Page 1 of 18

Introduction
Atlas Strategies for Taking Standardized Tests
PART 1: Strategies for Studying History PART 2: Test-Taking Strategies and Practice
A1 S1

S2 S6

PROLOGUE: CONNECTING WITH PAST LEARNINGS

The Rise of Democratic Ideas
1 The Legacy of Ancient Greece and Rome
Juries in Athens (page 9)

2 5 6 9 12 18 24

ANALYZING KEY CONCEPTS: Government HISTORY IN DEPTH: Juries in Athens

2 Judeo-Christian Tradition 3 Democracy Develops in England 4 The Enlightenment and Democratic Revolutions

The Qur’an (page 15)

Constitutional Convention, 1787 (page 26)

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500–1800

Connecting Hemispheres
CHAPTER 1 1300–1600

European Renaissance and Reformation
1 Italy: Birthplace of the Renaissance
HISTORY THROUGH ART: Renaissance Ideas Influence Renaissance Art

34 37 44 46 52 54 57 61 67

2 The Northern Renaissance
SOCIAL HISTORY: City Life in Renaissance Europe

3 Luther Leads the Reformation
ANALYZING KEY CONCEPTS: Protestantism

4 The Reformation Continues
DIFFERENT PERSPECTIVES: The Reformation

CHAPTER 2 1300–1700

The Muslim World Expands
1 The Ottomans Build a Vast Empire 2 Cultural Blending
CASE STUDY The Safavid Empire

70 73 78 82 88

Elizabeth I of England (page 59)

3 The Mughal Empire in India
HISTORY THROUGH ART: Cultural Blending in Mughal India

CHAPTER 3 1400–1800

An Age of Explorations and Isolation
1 Europeans Explore the East
SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY: The Tools of Exploration

92 95 97 102 104 108
Safavid shah (page 72)

2 China Limits European Contacts
HISTORY IN DEPTH: The Forbidden City

3 Japan Returns to Isolation

CHAPTER 4 1492–1800

The Atlantic World
1 Spain Builds an American Empire
DIFFERENT PERSPECTIVES: The Legacy of Columbus

116 119 126 127 132 137 138 140 144

2 European Nations Settle North America 3 The Atlantic Slave Trade 4 The Columbian Exchange and Global Trade
GLOBAL IMPACT: Food Exchange ANALYZING KEY CONCEPTS: Mercantilism

COMPARING AND CONTRASTING: Methods of Government

Early globe (page 95)

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1500–1900

Absolutism to Revolution
CHAPTER 5 1500–1800

Absolute Monarchs in Europe
1 Spain’s Empire and European Absolutism
ANALYZING KEY CONCEPTS: Absolutism

152 155 160 162 166 169 174 178 180

2 The Reign of Louis XIV
HISTORY IN DEPTH: The Palace at Versailles

3 Central European Monarchs Clash 4 Absolute Rulers of Russia
SOCIAL HISTORY: Surviving the Russian Winter

5 Parliament Limits the English Monarchy
Louis XIV of France (page 154)

CHAPTER 6 1550–1789

Enlightenment and Revolution
1 The Scientific Revolution 2 The Enlightenment in Europe
DIFFERENT PERSPECTIVES: European Values During the Enlightenment

186 189 195 201 202 206 209

3 The Enlightenment Spreads 4 The American Revolution
ANALYZING KEY CONCEPTS: Democracy

CHAPTER 7 1789–1815

The French Revolution and Napoleon
1 The French Revolution Begins 2 Revolution Brings Reform and Terror
Early telescope (page 192)

214 217 222 225 228 229 234 238

SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY: The Guillotine DIFFERENT PERSPECTIVES: The French Revolution

3 Napoleon Forges an Empire 4 Napoleon’s Empire Collapses 5 The Congress of Vienna

CHAPTER 8 1789–1900

Nationalist Revolutions Sweep the West
1 Latin American Peoples Win Independence
GLOBAL IMPACT: Struggling Toward Democracy

244 247 250 253 254 258 264 268 272

2 Europe Faces Revolutions
ANALYZING KEY CONCEPTS: Nationalism

3 Nationalism
CASE STUDY Italy and Germany

4 Revolutions in the Arts
HISTORY THROUGH ART: Revolutions in Painting

COMPARING AND CONTRASTING: Political Revolutions

Riots in Paris (page 256)

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1700–1914

Industrialism and the Race for Empire
CHAPTER 9 1700–1900

The Industrial Revolution
1 The Beginnings of Industrialization
GLOBAL IMPACT: Revolutions in Technology

280 283 285 289 293 295 300 303 307

2 Industrialization
CASE STUDY Manchester ANALYZING KEY CONCEPTS: Industrialization

3 Industrialization Spreads 4 Reforming the Industrial World
ANALYZING KEY CONCEPTS: Capitalism vs. Socialism DIFFERENT PERSPECTIVES: Industrialization

CHAPTER 10 1815–1914

An Age of Democracy and Progress
1 Democratic Reform and Activism 2 Self-Rule for British Colonies
SOCIAL HISTORY: Life in Early Australia

310 313 317 322 324 328 329

Singer sewing machine (page 286)

3 War and Expansion in the United States 4 Nineteenth-Century Progress
SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY: Edison’s Inventions

CHAPTER 11 1850–1914

The Age of Imperialism
1 The Scramble for Africa 2 Imperialism
CASE STUDY Nigeria ANALYZING KEY CONCEPTS: Imperialism DIFFERENT PERSPECTIVES: Views of Imperialism

