot rate for various currency pairs. The rates are arrived at by averaging the mean of the bid / offer rates polled from a few select banks

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================================================================== during a random five minute window between 1145 AM and 1215 PM and the daily press on RBI reference rate is be issued every week-day (excluding Saturdays) at around 12.30 PM. OTC forward market One more unique feature of OTC forward market is the requirement of underlying trade contract before executing the forward contract. According to RBI guidelines, any resident Indian desiring to book a forward contract should have an underlying trade contract which could establish exposure to foreign currency Impact of market economics on currency prices the value if INR against USD is a function of factors local to India like gross domestic product (GDP) growth rate, balance of payment situation, deficit situation, inflation, interest rate scenario, policies related to inflow and outflow of foreign capital. It is also a function of factors like prices of crude oil, value of USD against other currency pairs and geopolitical situation The analytical tools of foreign-exchange market are the same as that of stock market: fundamental analysis and technical analysis Gross Domestic Product (GDP) GDP represents the total market value of all goods and services produced in a country during a given year. A GDP growth rate higher than expected may mean relative strengthening of the currency of that country, assuming everything else remaining the same. The Index of Industrial Production (IIP) shows the changes in the production in the industrial sector of an economy in a given period of time, in comparison with a fixed reference point in the past. In India, the fixed reference point is 1993-94 and the IIP numbers are reported using 199394 as the base year for comparison CPI is a statistical time-series measure of a weighted average of prices of a specified set of goods and services purchased by consumers. It is a price index that tracks the prices of a specified basket of consumer goods and services, providing a measure of inflation. CPI is a fixed quantity price index and considered by some a cost of living index. In US, The Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC), a component of the Federal Reserve System, is responsible for making key decisions about interest rates and the growth of the money supply Chapter 2: Foreign Exchange Derivatives Derivative is a product whose value is derived from the value of one or more basic variables, called bases (underlying asset, index, or reference rate). The underlying asset can be equity, foreign exchange, commodity or any other asset. Forwards: A forward contract is a customized OTC contract between two parties, where settlement takes place on a specific date in the future at today's pre-agreed price Swaps: Swaps are agreements between two parties to exchange cash flows in the future according to a prearranged formula. They can be regarded as portfolios of forward contracts. The two commonly used swaps are:

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================================================================== Interest rate swaps: These entail swapping only the interest related cash flows between the parties in the same currency. Currency swaps: These entail swapping both principal and interest between the parties, with the cash flows in one direction being in a different currency than those in the opposite direction. Market players The following three broad categories of participants - hedgers, speculators, and arbitrageurs trade in the derivatives market Chapter 3: Exchange Traded Currency Futures A tick is the minimum size of price change. The market price will change only in multiples of the tick. Tick values differ for different currency pairs and different underlyings. For e.g. in the case of the USDINR currency futures contract the tick size shall be 0.25 paise or 0.0025 Rupee The contract amount (or market lot) is the minimum amount that can be traded. Therefore, the profit/loss associated with change of one tick is: tick x contract amount Futures terminology Contract cycle: The period over which a contract trades. The currency futures contracts on the SEBI recognized exchanges have one-month, two-month, and three-month up to twelve-month expiry cycles. Hence, these exchanges will have 12 contracts outstanding at any given point in time Value Date/Final Settlement Date: The last business day of the month will be termed as the Value date / Final Settlement date of each contract. The last business day would be taken to be the same as that for Inter-bank Settlements in Mumbai. The rules for Inter-bank Settlements, including those for known holidays and subsequently declared holiday would be those as laid down by Foreign Exchange Dealers Association of India (FEDAI). Expiry date: Also called Last Trading Day, it is the day on which trading ceases in the contract; and is two working days prior to the final settlement date Contract size: The amount of asset that has to be delivered under one contract. Also called as lot size. In the case of USDINR it is USD 1000; EURINR it is EUR 1000; GBPINR it is GBP 1000 and in case of JPYINR it is JPY 100,000 Concept of interest rate parity Let us assume that risk free interest rate for one year deposit in India is 7% and in USA it is 3%. You as smart trader/ investor will raise money from USA and deploy it in India and try to capture the arbitrage of 4%. F = S (1 + RQC Period) / (1 + RBC Period) Where F = forward price S = spot price RBC = interest rate on base currency RQC = interest rate on quoting currency Period = forward period in years

