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Haq l f u RABIC Sai

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Haq l f u EDICINE Sai
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Izet Masic

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AVICENA

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Haq Haq ul ul f f LIBRARY Sai OF BIOMEDICAL PUBLICATIONS Sai


Haq Haq l l f u Prof. Dr.Author MASICaif u IZET Sai S Reviewers
Haq Haq Lector l l Prof. f u LJILJANA OBRADOVIC f u i Technical editorSa Sai
MIRZA HAMZIC Prof. Dr. JUSUF ZIGA Prof. Dr. ENES KUJUNDZIC rof rof. Book XVI Editor in charge Prof. Dr. IZET MASIC

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61 (411.21)

CIP - Katalogizacija u publikaciji Nacionalna i univerzitetska biblioteka Bosne i Hercegovine, Sarajevo

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ISBN 9958-720-21-3 COBISS/BiH - ID 10304518

MA[I], Izet. Arabic Medicine /Izet Masic. - Sarajevo: Avicena, 2001. - 83 str.: ilustr.; 21 cm - (Library of biomedical publications; book 16) Data about the author: str. (83). - Bibliografija: str. 50.

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Haq Haq l l f u Edited and printed aif u Sai S Avicena d.o.o., Sarajevo
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CONTENTS

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2.

Haq Haq l l INTRODUCTION.........................................................7 f u f u Sai OF TREATMENT INaTHE ISLAMIC S i THE ART


MEDICINE....................................................................12

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2.1. Arabic-Islam medicine in the middle age..............13 Haq Thebasic significancesHaqArabic-Islamic medicine ...........13 Haq l of the l 2.1.1. The ul fandu principles of the physician skill ..................17 f u 2.1.2. The means the Sai Sai
2.1.3. Contribution of the Arabic medicine to the development of the pharmacy .................................................................................23

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THE INFLUENCE OF q TO Ha ARABIC MEDICINE Haq MODERN ONE...........................................................27 ul ul

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3.1. The majority of arabic medicine ....................................27 3.2. The basic significances of the middle age Islamic medicine.............................................................................30 3.3. Characteristics of the medicine before the appearances of the gods representative Mohammed a.s. .................31 3.4. The period of the building and the development of the light Islamic medical traditions......................................33 3.5. The Arabic physicians schools and physicians .............35 3.6. To them belongs the greatest glory in the medicine ...36

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3.8. 3.9. Far East continued the Arabic medical traditions .......45 3.10. Final considerations .........................................................47

Haq Haq ul ul The first Arabic hospitals and the public health .........41 f if How the Arabic medicine widens a Europe.............43 Sai S into
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References.............................................................................50 aif aif

Ha Ha CONCLUSION ............................................................48 l l u
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arabic medicine

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istory is a witness the great of aq ic science from the period aq Age of Arabic Civilisation. Golden Hmous scientist said:ofScienceofhasimportance and influencetionislamH H Haq l al; we A fa is ter ul ul fof investigations ofno country, itf inu natraditions all share inai people ai different S fruits S from and all ages. Scientists from the early period of the islamic era had set fire of a steam of mans thought and progress, observation, experiments and tradition, that have become a weapon of modern science. All of that was based upon Quran Hadiths, that have been their guidelines when setting free human mind from taboos.

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Haq Haq l l f uscientists have followed the words of Holly f u Medievali Sa Arabians.a.v.s., saying that searching for knowledge have Sai Prophet. Mohammad
had to be the most important task for people, and that ink more saint than blood of the saints. These attitudes of Holly Prophet have awaken desire for studying with muslim scientists. The result of that desire became a key of scientific progress. Razi, Ibn Sina, El-Birunu, Ibn Hajsem, Ez-Zahravi, El-Farabi, Ibn Zuhr, Ibn Rud etc.

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Haq Haq ul ul f f There are many worldwide famous Arabian scientists: El-Kindi, ErSai Sai

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q Haq These names, among severalascience. ThatArabian was characterattriH hundreds of period physicians, aq l l H ised bute Golden Age ofulislamic the u u by movements, f i reprocessing of ideas. That reprocessing of ideas has if Sa Sa
gained the great minds together, and that process is continuous. That is why have to be grateful to them.

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Famous Muslim physicians defined medicine as skill that dealed in

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Haq Haq l ul keeping good health,u coped with ills and health recovering. They have f f also modifiedi a many Greek writings and established Smedicine. What is significant is Sai basic principles of the art of that, regardless of historical
past and principles are still accurate for understanding of medical science. These principles are what the author is discussing in detail in this book about.

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1. INTRODUCTION f u

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about interferences Of Islam and q and Haq versa, is an attemption to ahealth of publicto the sciences,Hworld H give the answers health and Islamaq vice l l ul and themselves aboutu from the Bosnian war phenomena. How is f one and up to now originated sufferings of the f u that horrible,i Sa undiscreableremained the theoretically and the practically Sai Bosnian people, have not expected healthcare consequences for Bosnian mind, body habitat, envi-

One from the more significance motifs what we speak and write

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ronment. From when such a great discrepance between the life conditions, Haq those in the stone age, andaqconsequences which are otheraq H the H wise like ul ul ul necessary in such conditions: the number of died, diseased epydemias, f f postoperativei Sa infections, invalidity and otherai healthcaare indiS specific cators? But, it is in question the Phenomen of the Bosnian spirit, or this is, really, the imanention of the Bosnian being and the tradition, which originate from one and the only scoure - faith in the Almighty and his announcement.

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Haq Haq l ul I remembered of written thought: War is the f tragical and sad mof u ment - parta our life. The war is incompatible with the dignity of huS ofi Sai
man and moral. The war is time in which a man of the blooded heart forgives from all what in peace succeeded to assume the human content and sense, from all what succeeded to tear from the animal and most banal in a man; from the thought on the warm room, bathroom, family dinner, trip, mother, woman children, love, friends - war all this develop and blows off as the wind the leaves. The war whirlwind brought the arbitrary wasteland. But the force of the wide, going through the space and lives - left some kinds of vacuum. In such conditions, it reacted only the actionally being of the creator and not rarely - has taken liberty with its full strength. It happened the life - essentionally and elementary - happened the birth of the Bosnian national creature in all the basic and essential elements. Its is the word about the strong, vital organism which has to live to see the blooming of the intelectual and the creative. Liberated from the restraints which has by ages brought, now has the brilliant occasion to get build and develop to its maximum. This is, maybe,

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Haq Haq l ul the most positive side of the war and war horrorsf our young state. in u f This canSai of the explanations of theSai for the organization be one motifs of one such scientific collections - about the theme Public health and
Islam. For sure the scientists is their works on this will detailed confirm the above urged considerations and from the medical, phylosophical, ethyc, social, public-healthcare, architectual-urban - and other aspects will clear what an influence has stayed the Islam as a religy and the Islamic scientists as the interpreters and practical peroformances of the principle based on Kuran and hadisims in its medical praxis. And that influence is also nowadays unmeasurable.

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in the aq Haq The Islamic science,l suchwider sense, in spite ofgavel Haq H scientific projects and the connections with other traditions, gave ul u u such significant names which also nowadays have no rivals, regardless to the techf f nical and technologic conditions and the communication systems and Sai Sai media for transfer of knowledge and technologies. Already in the early Islamic period, thanks to the penetration and knowledge, several Islamic spiritual and religious leaders, first of all, the halif Memuna the science becomes international in the real sense of a word, and one language - the Arabic, becomes the general language of the science. The great number of sicientists, who belonged to the different peoples and who represented the various convictions, adapted to the almost all the world terminologies by the Arabic language. So the language of Kuran became the world language of the exchange of the scientific informations. Would Europe be able to light is there were not Arabic visit to Spain - by this sentence the famous Zija-pasha alluded to the roots of the development of the contemoprary science and civilization of the West.

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The Islamic scientce is the constant characteristic of the scientific undertaking of the middle age Islam, so from the eight till the fiveteenth century appeared the most beautiful and the richest culture which Europe saw in the middle century. The known French phylosopher and chemist Lebon cited the golden Islamic principle: Perform the trial (check) see, and think over, and you will be learned!, and the French sociologist Gustav Le Bon says: The Arabs have the first who shew to the world how gets connected the free thought with faith. For the Moslems and

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Haq ul ul the development of the science by them, another philosopher said: The f f knowledges, which have the Arabs received Sai Greeks, were by the from the Sai
Greeks the dead in crusts, closed in the walls of the libraries or the precious stones stored in some outstanding persons in the treasures from them the mankind had no any use besides to look at them. They by the Arabs became the basis of the education and the spiritual food; the main treasure and the means by means of which the human abilitiess went to the perfection. There is none objective European man, who studied the history of the human thought development, and that to the Moslims and their learning deny the fact that Europe has mostly to thank to them for its performance from the darkness of not knowledge onto the light of the knowledge: for studying how to step to the science - how to think, as well as for the comprehension that are the obviousness and the experiements the foundations on which the science gets founded; to them have mostly to thank also for the development of the science, which they through Spain, south Italy and France brought over.

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The English physicians and the chemist John William Draper (died Haq New York 1882 year) wroteHaqwork The history of the intelectual Haq l in his l in ul f u for Moslems Arabs:aif uhave become development i Europe of The Arobs Sa S the true protectors of the science and with right was told that they have knocked down the neighbour empires. By their halifs was the custom that the great honour in the state give only those people who were qualified with the knowledge.

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Haq Haq ustandpoints of Islam accordingul science, Stating further the l f (the narration that Mohammedtosaid) and the f the he states more handises ai Sai maxims S which relate to the science, as is: The ink is of the scientists is so
precious as well as the blood of the {ehids (Moslim soldier who with hero death is killed for faith), and for Harun ar-Reshid says: Harun ar-Re{id has announced a command that must not build any mosque if there was not built also a the primary Moslem religious school (mekteb). He prohibited the performance of the physicians practice to all those who would not undergo and satisfy the examination in front of University professor commission.

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Speaking about the libraries, he says that each more distinguished

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Map of Arabic empire

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Haq l ul man had in his lodging a library, that the Moslemsf u themselves rulers by f were engaged i all the branches of the science. Of them (does not menSa in the literature work from 50Sai and El-Havarism tion which) wrote notebooks
wrote an algebra book.

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Cordoba, the manuHaq Only in all the sciences,library q 6,000overthem was ArabicHaq Ha counted of 600,000 from the field scripts from and about l ul ul of the medicine f astronomy. and f u Sai Sai But, as said the distinguinished professor from Sorbona Reda Garodi, the conspiracy of silence against the Islam culture was extremely organized and that not only in his homeland France than in almost all the west countries and, normally, also former Yugoslav. Are rare those who know or dared to utter the names Rasia, Ibn Sinaa, Ibn Hajsema, Ibn Nefis, Hajam, Gazalija, Kindis, Birunija, Ibn Nedim, Usaibia and other Islamic outstanding persons and that have not bittery paid for their public mentioning. The west worked that in its style, he stole their ideas, their discoveries their practical proves and experiences in the application and signing under their or, even, there where he could not that, he changed the names of these great thinkers, phylosophers, physicians, and represented them according its taste.

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Haq Haq l l f u f u i ai Schance that some of these names Satheir great thoughts and Heres and
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ideas we hear and we announce on our regions and in our literature. Let it be the impetus to those who come, to return at the lost trace to the man and humanity, every human sense... but in the sense of that nice traditional maxim: To the science one does not go (on goot), - El ilmu juta ve le jeti.

q Ha The Gods representative Ha Habeul ul Mohammed s.a.v.s. required l the u from lieveers to acquire the knowledge let it be in China (China had at that f if time theSa paradigmatic significance of the distance), and compared the Sai
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2. THE ART OF TREATMENT IN THE ISLAMIC q MEDICINE q

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Haq Haq l l cost of ink withf spilled blood of {ehids. Such f u had waken the u attitudes up in the early Moslems the insatiable thirst ai be the key of the ai Sprogress and learning through thewhether centuries was exS several scientific
clusevely in the property of Moslems. After 13th century appeared the visible decrease of this progress and it continued up to nowadays. It is not our predemonant desire to emphisize or to interprete the chain of causes which had led to this decrease. But, it is true that the freshness of the new learning and tracing for new spaces of the knowledge, which flew through the arteries and veins of the Arabs and other members of the Arabic regions of the middle age, disered in the scientists of the later genereations of the Arabo-Islamic civilization. It appeared the inertion, and it brought to that the Arabs of the new age became forgetable and indifferent to the light guiding which the Moslems of the early Islamic period lead through the astrays of darkness.