336 339 345 346 351 352 357 362

3 Europeans Claim Muslim Lands 4 British Imperialism in India 5 Imperialism in Southeast Asia

Marie Curie (page 331)

CHAPTER 12 1800–1914

Transformations Around the Globe
1 China Resists Outside Influence 2 Modernization in Japan
HISTORY THROUGH ART: Japanese Woodblock Printing

368 371 376 380 382 386 388 396
England as an octopus in an American political cartoon (page 351)

3 U.S. Economic Imperialism
SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY: Panama Canal

4 Turmoil and Change in Mexico
COMPARING AND CONTRASTING: Scientific and Technological Changes

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C Head

1900–1945

A

The World at War
CHAPTER 13 1914–1918

The Great War
1 Marching Toward War 2 Europe Plunges into War
HISTORY IN DEPTH: The New Weapons of War SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY: Military Aviation

3 A Global Conflict
Machine gun (page 414)

DIFFERENT PERSPECTIVES: Views of War

4 A Flawed Peace

404 407 411 414 416 417 423 424

CHAPTER 14 1900–1939

Revolution and Nationalism
1 Revolutions in Russia
ANALYZING KEY CONCEPTS: Communism

430 433 438 440 441 446 448 451 453

2 Totalitarianism
CASE STUDY Stalinist Russia ANALYZING KEY CONCEPTS: Totalitarianism HISTORY THROUGH ART: Propaganda

3 Imperial China Collapses
HISTORY IN DEPTH: The Long March

4 Nationalism in India and Southwest Asia

CHAPTER 15 1919–1939

Years of Crisis
1 Postwar Uncertainty
Mohandas K. Gandhi (page 432)

460 463 468 470 476 477 481

SOCIAL HISTORY: Labor-Saving Devices in the United States

2 A Worldwide Depression 3 Fascism Rises in Europe
ANALYZING KEY CONCEPTS: Fascism

4 Aggressors Invade Nations

CHAPTER 16 1939–1945

World War II
1 2 3 4

488 491 497 502 506 512 514 520

Hitler’s Lightning War Japan’s Pacific Campaign The Holocaust The Allied Victory
GLOBAL IMPACT: Arming for War

5 Europe and Japan in Ruins
COMPARING AND CONTRASTING: The Changing Nature of Warfare

Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor (page 498)

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1945–Present

Perspectives on the Present
CHAPTER 17 1945–Present

Restructuring the Postwar World
1 Cold War: Superpowers Face Off
SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY: The Space Race

528 531 537 538 542 548 549 554

2 Communists Take Power in China 3 Wars in Korea and Vietnam 4 The Cold War Divides the World
HISTORY IN DEPTH: How the Cold War Was Fought

5 The Cold War Thaws

CHAPTER 18 1945–Present

The Colonies Become New Nations
1 The Indian Subcontinent Achieves Freedom 2 Southeast Asian Nations Gain Independence
SOCIAL HISTORY: Changing Times in Southeast Asia

560 563 570 576 578 583 588 590

Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Joseph Stalin (page 531)

3 New Nations in Africa 4 Conflicts in the Middle East
HISTORY IN DEPTH: Signs of Hope

5 Central Asia Struggles

CHAPTER 19 1945–Present

Struggles for Democracy
1 Democracy
CASE STUDY Latin American Democracies

596 599 606 612 618 623 625 630

2 The Challenge of Democracy in Africa 3 The Collapse of the Soviet Union 4 Changes in Central and Eastern Europe
HISTORY IN DEPTH: Ethnic Groups in the Former Yugoslavia

5 China: Reform and Reaction
HISTORY THROUGH ART: Photojournalism

Nelson Mandela (page 610)

CHAPTER 20 1960–Present

Global Interdependence
1 The Impact of Science and Technology 2 Global Economic Development
ANALYZING KEY CONCEPTS: Globalization DIFFERENT PERSPECTIVES: Economics and the Environment

634 637 641 644 647 648 653 659 660 666

3 Global Security Issues 4 Terrorism
CASE STUDY September 11, 2001

5 Cultures Blend in a Global Age
GLOBAL IMPACT: Rock ‘n’ Roll

COMPARING AND CONTRASTING: Nation Building

ISS satellite (page 638)

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EPILOGUE

Unresolved Problems of the Modern World
1 Technology Transforms Life
HISTORY IN DEPTH: A Continuous Revolution

672 675 676 679 683 687 690 694

2 3 4 5 6

Environmental Challenges Feeding a Growing Population Economic Issues in the Developing World Seeking Global Security Defending Human Rights and Freedoms

WORLD RELIGIONS AND ETHICAL SYSTEMS

700 702 704 706 708 710 712

Buddhism Christianity Hinduism Islam Judaism Confucianism

Human Transporter (page 676)

Families of the missing in Chile march for justice (page 695)

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C Head

Skillbuilder Handbook
Section 1: Reading Critically
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 Determining Main Ideas Following Chronological Order Clarifying; Summarizing Identifying Problems and Solutions Analyzing Causes and Recognizing Effects Comparing and Contrasting Distinguishing Fact from Opinion

A Head
R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8

R1

Section 3: Exploring Evidence: Print, Visual, Technology Sources
3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 Analyzing Primary and Secondary Sources Visual, Audio, and Multimedia Sources Evaluating Internet Sources Interpreting Maps Interpreting Charts Interpreting Graphs Analyzing Political Cartoons R22 R23 R24 R25 R27 R28 R29