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================================================================== The formula is generalized for other currency pair and is given below: F = S + (S (RQC RBC) Period) Concept of premium and discount Therefore one year future price of USDINR pair is 51.94 when spot price is 50. It means that INR is at discount to USD and USD is at premium to INR. Intuitively to understand why INR is called at discount to USD, think that to buy same 1 USD you had to pay INR 50 and you have to pay 51.94 after one year i.e., you have to pay more INR to buy same 1 USD. And therefore future value of INR is at discount to USD. Therefore in any currency pair, future value of a currency with high interest rate is at a discount (in relation to spot price) to the currency with low interest rate. Chapter 4: Strategies Using Currency Futures Hedgers These types of participants have a real exposure to foreign currency risk on account of their underlying business and their objective is to remove the FX risk using currency futures. The exposure could be because of imports/ exports of goods/services, foreign investments or foreign expenditure on account of travel, studies or any other type of need resulting in FX exposure. The objective of hedgers is to reduce the volatility in future cash flows by locking in the future currency rates Speculators This set of market participants does not have a real exposure to foreign currency risk. These participants assume FX risk by taking a view on the market direction and hope to make returns by taking the price risk Arbitrageurs This set of market participants identify mispricing in the market and use it for making profit. They have neither exposure to risk and nor do they take the risk. Arbitrageurs lock in a profit by simultaneously entering opposite side transactions in two or more markets. Trading spreads using currency futures Spread refers to difference in prices of two futures contracts. A good understanding of spread relation in terms of pair spread is essential to earn profit. Considerable knowledge of a particular currency pair is also necessary to enable the trader to use spread trading strategy. Spread movement is based on following factors: Interest Rate Differentials Liquidity in Banking System Monetary Policy Decisions (Repo, Reverse Repo and CRR)

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================================================================== Intra-Currency Pair Spread (also called as calendar spread): An intra-currency pair spread consists of one long futures and one short futures contract. Both have the same underlying but different maturities. Inter-Currency Pair Spread: An intercurrency pair spread is a long-short position in futures on different underlying currency pairs. Both typically have the same maturity Chapter 5: Trading in Currency Futures Base Price Base price of the futures contracts on the first day of its life shall be the theoretical futures price. The base price of the contracts on subsequent trading days will be the daily settlement price of the previous trading day. Settlement Price (or Closing Price) The closing price for a futures contract is currently calculated as the last half an hour weighted average price of the contract. In case a futures contract is not traded on a day or not traded during the last half hour, a 'theoretical settlement price' is computed as may be decided by the relevant authority from time to time Entities in the trading system Trading Members (TM): Trading members are members of an authorized Exchange. They can trade either on their own account or on behalf of their clients including participants. The exchange assigns a trading member ID to each trading member. Clearing Members (CM): Clearing members are members of the Clearing Corporation. They carry out risk management activities and confirmation/inquiry of participant trades through the trading system. C. Trading-cum-Clearing Member (TCM): A member with a right to trade on its own account as well as on account of its clients. He can clear and settle the trades for self and for others through the Clearing House. D. Professional Clearing Members (PCM): A professional clearing member is a clearing member who is not a trading member. Typically, banks and custodians become professional clearing members and clear and settle for their trading members and participants. E. Participants: A participant is a client of a trading member- like financial institutions. These clients may trade through multiple trading members but settle through a single clearing member. Price Limit Circuit Filter There are no daily price bands applicable for currency futures contracts. However in order to prevent erroneous order entry by members, operating ranges will be kept at +/-3% of the base price for contracts with tenure upto 6 months and +/-5% for contracts with tenure greater than 6 months

