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High Order Harmonics In Zero-Sequence Earth Fault Currents Of Isolated Neutral MV Networks

HANI OBEID Electrical & Computer Department P.O.Box 950674, Amman 11195 JORDAN Haniob@gmail.com www.asu.edu.jo
Abstract: - This paper investigates the effect of high-order harmonics on the value of earth fault current in isolated neutral MV networks. The relay protection in these networks is intended to give an alarm in case of earth faults. The selective protection of these networks requires the study of transient character of the current in order to develop relays that are sensible to small impulses of current during intermittent earth faults. Key-words:- Earth Fault Current, Zero Sequence, MV Network, Isolated Neutral. configuration, the time of fault occurrence, and the time of arc extension. Settings of the relay protection that are based on steady state condition have not been selected according to real fault conditions. The same could be applied to the directional relay, working zone of which is defined based on current voltage phasor diagrams in steady state condition; however, this relay should operate in transient condition when short term current impulses occur. Filter of the basic frequency in the input of some devices does not change the situation; because there is no way that the fault could be periodically at each instant. c. The devices type HSS-3, ZM HSS, which are widely used in city cable and industrial networks, react on harmonics of high order, which contradict the current compensation principle by coil installed in the neutral. If earth faults current contains high order harmonics, capacitive compensation should not be applied, because compensation is applied for basic frequency and the harmonics of high order will lead to opposite. d. Protection of motors in networks with small earth fault currents as usual lacks sensibility. Not only because the earth faults are of small currents, but also, because protection does not operate during intermittent faults. Moreover, protection cant sense the fault if it is being developed deep down in the winding.

1 Introduction
A large number of public utilities adopted the concept of isolated networks to maintain availability and safety. Distribution networks continue to expand, however and so do zero-sequence fault current [1]. Single phase earth faults are the most frequent and dangerous faults. The relay protection in these networks is intended to give an alarm in case of earth faults. Exception is the case of connecting motors to these networks, where it is required to trip in case of fault currents [2]. If the protection is non-selective the network collapse is more possible. There are major contradictions between current practice of neutral earthing and methods of protection in these networks [3]. These contradictions are: The requirements of national codes state that the capacitive currents should be decreased or compensated. That leads to difficulties in construction of efficient and cheap relays to protect from earth faults. b. Decrease of capacitive currents lead to a situation when most of earth faults have intermittent character [4]. In that case, the duration of the fault could be a few milliseconds (during the period of industrial frequency), and current in faulty and sound feeders has transient character. The value of the fault current depends on the network
a.

It should be taken into consideration that these problems were discussed by relay protection developers [5]. Developers also discussed the need for protection during stable and intermittent faults. Some of them offered relay protection that reacts on the magnitude during transients. Others stated that relays based on harmonics of high order could not be used during short term intermittent faults. However, all devices that are based on transients are not popular because they are expensive, complicated, and there are doubts about their reliability. Many experiments confirm that in networks of large industrial facilities with dc convertors, selectivity of protection devices that react on harmonics of high order is very big. But those experiments do not answer two important questions, namely: how these devices (HSS-3, ZM HSS) operate in network without dc convertors (source of harmonics of high order), and why these devices are efficient only in networks with large capacitive currents. This paper tries to answer those questions.

2 MV network with isolated neutral


Basic analytical results that define currents of high order harmonics when single phase earth fault occurs are calculated from network diagram Fig. 1.
/Y 110/10 System

Energy source that works as a system generates only basic frequency. The no-load current of transformer T2 could be changed. There is no point to consider a large number of those transformers in the network, because the result is defined by an equivalent source of the high order harmonics, specter of which is always changed due to changes in the transformer load, changes in phases between high order harmonics of the transformers, and changes of the network diagram. Only odd harmonics are presented in magnetizing current of the transformer ( k=5, 7, 11) when phase windings are connected in delta (if there is unsymmetrical magnet system, is, there could be odd harmonics k=3,9 ). Maximum values of harmonics in transformers current are in over voltage modes when transformer load is little. If we suppose that there is a symmetry of phase parameters of the network and if all phase currents of the network generate high order harmonics with positive zero sequence, current will be equal to zero until single phase earth fault occurs. When fault occurs, currents could be detected by devices, however, these currents are only a small part of the currents that are generated by the source (a few amperes). That is why if there is no resonant enhancing of these currents, sensitivity of the protection will not be good enough. The equivalent circuit of network shown in Fig. 1 is shown in Fig. 2.