Section 2: Higher-Order Critical Thinking
2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.10 2.11 2.12 2.13 Categorizing Making Inferences Drawing Conclusions Developing Historical Perspective Formulating Historical Questions Making Predictions Hypothesizing Analyzing Motives Analyzing Issues Analyzing Bias Evaluating Decisions and Courses of Action Forming and Supporting Opinions Synthesizing R9 R10 R11 R12 R13 R14 R15 R16 R17 R18 R19 R20 R21

Section 4: Creating Presentations
4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 Writing for Social Studies Creating a Map Creating Charts and Graphs Creating and Using a Database Creating a Model Creating/Interpreting a Research Outline Creating Oral Presentations Creating Written Presentations R30 R31 R32 R33 R34 R35 R36 R37

Primary Source Handbook
Rig Veda, Creation Hymn Bible, Psalm 23 Confucius, Analects Thucydides, History of the Peloponnesian War Plato, The Apology Tacitus, Annals Qur’an Sei Shonagon, The Pillow Book Magna Carta Popol Vuh Niccol` Machiavelli, The Prince o Sir Thomas More, Utopia James Madison, The Federalist, “Number 51” R40 R41 R42 R43 R44 R45 R46 R47 R48 R49 R50 R51 R52 Mary Wollstonecraft, A Vindication of the Rights of Woman Élisabeth Vigée-Lebrun, Memoirs of Madame Vigée-Lebrun Sadler Committee, Report on Child Labor Abraham Lincoln, Second Inaugural Address Elizabeth Cady Stanton, The Natural Rights of Civilized Women Woodrow Wilson, The Fourteen Points Elie Wiesel, Night Jeanne Wakatsuki Houston, Farewell to Manzanar Nelson Mandela, Inaugural Address Martin Luther King, Jr., I Have a Dream Cesar Chavez, An Open Letter

R39 R53 R54 R55 R56 R57 R58 R59 R60 R61 R62 R63

Economics Handbook
Glossary Glossary in Spanish

R64 R76 R87

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Patterns of Interaction Video Series
Each video in the series Patterns of Interaction relates to a Global Impact feature in the text. These eight exciting videos show how cultural interactions have shaped our world and how patterns in history continue to the present day.
Volume 1 Building Empires
The Rise of the Persians and the Inca

Volume 3 Struggling Toward Democracy
Revolutions in Latin America and South Africa

Watch the Persian and Incan empires expand and rule other peoples, with unexpected results for both conquered and conquering cultures. Trade Connects the World
Silk Roads and the Pacific Rim

Examine the impact of democratic ideas that incite people to join revolutions in 19th-century Latin America and 20th-century South Africa. Technology Transforms an Age
The Industrial and Electronic Revolutions

Explore the legendary trade routes of the Silk Roads and the modern trade in the Pacific Rim, and notice how both affect much more than economics. Volume 2 The Spread of Epidemic Disease
Bubonic Plague and Smallpox

See how another kind of revolution, caused by innovations in industry and communication, brings change to the modern world. Volume 4 Arming for War
Modern and Medieval Weapons

Look for sweeping calamities and incredible consequences when interacting peoples bring devastating diseases to one another. The Geography of Food
The Impact of Potatoes and Sugar

Watch how warring peoples’ competition in military technology has resulted in a dangerous game of developing bigger, better, and faster weaponry throughout the ages. Cultural Crossroads
The United States and the World

Notice how the introduction of new foods to a region provides security to some and spells disaster for others.

Observe how universal enjoyments like music, sports, and fashion become instruments of cultural blending worldwide.

The Atomic Bomb

the y succeeded in splitting II, scientists in German Einstein On the eve of World War amount of energy. Albert atom, releasing a huge y might nucleus of a uranium him that Nazi German Roosevelt and warned wrote to President Franklin ded by giving his elt respon atomic weapons. Roosev be working to develop Manhattan Project, to , later code-named the that the al for an American program approv off a race to ensure Roosevelt’s decision set develop an atomic bomb. bomb. the first to develop the United States would be At precisely 8:16 A.M., the atomic bomb exploded above Hiroshima, a city on the Japanese island of Honshu.

The video icon in the Global Impact feature provides you with a link to the Patterns of Interaction video series.

of August 6, ▼ On the morning r Enola Gay, 1945, the B-29 bombe W. Tibbets, flown by Colonel Paul Island in Jr., took off from Tinian the Mariana Islands.

Hiroshima: Day of Fire
Impact of the Bombing
Ground temperatures 7,000°F 980 miles per hour 20,000 tons of TNT 62,000 buildings 70,000 people 140,000 people 200,000 people Hurricane force winds Energy released Buildings destroyed Killed immediately Dead by the end of 1945 Total deaths related to A-bomb

Patterns of Interaction

War II spurred the the conflicts of World Just as in World War I, r tanks, more powerful weapons. Mightie period. development of ever more all emerged from this ines, faster fighter planes— same: elusive submar the pattern remains the times to the present day, From ancient to develop weapons of causes other countries Every new weapon a deadly race for an This pattern results in similar or greater force. example, the atomic bomb. ultimate weapon: for

ns n and Medieval Weapo Arming for War: Moder

ring ruins through the still smolde Nagasaki citizens trudge ta. raph by Yosuke Yamaha of their city in this photog

ma tive power of the Hiroshi The overwhelming destruc three days dropped on Nagasaki bomb, and of the bomb destruction of war forever. Nuclear later, changed the nature and the ethics of scientists led to questions about also bomb. to develop and use the politicians who chose

What advantages 1. Making Inferences have over did the United States develop the Germany in the race to atomic bomb?

See Skillbuilder Handbook,

page R10.

sting If you 2. Comparing and Contra ial to the were to design a memor and victims of the Hiroshima symbol Nagasaki bombings, what a sketch of would you use? Make your memorial.