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================================================================== Chapter 6: Clearing, Settlement and Risk Management in Currency Futures Client level USDINR 6% of total OI* or USD 10 mn, whichever is higher 6% of total OI or EUR 5 mn, whichever is higher 6% of total OI or GBP 5 mn, whichever is higher 6% of total OI or JPY 200 mn, whichever is higher Non bank TM 15% of total OI or USD 50 mn, whichever is higher 15% of total OI or EUR 25 mn, whichever is higher 15% of total OI or GBP 25 mn, whichever is higher 15% of total OI or JPY 1000 mn, whichever is higher Bank TM 15% of total OI or USD 100 mn, whichever is higher 15% of total OI or EUR 50 mn, whichever is higher 15% of total OI or GBP 50 mn, whichever is higher 15% of total OI or JPY 2000 mn, whichever is higher

EURINR

GBPINR

JPYINR

*OI Open Interest Settlement mechanism All futures contracts are cash settled, i.e. through exchange of cash in Indian Rupees. The settlement amount for a CM is netted across all their TMs/clients, with respect to their obligations on Mark-to-Market (MTM) settlement Mark-to-Market settlement (MTM Settlement) The computational methodology is given below: A. For squared off position: The buy price and the sell price for contracts executed during the day and squared off. B. For positions not squared off: The trade price and the day's settlement price for contracts executed during the day but not squared up. C. For brought forward positions: The previous day's settlement price and the current day's settlement price for brought forward contracts. Initial Margin USDINR Minimum margin requirement on first day Minimum margin requirement after first day 1.75% EURINR 2.80% GBPINR 3.20% JPYINR 4.50%

1%

2%

2%

2.30%

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================================================================== Real-Time Computation The computation of worst scenario loss has two components. The first is the valuation of the portfolio under the various scenarios of price changes. At the second stage, these scenario contract values are applied to the actual portfolio positions to compute the portfolio values and the initial margin. The Exchange updates the scenario contract values at least 5 times in the day, which is carried out by taking the closing price of the previous day at the start of trading, at the prices at 11:00 am, 12:30 pm, 2:00 pm, and at the end of the trading session. Calendar Spread Margins USDINR EURINR GBPINR JPYINR 400 700 1500 600 500 1000 1800 1000 800 1500 2000 1500 1000 1500 2000 1500

1 month spread 2 month spread 3 month spread 4 or more months spread

The extreme loss margin prescribed for different currency pairs is given below: USDINR 1% EURINR 0.30% GBPINR 0.50% JPYINR 0.70% Liquid Networth The initial margin and the extreme loss margin are deducted from the liquid assets of the clearing member. The clearing members liquid networth after adjusting for the initial margin and extreme loss margin requirements must be at least Rs. 50 lacs at all points in time. Mark-to-Market Settlement The mark-to-market gains and losses are settled in cash before the start of trading on T+1 day. If mark-to-market obligations are not collected before start of the next days trading, the clearing corporation collects correspondingly higher initial margin to cover the potential for losses over the time elapsed in the collection of margins Periodic Risk Evaluation Report The Clearing Corporation of the Exchange, on an ongoing basis and at least once in every six months, conducts back-testing of the margins collected vis--vis the actual price changes. Unique Client Code (UCC) The Exchange ensures that each client is assigned a client code that is unique across all members. The unique client code is assigned with the use of Income Tax Permanent Account Number (PAN) number.

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================================================================== Chapter 7: Exchange Traded Currency Options SEBI and RBI permitted introduction of USDINR options on stock exchange from July 30 2010. Eligible stock exchanges are expected to take approval from SEBI for introducing USDINR options. As of now, these options are available on National Stock Exchange (NSE) and United Stock Exchange (USE). Style of options A. European options: European options can be exercised by the buyer of the option only on the expiration date. In India, all the currency options in OTC market are of European type. B. American options: American options can be exercised by the buyer any time on or before the expiration date. Currently American options are not allowed in currencies in India. In the money (ITM) option: An option is said to be in the money, if on exercising it, the option buyer gets a positive cash flow Out of the money (OTM) option: An option is said to be out of the money, if on exercising it, the option buyer gets a negative cash flow. At the money (ATM) option: An option is said to be at the money if spot price is equal to the strike price Volatility: It is a measure of the magnitude of the change of prices (up or down) of the underlying asset. Higher the volatility, higher is the option premium and vice versa. Please note that volatility does not measure direction. Interest rate differential between two currencies: It measures the difference between risk free interest rate of base currency and that of quoting currency. As the differential increase the value of call option increases and value of put option decreases and vice versa. Intrinsic value: The intrinsic value of an option is the difference between spot price and the strike price Time value: The difference between option premium and intrinsic value is time value of option. The time value is directly proportional to the length of time to expiration date of the option. Longer the time to expiration, higher is time value Option Greeks Delta: It is the rate of change of option price with respect to the price of the underlying asset. Delta of a long call option (and/ or short put) is always positive and ranges between 0 and 1 and for a long put (and/or short call) is always negative and ranges between 0 and -1. Vega: It measures the rate of change of option value to volatility of price of the underlying asset. It is always positive for long options (both for long put and long call) and negative for short options (both for short put and short call).