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Haq The science expressed in Haq words is the sense of Haq ul ul the simplest answer ul the unf our searching of the rightaif abut the life leads usuality of life and ai S us to theS of the discoveries. At any case, there does not exist such a path
thing as is the accidental discovery. The discovery is the product of one observed (maybe unusual but sometimes and completely common) fact in the prepared mind. Some minds are more aroused, less imaginative, less respond that the others, but if they are not prepared, the significance of the events can pass by. So, before then we try to comprehend why and what the scientist has acheived, it is necessary to know the series of the form of achievements and the people who created the product of their method, and have insured the webing of their experience. It is necessary to comprehend, also, the immediate circumstances - the researches which are now performed, the coleagues on whose experience we cannot count and about whose experiments depends the confirmation of our own.

A famous scientist once said: The science has no its country, it is international, we all devide the fruits of the researching of people of all kinds and traditions and all the ages (1).

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Haq Haq l l f u f u ai Sai To the early blooming of the human S intelect came on the shores
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of the Meditteranean, the Summers, Babilon and Egyptian civilization have rubbed in the way to the Greeks and Romans. When it began to

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Haq l ul fall through, existed the danger from the interruption ofu continuity the f f and the Sai understanding the natural phenomena, i fortunately for the but Sa Moslem scintists from whole mankind, it was gathered byt he greath
the period between 8. and 13. century. They had strengthened it between 8th and 13the century. They made it strengthed and rich with its own wisdom, clever observations and experiments and continued on its way to West. Zija-pasha saying: If there were no Spain, could Europe shine! - he allududed to the significance of the Arabs development and blooming of the science, phylosophy, medicine and other disciplines of the modern age.

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the prominent Haq There is a majority ofWorld:aq names of the Arabic scientists H Al-Kindi, Ar-Rhazi, Al-Biruni, Ibn-Sina, Haq which recognize the total l l ul Az-Zahravi, Al-Farabi, Al-Haitham, Ibn-Nefis and the rests. They are visf u f u ible figures a the corps of the universally educated Moslem scientists who S in i Sai charactherize the golden time of the Islam science. There was in that time alive growth, constant overmaking of the ideas of the thinking process which led the spirits to the gathering. One thinking process which used to live by thousand years can, so much we know, passing from mind to mind, prolong his life for ever, and we mortals answer the call of the immoral ideas, becoming a part of human ideas and thoughts.

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2.1. The Arabic-Islam medicine in the middle age

a Haq The basic significancesaqthe Arabic-Islamic medicine q 2.1.1. l l H of l H u One from the remembrance of the valid and fascinating aphorisms f u f u which are described to the God representatives, Mohammed a.s. is the Sai Sai
expression al-ilmu, ilman, ilm al-adyan wa-, ilm al-abdan. There are two kinds of science the science about the religion and the science about the body, emphasizing the importance connection of the learning and the practice in the medicine with theology and Islamic laws. This and the similar concepts, the religious and social, give the additional impulse and respect of the medical profession and emphasize the essential value of the physician skill giving the physician the respectful place in his community and learned circles. Also, the Islam was that which emphasized the rights of human body for him everyone believer who wishes to

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Picture 1. Abdullah Ibn Sina (980-1037)

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Picture 2. Alauddin Ibn Nefis (1210-

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Haq ul ul ensure by nutrition and to prolong healthy life. This was truly stated in f f the religous sources. Dear Allah always insures the natural treatment of Sai Sai
the human diseases at the right time and on the right place. Ma khalaq Allah ad-da, illa wa-khalaqa lahu ad-dawa - Allah has not created the disease and not to give it the remedy (2).

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Haq And the physician from the other side, was interested and appriciaq Haq l l l H ated u u u the human relation according to his environment.f him the health ifnarrowly connected. HeSai For and ecology were saw the connection of the Sa
technology and economy in nature, that is he saw that in fact, nothing produces in vain. By the Moslem physicians the God created everything with good reason. The physician-phylosopher Ibn-Ru{d, examing the complexity of the anatomy of the human body, proclaimed that the human trust in God surely will be strengthened (and) when once discovers and understands the wonders of the anatomy of the body and recognizes the incomparable God wisdom by the creating of the human race. In the sense of his profession and the status, the Moslem physician appratiated the perfection in the creation of God and the shrewdness in the arrangement and forming of the creation. Further, in the observing of its environment, the Moslem physician and the naturalist tried to fiind the drugs which the nature ensuanses for the treatment of the human physical diseases. And really, in Islam happened that the pharmacy and the pharmacology throught the middle age achieved its greatest expression - the climax, much larger and wider than have ever achieved its antecedents during the early Greek-Roman and the Oriental civilizations.

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2.1.2.

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The medicine have defined the famous Moslem physicians as are: Ar-Razi (865-925) and Ibn-Sina (980-1037), and that on the following way: that this is the skill which treats the maintaince of good health, by battle with the diseases and the repeated diseases and the repeated establishment of patient health. This was the interpreting in the early thirties years of the ninth century, when in the majority of the medical texts the medical skill seperated onto two parts: the theory and the practice. According to the theory of the medicine, the pupil and the begginning civil-service

Haq Haq ul ul f f The i Sameans and the principles of thei Sa physician skill
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Picture 4. Zakariyya Ar Razi (865-925)

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Picture 3. Hasan Al Haitham (965-1039)

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Haq ul ul employee have studied the elements, the body might and spirit, either f f the animal ai the organs and their usefulness and the temperament, S or vital, Sai
but, in the practical part have been learned the following branches: the therapeutics (including the use of the simple and combined drugs and medical receipts), setting of bones and less surgical graps. Also, during the same third of the 9th century valued the basic principles of the physicians skills, establish in the Arab medicine, which were modificided Greek manuscripts, with the important additions. It was interpreted six common principles of health and diseases as 6 unnatural. The Arab version of these modificated principles projects that, if these samples which hit the human constitution, correctly and moderately applied, this will result by balance and gets manifested in good health which someone keeps. Anyhow, if in this main principles, or any which from them, unnormaly manages, if they wrongly get applied or achieve, then appear the inhalance in the human constitution which results with the desease. That what is interesting is that the majority of these principles about which seriously discussed and which the Moslem physicians in the middle age are important for the understanding of the scientists at the field of the medical science nowadays (3).

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The air of the ambient, for what they required clean air for the

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Moslem physicians repeatedely explain their conscienciousness of the fact that the polluted air and water are dangerous. Almost 11 hundred years backwards they emphasized the theory which is considered with nowadays main theme in its importance. They were persistant in that and, with right, that the unpoluted air insures the necessary elements for the keeping of the healthy living, while the pollution is the poision for the living organism;

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The regulation of taking the food and water, that is the moderation

Haq Haq in the diet. It means, in Islam there were interpreted in the clearly ul ul expressedf statements as the diet considered f the addition and as Sai Sai nutrition of the body in the goal of the comensating of losses
because of the work and the rest activities of the organs and efforts. That concept is still always accepted in the modern science

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Picture 6. Ahmed Al Biruni (973-1050)

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Haq l Picture 5. Ahmad ibnf u Rushd (1126-1198) Sai


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Haq ul ul of the nutrition; f if Work and rest for the moderation in Sa cases for the maintance both Sai
of good health;

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Keeping awake and sleeping, with the insisting on the moderation

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Haq Haq l ul f and the maintaince, including the use of such things f u The ai secreting Sai asS enema, laxative and the vomiting, by introducing of the are
Haq Haq l The physiologicall reactions f u diseases of the emotionally f u (Al-Abdath an-Nafsaniyyah). Sai physicians of the Islamic civilization emphasized Sai The most known
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drugs and even by drawing blood and the releasing from human body, the so called external secretions from the human body the so called secretions (sweating, and urinyzing);

of human daily work and the number of hours necessary for sleeping every day. This seems as an interesting consideration for the estimation of sleeping besides the rest in the sense of the modern concepts which concern the necessity of sleeping in its different phases. Really several Moslim physicians as Abd al-Latif al-Baghdadi (1162-1232) determined the sleep in the most rational manner and spoke about its place, when the health is in question and the normal body function;

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the importance of the interpreting and the application of the medicine sole (At-Tibb ar-Ruhani). In this stheme have been proclaimed the medical teacher and the clinician Abu Bakr Mohammed b. Zakariyya ar-Razi issued the immense book which carried the same title (translated and published in England 1950 year under the title The spiritual physics of Razes from A.J. Arberry). Ar-Razi was the first to write his enciclopaedic text al-Mansuri about the different aspects of skill of treatment of the diseases and the drugs as well as the keeping of the physical health. Soon was discovered that the real need existed in the similar texts about the diseases that the real need existed in the similar texts about the similar texts about the diseases of soul and their treatments, and also its second known book about the soul medicine. These and other his books were known also in Latin language and the European physicians have consulted even up to the Rennassance (4).

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Abdulah Sina (Avicenna) HaqPicture 7. bin Ishak)Ibnl Haq and Zumbul al-Mahalli aq H (Huneyn ul u ul f f Sai Sai

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Picture 8. Moses ben Maimon (1135-1204)

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Haq l ul As the Islamf u got ripened with the papers of Ar-Razija and medicine f his contemporaries in the 10 century, of theai medical theory and Sai S new
the concepts have also begun to appear. Here are 7 principles of the health as they are ramified and explained by Ar-Razija and arranged by the following order (3):

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q Haq rest, the fact realized l Hathe The moderation of work and through ul f u ancientif physician education; Sa Sai
The moderation in eating and drinking, the theory which Ar-Razi
cordially proclaimed. He, for example, facing with the strong opposition, recommanded that to the patient should be given the certain freedom of diet which he wishes and encouraged him giving him the balanced nutritive meals. The traditional concept of Razes was to lessen the diet up to the extreme. Ar-Razi required the loosing of such rules and common sense by the physician who should take into consideration the human importance and the importance of the nutrition giving the patient the balanced diet;

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Haq Haq uthe Elimination and l throwing out of the human ul liquid, external i the if includingf urinization, sweating and drawing of the blood in Sa Sa the goal of the treatment;
To live and stay in the healthy places for the lodging suggesting
the importance of the hygienic encirclement and the soujourn, when an individual spents the most part of his time. Also, some should ensure the clean and the refreshing atmosphere at the place of the rest, the beautiful environment and the household - the things which also are considered nowadays important;

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Avoidance of the consideration, falling into the crises, and the


surviving of the successive bad events, specially before than they become uncontrolled and dreadful;

Haq Haq l ul f u The maintance of the harmonic endevoursf the sense of the in Sai Sai physiological ambitions, the emotional conflicts and their fundamental resulting. Making so, a man can escape the emotional conditions which injure, as is the anger, unjustified fear, worries,

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Picture 9. Blood circulation according to ibn Sina

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circulation according to ibn Nefis

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Haq l ul guilt and f unpardonable jelousy; the u f Insurance of good, impetus and useful habits which become a part Sai Sai
of the healthy and the productive daily living, giving the impetus to the greater achievements instead to become an obstacle.

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Haq Contribution of theHaq medicine to the development Haq 2.1.3. Arabic l l ul of the pharmacy f u f u i Sai The Sa medicine had the great contribution in the development Arabic
of the pharmacy in general. The Arabs have introduced and improved the techniques and the methods as are evaporation, the filtrattion and the destillation. The Alembic, as and advice was used for the destillation, also, it was invested by the Arabs. Lets say Rhazi is known according the use, that is, the introduction of the components live in the therapies. The Arabic pharmacists introduced the series of new forms of the dosages including the concentrated plant juices in the form of the pills, called Roob and Julep, as the sweetened drinks, that is mildly cooling syrup (something as menthol), the chocolate fruit (or dense mixture of fruits), sweet syrup with sugar, then Electuarium (purgatives mixed with honey or syrup) and the sweatened or silver pills (the pills to which we add something sweet, because they are bitter).

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The word Al-cohel means all fine components that is, in the chemical sense, rephyned components, and in the foundation they relate to the finest ground mixture of the galene and antymone sulphate, which is used for the making up or decorating of eyes.

Haq Haq ul ul f f The Arabs were not successful in the process of the destillation of Sai were experts in the preparation i the pure scents. SpeSa of alchole, but they
cially is known the rose water (or water with the scent of rose).