512

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Features
Industrializat ion is the proc ess of developin produce good g industries s. This process that use mac not only revo also transform hines to lutionizes a s social cond country’s econ itions and class omy, it structures. Effects

Industrializ ation
of Industria lization

GROWTH OF CITI ES
Population (in
MANCHESTER

Protestantism Mercantilism Absolutism Democracy Nationalism Industrialization Capitalism vs. Socialism Imperialism Communism Totalitarianism Fascism Globalization

57 140 160 209 254 293 303 346 438 441 477 644

• Industry creat ed many new jobs. • Factories were dirty, unsafe, and dangerou • Factory boss s. es exercised harsh discip Long-Term Effec line. t Workers won higher wage shorter hour s, s, better cond itions.

500 400 300 200 100 0

thousands)

351 90
1800 1870

• Factory work ers were overw orked and unde • Overseers and skilled work rpaid. ers rose to lowe class. Factory r middle owners and merchants form middle class ed upper . • Upper class resented those in middle class became weal who thier than they were. Long-Term Effec t Standard of living generally rose. • Factories brou ght job seek ers to cities. • Urban areas doubled, triple d, or quadruple • Many cities d in size. specialized in certain indus Long-Term Effec tries. t Suburbs grew crowded cities as people fled .

500 400 300 200 100 0

Population (in

BIRMINGHAM

thousands)
344

74
1800 1870

GLASGOW
500 400 300 200 100 0

Population (in

thousands)
522

77
1800 1870

• Cities lacke d sanitary code s or building • Housing, wate controls. r, and social services were • Epidemics scarce. swept throu gh the city. Long-Term Effec t Housing, diet, and clothing improved.

LONDON
4000 3000 2000 1000 0

Population (in

thousands)
3,890

▼ This engra ving shows urban growth and industrial pollution in Manchester.

1,117
1800 1870

Source: Europ ean Statistics, 1750– Historical 1975

LINKS industrialization For more on , go to class zone

RESEARCH

1. Recognizi ng
.com

See Skillbuilder Handbook, page R6. 2. Making Infer ences Many nations arou

Effec some advantage ts What were s and disadvanta of industrializ ges ation?

nd the world today are trying industrialize. to What do you think they hope to gain from that proce ss?

727

293

The Renaissance Man The Renaissance Woman The Conquest of Constantinople The Horrors of the Middle Passage Laws Protect Freedom Laws Ensure Security Starvation in Ireland Allied View of Armistice German Reaction to Armistice

39 39 75 135 197 197 320 421 421

Satyagraha Nonviolence Writers of the “Lost Generation” The Palestinian View The Israeli View Ken Sara-Wiwa Training the Chinese Army

454 454 464 586 586 608 627

Perspective Peasant Life “Right Leg in the Boot at Last” Motion Studies Warlike Japan Juárez: Symbol of Mexican Independence

40 47 261 266 378 390

Guernica Military Rule and Democracy Glasnost

484 603 613

Using Primary and Secondary Sources
The Reformation The Legacy of Columbus European Values During the Enlightenment The French Revolution Industrialization 67 126 201 228 307 Views of Imperialism Views of War Economics and the Environment 351 423 647

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Features

City Life in Renaissance Europe China’s Population Boom Surviving the Russian Winter Bread Nationalistic Music Life in Early Australia Social Class in India The Frozen Front Ukrainian Kulaks

52 106 178 221 255 322 359 415 445

Labor-Saving Devices in the United States Life in the Depression Changing Times in Southeast Asia The Romanian Language Molecular Medicine

468 473 576 621 640

The Tools of Exploration The Guillotine Edison’s Inventions Panama Canal Military Aviation The Space Race

97 225 329 386 416 537

Building the Taj Mahal A Ship’s Rations The Forbidden City Zen Buddhism Pirates Slavery The Palace at Versailles Emancipation

86 98 104 113 129 133 166 257

Inventions in America Acadians to Cajuns Social Darwinism Winston Churchill and the Boer War Suez Canal

286 318 332 344 355

Yugoslavia in the Former which was Ethnic Groups groups lived within Yugoslavia, ic groups ious
relig the ethn Many ethnic and map shows how nst six republics. The ent grudges agai a federation of groups held anci differences Some of those e of the cultural were distributed. t summarizes som char one another. The ps. among the grou

Building the Taj Mahal
20°E

in the Ethnic Groups avia, 1992 Former Yugosl
AUSTRIA
Ljubljana

0 0

100 Miles 200 Kilometers

HUNGARY ROMANIA
Zagreb

46°N

SLOVENIA

CROATIA BOSNIA AND INA ERZEGOV
Sarajevo

Vojvodina
Belgrade

H ITALY

SERBIA

dr

Albanian Croat Hungarian Macedonian Montenegrin Muslim Serb

Slovene nt No majority prese Former Yugoslavia Borders of 1992 aries Republic bound aries Provincial bound

ia

ti

c

S

ea

O MONTENEGR
Podgorica

Kosovo
Skopje

BULGARIA
42°N

Some 20,000 workers labored for 22 years to build the famous tomb. It is made of white marble brought from 250 miles away. The minaret towers are about 130 feet high. The building itself is 186 feet square. The design of the building is a blend of Hindu and Muslim styles. The pointed arches are of Muslim design, and the perforated marble windows and doors are typical of a style found in Hindu temples. The inside of the building is a glittering garden of thousands of carved marble flowers inlaid with tiny precious stones. One tiny flower, one inch square, had 60 different inlays.