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================================================================== Theta: It measures the change in the value of the option with respect to the passage of time. Thus if you bought an option i.e., you are long on an option, you are short theta: all other things remaining the same, the option would lose value with passage of time. Rho: It measures sensitivity of option value to the risk free rate.

Option pricing methodology There are two common methodologies for pricing options: Black and Scholes: This methodology is more analytical, is faster to compute and is mainly used to price European options. Binomial pricing: This methodology is more computational, taken more computing power and is mainly used to price American options. Vanilla options Vanilla options: These are four basic option positions, which are long call, long put, short call and short put option Combination strategies Bull call spread, Bull put spread, Bear put spread, Bear call spread, Short Strangle, Short Straddle, Long Butterfly, Long Strangle, Long Straddle, Short butterfly, Covered call, Covered put, Protective call, Protective put Standard option contract: SEBI has approved following specification of USDINR options contract: Trading Cycle : Three serial monthly contracts followed by three quarterly contracts of the cycle March/June/September/December SEBI has also instructed that for every available contract three out of the money (OTM) strike, three in the money (ITM) strike and one at the money or near the money (ATM) strike contracts will be available on the exchange terminal. Position limits At client level: Gross open position (across all contracts for futures and option on USDINR) shall not exceed 10% of total open interest or USD 10mn whichever is higher. The exchange will disseminate alert to client whenever gross open position exceeds 3% of total open interest at the end of the previous days trade. At trading member level: Gross open position of the trading member (across all contracts for futures and options on USDINR) shall not exceed 15% of total open interest or USD 50mn whichever is higher. At bank: Gross open position of the trading member (across all contracts for futures and option on USDINR) shall not exceed 15% of total open interest of USD 100mn whichever is higher. At clearing member level: No separate limit has been specified for a clearing member.

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================================================================== Chapter 8: Accounting and Taxation The Institute of Chartered Accountants of India (ICAI) has issued guidance notes on accounting of index futures contracts from the view point of parties who enter into such futures contracts as buyers or sellers Name of accounts Client has to maintain two separate accounting heads for initial margin and mark to market margin. These heads could be called as: Initial margin-currency futures Mark to market- currency futures Sometime clients may place extra deposit / security with trading member to take care of daily mark to market instead of settling it on a daily basis. Such account may be called as Deposit for mark to market margin account For pay out: Any cash lay out on account of initial margin or mark to market has to be debited to respective heads i.e., Initial margin-currency futures or Mark to market- currency futures and bank account has to be credited For pay in: Any cash inflow on account of mark to market settlement, mark to market- currency futures has to be credited and Bank account has to be debited. On balance sheet date, credit balance in Mark to market- currency futures has to be shown as a current liability under the head current liabilities and provisions If more than one contract in a series are outstanding at the time of expiry/ squaring off, the contract price of the contract so squared off should be determined using First-in, First-out (FIFO) method for calculating profit/loss on squaring-up. Disclosure requirements The amount of bank guarantee and book value as also the market value of securities lodged should be disclosed in respect of contracts having open positions at the year end, where initial margin money has been paid by way of bank guarantee and/or lodging of securities. Total number of contracts entered and gross number of units of currency futures traded (separately for buy/sell) should be disclosed in respect of each series of currency futures. The number of currency futures contracts having open position, number of units of currency futures pertaining to those contracts and the daily settlement price as on the balance sheet date should be disclosed separately for long and short positions, in respect of each series of currency futures Finance Act, 2005 has amended section 43(5) so as to exclude transactions in derivatives carried out in a recognized stock exchange for this purpose. This implies that income or loss on derivative transactions which are carried out in a recognized stock exchange is not taxed as speculative income or loss. Thus, loss on derivative transactions can be set off against any other income during the year. In case the same cannot be set off, it can be carried forward to