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THE INFLUENCEHaq OF ARABIC MEDICINEHaq TO

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Picture 11. Illustrations from Persian manuscript (12th century) of surgical and gynecological patients treatment

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MODERN ONE f u

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3.1. The majority of arabic medicine

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The medicine is one of the oldest human activities. Its hystory and aq development in every people q closely are connected with soH the Ha very Haq l cially-economic, cultural and other circumstances, and ul especially with ul f u the development of the natural knowledges. One f the significant from ai Sai period in the development of the medicineS general, and especially of in

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Haq l Picture 11. Visus thef u i o Sary according to ibn
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Haq Haq l l f u f u Sai Sai Picture 12. Hospital for the insane (1228-29) with department for
infection, surgical, internal and eyes diseases founded by Malikaturan Malik in Divrig, Turkey

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Haq l ul the middle agedf u belongs to the Arabic medicine. True, all the medicine f works haveai S appeared in the period of the Arabic knowledges have not Sai
originated only from Moslim authors, and their religious classification would not completely correspond to the reality. The Arabic civilization is the result of the consecutive, persistant and the continueed efforts of the majority of people, regardless which religion they are, race or colour of the skin they were, and which religion they are, race or colour of the skin they were, and which lived and produced at the rich and great Arab region. It is irrefutable also this that the Arabic language during the whole middle aged period was the language of the intellectual progress in the total Moslim world. It was the true means of the international exchange of the different knowledges and techniques, as that constated one from the great thinkers and the physicians of that period Al-Biruni.

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number of phylosophers, thinkers and physicians, was the strong Arabic state with extraordinary stable internal situations at the great space of the Near and the Middle East, and part of Africa as well as the southwest Europe. Anyhow that the significant role in that played the rich Arabic language, the Arabic letter and the Arabic culture. Thanks to the Arabic visits the Arabic knowledge and the culture will in the course of several centuries widen on the front Asia, then mediterranean, and through the Arabia and according the Far East. The conquering visits of the Arabs had no only military and social-political effects in many rich countries with high culture which the Arabs conquered than will the conqueres assume the culture and the customs of the conquered countries, further to develop it and on that way advance the own culture and the civilization, of which the blooming will radiantly last till the XIV century.

Haq Haq l l f u f u i The Sa significant reason that the Arabic medicine had and gave a great Sai
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the covers with the great Arabic Haq greatestinblooming four Arabic q golden age of the l Haq Ha halife (the supreme religious rulers), state, lies that the l ul u u from which is Al-Memun gave his greatest contribution to the foundif schools from foreignSaif strengthen by the ing of the translating language Sa arguments of the basic Islam religion and so defend the Islam. On this way, thanks to the Greek, Indian, Persion, Hebrew and the Arabic phy-

The majority of the Arabic medicine, of whose the period rise and

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Haq Haq ul ul f f Sai Sai page Picture 13. Cover


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of the book Continens of Rhazes, written by Rhazes

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Haq l Picture 14. f u Cover page of the book Sai mediCanon of


cine, written by ibn Sina

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Haq ul ul losophycal and the medical reviews at the science and the life in general, f f the Moslims will create the different subtle intellectual aspects which will Sai Sai
become the basis of the Islam civilization all up-to nowadays. Thanks to the Arabic phylosophers and the physicians the total Antique cultural inheritance, and the inheritance of the other great civilization, will find its refugee at the immense spaces of the Near and the Middle East, Africa and Spain. The appearance and the abrupt widening of Islam as an idea and the practice produced the appeorance of the world culture which for thousands years erradiated to the human race. But after that their carriers have abondened the principles of Islam about the researches, work and making contemporary, the Arabic medicine gave the foundations and the impetus to Europe and west that through the Rennaissance and the humanism begins the civilization which nowadays dominates. If there were no Spain, would Europe could (beginn to) shine! - the allusion is of the famous Zija-pasha on the Arabic visit into Europe and richly culturally and spiritually inheritance which the Arabs with themselves have brought in Spain.

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Haq At least five ages the l Haq Arabic physicians translated are Haq most important l ul the best medicalf ufrom Greek, Indian, Persian, Hebrew and other works fandu experience languages, and then by its observations, examinations Sai the matters and overgave to the new generations. In Sai the have supplemented
the pleiod of the great names from the golden age the Arabic medicine we shall separate only several greatest and most significant, which have with his works obligated the total medicine science and practice: All at-Taberi, Ahmed at-Taberi, Ar-Razi (Latin Rhazes), Ali ibn al-Abbas al-Magusi (Latin Haly), Ibn al-Baitar, Ibn al-Qasim al-Zagrawi (Latin Abulcasis), Ibn Sina (Latin Avicena), Ibn al-Haitam (al-hazen of the West), Ibn abi al-Ala Zuhr (Latin Avenzor), Ibn Ru{d (Latin Averroes) and Ibn un-Nefis. Every of the numbered giants of the Arabic medicine on his way obligated the medical science and rest the durable stamp in the history of the medicine. It should too much space that the specificums of every from them in detail we describe. The majority of them on West well know also are inserted in the textbooks literature as the donators of the significant of the Middle dark century, would be pale and prosaic, insufficientely studied and uncomprehended. Unfortunately, on our

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Haq Haq l ul Bosnian, and on the u wider former Yugoslav spaces about all medicine f f giants veryai was written and still more is known. There were rare little S chief of a staff dr Hamdija Kre{evljakovich prof. dr [a}ir Sai those, like
Sikirich, Mustafa ef. Busuladich, Mehmed ef. Handich and still some other orientalists nonmedicians which have explored the rich historycal material about the famous Arabic physicians and something from that material have translated, commented and published. untouchable physicians encyclopaedists - Ibn Sinaa-Avicenna and Ibn Nefis, whose some of papers were translated inte our language.

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Haq Haq l l f u f u From the pleiad of great Arabic physicians we shall seperate two Sai Sai

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Haq The basic significances aq middle age Islamic medicine H of the Haq 3.2. ul ul ul f of the 11th till the beginningf the 17th century From the end of Sai Sai
the west European medicine is being swamred from Latin translations of the Medical works from the Arabic languages. That arabism begins with Konstantin African (Constantinus Africanus), which according the to the order of that time Norman duke made the translations of the several significant works for the medical school at Salerno by Naple, one from the first medical schools in general. He translated more known medical manuscripts from the Arabic into the Latin language, that is the Arabic translations of the works of the Greek physicians, for example Hippocrate and Galen, and also the original works of the Arabic physicians from their mother tonge. True, later will be established that are partially well preserved the translations incomplete with the ommisions, and some are also incorrect, but are though to the European physicians opened the door into the treasury of the known Greek and the Arabic works. Those translation activiies were very expressed and actual in the 12th century, especially in Spain, and in the 13th century live to see its apix and stable remain even till the beginning of the 16th century. After the discovery of Spain, many translations have been wideneden with the printing into the other parts of Europe and the World. Regarding to that these translations originate from the Arabic language, so that the science on which they related was called the Arabic medicine. The Arabic medicine is,

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Haq ul ul by major part remained at the tradition and the experiences of the Greek f f medicine andi Sa belonged to the cultural inheritance which the Islamic Sai
people overtook from the Helen tradition. By the conquering wars of Alexander the Great penetrated, by the Greek culture, also the medicine into the fields of Orient, where has later dilligently cared and advanced by the own tradition The representative medicine and by the experiences of the treatment from that period. On the region of Asia Small will appear a lot of the famous physicians from which some have lived to see the glory like Hippocrates (463-405) and Galens (129-201), whose skill system in the treatment was by centuries untouchable, both in the countries of the East, as well as in the conutries of West. The government of the Greek medicine prolonged also after the cessation of the high political Vyzantine empire onto the other civilization and people. Even in Persia, which und er Sasanidime (224-641) almost constanely was in war, they appreaciated the Greek science.

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3.3. Characteristics of the medicine before the appearances of the gods representative Mohammed a.s.

Haq Haq l ul When the king Justinian 529 year closed the Academy in Athenes flocation of the atheists of theif u the exbecause Swas the it ai a neoptolomists, Sasylum at the High school pelled professors of this Academy found the
in Gundeschapur. That school long existed and gave the hundreds of the shooled and capable physicians. Among its pupil is also the Arabian al-Harit Ibn Kalada, which lived in Taifi during the Goods representative Mohammed s.a.v.s., but his activity has not remained the significant traces. The treatments methods which applied Beduins leant at the traditional medicine. The particular significance remained the so called The representative medicine which faithfully was leant at the Kuran princpiles and the hadises of Gods representative Mohammed s.a.v.s. which related to the health and treatment of the ill people, and strictly recommended hygienic regulations.

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of every man, so towards that to a man consequentely prohibids to live and behave on the damage of his health. In that sense are significant the Islamic regulations about the cleaness, about the removal of the cleeness,

Haq Haq l ul f u the maintaince of healthf the special duty i The Sa proclaims Islam Sai by
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Haq Haq l ul about the prohibition of the use of the definite food u drink and and f f similar. Sai It is known that the Gods representative Mohammed s.a.v.s. Sai his physicians, and dillignetely took the drugs according the advice of
also directed his followers to do that when it was necessary. He used to say: For every disease there is the remedy, so if it is guessed and finds the remedy of a disease -it will - by Gods help - be cured... except the old age and death. Also, is mentioned his expression The God has done none disease, and not to give the remedy for it, what know those who are known and learned, and do not know the ignorants. The Islamic regulation and the nursery plants will become later the resource for the blooming of the medical knowledges. Regarding to that the battle for the maintaince of the human healht from the various diseases the old practically how much also the man on earth, normally is to suppose that the every human community had some kind of the medicine that is the treatment, so according to that, can be freely said that in the Representative time, the first Moslim community had its Arabic national medicine and its experiences. All what Mohammed s.a.v.s. took for treatment or recommmanded to his friends, that is approved as useful for the treatment, his biographs and the Islamic physicians, later have collected into the documents under the title The representative medicine. That chapter later will become one field in the General Islamic medicine, but on the basis of which will later in the Islamic world the medicine develop into the right medical science, with the famous hospitals. This Islamic medical science will incorporate in itself almost all the medical achievements goods of the old civilizations, especially the Greek and The Indian one.

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Haq The social-economic, culturalq other flows and the relations Ha and Haq l ul have changed gradually, l immediately Representative f u beginning the migrationafterthe u peoples fthe Arabic movement aiyear, and then by of S 632 Sai and widening of the might of the halifs (top religeous rulers of all the
Moslims). For less than 1 hundred years the Arabs have conquered the great spaces - widen to the West to Spain and on the East to Indonesia

3.4. The period of the building and the development of the light Islamic medical traditions

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Haq l ul and India. In these countries, which have by good f belonged to the part u f empire of ai Alexander the Great, known the of the Sand with that also the they got SaiTheytradition chance Helenism, Greek medicine. had the
to meet and to know the thinkers and the physicians of the different people and ethnyc groupations, consequentely the people, who are well educated as the physicians and whose the medical knowledges and the experiences heartily were put at the disposal to the Arabic, that is, to the new rulers at the disposal. How the main city of the Arabic empire then became Damask, so also the personal physicians Omedia (660-750) were most often the Syrian Christians.

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q The aq Haq all thesamples of the that timeatheir mayors, that is the l Hrulers H educated halifs (the top religous of the of Moslims) followed also ul ul u rulers towns. So for example the representative of the king f the eastern part of of if the empire,a S al-Haggag, in his service had one Christian and one Hebrew Sai
physician. The Arabs themsleves during their government ruling used to decide to attend the difficult and estimated the medicine studying and they treated with physician profession. They belonged to the gentlemen class and besides the production of the arms, they estimated only the treatinng with the merchendise, as something what is especially worthy of to a free man. The giants of the empire put under its protection: the poets, singers and the composers, but not also the scientists. It is often as the oldest Arabic physician mentioned Masarqis or Masargawaih. He during the ruling of Marwana (ruled 683 years) translated the medical book of Alexander Presbytera Aaron from the Syrian into Arabic language and then widened two chapters. He lived in the second of the 8th century in the town Basra, and by the origin he was a Jew.

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But the Arabs could not continously keep the position of the priviliged high class. By the Arab people, between the upper layers and their subjects, appeared the clash, and then began the circle get closed as soon as those from the classes of the subjects get converted to Islam and were accepted into the Arab tribes. These Neomoslims played in the agriculture a great role. They are unsatisfied with the newly became relations accompanied into the oppositional groups and significantly contributed of the overturn of the government of Omeiada and establishment of

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Haq Haq l l the abaside of halifat u - top religious ruler of all the u (halif Moslims) (750f f 1258 year) ai which the could Sinthe other. Sodifferent nations equallyi make assimilate Sabecame more and more one besides the Islamic traditions
stronger and began to come to the expression in the countries of the Arabic region. When Bagdad was proclaimed by the capital town, the east part of the empire comes still more to the expression. Already in the second per order the abaside the top religious ruler of all the Moslems (halif) al-Mansur (ruled 754-775) called the main head of the hospital in Gonde{apur, Nestorian Christian from the family Bakti{u into Bagdad, and examined his duty of a physician at the court. His descedents, as physicians till 11th century, they will play the great role in the physician duties at court. Soo after that arrive at the halifs court also the physicians from India. One of them healed the halif Harun ar-Ra{id. At the same time the many numerous books of the Indian medicine, as well as ^arak and [eruta, were translated into Arabic language.