The Armenian Massacre The New Weapons of War The Long March Investing in Stocks Jewish Resistance Berlin Airlift The Red Guards How the Cold War Was Fought Genocide in Rwanda Signs of Hope Destroying the Past Ethnic Groups in the Former Yugoslavia

410 414 451 472 504 535 541 549 582 588 592 623

ong the Differences Am
Group
Albanians Croats Hungarians Macedonians Montenegrins Muslims

Ethnic Groups

16°E

s noted) (slavic unles

Language

Albanian (not

Slavic) tian*

-Croa dialect of Serbo Magyar (not Slavi Macedonian dialect of Serbo diale c)

tian* ct of Serbo-Croa -Croatian*

Serbs Slovenes

dialect of Serbo Slovenian

d to lics have starte the former repub ian for residents of Croats, Bosn apart, many Croatian for slavia broke ate languages: * Since Yugo dialects as separ enegrins. refer to their Serbs and Mont an for Muslims, Serbi

A

Religion
ALB ANI A
Catholic Christians Orthodox Orthodox

MACEDON

IA

mostly Muslim mostly Roman many types of

GREECE

INTERNET ACTIVITY Use the Internet to

mostly Eastern mostly Eastern

Visuals R: Interpreting to find out SKILLBUILDE Use the chart

take a virtual trip to the Taj Mahal. Create a brochure about the building. Go to classzone.com for your research.

-Croatian*

d Muslim (converte an rule) under Ottom mostly Eastern mostly Roman Orthodox Catholic

Issues 1. Analyzing groups that lived t the various the information abou (as shown on Herzegovina ences among in Bosnia and some of the differ ). What were map groups? within those province Kosovo was a , 2. Contrasting the majority there group was in Serbia. What Serbs? it differ from and how did

ocracy 623 Struggles for Dem

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Renaissance Ideas Influence Renaissance Art Cultural Blending in Mughal India Revolutions in Painting Japanese Woodblock Printing Propaganda Photojournalism

44 88 268 380 446 630

The Renaissance in Italy produced extraordinary achievements in many different forms of art, including painting, architecture, sculpture, and drawing. These art forms were used by talented artists to express important ideas and attitudes of the age. The value of humanism is shown in Raphael’s School of Athens, a depiction of the greatest Greek philosophers . The realism of Renaissance art is seen in a portrait such as the Mona Lisa, which is an expression of the subject’s unique features and personality. And Michelangelo’s David shares stylistic qualities with ancient Greek and Roman sculpture.
RESEARCH LINKS For more on Renaissance art, go to classzone.com

Renaissance Ideas Influence Renaissance Art

▼ Classical and Renaissance Sculpture

Michelangelo Influenced by classical statues, Michelangelo sculpted David from 1501 to 1504. Michelangelo portrayed the biblical hero in the moments just before battle. David’s posture is graceful, yet his figure also displays strength. The statue, which is 18 feet tall, towers over the viewer.

▲ Portraying Individuals

Da Vinci The Mona Lisa (c. 1504–1506) is thought to be a portrait of Lisa Gherardini, who, at 16, married Francesco del Giocondo, a wealthy merchant of Florence who commissioned the portrait. Mona Lisa is a shortened form of Madonna Lisa (Madam, or My Lady, Lisa). Renaissance artists showed individuals as they really looked.

44 Chapter 1

Shakespeare’s Popularity Women Leaders of the Indian Subcontinent Trading Partners Kabuki Theater U.S. Democracy Cybercafes Left, Right, and Center Congress of Vienna and the United Nations Child Labor Today Communism Today

49 85 101 111 183 203 223 241 294 304

Northern Ireland Today Special Economic Zones Tiananmen Square A New War Crimes Tribunal Vietnam Today The Taliban The Coldest War

321 372 449 516 547 553 565

The Printing Press Jesuit Missionaries The Columbian Exchange Tulip Mania The French Revolution Struggling Toward Democracy Revolutions in Technology Industrialization in Japan The Women’s Movement

50 66 138 158 210 250 285 298 315

Western Views of the East The Influenza Epidemic Fascism in Argentina The Atomic Bomb Rock ‘n’ Roll

379 419 480 512 660

Other Renaissances East Meets West International Baseball

43 177 660

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Features

(continued)

Medici Family Leonardo da Vinci Michelangelo Buonarroti Martin Luther Elizabeth I John Calvin Suleyman the Lawgiver Akbar Prince Henry Kangxi Francisco Pizarro Atahualpa Louis XIV Maria Theresa Frederick the Great Peter the Great Voltaire Mary Wollstonecraft Catherine the Great Thomas Jefferson Louis XVI Marie Antoinette Jean-Paul Marat Napoleon Bonaparte Simón Bolivar José de San Martin Otto von Bismarck Ludwig van Beethoven Adam Smith Karl Marx Jane Addams Queen Victoria and Prince Albert Abraham Lincoln

38 41 41 55 60 62 76 84 96 105 123 123 164 172 172 175 196 199 205 207 219 219 224 230 249 249 262 265 301 302 306 314 327

Marie Curie Samori Touré Queen Liliuokalani José Martí Porfirio Diaz Emiliano Zapata Kaiser Wilhelm II Woodrow Wilson Georges Clemenceau V. I. Lenin Joseph Stalin Mustafa Kemal Benito Mussolini Adolf Hitler Winston Churchill General Douglas MacArthur General Dwight D. Eisenhower Mao Zedong Ho Chi Minh Fidel Castro Imre Nagy v Alexander Dubcek Jawaharlal Nehru Aung San Suu Kyi Jomo Kenyatta Golda Meir Nelson Mandela F. W. de Klerk Mikhail Gorbachev Boris Yeltsin Vladimir Putin Jiang Zemin Mother Teresa

