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Culture of Sindh

The culture of Sindh has its roots in the Indus Valley Civilization. Sindh has been shaped by the geography of the largely desert region, the natural resources it had available and the continuous foreign influences. The Indus or Sindhu River that passes through the land and the Arabian Sea (that defines its borders) also supported the seafaring traditions among the local people. The local climate also reflects why the Sindhis have the language, folklore, traditions, customs and lifestyle that are so different from the neighboring regions. Sindhi culture is also practiced by the Sindhi Diaspora.

History
The roots of Sindhi culture and civilization go back to the distant past. Archaeological researches during 19th and 20th centuries showed the roots of social life, religion and culture of the people of the Sindh: their agricultural practices, traditional arts and crafts, customs and tradition and other parts of social life, going back to a ripe and mature Indus valley civilization of the third millennium BC. Recent researches have traced the Indus valley civilization to even earlier ancestry

Archaeological discoveries
Archaeological discoveries sometimes help to unfold the certain latent aspects of a specific culture. The excavations of Mohenjo-Daro have unfolded the city life of a civilization of people with values, a distinct identity and culture. Therefore, the first definition of the Sindhi culture emanates from that over the 7000-yearold Indus Valley Civilization. This is the pre-Aryan period, about 3,000 years BC when the urban civilization in Sindh was at its peak.

In Sir Mortimer Wheeler's book, Civilization of the Indus Valley and Beyond, it is said that; "Civilization, in a minimum sense of the term, is the art of living in towns, with all that the condition implies in respect of social skills and disciplines." When people speak of Sindhi civilization, they have to concern themselves, mainly with the material and concrete side of human habitation of which Sindhi culture is the only essence called the superstructure. The present day Sindh, along with the

Northern part of the Indus Valley Civilization (around 3000 to 2500 BC) is located on its urban civilization Ranikot Fort is also a landmark of the Indus valley civilization. It is the world's largest fort, with walls extending to 20 km. It has been called a "second Wall of China", and it attracts many visitors.

Islamic Influence

From the beginning of Muslim rule of the Sindh in 713, the Muslim technocrats, bureaucrats, soldiers, traders, scientists, architects, teachers, theologians and Sufis travelled from the rest of the Muslim world to the Islamic Sultanate in Sindh, and settled there permanently. The majority of Sindhis converted to Islam by the Sufi mystics from Middle and Central Asia. The Sindh became distinct in its identity and culture, and many contemporary writers in medieval age referred to Sindh and Hind as two different countries. The Sindhi culture flourished with a new stimulus from Islamic sources from Persia and Afghanistan. Many Baloch and Afghan tribes also settled in Sindh, adopting Sindhi culture.

Language

Sindhi language is an ancient language spoken in Pakistan and many other parts of the world. It is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by approximately 41 million people in Pakistan, and 12 million people in India; it is the second most spoken language of Pakistan, mostly spoken in the Sindh province. It is a recognized official language in Pakistan, and also an official language in India. Government of Pakistan issues National Identity Cards to its citizens only in two languages; Sindhi and Urdu.

Poetry

Sindhi poetry is also prominent in Sindhi culture. Poetry of Shah Abdul Latif Bhittai. Sachal Sarmast is very famous amongst all of Pakistanis. Regional poets are Shaikh Ayaz, Ustaad Bhukhari, Ahmed Khan MAdhoosh, Adal Soomro, Ayaz Gul, Abdul Ghaffar Tabasum, G.N.Qureshi, Rukhsana Preet, Waseem Soomro. Many Sindhi poets are doing their poetry work continuously.

Sindhi Cultural Day

Sindhis celebrate Sindh Cultural day world wide every year during the month of December by wearing Ajrak &Sindhi Topi on that occasion. The musical programs and rallies are held in many cities to mark the day with zeal. Major hallmarks of cities and towns are decorated with Sindhi Ajrak to highlight the cultural values of Sindh. The people across Sindh exchange gifts of Ajrak and Topi at various ceremonies. Even, the children and women are dressed up in Ajrak, assembling at the grand gathering, where famous Sindhi singers sing Sindhi songs, which depicts love and progress of Sindh. The musical performances of the artists compel the participants to dance on Sindhi tunes and Jeay Sindh Jeay-Sindh Wara Jean.

Culture of Punjab

Culture of Punjab is one of the oldest in world history, dating from ancient antiquity to the modern era. The scope, history, sophistication and complexity of the culture are vast. Some of the main areas include Punjabi Philosophy, poetry, spirituality, education, artistry, music, cuisine, science, technology, military warfare, architecture, traditions, values and history

Music and Dance

Bhangra is one of the many Punjabi musical art forms that is increasingly being listened to in the west and is becoming a mainstream favorite. Punjabi music is being used by western musicians, in many ways, such as mixing it with other compositions to produce award-winning music. In addition, Punjabi Classical music is increasingly becoming popular in the west Owing to the long history of the Punjabi culture and of the Punjabi people there is a large number of dances, normally performed at times of celebration, including harvests, festivals, and weddings. The particular background of the dances can be non-religious and religious.