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================================================================== subsequent assessment year and set off against any other income of the subsequent year. Such losses can be carried forward for a period of 8 assessment years. It may also be noted that securities transaction tax paid on such transactions is eligible as deduction under Income-tax Act, 1961. Chapter 9: Regulatory Framework for Currency Derivatives The Committee on Fuller Capital Account Convertibility had recommended that currency futures may be introduced subject to risks being contained through proper trading mechanism, structure of contracts and regulatory environment. Accordingly, Reserve Bank of India in the Annual Policy Statement for the Year 2007-08 proposed to set up a Working Group on Currency Futures to study the international experience and suggest a suitable framework to operationalise the proposal, in line with the current legal and regulatory framework.

A new regulation (5A) was inserted after regulation 5 of the principal regulation, reading: 5A. Permission to a person resident in India to enter into currency futures A person resident in India may enter into a currency futures in a stock exchange recognized under section 4 of the Securities Contract (Regulation) Act, 1956 Only persons resident in India may purchase or sell currency futures. The Scheduled Banks have to obtain permission from the respective Regulatory Departments of RBI to participate in Currency Futures Markets. Banks authorized by the Reserve Bank of India under section 10 of the Foreign Exchange Management Act, 1999 as AD Category - I bank are permitted to become trading and clearing members of the currency futures segment of the recognized stock exchanges, on their own account and on behalf of their clients, subject to fulfilling the following minimum prudential requirements: a) Minimum net worth of Rs. 500 crores. b) Minimum Capital adequacy ratio (CAR) of 10 per cent. c) Net NPA should not exceed 3 per cent. d) Made net profit for last 3 years. AD Category - I banks, excluding Urban Co-operative Banks, which fulfil the above RBI prudential requirements should formulate detailed guidelines for Trading and Clearing of currency futures contracts and management of risks. These guidelines should be approved by their Boards Under section 10 (1) of the Foreign Exchange Management Act, 1999, Recognized Stock Exchanges and their respective Clearing Corporations must hold an authorization issued by the Reserve Bank to deal in or otherwise undertake the business relating to currency futures