331 348 365 384 391 392 408 425 425 434 443 456 478 478 493 500 510 540 544 551 555 555 566 572 579 585 610 610 614 614 617 628 650

Unit 1 Methods of Government Unit 2 Political Revolutions Unit 3 Scientific and Technological Changes Unit 4 Changing Nature of Warfare Unit 5 Nation Building

144 272
Revolutions Across Time
Revolution—which is a sudden or significant change in the old ways of doing things— can occur in many areas, such as government, technology, or art. In Unit 2, you studied political revolutions in Europe and the Americas, in which people rebelled against unjust rulers to gain more rights. Each revolution led to major changes in governmental, social, and economic structures. In these six pages, you will gain a better understanding of those revolutions by examining their similarities and differences.
English Civil War and Glorious Revolution
In 1642, civil war broke out between those who supported Parliament and those who supported the king. Parliament won and set up a commonwealth, led by Oliver Cromwell. In time, he became a dictator. After his death, the monarchy returned, but tensions built anew. In 1688, Parliament ousted King James II, shown at right, in the Glorious Revolution and invited William and Mary to rule.

Model of a Revolution
From his study of the French Revolution, historian Crane Brinton developed a model of the stages that revolutions often go through. The model below is based on his work. Compare it with the revolutions you learned about in this unit.

Fall of the Old Order
Revolutions usually cannot occur until a ruler becomes weak. Often this weakness results in problems such as starvation and unfair taxes. Anger builds until the ruler is overthrown.

396 520 666

Rule by Moderates
The people relax because they think they have achieved their goal. A moderate group rules. But simply overthrowing the old order rarely solves the problems that led to the revolution.

The Terror American Revolution
After 1763, Americans began to resent British rule. Clashes such as the Boston Massacre, shown at left, took place. The colonies declared their independence in 1776. War ensued, and the United States won its freedom by defeating Britain.

French Revolution
Beginning in 1789, the French people rose up to overthrow their king. The uprisings included the march by hungry women shown below. Differing goals soon split the revolutionaries. Several years of terror followed. Napoleon restored order and eventually made himself emperor of France.

Latin American Revolutions
From 1791 to 1824, revolutions took place in Haiti, Mexico, and the huge Spanish empire that spread across Central and South America. By the end of that period, nearly all of Latin America had gained its independence from European control. One of South America’s great liberators was José de San Martín, shown in the painting above.

When people realize that the old problems still exist, they look for someone to blame. Radicals take control, push for more extreme changes, and execute “enemies of the revolution.”

Turn from Radical Rule
In time, the violence sickens people, and the use of terror ends. The former radicals adopt a more gradual plan for effecting change.

Military Rule
The terror often kills most of a country’s leaders. Then the turn from radicalism makes people doubt revolutionary ideals. A military leader steps into the gap and becomes dictator.

Restoration
When the dictatorship ends, through death or overthrow, a power vacuum results. The order that existed before the revolution is restored.

1. Which of the revolutions on the time
line, besides the French Revolution, is most like the model? Explain.

2. Which revolution is least like the
model? Explain.

272 Unit 2 Comparing & Contrasting

273

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Historical and Political Maps
Unit 1
Europe, 1500 Religions in Europe, 1560 Spread of Protestantism Empire Builders, 1683 Ottoman Empire, 1451–1566 Safavid Empire, 1683 Growth of the Mughal Empire, 1526–1707 Early Explorations, 1400s Europeans in the East, 1487–1700 Japan in the 17th Century European Claims in America, 1700 European Exploration of the Americas, 1492–1682 Europeans in North America, 1754 and 1763 Triangle Trade System, 1451–1870 Four Governments 35 63 63 71 74 80 83 93 100 109 117 121 130 134 144 153 156 170 176 182 185 187 208 215 232 236 240 243 245 250 251 260 263 281 296 311 319 325 326 337 343 343 347 349 353 355 358 363 367 369 374 385 386 405 409 412 417 418

Colonies in Southeast Asia, 1895
CHINA
Tropic of Cancer
Macao

120° E

BURMA
Rangoon

Hong Kong

Unit 2
Europe, 1650 Defeat of the Spanish Armada, 1588 Europe After the Thirty Years’ War, 1648 The Expansion of Russia, 1500–1800 The English Civil War, 1642–1645 Modern European Monarchs, 2003 Centers of Enlightenment, 1740 North America, 1783 Napoleon’s Empire, 1810 War in Europe, 1805–1813 Napoleon’s Russian Campaign, 1812 Europe, 1810 and 1817 Great Britain and France, 1810 Revolutions, 1848 Enlightenment Ideas Spread to Latin America, 1789–1810 Latin America, 1800 and 1830 The Unification of Italy, 1858–1870 The Unification of Germany, 1865–1871

British Bangkok Dutch French Saigon Portuguese Spanish Independent MALAY state PENINSULA

SIAM

South China Sea
Manila

PACIFIC OCEAN
S PINE I L IP PH

CH EN INA FR OCH D IN

0 0

500 Miles 1,000 Kilometers

Su ma

0° Equator

Singapore

INDIAN OCEAN

DUT

Borneo Celebes

Batavia Java

M CH E AST INDIES

u ol

cc

as

Unit 3
Industry in Europe, 1870 The Growth of Railroads in the United States Western Democracies, 1900 Australia and New Zealand to 1850 U.S. Expansion, 1783–1853 Civil War in the United States, 1861–1865 Colonial Claims, 1900 Imperialism in Africa, 1878 and 1913 Traditional Ethnic Boundaries of Africa Nigeria, 1914 Resistance Movements in Africa, 1881–1906 Ottoman Empire, 1699–1914 Suez Canal Western-Held Territories in Asia, 1910 Colonies in Southeast Asia, 1895 The British Empire, 1900 Colonial Powers Carve Up China, 1850–1910 China: Spheres of Influence and Treaty Ports, c. 1900 The Spanish-American War, 1898: the Caribbean and the Philippines Panama Canal

