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TITLE 1.1 introduction 2.1 literature review 2.1.1 Definition of soil 2.1.2 Definition of soil erosion 2.1.3 Types of soil erosion 3.1 Soil erosion In Malaysia 3.1.1 Introduction of soil erosion in Malaysia 3.1.2 Issues related to soil erosion 3.2 Potential solution 4.1 Conclusion 5.1 References


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1.1 INTRODUCTION According to Kevin Lynch and Gary Hack, site planning is the art of arranging structures on the land and shaping the space between, an art linked to architecture, engineering, landscape architecture, and city planning. Site planning also can be defined as a process which is following the logical sequence and action in order to achieve the ultimate solution. The process is started with the finding of problem to be solved. The problem usually related to land use of the site. At this point, the designer has to identify the site and begins collecting data related to the site and it surrounding area. The data will be process to determine the strength, weakness, opportunities, and thread of the site. Site investigation is a process consists of geological, geotechnical, and other relevant information which might affect the development of the site. It is a must for any development activities. The expert in planning or engineering which is related with development activity will carry out site investigation. There are 4 methods to carry out site investigation which is desk study and geotechnical advice, standard ground investigation, limited investigation coupled with monitoring and the observation methods. The development of the site in Malaysia is controlled by planning standard and guidelines. Before any building is allowed being constructing, the site must go through several activities to make sure it is suitable for development. For example classification of soil may determine the site can hold the weight of building and for safety purpose. The contain of soil is different in certain area such as in high ground and near water bodies. From that point, site investigation must be carry out by the expert. The flow of process will start with the activity of soil sampling until laboratory test. Other aspect that needs to be considered is hydrology. Some of the site consists of water activity such as water ways, river and lake. The building cannot be constructing too near to water area. It is because the building may be risk to flood tragedy or soil erosion. Another problem may occur is if water ways is cut off by building construction, the water may flow deep to underground and slowly will cause landslide to the area. For the conclusion of introduction, throughout the process of completing this assignment, the students should obtain many benefits such as skill of good observer to identified urban planning issues and problems related to site planning. Site planning will be practised by students in their future as a town planner.


2.1 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1.1 DEFINITION OF SOIL Soil is a thin layer of material on the Earth's surface in which plants have their roots. It is made up of many things, such as weathered rock and decayed plant and animal matter. Soil is formed over a long period of time. Soil Formation takes place when many things interact, such as air, water, plant life, animal life, rocks, and chemicals. 2.1.2 DEFINITION OF SOIL EROSION Soil is naturally removed by the action of water or wind. Soil erosion has been occurring for some 450 million years, since the first land plants formed the first soil. Accelerated soil erosion by water or wind may affect both agricultural areas and the natural environment, and is one of the most widespread of today's environmental problems. Soil erosion affects a large part of the Earth surface, and accelerated soil erosion is recognized as one of the main soil threats, compromising soil productive and protective functions 2.1.3 TYPE OF SOIL EROSION There are several ways of classifying erosion. One general way is to distinguish between accelerated and geologic erosion. Geological erosion occurs where soil is in its natural environment surrounded by its natural vegetation without human disturbance. Accelerated erosion is a concept referring to an essentially natural process occurring at an increased rate under conditions of ecological disequilibrium. i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. Splash erosion Sheet erosion Rill erosion Gully erosion Stream channel erosion Tunnel erosion Tillage erosion


3.1 SOIL EROSION IN MALAYSIA 3.1.1 INTRODUCTION TO SOIL EROSION IN MALAYSIA Soil erosion is a common natural occurrence in Malaysia because of the particular topography, soils and corresponding vegetation that predominate and the extensive rainfall that the country experiences. However, due to rapid land use developments, accelerated soil erosion is becoming a serious problem. 3.1.2 ISSUE RELATED TO SOIL EROSION i. Improper drainage system Some of the place in Malaysia does not have proper drainage system. It will cause major devastating such as landslide and flash flood. Improper drainage will create localized areas of saturated soils, which soften the soils and allow the foundation to settle. Poor drainage can be due to the localized topography of the area. Sometimes these drainage systems do not properly channel water away from a home, resulting in pooling or paddling around the foundation. The article in the star newspaper on 3 January 2010 state that improper drainage system is a major problem to cause soil erosion in Taman Seri Desa, Bukit Chendering. It is state that about 22 terrace house is at risk of landslide and soil erosion is started a year before the date. The soil becomes worst when monsoon season is start. Most of drainage is broke and need to be repair. As a town planner, they must know what type of soil is suitable for development and identified the soil in site. They also must plan drainage system properly and channel the water away from the residential area.