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If the Indian medicine was in Abasid empire well known, shows also the description of Ali Ibn Rabban al-Tabarija (850 year) who gave in his medical encyclopaedia. Though the Indian influence is gets limited, as that confirms the orientalist Majerhof only the means for treatment and some procedures of healing. By this could seriously lessen the influence of the Greek medicine. This demonstrates the immense numbers of the works of the Greek medicians which were translated into the Arabic language of the 8th century. However, although the majority of the physicians up-to-that time were Christians, Jews, Zaratustra and other, and to which is closer was the Syrian than the Arabic language, appeared the need for the medical books in Arabic language. So began already in the 8th century with translations of the Syrian works translated from the Greek original into the Arabic language. Its top lived to those translated literature during halifa al-Mamun (who ruled 813-833 year) and Mutazille, when dominates the theologic direction, which tries that the definite religious suppositions of the Arabic Islam changes into the rationalism, supported by the Greek phylosophy.

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Haq ul ul 3.5. The Arabic physicians schools and physicians f f Sai Sai In order that the unheretence of Helenism on the fields of the so
called the old science (phylosophy, mathematics, astronomy, natural sciences and the medicine) again ot to life, halif al-Mamun he based the house of wisdom (Bait al-hikma), that is the translation school, in which also Greek works from the mentioned fields most often were translated from Syrian, but from time to time also the Greek original works into the Arabic language. The special personality among the translators in this school was Hunain Ign Ishaq (809-873), the Nestorian Christian from the old Bishop town Hir besides Kuf. There is his records in which he numbers 129 Galen works and by that differentiates them into those which are translated into Syrian and those onto Arabic language, then who was the translator of these works, by which command the translator the work has translated etc. Besides that the periodically are found also the remarks about the value of the translated works. Hunains participation was significant. The number fo Galens works which he by himself, or using the older translations of the other translators translated into Syrian and the Arabic translation. From his son Ishaq (died 910 year) originate two Syrian and 10 Arabic translations, while his nephew Hubai{ represented with 37 Arabic and 3 Syrian translations. By this translations Hunain and his pupils helped that Galen to replace by centuries ruling position in the countries of East and West. Hunain work by this has not limited only on Galen. From Hyppocrate he translated the aphorisms while the rest his works had translated his pupils. Besides that he translated the Synopsis from Oribasius, seven books from Paul from Egine (Agina), and known work Materia medica from Dioskorides. He was a good translator of the Greek and the Arabic language and he did not translate word by word, but has done a sentence per sentence, according their sense. Besides that he found also the time for his practice - he was a personal physician of halife al-Mutawakkila (he ruled 847-861 year), but also for his personal writing. He wrote the medical book in the form of questions and answers - Ten compositions about eye, the oldest systematic supposition of medicine of eye (it is thought at the anatomy and the treatment), which reached to West.

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Haq Haq ul ul About the medicine study in Bagdad we get to know from Hunainov f if above mentioned documents, in which is written how his Christian colSacollected in their school in orderai and interprete the S to read leagues daily
master works, and the lecture and comments of these works would stay there for the private studying.

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Haq In Hunains opinion, atHaq way was studied the medicine Haq l ul ulreadthe same in Alexandria. Daily was and interpreted one from twenty main f f u i Galen works and that according to the so Sa Alexander type, while called Sai
the rest Galens books vary for itself has read, after he studied twenty main works.

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Haq To them belongsl greatest glory in the medicine Haq Haq 3.6. l ul u the f of the Arabic medicine falls if u 900-1200 The blooming in time from Sai Sa
year, on whose herehead stands the great thinker and the physician of the Zakarriyyaa ar-Rhazes, one of the greatest practicioner which gave the Islamic middle age. Razi was born about 870 yeara in Raiy in the neareaness of today Teheran in the Moslim family. He studied more directions, that in Bagdad finally turned the studying of the medicine in one pupil Hunain b. Ishaq. He was the personal physician of the mayor Rei and the manager of the hospital, while the political fermentation were not compelled to travel to Bagdad. In the age came back to the fatherland, where he about 925 year died.

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q demonstrated In Haq As a wise man Razil Haq the great independance.Hathe chemistry he refusedu the speculations and exactly we l all ul fphysician he showed the same empiric spirit. In his f u decribed his experiments. i a aAs Sai diary he S fully noticed the behaviour of their patients and gave in the care
work about the measles and the krzamak of the disease picture, which because its accuracy deserve the admiration. In the other hand he gathered almost all the medical knowledge of his time into the encyclopedia, which he deducated to the mayer of Rei al-Mansur. According to him is called the Mensura medicine (the of treatment - at-tibb al-Mansuri).

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Haq Haq l l f u f u Sai translated into Latin language and from 1481 year Sai This work was
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several times reprinted; first of all the ninth book was dedicated to the therapy, which was till the 17th century in Europe beloved book for

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Haq l l learning. Still allf comprehensive his work aboutf Greek medicine, the u the u which he wrote in old age and which remained incompleted. Sai Sai
For every disease are here found the explanations of the Greek, Syrian, Arabic, Persian and Indian authors, the Bhudda, and his personal considerations and the experiences. The work was translated into Latin language under the title Liber continens and to the 16th century more times printed.

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Haq Haq l l f u f u ai ai The S known encyclopaedia of theS most Arabic medicine originates
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from the physician and the phylosopher Abdulah Ibn Sina (Avicenna, 980-1037). He was born in the evnironment of Buhare 980 year and had carefully bringing up. His father was a high clerk in the government, he belonged to the extreme [iit (lawyer) sect of the seven, so that his system of learning rested on the old science, and as a boy he aquired the education from logics and astronomy, and then he studied the physics and the medicine. With his 17 year of life he succeeded to recover the ruler of the country from up-to-that time unrecovered disease. That success enabled him the approach to the library from the knight. As he had particularly remebrance and the ability of the quick comprehension, in the mentioned library he read here all the possible what rested at the old science and requred the special knowledges in phylosophy, natural sciences and the medicine, about what testify also his written works.

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The unquiet times which appeared in Buhara compelled him q to Haq the country and uncontinousely he moves from one county to the Haq Ha leave ul ul another, where his physician abilities have brought himulhigh repuf in Hamadan on the occasionf thethe with the tation. He ai1037 S died Sai of visit knight from Ishafana as his personal physician. His main medical work is the Cannon (al-Qanum fit-tibb). In fact the medical encyclopaedia which in five books gives the systematic supposition of the medicine, by which ibn Sina amounts his main observations and experiences. In the 12th century the book was translated into the Latin language and had the significant influence at the European medicine. The Arabic original issued 1583 in Roma in a great number and was the first comprehensive Arabic text, which was printed in Europe.

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The exact sciences of the Islamic world achieved the greatest target

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Haq Haq ul ul in the physics and first of all in the optics. There they gave the immense f f and the Sai contribution to the mankind.i primar merit for original Sa The considers the this belongs to one man which because of his inventions
first inventor after Ptolomey in the optics. This is Ibn Hejsem (Ibn alHaitham al-Misri, died 1038 year), known to the middle age Europe as Alhazen. This Arab, who is born in Basra, and the most fertile part of life has spent in Cairo, aquired the reputation and name in Europe when his main work about optics translated into the Latin language 1270 year the Polish mathematician, physician and phylosopher Vitelio (the real name is Erazam ^olek) under the title Opticae thesaurus (the Arabic original is lost). On that work in the great measure founded their papers about the optics Bacon and the rest of that time writers, and has influence even by Leonardo da Vinci and Kepler. He made the foundations to the dyoptics, much more perfect from the Greek one. On occasion of one eclipse of the Sun Ibn Hejsem has on the wall of the room observed the halfmoon picture of the Sun opposite to the fine hole made at the window. This is in fact the first recorded remembrance about the dark chamber... Ibn Hejsem stood up against Ptolomej and Euklide theory about nature of the appearance (according which the eye sends the rays to the object of the observations). He treated by the examination of the sphere and parabolic mirrors and deeply had put the nature of the otpic focuses, enlargements and inversions. He was at the treshhold of the inventions of the optic lens, what practically was performed only three centuries later in Italy.

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Haq Haq ul ul The most original thinker among the Islamic scientists of that time f f at the turningi was Rayhan (972-1048). Sa point of the centuryAfterAbu Sai al-Biruni goes to the He origanated from Horezmiae. manyfold studies he
court of the ruler of Gurganja (at the south east coast of the Caspian Sea), where he wrote his known book The chronology of the old people. After the return into the fatherland he lived at the court of the ruler, but after his dethrowing 1017 year, he had to leave Horezma and the rest of his life he spent inGhazna in Aphganistan. From Ghazne he visited the North India, where he wrote the book The travels per India, in which by facts and without prejudes writes about hinduism, religion and phylosophy. Although with the medecine treated in detail, al-Biruni has

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Haq ul ul not about that science written either significant book. In the old age he f f has writtenai the drugs S Pharmacopaea - a book about Sai (as-Saidan fit-tibb).
Such works with the great significance in which is stated the knowing of the drugs by the physician there is in the Arabic language in the great number. Often the books and the encyclopaediae contains the lists with the mixed drugs. They rest on the Greek works as Materia medica by Dioskorida and Galen manuscripts - the works About the simple means for the treatment, but they show the infulence of the drugs from Persia and other Asian countries. In al-Birunijev pharmacopaea, from which nowadays exists only the forword which is translated, it mentioned 850 drugs. Every greater article contains first the name of the definite drug iin Greek, Syrian, Persian and Indian language, and periodically also in other Asian languages, after that come the exceptions from the expert litarature and the data about the view and the action of the got up to drug, its origin, of the different kind, about the falsifying and the suppstituing. But the greater influence upon the countries of the West that work had not.

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a Haq The middle aged Islam had noq Ha specialists in the medicine, except q l lof the eyes.For the oculists existed theH in l special u u u the field of the treatment if taken from shining, from aifwas not made only expression:a S kahval, dying into the black eyelids, than also some other S which the colouring for the
means for the eyes. The ophtalmologic medicine is the field in which the European physicians have far overcome their Greek antecedents. The most indipendable among them contains the extraordinary disease pictures and the catharracts operation descriptions on eyes. He invented the empty needle, by which assistance he could operate the soft satharacta by means of the sucking in. In spite of these advantages, Ammarasov book was quickly ckecked by the book with the practical samples under the name The manual for the ophtalmologists, which at the same time the Bagdad Christian Ali Ibn Isa (Jesu Holy) has written. Here the author first wrote the anatomy of the eye, then the external visual part, and after that the systematically seperated its internal diseases, and by this also the addition with the list from 140 drugs.

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In the other hand the physician for wounds, has not enumarrated

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Haq Haq ul ul into the physicians than he was the assistance in the treatment as a putf ter of ones bones together (mugabbir), which i broken extremities aif Splace. Sa the put on its
The religious prejudices hindered the section of the corps, so that

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q the insignificant. Haq anatomic knowledges werethatq demonstratesArabic medaVaHa field, But the thel Hicine gave the contribution also in ul ul court physician Abu l-Qasim Halaf b. u medical demecum of if the Cordovanian if al-AbdusSa az-Zahrawija (Albucasis, died 1013 a S year). The chapter of his
book was dedicated to the surgery and rests predominently at the sixth book Paulus Aginea, but contains also the significant additions and the pictures through hundred instruments which were important for the development of the European surgery, from which the majority invented and described the author himself. good data. About less successful colleages periodically was heard and written.

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Haq Haq l l f u f u ai ai The S greatest number of the physicians, S about of which life there are

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Haq The first Arabic hospitals and the public health l Haq Haq l 3.7. ul u f u became first known through nonMoslim data. imedicine if The Islamic Sa Sa
That are also the hospitals had nonmoslem models, demonstrates also the Persian name (bimaristan, maristan). The first hospital in Islam was the memorial of Harun ar-Ra{id in Bagdad.

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aq Haq The Barmakidi, whol thrown of 803 year, as is already menHaq were H ul u the hospital which founded, an l tioned, put for the manager of f adviced Tahir, the mayor if u Indian. The i short time a that, S after Sa Chorosana his son, in
one popular description about the art of the town, that he should build for the believers of the hospital, to establish the management and bring the physicians. The main city of Egypt became his first hospital during the government of Ahmed Ibn Tulun 874 year. It was intended for the civil inhabitants, especially the poor. To the soldiers was fobidden the treatment in them. Who would announced for the hospital, had to his cloak and the valuable things evergive by the manager, by the discharge he got them back. The treatment, including the drugs and the sojourn at the hospital was free of charge. To the hospital belonged females and

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Haq l ul males the bathroom, water supplies and the mosque. Theu physic patients f f were locked in the cells. Ibn Tulun visited Sai the hospital every Friday as Sai he could gets convicted that the patients, invalids and the physically ill
patients, well provided for and treated. In its court mosque besides that has made the chemists shop in which every Friday one physician free of charge treated and gave the advices.