Europe Pre-World War I Europe Post-World War I Southwest Asia, 1926 Russian Revolution and Civil War, 1905–1922 The Long March Oil Fields, 1938 Expansion in Europe, 1931–1939 Aggression in Asia, 1931–1937 Aggression in Africa, 1935–1939 European and African Battles, 1939–1945 World War II: German Advances, 1939–1941 World War II in Asia and the Pacific, 1941–1945 Battle of Midway, June 1942 World War II: Allied Advances, 1942–1945 The D-Day Invasion, June 6, 1944 Nazi Labor and Death Camps

tra

Bali

Timor

426 426 431 436 451 457 461 483 483 489 492 499 499 508 510 519 529 532 535 543 545 549 550 561 564 571 580 580 584 591 597 601 607 607 615 620 635 643 651

Unit 5
Cold War Enemies, 1949 Superpower Aims in Europe Divided Germany, 1948–1949 War in Korea, 1950–1953 War in Vietnam, 1957–1973 How the Cold War Was Fought Cold War Hot Spots, 1948–1975 New Nations, 1946–1991 The Indian Subcontinent, 1947 Southeast Asia, 1945–1975 Africa, 1955 Africa, 1975 The Middle East, 1947–present Central Asia Types of Government, 2003 Latin America Africa, 1967 Regions of Nigeria, 1967 The Breakup of the Soviet Union, 1991 Major Industries of Germany World Migration, 2002 Regional Trading Groups, 2003 World AIDS Situation, 2002

Unit 4
Europe, 1914 Europe on the Eve of World War I, 1914 World War I in Europe, 1914–1918 Galipoli Campaign, 1915 The World at War, 1914–1918

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Charts and Graphs
Charts
Causes of the Reformation Religious Beliefs and Practices in the 16th Century Cultural Blending Africans Enslaved in the Americas, 1451–1870 Changing Idea: Scientific Method Changing Idea: The Right to Govern Major Ideas of the Enlightenment Changing Idea: Relationship Between Ruler and State Changing Idea: Colonial Attachment to Britain Enlightenment Ideas and the U.S. Constitution Eligible Voters Population of France, 1787 Positive and Negative Results of Nationalism Types of Nationalist Movements Causes of the Revolutions Effects of Revolutions Rise of Mass Culture Forms of Imperialism Imperial Management Methods Reforms of Mexican Constitution of 1917 The Treaty of Versailles: Major Provisions Causes and Effects of Two Russian Revolutions, 1917 Evolution of Communist Thought Key Traits of Totalitarianism Characteristics of Fascism Jews Killed Under Nazi Rule Hiroshima: Day of Fire 54 57 79 134 192 195 198 204 208 209 209 218 254 258 274 276 333 346 346 393 427 437 438 441 477 505 512 Costs of World War II: Allies and Axis Superpower Aims in Europe Chinese Political Opponents, 1945 Major Strategies of the Cold War U.S.–Soviet Military Power, 1986–1987 Patterns of Change: Making Democracy Work Differences Among Ethnic Groups of Former Yugoslavia Mao’s Attempts to Change China Internet Users Worldwide, 2002 Arguments For and Against Economic Globalization International Casualties of Terrorism, 1997–2002 National Characteristics A Comparison of World Religions and Ethical Systems 515 532 539 549 559 599 623 625 639 644 655 668 714

Graphs
The Division of Christianity Comparison of Empires The Growth of Early Modern China Native Population of Central Mexico, 1500–1620 Africans Enslaved in the Americas, 1451–1870 Debt of the Royal Family, 1643–1715 Average High Temperature for January, Russian Cities Average High Temperature for January, U.S. Cities Voters in the 2000 U.S. Presidential Election Percent of Income Paid in Taxes Beheading by Class The Divisions in Spanish Colonial Society, 1789 British Cotton Consumption, 1800–1900 The Growth of Cities The Growth of Cities, 1700–1900 Expansion of Suffrage in Britain The Great Famine, 1845–1851 Australia’s Population, 1901 and 2001 Civil War Deaths Independent African Countries Tolls Collected on the Panama Canal, 1916–1920 World War I Statistics The Buildup of the Soviet Economy, 1928–1938 Oil Output, 1910–1940 Mechanical Washing Machines Shipped Persons Employed as Private Laundress 57 91 106 122 134 168 179 179 209 218 225 247 285 293 309 314 320 323 326 346 395 422 444 459 469 469 Stock Prices, 1925–1933 Unemployment Rate World Trade, 1929–1933 Countries Aided by the Marshall Plan, 1948–1951 Poverty Levels in Asia ASEAN Exports, 1990–2001 Brazilian Economy, 1955–2000 Percentage of Population Living in Poverty, 2001 Some Major Internet Nations, 2002 Multinational Corporations, 2002 Total Terrorist Attacks, 1982–2002 Number of Refugees, 1992–2002 World Population’s Religious Affiliations 472 474 474 534 568 577 602 604 639 642 655 665 700