Cuisine

Punjabi cuisine has an immense range of dishes and has become world-leader in the field; so much so that many entrepreneurs that have invested in the sector have built large personal fortunes due to popularity of Punjabi Cuisine throughout the world. "Sarso ka saag" and "Maki ki roti" are examples of well known dishes. Chole-bature are also famous dishes from Punjab cuisine

Wedding Traditions
Punjabi wedding traditions and ceremonies are traditionally conducted in Punjabi and are a strong reflection of Punjabi culture. While the actual religious marriage ceremony among Muslims, Hindus, Sikhs, and Jains may be conducted in Arabic, Punjabi, Sanskrit, by the Qazi, Pundit, Granthi or Priest, there are commonalities in ritual, song, dance, food, dress. The Punjabi wedding has many rituals and ceremonies that have evolved since traditional times.

Culture of Balochistan

One of the major provinces of Pakistan is Balochistan and it covers the largest area in Pakistan. In Balochistan cultural landscape shows different cultural groups. In Balochistan there are three main families named as Pashtoon, Baloch and Brahvi and they have different languages. But still in their literature, moral orders, beliefs and customs they have similarity, but religion is the major bonding factor between them which gives the base for common social orders and unity. People in Balochistan are popular as they consider guests are the blessings of God and famous for their hospitability.

Dress

Dressing of the Pashtoon, Balochis and Brahvi is very much similar having very little dissimilarities. Mens dressing is consists of knee long shirt and loose shalwar and for women the dress consists of a usual shirt having a large pocket in the front. Usually these shirts have embroidery work and small round mirrors are fixed in it. Big Chaddar or Dopatta and a long piece of cloth in rectangular shape are cascading down the shoulders and are used to covers head these are used by women.

Festivals

Religious and social festivals are also celebrated in Balochistan, two major festivals Eid-ul-Adha and Eid-ul-Fitr are celebrated with great zeal and zest. People wear new cloths, decorate their houses, visit each other houses and cook special dishes. The other festival is Eid-ul-Meladul nabi, it is celebrated as the birthday of Holy Prophet (PBUH). Various other social festivals are also become a reason of joy. Sibi festival shows an archeological place of ancient human civilization. These cultural festivals attract large number of people from all over the country. . One of the most famous and strange festival of is Buzkashi this festival is celebrated on horseback by two teams that make use of their skills to catch goat from each other.

Baloch Cultural Day

Baloch cultural day celebrated on 2nd March throughout the world mainly in Balochistan and Sindh province. The Visionary Group of Gwadar, involved in developing, construction and social services in Balochistan, has taken the initiative of highlighting and promoting Balochi culture and language beyond the borders of Pakistan

Culture of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa


Culture of KPK is very hospitable. Culture of KPK is religious as compare to the other provinces .Traditionally peoples like to abide by the values and norms. Pathans are very familiar for their hospitality and Hujra Culture is very common. A Hujra is place where guest are received and served. Men sit at hujra. Qisa Khawani bazar in Peshawar is famous for cultural activities.Khattak Dance is famous dance of KPK

Language
The dominant language of the Province, Pashto, belongs to the Irani branch of the Aryan family of languages. It has two main dialects: Pakhto and Pashto. Pakhto is the hard or north-eastern version spoken in Bajaur, Swat and Buner, by the Yusufzai, Bangash, Orakzai, Afridi and Momand tribes. Pashto is the soft or southwestern version spoken by the Khattaks, Wazirs, Murwats and other tribes in the south.The earliest Pashto works were composed in the Yusufzai dialect which is considered classical. It is the purest and the clearest form of the language.

Literature
Pashto Literature is illuminated by the works of Khushhal Khan Khattak (1613-89), a chief of the powerful Khattak tribe. This "renaissance" man was known not only for his prowess as a warrior but also for wielding the pen. He is reputed to have authored about 350 works of poetry and prose on subjects as wide-ranging as ethics, philosophy, religion, jurisprudence, medicine, sports and falconry.

Folk Music
Hindko and Pashto folk music are popular in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and has a rich tradition going back hundreds of years. The main instruments are the rubab,mangey and harmonium. Khowar folk music is popular in Chitral and northern Swat. The tunes of Khowar music are very different from those of Pashto and the main instrument is the Chitrali sitar. A form of band music composed of clarinets (surnai) and drums is popular in Chitral. It is played at polo matches and dances. The same form of band music is played in the neighbouring Northern Areas