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Haq Haq l l In Bagdad hospital, by the beginning of the 10th century was known f u f u i Sinan Ibn Tabit (died 942 year), which wasSa the personal physician also Sai
of halife al-Muqtadire (ruled 908-923 year) and al-Qahira (ruled 932-934 year). He originated from Harran the old Carrahae, and he belonged to the Sabin religion, but per the pressure of al-Qahirsa, he converted to Islam. Year 916 he ruled with five Bagdad hospitals. According to his inducement, were opened also the other hospitals alomgside the empire.

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Haq Haq l l f u f u ai ai OneS in the empire ruled the great S year epydaemia of the infectious
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q halifs by Haq The physicians as the restHaqthe subjects were supervisedHathe l l inspectors (muhtasib). That clerk had the role to supervise also in the ul f uregulations should notaiinjured. There existed f u private life ai S the valuable S be very relevant valid regulations for the physicians, who were to be found
in the police mannual by Ibn al-Uhuwwa (died 1329 year). They were not valid only for the Egypt in the time of Mamfuk, than they existed

diseases, and the vezir Ali Ibn Isa gave the command to Sinan to take care about that as the priseners who diseased had the daily physician care. The vezir even thought also on the diseased in the fields where there were no physicians and directed Sinan to think about that. This should take care also about that how he could sent physicians, and that by this the physician assistance must not be limited only to the Moslems, but also to, as at the hospitals of the main town, nonmoslems also would be provided for. When 931 year one patient died because of the wrong physician treatment, commanded halif al-Muqfadir that in the practice could work only those physicians who were checked by Sinan and who got his testimony. Although in this command some court physicians were excluded from the practice performance, though their number at the exam by Sinan exceeded the cypher from 360. However, that access could not exclude the charlatans and the quacks to further do their job.

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Haq Haq l l also earlier. Reliably uknown that the physiciansf u a guild and is created if had their representative. From them was expected that everyday visit a Sathe closer relatives overgive theirai which in case of S receipt, patient, that
death of a patient could overgive to the commission physician, so in case of the deontologic violation the inheritance could search for the damage. In front of the inspectors would the physician had to give Hippocrates oath: the physician would give his oath that he will not anybody give the drug which is harmful, that he will not give the means for the abortion, to males the means for the prevention of the conception, that by the visit to patients if are the women present, the view direct according the floor, that he will not to anybody discover the secret, that he will not anybody lead into the unpleasant situation. The ophtalmologists have to prove that they have pass the exam, that they govern with Hunains The ten articles about the diseases. By this is rimided to pay the attention on the charlatans dulists who in the streets work and do not possess any expert knowledge.

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which put the bones (mugabbirun) should also be checked a Haq Theythey studied thel Haqby Paulus from Agine, l whethq whether sixth book and H er l u u they know 148 bones u the human body. The physicians who are treatof if (goraden) finally have Saif work about ing withSa the wounds to know Galens the injuries and the oinments (creams) for the wound.

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3.8. How the Arabic medicine q widens into Europe Haq After the 11th century dissapear the golden time oflthe Haq Ha ul ul u Arabic medicine. Though and after 1100 year appears thef series of the known if physicians a emphasized themselves according to their indipendency. Swho Sai
Especially in that emphasized Marocco, where the Islamic phylosophy lived to see the subsequent blooming and by that contributed also to the medicine. So Ibn Zuhr (Avenzoar, about 1091-1161 year), the personal physician of Almohade the knight Abd al-Mumin in Seville, he considered that in medicine the experience the best guide. He was the first who described the ulcers, abscesses of the heart pericardium, he knew the artificial feeding or through the aesophagus or through the large intensitive and recommended the section at the trachea. He orginated

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Haq l ul from the famous physician family, his cousin was f u as a midwife known f and understood the female diseases, the field which in the Arabic mediSai Sai
cine had no special role. The friend of Ibn Zuhrov was the phylosopher Ibn Ru{d (Averroes,

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1126-1198) who in his work The q (al-KulHaq fit-tibb) expresses asl followermain an interpreter of Aristotelaq Ha and rules inthe treatment H phyliyat a l ul u losophy, and if in physiology and in psychology criticizes Galen. In Latin f u translations is kept the Arabic title in the form of Colliget. Sa Sai Also, is the Jew religious phylosopher Maimonides (Moses ben Maimon, 1135-1201 year) origanated from Spain. During the government of Almohad the Jews and the Christians were expelled, so that also their father together with him abondened the fatherland. After the uniquiet life and the peasants, he lived in Egypt. Here he got such a reputation, that the sultan Saladin, and later also his son al-Malik took for his personal physician. Among his works is emphasized one with round 1500 aphorisms - the expert arranged examination of Galen system, where in the 25th chapter Majmon Galen pointed to 40 contradictories. For alMalik al-Ajdala he wrote Maimonides dialectics, which as an aphorism was translated into the Latin language. Besides that he wrote the valuable book from farmacopaea.

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The most significant physician in Cairo in the 13th century was Alauddin Ibn an-Nafis (died 1288 year). Especially he was influenced by prepared one excerption from Ibn Sinaov Cannon (Mudez el-Kanun), which still in that century was studied in India. Also he wrote more comments about the works of the old medical authors. Besides that there was the indipendable scientists - thinker - whose critics were accepted in older authorities. So is with enough accuracy described the lung blood circulation. As the works of Ibn an-Nafis were not translated into Latin language, so also the lung circulation flow, in the countries of East remained unknown, while it did not 1556 year Michael Serventus, without knowledge of his antecedents, discovered again. Not long after death of Ibn an-Nafis Cairo got by the (charitable) foundation of mamlush sultan al-Mansur Qualawuka 1281 year its most known hospital (al-Maristan al-Mansur). That monumental building survived the

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Haq Haq l ul storms of time, and when has Pascal Coste betweenf u 1825 year 1818 and f the subscribed ai S and noticedand monuments of Cairo,i example for those Sa could even notice and every individual room the Halls for patients, for
who were in the phasis of the recovery, every seperated according to the sexes, the cell for psychic ill, the location of the main physician who lived in the hospital and by it ruled, the rooms for the skin physician, a physician for wounds, the hall for the supervision and the gurdian, the kizchen, storehouses and the rest following rooms. It was the antecendent of the nowadays modern hospitals.

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tu in 1349 year across Mauri aq Haqrysidevastatedmotive tol HaqSpain and gave to the twoHfrom phy cians the l ul u write a book about their experiences. One them was from Granada, Ibn al-Hatib (died 1374 year), another the phyf f u i sician from Almeria according the name Ibn a Sai S Hatime. Both discovered the infectious character of the plague and they did not without hesitation those knowledges about the plague clearly to discover in their books. By this they put themselves into the disfavor of the rulers and the millieu, because at the plague was looked at as the God performance.

The black death, the great epydemia of the plague in the 14th cen-

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Haq Haq l l f u the Arabic medicalif u 3.9. Far East continued Sai Sa traditions
However, in the East countries of the Islamic world lived also further the Arabic medicine, only here besides the Arabic was applied the Persian language under Sasanidima (892-999 year). One of the earliert h medical works from this field is the kept newpersian work from pharmacepaea (originates from the second half of the 9th century). By the arrival of Sel|uk the Arabian language more and more was pushed out. From the one still insufficientely expressed documents from these countries, is seperated the mannual from the anatomy, which in 1396 year wrote Mensur Ibn Mohammed. That book from which has in 1847 year in Delhy issued one lytographic edition, describes (into five parts): the bones, nervs, muscles, veins and artheries. The contents itself does not diserve great attention, but much more deserve the illustrations through five anatomic drawings, with which from time to time comes to the picutres of the arterial system of a pragnant woman. These illustrations have

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Haq l l because its similarity u the corresponding drawings u the medical with in f f works ofSai manyfold occupied the medical historyians, especially Europe, Sai
from the period of Ludwig Choulants. However, the historyans of the medicine could not succeed with safety establish whether they rest on the Greek samples.

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a Haq Hundred years laterl Hthe q Haq decrease of Granada 1492 and ul u withand with the discovery oful year with by the expellingf Mauras, f America, i of the sailing a S around of Africa elevated the newai for Europein which S time
schedule is the great stroke had also the science. The influence of Arabism in the medicine kept itself deeply till the 16th century, partially and to the 17th century and in the individual fields as for example in the ophthalmologic medicine and pharmacy even still the 18th century. However, already in the 16th century have the heliocentric systems of Copernik, Galilays, laws of falling down, Keplers explanations of planet movements. Newtons mechanics of the sky bodies, had destroyed the geocentric picture of the world of the Middle century and the phylosophy on which it was founded.

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q Haq Simultaneously in the science q the medicine penetratedHaexHa and l the ul ul f and its value has shown, notif asu theory corperimental method only the Sai Sa rection, but also the primary source of knowledge. By this were exceeded
the deductive systems from the past which rest on the syllogisms. In the anatomy appeared at last the interruption with Galen learning by the discoveries and interpretations of Vesalius 1543 year; to the physiology the new foundations gave William Harvey 1618 year discovering the blood circulation. On the contrary, in Islamic countries has kept the Arabic medicine its old place and only insignificantly seperated from the modern civilization, especially after Napoleons expedition into Egypt, when that country opened to the European civilization.

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19th century countries of Haq In the course of thel Haq the medicine of the l Haq l the setting Sun has become known in almost all the Islamic countries. u u u So the Arabicif medicine has of course still nowadays (tibb yunani, unani if Sa Sa medicine) has become the location of the IndoMoslim modernism, which is introduced 1927 year at the University Aligarh Muhamedan AngloOriental College. Year 1938 was opened there, also the hospital in which

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Haq Haq l ul could be appliedf medicine. Also in Dacca, the capital town of the East this u f Pakistane wasi on then as medical Sa opened, not as thatUniversity,Sai the private wake up school (Tibbia College), and the thirthies years, hoping to
the old art of the treatment, leaning at the European medicine.

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Haq Final considerations aq H Haq 3.10. l l ul The Islamic culture, including also its contribution of the biomedical f u f u i i sciences,Sa esepcially of the medicine, achieved a greatest degree of the S the
development between 9th and 11th century, and has brought also the significant number of the new, very important discoveries during 12th, 13th and 14th centuryes. At that time the West only began to waken up from the dark Middle century and to the 12th century up to the period of the Rennaissance through the translations and the copies in the countries from the dark Middle age. From 12th century and to the period of the Rennaissance, through the translations and copies in the countries of the Pyrrinay and the Appenine paninsula, the Arabic medical manuscripts became available in Latin language. Because of the bad quality of the translation the original medical manuscripts of the Arabic physicians and thinkers lost on the quality, by which the more dilligent translations of the later versions received at their value. But, in spite the bad quality of the translations of this manuscripts in to latin and other languages at the level of the medical education in the west University medical centers, these versions revived the spirit of the science in the west Europe during the whole Middle age.

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Haq Haq ul ul The Islamic authors of the medical and other works have become f f very known for West, but under well changed names, as for example Sai Sai
Razes for Ar-Razia, Avicenna for Ibn Sina, Alhazen for Ibn Haitham, Avenzoar for Ibn Zuhr, Avveroes for Ibn Ru{d etc. Up to those changes in the names has not come at any case come accidentally. This was the result of the religious striving to the cultural worls of the West, and not to speak about the plebs, only the giants are represented wich was imppossible to avoid. It is indusputable the great contribution of the Islamic authors to the development of the biomedical sciences. They n ot only succeeded to preserve the achievements of the preIslamic authors, than

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arabic medicine

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Haq l l they by the ownf u researches gave the great contribution u the developto f ment of Sai these sciences and their disciplines, andi have overgiven to Sa they us as a dowry.
Haisq course of only several centuaq The Arab medicine bloomed the l achievments by the basingul liH ries. The Arabs have made u great the if of the braries aif rich with the books, and by the foundationSa hospitals and schools of the S
in which had been studied the medicine. Indisputably is that are known the papers of the great Arab physicians and the scientists, who have united at the same time also the good part of the ancient phylosophy, played the stimulative and the crucial role in the development of the west medicine. The knowledges added later directely from the Greek resources in time of the humanism and the Rennasance gave the great contribution in the development of the total medicine or their individual disciplines.