Taman Seri Desa residential area Source: 3|Page


Unplanned development Unplanned development in this instance is development outside the existing legal framework for legal settlement. It is solely dependent on the dominant legal or enforceable policy that is in place. Development is needed to improve the quality of humans life in the aspects of economy, social, physical, technology and education. Expansion of industries, transport network and other living conditions are carried out at the expense of the environment when they are not properly planned and managed. In order to construct the building, developer must go through deforestation process. Deforestation is the act of clearing of the forest by cutting down trees for giving space to the building. When trees are cut down, the soil surface is exposed directly to the force of rainfall. The top most fertile layers gets washed away causing soil erosion.

The graph show the number of landslides happen in Malaysia in a 34 years Source: The Highland Tower tragedy occurred on 11 December 1993 in Taman Hillview, Ulu Klang, Selangor. The collapse of the building caused the deaths up to 48 people. The main reason of the tragedy is soil erosion caused by the unplanned development. Behind the building, there is small water ways known as East Creek. When the building is being develop, they cut off the flow of water and replace by pipe system to bypass the towers. Unplanned development is clearly occurring in this development because any building construction cannot be built near water ways. The soil near to water ways more deeply moist and unsuitable for any development.


3.2. POTENTIAL SOLUTION i. Follow the right site clearing process Site clearing process consist of cutting down trees, cut trees, pull out stumps, dump the timber, wood burning and clearing the area. During the process, there is several conditions that need to follow: a) For the big area, site clearing process must be done stage by stage to avoid the long term exposure of soil to erosion process. b) Site clearing process is more suitable to be done during dry season c) Deforestation should only be done for the crops like vegetables, fruits, rubber and palm oil. If the deforestation required to cut the big trees, selective cutting down of trees is encouraged. Trees that are left will help protect the soil from erosion. d) When pull out the stumps, it is recommended to select the priority of pull it out. Some of the building construction doesnt need to clear a few stumps because it can help to prevent the soil erosion e) Wood burning process is occurring when it needed only. The left over woods from cutting down process can help to withstand the erosion. f) The trees beside the water ways must be left undisturbed. ii. Build soil conservation structures Soil conservation structures are effective to control the erosion. Proper drainage system and structure can channel the water flow to safety area. Many structures is build by grout the soil and use the nature things only like the soil itself, rock and wood. There are several types of soil conservation structures: a) Gutter structures Move water from a more elevated part of soil to a lower-lying terrace b) Tyre structure These structures are not recommended unless great care is taken to stack tyre properly. Fast-flowing water can cause any number of problems. c) Small concrete structures Small concrete structures, brickwork or stone masonry can be used in small gullies where the reefs are clearly exposed. d) Bare spots Divide by two type which is branches and loosening

e) Stone stacks The stones must be stacked correctly to enable them to absorb the force of the water.

Water flow from high ground Source:


Other solution Other solution is probably enforcing the law of town planning act. Before this, the development is more loose in term of follow the planning standard guidelines. After the Highland Towers tragedy, local authority started to enforce the law and force the developer to follow the guidelines. Other than enforcing law, the planners should realizes that when he or she is taking bribe, it will kill somebody life. Corruption in town planning world is worst day by day. The attitude of planners which is selfish without thinking other people should be change because when the planners fail to follow the guidelines; there will be tragedy after the construction is completed.


4.1 CONCLUSION Soil erosion is a serious problem in site planning. Development in area with soil erosion risk is will affect the community of the area. For example, when landslide is happen in particular area, the surrounding area is affect in term of economy. The tourist is scare by the tragedy and trying to avoid the place. If there is resort or landmarks, it will make the industry dropped and probably going to bankrupt. Beside that, the existing residential area adjacent to the landslide will affect in term of house sale. The developer of existing resident will face the loss of money. The tragedy will make the people thing that the whole area not suitable to live in. So that they will cancel their house payment and make the developer bankrupt because many house is not being sold.

The Highland Tower tragedy cause by soil erosion Source:



5.1.1 BOOKS AND REPORT 1. Kevin Lynch Gary Hack ,1984. Site planning 3e 2. Economic planning unit prime ministers department Malaysia , 2011. Malaysia the millennium development goals at 2010 3. Kamarulain Bt Kamal, 1989. Aktiviti pembangunan perumahan dan kaitannya dengan kejadian hakisan tanah 4. Department of Agriculture Malaysia, 2000. Panduan pembangunan di tanah bercerun 5. Shazarina Bt Hashim, 2009. Kajian hakisan tanah dan keberkesanan perangkap sedimen di tapak pembinaan

5.1.2 INTERNET SOURCE 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.