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================================================================== Regulatory framework for exchanges A recognized stock exchange having nationwide terminals or a new exchange recognized by SEBI may set up currency futures segment after obtaining SEBIs approval The exchange shall have a balance sheet networth of at least Rs. 100 crores. The segment should have at least 50 members to start currency derivatives trading. The exchange should have arbitration and investor grievances redressal mechanism operative from all the four areas/regions of the country Regulatory framework for clearing corporations A Clearing Corporation in the currency futures segment can function only after obtaining SEBI approval. The conditions inter-alia includes the following: The Clearing Corporation should be a company incorporated under the Companies Act, 1956 and should be distinct from the exchange. The Clearing Corporation must ensure that all trades are settled by matching of buyers and sellers The Clearing Corporation should enforce the stipulated margin requirements, mark to market settlement, electronic funds transfer, etc. A separate settlement guarantee fund should be created and maintained for meeting the obligations arising out of the currency futures segment. A separate investor protection fund should also be created and maintained for the currency futures market. Governing council of the exchange and clearing corporation The currency futures segment of the Exchange should have a separate Governing Council on which the representation of Trading /Clearing Members of the currency futures segment should not exceed 25%. Further, 50% of the public representatives on the Governing Council of the currency futures segment can be common with the Governing Council of the cash/equity derivatives segments of the Exchange. The Chairman of the Governing Council of the currency futures segment of the Exchange shall be a member of the Governing Council. If the Chairman is a Trading Member/ Clearing Member, then he shall not carry on any trading/clearing business on any Exchange during his tenure as Chairman. No trading / clearing member should be allowed simultaneously to be on the Governing Council of the currency futures segment and the cash/equity derivatives segment. The currency futures segment of the Clearing Corporation should be governed by a separate Governing Council which should not have any trading member representation. Eligibility Criteria for members in Currency Derivatives Segment The following entities are eligible to apply for membership subject to the regulatory norms and provisions of SEBI and as provided in the Rules, Regulations, Byelaws and Circulars of the Exchange Individuals; Partnership Firms registered under the Indian Partnership Act, 1932;
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================================================================== Corporations, Companies or Institutions or subsidiaries of such Corporations, Companies or Institutions set up for providing financial services; Such other person as may be permitted under the Securities Contracts (Regulation) Rules 1957 Professional Clearing Member The following persons are eligible to become PCMs for Currency Futures Derivatives provided they fulfill the prescribed criteria: 1. SEBI Registered Custodians; and 2. Banks Forms of collaterals acceptable by the Clearing Corporation Members have to fulfil certain requirements and provide collateral deposits to the Clearing Corporation. All collateral deposits are segregated into cash component and non-cash component. Cash component means cash, bank guarantee, fixed deposit receipts, Treasury bills and dated government securities. Non-cash component mean all other forms of collateral like approved demat securities Requirements to become authorized / approved user These Authorized Persons cannot collect any commission or any amount directly from the clients they introduce to the trading member who appointed him. However they can receive a commission or any such amount from the trading member who appointed them as provided under regulation. Chapter 10: Codes of Conduct and Investor Protection Measures Adherence to SEBI codes of conduct for brokers/ sub-brokers All trading members must at all times adhere to the Code of Conduct as specified by the Securities and Exchange Board of India (Stock Brokers and Sub-Brokers) Regulations, 1992. Issue of Purchase or Sale Notes: (a) A sub-broker should issue promptly to his clients purchase or sale notes for all the transactions entered into by him with his clients. (b) A sub-broker should not match the purchase and sale orders of his clients and each such order must invariably be routed through a member-broker of the stock exchange with whom he is affiliated. Agreement between sub-broker, client of the sub-broker and main broker: A sub-broker should enter into a tripartite agreement with his client and with the main broker specifying the scope of rights and obligations of the broker, sub-broker and such client of the sub-broker Investor grievance resolution mechanism (against trading members) All exchanges also have supervision mechanisms for the functioning of this department/ cell. These include the Investor Service Committees (ISC) consisting of Exchange officials and independent experts whose nomination is approved by Securities and Exchange Board of India Arbitration Arbitration is a quasi judicial process of settlement of disputes between Trading Members, Investors, Sub-brokers & Clearing Members and between Investors and Issuers (Listed Companies).

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================================================================== The arbitrator conducts the arbitration proceeding and passes the award normally within a period of four months from the date of initial hearing. The arbitration award is binding on both the parties. However, the aggrieved party, within fifteen days of the receipt of the award from the arbitrator, can file an appeal to the arbitration tribunal for re-hearing the whole case. On receipt of the appeal, the Exchange appoints an Appellate Bench consisting of five arbitrators who rehear the case and then give the decision. The judgment of the Bench is by a majority and is binding on both the parties. The final award of the Bench is enforceable as if it were the decree of the Court. Any party who is dissatisfied with the Appellate Bench Award may challenge the same only in a Court of Law. Contract Note Contract Notes are made in duplicate, and the Trading Member and Client, both are provided one copy each. The Client is expected to sign on the duplicate copy of the Contract Note, confirming receipt of the original. The following are the prescribed types of contract notes: Contract Note - Form 'A' - Contract Note issued where Member is acting for constituents as brokers/ agents. Contract Note - Form 'B' - Contract Note issued by Members dealing with constituents as principals

The Contract Note: Contains SEBI registration number of the Trading Member/ Sub broker. Contains details of trade such as, Order number, trade number, trade time, quantity, price, brokerage, settlement number, and details of other levies. Shows trade price separately from the brokerage charged The brokerage, service tax and STT are indicated separately in the Contract Note. Contains signature of authorized representative of the broker. Contains arbitration clause stating jurisdiction of relevant courts

IMPORTANT NOTE : 1. Attend ALL Questions 2. For the questions you dont know the right answer Try to eliminate the wrong answers and take a guess on the remaining answers. 3. DO NOT MUG UP the question & answers. Its not the right to way to prepare for any NISM exam. Good understanding of Concepts is essential.

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