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CONCLUSION

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q the phylosophical Haqtheir written text,and scientificataken the European immeGreeks,aq H thought from the ancientl ately,that H is have not over di l ul uone people directly from thef u Only at but the Islamic Arabs, well Orient. the f transpass from Middle age into the New one, begins the development Sai Sai
of the science at the European west, after that earlier has changed the relation of the Catholic church according to the learning of the ancient pagen classics. The church namely frightened that this learning would bring to danger the Christian religion. However, by the Arabic Moslims, that is to the Islam, the studying of the Greek classics have not at least disturbed and they deliggentely translated from the Greek into the Arabic language almost all the more significant papers of Aristotel, Euklide, Arhimed, Ptolomey, and others. Knowing with the Moslim schools, especially in Spain, with the Arab translations of the Greek philosophic and scientific documents, and also with the corresponding contributions of the Arabs themselves, the west etudiants of these souces began to translate by themselves, this time first from the Arabic language, and later directly from the Greek into Latin language and the contents of these comments, introductions into the own univeristies, which in Europe are being based especially in the 14th century. After all, the Europeans

It is interesting, and historycally very significant that the torch of

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Not without irony could be said that the Islam through the Arabs helped the Christian west to get connected with the knowledge of the ancient Greeks and so base the own science, and that base his own science, and that for that unestimated service later the Islam world thank to the souless colonizations in that world, as well as to the uncritical islamophobya according to him. The certain echo of this relation could perceive which time and in some segments of the International atmosphere about the agression on Sarajevo and B&H.

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arabic medicine

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1. Izet Ma{i} i sar. Historija zdravstvene i socijalne kulture Bosne i Hercegovine, 1993., str. 48. 2. Izet Ma{i}. Arapska medicina, 1994., str. 58. 3. Izet Ma{i}. Zemaljska bolnica u Sarajevu, 1994., str. 138. 4. Alauddin ibn al-Nefis. Mudez al-kanun, 1995., str. 362. 5. Izet Ma{i}, Zoran Ri|anovi}, Enes Kujundi}. Ibn Sina - Avicena: @ivot i djelo, 1995., str. 148. 6. Izet Ma{i}. Klasici arapsko-islamske medicine, 1995., str. 96. 7. Izet Ma{i}. Zdravstvo u BiH tokom osmanskog perioda, 1995., str. 40. 8. Izet Ma{i}. Ibn al-Nefis - @ivot i djelo, 1996., str. 40. 9. Kasim Dobra~a. Orijentalni medicinski rukopisi u Gazi Husrevbegovoj biblioteci u Sarajevu, 1997., str. 64. 10. Izet Ma{i}, Almir Budalica. Znanstveni opus Zakariyyaa ar-Razija, 1997., str. 52. 11. Izet Ma{i}. @ivot i djelo Ibn Ru{da, 1997., str. 16. 12. Izet Ma{i}, Almir Budalica. Ibn al-Haitham - otac optike, 1997., str. 43. 13. Enes Kujundi}, Izet Ma{i}. Znanstveni opus Abu Rayhan al-Birunija, 1997., str. 32. 14. Izet Ma{i} i sar. Doprinos islamske tradicije razvitku medicinskih znanosti, 1998., str. 212. 15. Sabira Hadovi}, Izet Ma{i} i sar. Attari i njihov dopirnos razvoju farmacije u BiH, 1999., str. 160. 16. Izet Ma{i}, Enes Kujundi}. Uvod u izvore za istraivanje historije islamske zdravstvene kulture, 1999., str. 100.

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Picture 1.

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This miniature is from Codex A.F. 10 of the Austrian National Li brary. The manuscript, containing a mere 31 pag es, is invaluable as the second-oldest Galen text extant in Arabic. The oldest manuscript, from the 12th century, is in the Bibliotheque nationale in Paris. The illustration shows the portraits of the nine physicians who contributed to improving the theriac, while the text describes its powers and composition. From right to left we see in the first row: Andromachus, Pherecydes, Pylagoras; in the second row: Pericles, pythagoras, Marinus; and in the third row: Andromachus the Younger, Magnus, Galen. Vienna, Austrian National Library, Codex A.F. 10. Arabic translation of the first book of Galens Treatise on electuaries, attributed to John the Grammarian. First half of the 13th century. Folio 1 verso.

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Haq ul Picture 2. f next illustration SaiOur shows two rare also
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representations of per sons. This min ia ture de picts two doctors whose names are giv en in the Arabic script above their heads: Fartilus and Venzerius. The illustration comes from the same manuscript as the previous one (2 verso). The colours of a third figure, un for tu n al tey, are almost completely faded. The Turks still regret that Dioscorides, the Father of pharmacy, without whose original research the development of later and medieval pharmacology would have been inconceivable, remained an idolater and did not become a Christian, thus one of the peoples of the Book, even though he was born at the beginning of the second half of the first century. Pedanius Dioscorides came from Cilicia, a region in Asia Minor (Anatolia) bordering in the east on Syria and in the south on the Mediterranean. Galen also refers to him as Tarseus, the man from Tarsus, the capital. According to the classical sources, Dioscorides was born in a town called Anazarbus, now in the district of Ceyhan, Adana province, Cilicia, Anazarbus was an ancient city and a centre of civilization. Arab sources refer to it as Ayn Zarbah, which later became Anavarza.

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Portraits of Is lam ic doctors are extremely rare, and only a few examples are known. Either the pic tures show the ide al ized portrait of the doctor, lacking any individual facial traits (there are similar protraits of the Proph et himself), in which the phy si cian is depicted as an allegorical figure; or those portrayed are the teachers of Islamic medicine, mostly doctors of classical Antiquity usually clothed in Arab, Persian or Turkish dress and bearing the insignia of the scholar caste. Although the doctor had no official attire, as a worthy man of learning he wore a long gown and had a beard; he never appeared in the short coat of the craftsman or peasant. Our illustration shows two students of Dioscorides. The prohibitions of living things in Islam is much disputed. It is not actually found in the Quran, but in Hadith (the record of the Traditions of Muhammad) and is interpreted differently by various schools of thought: the creation of images of living beings is viewed as an attempt to vie with God, the creator of all things. Istanbul, Topkapi Sarayi Muzesi. De Materia dated 626 A.H. (or A.D. 1229). Ahmet III, 2127, Folio 1 recto (left title page).

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Haq Haq Haq Picture 4. ul ul ul f f In an earlier booklet, we reproduced the dispensai illustrated in a BaghSaifrom 1224 of the work of Diosco-rides. The original is now Sa ry dad manuscript
in the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York. The miniature depicted here is similar and is also dated 1224. It is taken from another Diocorides manuscript (in Istanbul) containing the fourth and fifth books of Materia Medica as well as a work of Hunayn, the Kitab al-karma. According to E.J. Grube in his article Materialien zum Dioskurides Arabicus, only this miniature has remained in the Istanbul manuscript. Thirty leaves containing miniatures of the very highest quality are now in fifteen different public and private collections in Europe and America. Istabnul, Aya Sofya Muzesi, MS 3703. Dated Rajab 621 (i.e. 1224 AD, June-July). Folio 2 recto.

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There eist representations aq legend recounting the discovery q Haq theriacvariousphysician Andromachus. Although the theriacl Haof H of the the by the was not the ul ul panacea or cure-all against every type of disease which the u mists had alche f f always sought, it was conidered a universal antidote, especially for snake Sai Sai bites. One explanation is that a scientific foundation to immunotherapy and serology was still centuries in the future. The word theriac is probably derived from the Greek ther (wild animal). In Hellenistic times writings known as theriaka dealing with wild and usually poisonous animals were widespread. The scene depicted overleaf shows the physician Andromachus out riding. He sees a boy kill a snake which has just bitten him. The boy then prepares an antidote from the snakes flesh and the berries of the laurel tree. Vienna, Austrian National Library, Codex A.F. 10. Arabic translation of the first book of Galens Treatise on electuaries. First half of the 13th century. Folio 2 verso.

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Haq Haq Haq Picture 6. ul ul ul f taken from the same manuscriptf the previous two, Our last illustration, ai Ssnake venom was obtained to produceai as antidote. Snakes S the theriac shows how
(vipers) released their poison by biting puppets with human form from which the venom was then extracted. While most theriac compounds in Islamic manuscripts are clearly derived from classical sources, there do exist recipes of completely Arab origin. Jabir ibn Hayyan, considered the father of Arabic chemistry, is the greatest alchemicst of the Arabs and perhaps of the Middle Ages. In Western writings he came to be known as Geber. The exact dates of his birth and death are not recorded, but he was probably born in Kufah in Mesopotamia and emigrated to Spain (after the fall of the Umayyad dynasty in A.D. 750) where he taught at the University in Seville. Innumberable works are ascribed to Jabir (some of them no doubt falsely attributed at a later date), including a Book of Poisons, perhaps the oldest work on toxicology. It treats not only the production and properties of poisons but also the question of antidotes. The work provides some interesting and specifically Arab theriac recipes. Vienna, Austrian National Library, Codex A.F. 10. Arabic translation of the first book of Galens Treatise on electuaries. First half of the 13th century. Folio 15 verso.

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This illustration portrays a curiosity, the treatment of hermaphroditism in a aq In those days, physicians devoted much of their time to the treataq ment H woman. Haq that could impair reproductiveness. of any disturbances in ul or woman man l l H u At the same time, surgery was concerned with the apparently numerous f f u i diseasesSa resulting directly or indirectly from climatic and geographical Sai conditions (through perspiration, for instance, or the effect of the desert sand). This applied to diseases of the genitalia (prophylaxis: circumcision!) and of the anus. Abscesses, fistulae and hemorrhoids, because common, were discussed indetatil in the medical textbooks. Nowadays, proctology is the Cinderelly of surgery. In ancient Egypt, however, the specialists and personal physicians of the pharaoh also included a guardian of the royal anus. Paris, Bibliotheque nationale. Sharaf-ad-din ibn Ali (second half of the 15th century). MS Suppl. turc 693, dated 1465. Vol. II, folio 110 verso.

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books, especially the numberous tran scrip tions of Sharaf-ad-din ibn Ali (second half of the 15th century), and works expanded at a later date give considerable space to and detailed advice on the subject of gynecology and, more particularly, obstetrics. This cannot be said of the il lus tra tions. Repre sen ta tion of the female body was theoretically forbid den or at least frowned upon. The exegete who in terpret ed the sacred writings literally was obliged to denounce, for instance, disregard of the prescriptions regarding fasting or alcohol abstention as a punishable offence - provided the scriptures and their commentaries did n ot allow for exceptions. Medical matters had, however, always been exempt. The islamic Hakim was a physician, not - like the doctors of ancient Egypt and Persia - a doctor-cleric, i.e. he had not passed at least the first examination for priesthood. How, then, was he to safeguard himself against the criticism of the theologians, whose tolerance depended on whatever rites happened to prevail at the time? Hence, though we find all sorts of suggestions and advice in the surgical and obstetric textbooks, illustrations are few and far between. The very few - late - exceptions include this and the preceding miniature, which are taken from a Turkish manuscript. Istanbul, MIllet Kutuphanesi, MS Tibb 79. Folio

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In the Orient, as in the West, the demarcationline between the leading dis ci plines of theoretical medicine - anatomy and physiology in their normal and pathological manifestations - was not so clearly drawn in the Middle Ages, or even more recently, as it is today. Systematic and exact scientific research, or causal thinking of any kind were, of course, completely out of the question. Science was for the most part speculative and philosophical, deeply rooted in tradition, based on weltanschauung or interpreted in the light of religious dogma; only rarely was it enriched by empirical knowledge. The core of this world view were macrocosm-microcosm speculation and the theory of the four humours. To these doctrines even anatomy and, of course, splanchnology were subordinated. Our illustration shows the muscular system. Philadelphia, Library of the College of Physicians. Teshirihi Insan (Anatomy of Man), by Mansur bin Muhammad bin Ahmed (A.d. 1396). 19th - century Persian manuscript. By courtesy of Historical Collections, College of Physicians of Philadelphia.

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Haq In this issue we are l showing miniatures that f u lus trate outlySaili areas certainfield of ing of the
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surgery and of medical disciplines in the modern sense: ob stet rics, oph thal mol o gy and otorhinolaryngology. In Europe, gynecology only separated from the comprehensive field of surgery as a special discipline in the early 19th century, oph thalmi same time and otorhinolaryngology even later, in the second half of the cen tu ry. In contrast, the an cient Egyptians and other early peoples of the Near East had their specialists, and this indigenous tradition passed on in wholly organic fashion to the medical practitioners of the Copts and of Islam, though without todays high degree of compartmentalization. The first illustration in the present series represents an event of Iranian mythology: the birth of the Persian national hero Rustum by cesarian section. Stylistically and also chronologically, this miniature is a natural extension of those already presented here from manuscripts belonging to the Musee Conde in Chantilly and the Metropolitan Museum in New York. Other notable examples are to be found in the British Library and in the Library of the India Office, London. Naples, Biblioteca Nazionale, MS III. Birth of Rustum. 16-17th century miniature from a manuscript of the Shah-nameh (Book of Kings) of Ferdowsi (11th century).