KV
R

KV

Coil /Y 10/0.4

KV

Fig. 1 The source of high order harmonics is transformer T2 (10/0.4). All other elements of the network: power transformer T1, current limitation coil P, neutral coil are taken into account by their line inductances. Fig. 2 The faulted cable is simulated by four line capacitance diagram. The difference between positive and zero sequence capacitances is

considered by capacitance to neutral that could be calculated by the following formula: ( )

The inductive connections between cables are ignored. Earth fault current and in faulted cable are defined in branches as shown in Fig. 2. The same model is applied to sound cables with capacitances and . Zero sequence current in the sound feeder is . If the source of harmonics of the order k is ( ) ( ) ( ) presented ( ) and based on equivalent diagram in Fig.2, the following equations may be used to determine the value of earth fault current:

Solving these equations, yields the value of current at place of short circuit and triple value of zero sequence in faulted feeder ( ) and in sound feeder ( ).
( ) ( )

(
( )

) ) (
( ) ( )

) (

( )

( )

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

( )

( ) ( )

( )

( )

(
( )

( ( (

) ) )

Where: ( ) current of k-order harmonic in phase a of transformer (current source). - rotational speed of k-oreder harmonic. the sum of phase to earth and phase to phase capacitances. zero-sequence capacitance of faulted and sound feeders.

( )

Where: S=1,2 Where: are positive sequence capacitances respective feeders. inductance of the source network. number of sound feeders.
( )

of

It is easy to show that the value of current calculated by the first equation of equations system (1) may be obtained from the following equivalent circuit (the

shunt resistance which is shown as dashed line is not included), which is shown in Fig. 3.

Current resonance will take place if )

References [1] A.A.Meer, M.Popov. Directional relay coordination in ungrounded MV radial distribution networks using RTDS. International conference on power system transients (IPST 2009), Koyto, Japan. 2009.

()

[2] M.A. Shabad single phase earth fault protection in 6-35 KV networks. , 2007. (Russian Language). [3] G.A.Evdokunen, S.S. Titenkof. The systems of neutral earthing in MV networks (6-35KV). Overvoltage and Reliability of Equipment. Collective works: , 2006. [4] Jozef Lorenc, Kazimierz Musierowicz, and Andrzej Kwapisz. Detection of the intermittent earth fault in compensated MV networks. IEEE Power Tech Conference, 2003, Bolonga-Italy. [5] L.E. Dudarof, B.B. Zubkov. Problems of protection against earth faults in 6-35 KV networks. Electrechestvo, No.2, 1999. (Russian Language).

Fig. 3 We can conclude from studying equivalent circuit of Fig.3, that the increae of k-order harmonic of ( ) the current in place of fault is possible when the following condition is fulfilled the total sum of admittances of the branch with L inductance of k-order harmonic is approximately equal the sum ). If their absolute of admittances ( values are equal then the equivalent admittance of parallel branches to the current source will be equal to zero. That leads to current resonance, when voltage of capacitance will be increased ( ) to infinity and the harmonic current will be increased at place of fault. In real conditions this can not happen as the elements of the network have active resistance and admittance, and the active resistance of the current source is connected in parallel.

3 Conclusions
The value of high-order harmonic of zero-sequence earth fault current was obtained based on equivalent circuit diagram shown in Fig. 3. The currents
( )

in faulted and sound feeders may


( )

be calculated as part of the total current The value of current in faulted feeder ( greater than current in sound feeder

( ) )

is always by .