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individual manuscript leaves in the possesion of the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York. They belong to a uniaue manuscript of the Hagia Sofia LIbrary that is now in the Topkapi Sarayi Museum in Istanbul, containing the fourth and fifth books of the Materia Meica by Dioscorides and a work by Hunayn, Kitab al-Karma. Only a single miniature remains in the Istanbul manuscript; thirty leaves with miniatures are scattered throughtout fifteen public collections in Europe and America. They are of particular interest because they depict not only the plants and animals found in all illustrated Dioscorides manuscripts but also persons and techniques of drug preparation in use at the time (A.d. 1224). The manufacture of an aromatic (strongly spiced) wine against cold and coughs: between two trees, a funnel is suspended on a tripod over a large vessel placed on the ground. A physician, his right hand lifted to his face while he hendles a mortar with his left, is seated on a stool to the right. A large jar stands at the left. New York, The Metropolitan Museum of Art. dioscorides and Hunayn, Baghdad school of miniaturists, dated Rajab 621 AH (June-July A.D. 1224). Calligrapher and and miniaturist (?) Abdallah ibn al-Fadl. Inv. No. 13.152.6.

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Picture 12.

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This illustration and the one that follows depict the manufacture of drugs. It is said that the ancient Egyptians dis cov ered chemistry as well as astrology. Indded, the root of the word chemistry has by some been traced back to the Egyptian kem, meaning black (now a days we refer to sor cery as black magic). Once the alchemists realized that they were unsuccessful in producing precious metals or the panacea, many turned to chemotherapy, a science neglected in the writings of the Ancients who had devoted their energy in the main to investigating drugs of vegetable and animal origin. The pharmacists also adopted production processes from the alchemists. The oldest distillate of organic matter is probably alcohol (production of which is theoretically forbidden by an interpretation of the Quran, but permitted for medicinal purposes). Many technical terms have been assimilated by modern European languages. The alembic and aludel, a destillation still and sublimation pot invented by the Arabs and first produced in Syria, are but two examples. Our illustration shows the preparation of a compress against a tarantula bite. Presumably from Pseudo-Dioscoridess book on poisonous animals. From an Arabic Dioscorides manuscript of Mesopotamian origin (Baghdad School), A.D. 1224. Washington, Freer Gallery of Art.

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The iatric sciences of the Middle Ages go back to the writings of the mythical Hermes Trismegistos. Our particular interest in this context is iatric chemistry rather than iatric mathematics and physics (iatrike tekhne is Greek for the art of healing). Only iatric mathematics can be traced back to earliest times. Synonymous with astrological medicine, it is apparently of Babylonian origin and was passed on by the Greeks and their Hispano-Arab and Jewish translators. Iatric chemistry and physics began in the 16th and 17th centuries when medicine was being underpinned by scientific disciplines. Iatric chemistry was doubtless a product of the alchemists who also supplied the necessary accessories for a doctrine that was later declared a science. It was founded partly on traditional theoretical beliefs and partly on traditional theoretical beliefs and partly on empirical discoveries. There is no byproduct or waste product from the refining process of stone or metal that has not been tested for its pharmacological properties at one time or another. Here we have the origins of modern chemotherapy! Our illustration shows the production of an phthalmic medicine from the buds of the wild vine or oinanthe mentioned by Dioscorides. From an Arabic Dioscorides manuscript dated A.D. 1224. Mesopotamia; Baghdad School of Miniaturists. Washington, Freer Gallery of Art.

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Picture 14.

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Abu l- Qasim s writ ings on instru ments show a peltho ra of artefacts adapt ed for use in the medical field. It is possible that the author did not go beyond the pictorial representation of these instruments. Practical textbooks in medieval Islamic countries were inconceivable without illuminated lettering and illustrations. But just as the artist had to dispense with the most effective of the decorative elements, i.e. the representation of human beings and animals - turning instead to calligraphy, arabesques and geometrical designs - so, too, did the scientist apparently limit himself to reproduction of medical and surgical instruments. Just as the artist went on creating new arabesques, so, too, may the scientific author have contented himslef with the purely pictorial creation of ever different

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Picture Haq 15. Haq Haq l l ul In the western world, itu not until the second half of the u century that f wasfrom general surgery to form a special discipline, f lest laryngologyaideteched was ai followed Sfew decades later by rhinology andS a otology. In the Islamic Orient as in Europe, these medical fields were for centuries a part of surgery per se (unlike ophthalmology and dentistry, for instance). In both East and West, the combination oto-rhinolaryngology may be said to be a creation of the last hundred years. As regards investigation methods, the technical resources which we today take for granted were indeed limited. This was due mainly to the empiricism of the diagnostician and its theoretical basis, i.e. the humoral pathology passed down from time immemorial. The cellular pathology founded by Rudolf Virchow in the middle of the 19th centruy brought about a basic change and led indirectly to the emergence of distanct medical disciplines. The diagnostic measures performed with technical aids or instrument in medieval times are not immediately distinguishable from thereapeutic procedures. From Antiquity, an empirical method of diagnosis has been handed down which was based on trial treatment: ex iuvantibus. The results of experimental research (not to mention their distribution and statistical evaluation) were to come later. This illustration shows the investigation (and/or treatment) of a patient with an ear disorder. Istanbul, Millet Kutuphanesi, MS Tibb 79. Folio 55 verso. A.D. 1465/66.

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Haq l Picture 16. f u ai SSince the days of Antiquity,
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geographical, geological and climatic factors have resulted in a much greater frequency of eye diseasess in the Orient than in the European West. As ancient Egypt, Islam had specialists in ophthalmology who added to the store of knowledge of the Ancients (more so than in other fields of medicine) through their ownn experience and whose writings had a more permanent effect on Western thinking than did lslamic textbooks of other disciplines. Our illustration is taken from a 13thcentury manuscript of Hunain bin Ishaq (809-873). His ten books on the eye, known as Kitab al-ashr maqalat fi l-ain, the oldest textbook of its kind, is divided into the following subjects: 1. Nature of the eye; 2. Nature of the brain; 3. Optic nerve, and sight; 4. Hygiene; 5. Cause of accidents to the eye; 6. Features of diseases of the eye; 7. Medicinal powers; 8. Medicines for the eye; 9. Treatment of ocular diseases; 10. Prescriptions. Cairo, Egyptian National Library. MS 100 Tibb Taimur.

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Title page of The Book of the True Properties of Drugs by Abu Mansur Muwaffak ibn Ali al-Harawi (Codex Vin do bon en sis A.F. 340). This is an exceptionally valuable manuscript because it is the oldest extant specimen in Persian. Arabic served as the lan guage of prose and poetry in Persia from the time of the Arab conquest in the seventy century. It was not until the tenth century that feelings of nationhood began to awake at the courts of the national dynasties which had risen to power in Persia and that poetry and scientific prose were rendered in Persian. Nothing is known about the origin of this manuscript. As an item in the Imperial Court Library (now the Austrian National Library) in Vienna it predates the year 1820. A complete facsimile edition of the work was published in 1972 in Graz (Austria) by the Akademische Druck - und Verlagsanstalt, by whose courtesy the illustration of the title page is reproduced here.

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Haq Picture 18. l u i illustrations of the The f Sa manuscript are, in present
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part, copies of the Arabic original, which was illuminat ed iin Mesopotamia towards the end of the 12th century. The text was translated into Persian at the command of Il-Khan Mahmud Ghazan (12951304), the Mongolian ruler of Persia. Drugs of an i mal origin utilize a broad variety of creatures: in sects, freshwater and salt wa ter fish, amphibians and reptiles, birds, rodents, mammals, venison, domestic animals, artiodactyla and perissodactyla. The restrictions of Islamic dietary laws extend not only to pork but also to various other mammals (in particular perissodactyla) and especially to reptiles, insects, birds of prey and all carnivorous animals; they do not apply to the medical field. It would appear that the medicinal use of animal species forbidden as food was intended as a kind of irritation therapy (as it is still practised today in the trditional medicine of India, Cina and Japan). The Illustration shows a rhinoceros. New York, The Pierpont Morgan Library. Manafi alhayawan, by Bukht Yishu. Tabriz 1295. MS 500, folio 14 verso.

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Haq l Pictureu 19. f original tratise The Sai Manafi al-hayawan
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was probably written by Ubayd Allah, son of Gibril and personal physician to the Abbasid cacliph Al-Mutta qi. According to a lesslikely hypothesis, it is the work of Abu Sa id Ubayd Allah II, a grandson of the aforementioned, who died about 1058 A.D. The genealogical table of the Bukht Yishu dynasty of physicians is giv en in A Medical History of Persia (1951) by C. Elgood. In Islamic pharmacology, medicines of vegetable origin are much more frequent than those of animal or mineral origin. However, the pharmacopeias always include some animal and mineral recipes, such as the theriac. This illustration shows two elephants. Healing properties in paronychia have been attributed to gratings of elephant tusk ever since the time of Dioscorides. It has astringent powers and is midly desiccant. Ali ibn Isa ibn Ali, a student of Ishaq ibn Hunayn, and the later Ibn al-Durayhim (14th century) also wrote treatises of the same name. New York, The Pierpont Morgan Library. Manafi al-hayawan, by Bukht Yishu.

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Haq ul Picture 20. f The plant depicted here is called Sai in the text of shauk yahudi
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Dioscorides, and is identical to Acanthus mollis L. (Acanthaceae) - the white acanthus. It also goes by the name of bears-breech or bearspaw; the designation bearsbreech, however, is applied as well to an entirely different plant, viz. Heracleum sphondylium L. (Apiaceae family, formerly Umbelliferae); both plants are described in the writings of Dioscorides and of more ancient authors. The use of the popular name for different plants is not important, since this occurred ina wide variety of plants, including medicinal herbs. Pliny and Dioscorides dis tin guish between two different species of acanthus: the one reproduced here, and the so-called wild acanthus-a species that likewise belongs to the Acanthanceae family, but which has been described in differing terms by a number of authors. In antiquity, Acanthus mollis was cultivated in gardens, partly also as an ornamental plant. According to Vitruvius IV, 1,8, the leaves were used by the sculptor Kallimachos as a model for the capitals of Corinthian columns, where we still find them today. In the pharmacognosy of the ancient Egyptians, the acanthus is apparently not described, and is absent too in the pharmacology of the Copts. In Islamic medicine, it plays a specific, but not prominent, role. The Dioscorides text stattes that the roots of these plants serve as a poultice in burns and sprains; when taken as a potion, they promote the production of urine and alleviate diarrhea. They are also highly effective in tuberculosis, internal ruptures, and spasm. Detailed medical formulations are not given. Thus the plant, which today has such significance as a model in art-historical ornamentation and which has become generally well known, enjoys comparatively less significance in medical terms. But like many varieties of thistie it was used as a decorative plant in antiquity; and this fact most likely expalins why the plant was to play such a significant role in the ornamentation of buildings. De Materia Medica, dated 866-869 AH (1461-1464

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Haq l Picture 21. u f These are leaves from the plant Sai over a number of lovage, which
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decades have been rediscovered in northem and central Europe as a spice for flavouring sauces and soups. In the Dioscorides text it is called kasham (ka{am) (in Greek, Lugstikon; in Latin, Levisticum officinale, or genuine lovage). However, only the root of the lovage herb - RAdix levistici Koch (Umbelliferae) - has been used for medicinal purposes ever since ancient times. Cultivated as a pot-herb in cot tage gardens, above all in Ger ma ny, its original habitat cannot be determined with complete certainty (most likely southem Europe). As with most pot-herbs that are also used for medical purposes, the plants content in essential oils, resins, and bitter constituents is decisive, with the leaves and the root exhibiting highly differing concentrations and proportions of these substances. The root of the biennial-to-triennial plant is used, whereas the plant itself is cultivated from strip cuttings. Even today, Radix levistici is mentioned in pharmacopeias and pharmacognostic textbooks. Dioscorides equated the effect of the root with that of the seed. He wrote that the roots potency exerted an effect of warmth, aided digestion, and also helped in intestinal diseases, in digestion,and in edema and flatulence, particularly in the stomach (i.e. as a carminative, in modern parlance, just as are many essential oils) - and for the treatment of bites from poisonous animals. When drunk as a potion, these plants promote urinary output and aid menstruation; the root, if inserted as a suppository, achieves the same effect. As digestants, both the root and the seed are often admixed with the constituents from other medicinal herbs. The natives of Liguria, a region in nortwestern Italy, use the seeds of the plant instetad of pepper to add to their meals. Istanbul, Topkapi Sarayi Museum. Dioscorides, De Materia Medica, dated 866-869 AH (1461-1464 A.D.). Ahmet III, 2147. Folio 384 recto.

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Haq Haq l l f u f u Picture 22. ai ai S the right is identified as a species Sanemone (Ranunculaceae), The plant on of
while that on the left as a species of orchis (Orchidaceae). Dioscorides distinguishes two types of anemone, a wild and a cultivated one. The root can be variously employed to lear the head, loosen sputum, heal different ocular conditions and clean ulers. The leaves and the stalk improvelactation, aid menstruation and also cure leprosy. The remarks of Dioscorides on the orchis are, apparently, based on hear-say. He claims that the large roots, if eaten by a man, will bring about the birth of a boy, while the small roots, if eaten by a woman, will cause the birth of a girl. It was variously ascribed aphrodisiacal and antiaphrodisiacal properties. Moreover, it has the power to cure edema, clean ulcers and arrest serpiginous ulers. It removes fistulae and soothes inflammations. In dry form, it stops putrefaction and ulceration, while, when taken with wine, it cures diarrhea. Istanbul, Topkapi Sarayi Museum. Dioscorides, De Materia Medica, dated 866-869 AH (1461-1464 A.D.). Ahmet III, 2147. Folio 319 recto.

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This and the following illustrations of medicinal plants were chosen for their ar tis ti cal ly pleasing composition, combining plants and an i mals. This il lustra tion rep re sents a plant called britanike or bretannnika or bettonika in Dioscorides. The identity of the plant, which is similar to and yet different from wild sorrel, cannot be ascertained. It is also mentioned by Pliny, who calls it britannica and says that it cured thrush and paralysis of the knee in a slodier on Caesars campaign beyond the Rhine. Dioscorides or one of his students has this to say about the indication: Freshly pounded and laid on a head wound caused by a blow, it relieves pain. It also closes wounds and extracts broken bones if it is changed every day until healing takes place. It cures headaches if it is boiled in water which is then poured over the head; alternatively, it may be rubbed with asphalt into the temples or the latter may be treated with the smoke of the root.

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The lower illustration shows a plant that is called dhanb al-khayl in the Dioscorides text (Equisetum arventse L.), and which belongs to the Eq ui seta ce ae family, the horsetails (or scouring rush). It was known as pherphra to the Egyptians, hippuris to the Greeks, and equisetum to the Romans. It grows upwards by attaching itself to neighbouring stems, and then hangs down, surrounded by dark hair-like struc tures, similar to a horses tail. The medicinal plant is rich in silcic acid, and contains a saponin equisetonin. Pliny provides a precise description of the horsetail, and reports that the plant possesses such potency that merely touching it controly hemorrhage. Dioscorides gives a more detailed description: the root is wooden and hard in consistency; the foliage acts as an astringent, and hence the plants juice arrests severe bleeding from the uterus. When taken as a potion with wine, the plants is an aid in dysentery, and also promotes urinary output. The leaves, when sprinkled on the affected area as a finely ground powder, seal bleeding wounds; the root and foliage exert a healing action in cough, orthopnea, and internal ruptures. It also said that when the leaves are taken with water, they can heal trauma of the viscera, rupture of the bladder, or hernia. Istanbul, Topkapi Sarayi Museum, Dioscorides, De Materia Medica, dated 866-869 AH (1461-1464 A.D.). Ahmet III, 2147. Folio 388 verso.

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Haq This ul shows f illustrationof the ifour species Sa Batrachium, an Asiatic
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Ra nun cu lus (but tercup). Dioscorides too distinguished four spe cies, which later com men ta tors have identified as Ranun cu lus asi at i cus, Ra nun cu lus lan guino sus, RA nun cu lus muricatus and Ranuncu lus aquatilis. The indications for these four plants seem to be essentially identical. The leaves, blossoms and stalk have scab-forming properties. They cure scabby nails and the itch, remove stigmate and warts, and correct alopecia. They can also be employed in a warm poultice for frostbite. Furthermore, the roots were used against toothache and to cause sneezing. Later herbals ascribed a h yperermic, astringent and, in particular, keratolytic action to this drug. Istanbul, Topkapi Sarayi Museum. Dioscorides, De Materia Medica, dated 866-869 AH (1461-1464 A.D.). Ahmet III, 2147. Folio 327 verso.

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This illustration is taken from a manuscript of the Khawass al-Ashijar (The Properties of Plants) by Dioscorides. It is of Mesopotamian origin (Baghdad) and dated A.D. 1240. The copyist was Al-Hasan ibn Ahmad ibn Muhammad an-Nashawi. This miniature shows the same plant in two different stages: before and after flowering. The family is called luffah or yaqtini in Arabic and resembles the eggplant when the latter turns yellow. However, to judge by the unmistakably anthropoid form of the rootstock, the plant presumably was a mandrake (Mandragora officinalis). Mandrake, along with the other Solanceae, played a key role in Oriental and Western mysticism and pharmacology from the Middle Ages right up to modern times because of this resemblance and its efficacious alkaloids. Al-Biruni (A.D. 973-1051) provides a long description in his treatise on pharmaceutics: Two forms appear when it (mandrake) is cloven in the middle: the male and the female shapes. The flower, he continues, resembles the mask of an actor stickingout his tongue. Mandrake brings sleep within three or four hours. Prior to the discovery of anesthesia, a soporific sponge, consisting of extract of mandrake compounded with other medicinals, was used to induce insensitivity to pain. Oxford, Bodleian Library, MS. arab. d. 138, gift of Sir William Osler, 1926. Folio 120 a. By courtesy of the Curators of the Bodleian Library, Oxford, England.

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Haq l Picture 27.u f This Saiis an illustration of the

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lentil plant (Lens culinaris or Lens esculenta). It is astonishing to note the pharma co log i cal importance Dioscorides at tached to the common lentil. He says, among other things: It (the lentil) arrests diarrhea when eaten with the pod. Its effect is manifested in gastrointetinal peristalsis, when vinegar, wild succory or purslane, beetroot, myrtle berriers, pomegranate bark, dried roses, medlars, mountain-ash berries, Theban pears, quinces, chicories, plantain, or whole nutgalls are admixed, or sumac for that matter. The consump tion of thirty len tils 9pods removed0 helps to alleviate upset stomach. Boiled with barley and applied as a poultice, they relieve podagra (gout). When mixed with honey, they seal fistulous openings, loosen scabs and cleanse ulcers. When boiled with vinegar, they soften indurations and decrease glandular swelling. Boiled with white clover or quinces, and added to rose oil, they can cure tumours of the eye and anus; when larger body apertures are affected, honey is admixed to the lentils. The addition of sea water is recommended: in corrosive, gangrenous ulcers; for pustules, serpiginous ulcers, rosette-like inflammations and frostibite, and indurated and swollen breasts. But Dioscorides also warns about the occurrence of meteorism and bad dreams if lentils are eaten to excess, above al when the initial decoction is not discarded. Hence lentils served partly as a vehicle for other ingredients, but partly too as a type of wound paste or healing plaster, just as honey, or in a mixture with the latter. Istanbul, Topkapi Sarayi Muzesi. From an Arabic translation of Dioscorides, De Materia Medica. Northern Iraq, or Syria, dated 1229. Ahmet III, 2, 127, folio 80, recto.

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Haq ul fPicture 28. Sai This illustration
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shows the medicinal plant sadij. The Islamic prohibition against images, so often misjudged in the Occidental literature, theoretically refers to likenesses of men and animals. The historical developpent, however, has witnessed widely disparate interpretations of this prohibition by the various rites and orders of Islam. Nevertheless, even the most rigorous religious observance excepted scientific representation from all these restrictions. This is even true of those laws which are directly derived from the Quran. A single example will suffice: the consumption of alcohol - or rather wine - is freely permitted if its use is justified for medical reasons. In this event if is considered a drug

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Haq ul Picture 29. f Like Sai the preceding illus-

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tration, this picture comes from one of the most inter est ing manuscripts in the possession of the British Library: an Arabic bestiary that represents a com pi la tion made in the 13th century, based on Ar is to t le (and other authors of Antiquity) and writings by Ubayd Allah ibn Gibra ill ibn Bukht Yishu. We have already explained the significance of the Bukht Yishu family in connection with the foregoing plate. Like his ancestors and his brother. Ubayd Allah i served as the personal phy si cian and court doctor of an Abbasid caliph, reputedly al-Muttaqi, while his father. Gibrail I, had performed these duties in Baghdad for Harun ar-Rashid, al-Amin, and al-Mamun (after Brownes Chahar Maqala, page 145). The subject of animals as a source of therapeutic agents was scarcely ever discussed, since plant and mineral preparations were chiefly employed, whereas those of animal origin were of secondary immportance. The illustration does not focus on the medicinal plant, which it seems can no longer be classified, even today, while the cicadas shown in the picture are immediately discernible as such. If nowadays we compare the pharmacology known in Antiquity with, for example, the jnanani system of medicine in India, which - like its name - is based on the tradition of the ancient lonians, then we note that animal ingredients were employed above all in compounded drugs and antidotes, which in themselves were hardly more than aphrodisiacs (e.g. pulverized sea-horse, such as is still used in traditional Chinese medicine). London, The British Library. MS or. 2,784, folio 60, verso. Reproduced by permission of The British Library.

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Haq ul Picture 30. if The Sa illustrations reproduced here show three species of the halfa or
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alfa (needlegrass) plant, as explained in the text. This so-called needlegrass, or halfa grass is what the Spaniards know as esparto, a designation given to several varieties of grass, in particualr Stipa tenacissima L. (Macrochloa tenacissma Kunth) and Lygeum spartum, both of which are very common in Spain and northern Africa. The leaves, measuring 3050 cm in length, display a greenish colour, and are yellowich after they have lain a long time on the ground; they are also blade-like and cylindrical (the two more or less semicircular halves of each leaf fit tightly together). The leaves are extremely delicate and flexible, yet tough and sinewy, and do not break easily; they have been used since earliest times iin waving and in the manufacture of ropes. By treating the raw fibre with chemicals, a slender, white fibre is obtained, which consists of whilly intact epidermal and bast-fibre cells. From about the year 1890, this raw material became a commodity much in demand; England in particular imported it for the manufacture of paper (needlegrass paper) in large quantities from Spain, Algeria, and Tunisia. As early as 1870, the dried leaves were utilized in Austria to produce draughtstraws for Virginia cigars. Needlegrass as an actual medicine does not enjoy a prominent position; however, it may be assumed that the grass has been used since earliest times as a bandaging material when suitably processed. The use of needlegrass for dressings is probably older than mankind itself. Halfaya (Dar Halfai) is the name of the region in southern Nubia, situated on both sides of the River NIle, below the confluence of the White NIle and the Blue Nile. This area abounds in bird life, and numerous species of birds are fond of using needlegrass to build their nests. A certain number of species in this region, displaying behaviour obviously derived from their nest-building instinct, have also been observed to apply genuine bandages fashioned from needlegrass to wounds or injuries on their legs (extremities). Istanbul, Topkapi Sarayi Museum. Dioscorides, De Materia Medica, dated 866-869 AH (1461-1464 A.D.). Ahmet III, 2147. Folio 390 verso.

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Haq Haq Haq ul ul ul Data about the author f f Sai born on the June 1952, Gra~anica Sai IZET MA[IC
(B&H) where he finished the primary school and secondary grammar school. The Medical faculty graduated in 1976. The Postgraduate studying from the Social medicine and the organization of the healthcare protection he graduated at the Medical faculty in Sarajevo 1978 year. The specialistic examination from Socail medicine and the organization of the healthcare protection he passed in 1982 year. The master thesis from the field of the Medical informatics he retained succesfully in 1985 year, and the doctor thesis from the same field he retained sucessfully in 1990.

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Haq Haq l l f u f u Saias assistant professor on theSai the Social medicine He worked subject
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Haq Up to now has published about 30 different monographicHaq Haq l l publiul cations, and over 300u scientific and research papers. Heu the founder is f f and the Sadent of the Society for the medicali formatics B&H, and presi i in SaEuropean Federation of the member of the Executive committee of the
the Medical Informatics and the General Assembly of the International Medical Informatics Association and European Public Health Association (EUPHA).

in 1991 year at the Medical Faculty, Faculty of Dental Medicine and at the Higher Medical School of the University of Sarajevo. From March 1998 year he is working as the full professor of the Medical informatics. He is the founder and the head of the Centre for the Medical informatics of the Medical faculty of the University of Sarajevo. He stayed at the improvement in several University centers (Montpellier, London, Moscow, Warshava, Prrague). He is visiting professor, also in some university centers.

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Haq Haq l l Instantenously is the chief and editor in charge of the journals: Acta f u f u i S Medica, Materia socio Medica aiMedical archive. S and Informticaa
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