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Time Lines, Infographics, and Political Cartoons
Time Lines
Chapter 1 Henry VIII Causes Religious Turmoil Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Three Worlds Meet, 1492–1700 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Major Steps in the Scientific Revolution Chapter 7 Chapter 8 Political Revolutions Chapter 9 Chapter 10 34 58 70 92 116 139 152 186 192 214 244 272 280 310 Chapter 11 Chapter 12 Scientific and Technological Changes Chapter 13 Chapter 14 Chapter 15 Aggression in Europe, Asia, and Africa, 1931–1939 Chapter 16 Technology of War Chapter 17 The Space Race Chapter 18 India and Pakistan: A Turbulent History The Israeli-Palestinian Struggle 336 368 396 404 430 460 482 488 520 528 537 560 567 587 Chapter 19 South Africa, 1948–2000 Chapter 20 Five Developing Nations 596 611 634 666

Infographics
The Printing Press The Division of Christianity The Caravel Zheng He’s Treasure Ship The Forbidden City The Columbian Exchange Mercantilism Organization of the Ottoman Government Organization of the Tokugawa Shogunate Absolutism The Palace at Versailles Expansion of U.S. Voting Rights Conquerors of the Bastille Parade The Guillotine 50 57 97 103 104 138 140 144 144 160 166 209 216 225 Napoleon’s Russian Campaign, 1812 Bonds That Create a Nation-State Model of a Revolution The Day of a Child Laborer, William Cooper Effects of Industrialization An Age of Inventions China and Japan Confront the West Panama Canal Cross-Section Impact of Technological Change Key Traits of Scientific Change Key Traits of Totalitarianism Characteristics of Fascism Global Corporation 236 254 273 290 293 330 377 386 398 400 441 477 644 Ozone Levels International Terrorist Attacks Destruction in New York City Major Buddhist Sects Major Christian Sects Major Hindu Sects Major Islamic Sects Major Jewish Sects The Five Relationships in Confucianism 646 655 656 703 705 707 709 711 713

Political Cartoons
Seven-Headed Martin Luther The Three Estates “Little Johnny Bull” “Right Leg in the Boot at Last” Political Cartoons, 1789 and 1765 Political Cartoon A Court for King Cholera “The Devilfish in Egyptian Waters” Warlike Japan Roosevelt Corollary Czechoslovakia’s Iron Curtain Philippine Islands 67 218 234 261 275 307 335 351 378 387 533 595 Military Rule and Democracy Glasnost Intensive Communism Unit Ship of Fools 603 613 633 647

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Primary and Secondary Sources
Chapter 1
Baldassare Castiglione, The Courtier, 39 Isabella D’Este, Letters, 39 Giovanni Boccaccio, Preface, Decameron, 42 Niccolò Machiavelli, The Prince, 42 Vittoria Colonna, Poems, 43 Thomas More, Utopia, 48 Christine de Pizan, The Book of The City of Ladies, 48 William Shakespeare, Hamlet, 49 Martin Luther, quoted in The Protestant Reformation by Lewis W. Spitz, 56 Katherina Zell, quoted in Women of the Reformation, 64 Ignatius of Loyola, Spiritual Exercises, 64 Martin Luther, quoted in A World Lit Only By Fire: The Medieval Mind and the Renaissance, 67 Steven Ozment, Protestants: The Birth of a Revolution, 67 G. R. Elton, Reformation Europe, 67 Hans Brosamer, “Seven-Headed Martin Luther” (1529), 67 Niccolò Machiavelli, The Prince, 69 PRIMARY SOURCE Soldiers! I am pleased with you. On the day of Austerlitz, you justified everything that I was expecting of [you]… In less than four hours, an army of 100,000 men, commanded by the emperors of Russia and Austria, was cut up and dispersed… 120 pieces of artillery, 20 generals, and more than 30,000 men taken prisoner—such are the results of this day which will forever be famous… And it will be enough for you to say, “I was at Austerlitz,” to hear the reply: “There is a brave man!”
NAPOLEON, quoted in Napoleon by André Castelot

Chapter 7
Comte D’Antraigues, quoted in Citizens: A Chronicle of the French Revolution, 218 Maximilien Robespierre, “On the Morals and Political Principles of Domestic Policy,” 226 Charles Dickens, A Tale of Two Cities, 228 Edmund Burke, quoted in Burke’s Politics, 228 Thomas Paine, from The Writings of Thomas Paine, 228 Napoleon, quoted in Napoleon, by André Castelot, 231 Simón Bolívar, from Selected Writings of BolÍvar, 243

Chapter 2
Kritovoulos, Life of Mehmed the Conqueror, 75, 91

Chapter 3
Afonso de Albuquerque, from The Commentaries of the Great Afonso Dalbuquerque, 99 Qian-Long, from a letter to King George III of Great Britain, 106 Matsuo Basho, from Matsuo Basho, 110 Anonymous Japanese Writer, quoted in Sources of Japanese Tradition (1958), 111 Kangxi, quoted in Emperor of China: Self-Portrait of K’Ang-Hsi, 115

Chapter 8
Otto von Bismarck, speech to the German parliament on February 6, 1888, 271

Chapter 4
Christopher Columbus, from Journal of Columbus, 119 Samuel Eliot Morison, Admiral of the Ocean Sea, 126 Bartolomé de Las Casas, quoted in Columbus: The Great Adventure, 126 Suzan Shown Harjo, “I Won’t Be Celebrating Columbus Day,” Newsweek, Fall/Winter 1991, 126 Smallpox illustration, 126 Olaudah Equiano, quoted in Eyewitness: The Negro in American History, 135 Bernadino de Sahagun, quoted in Seeds of Change, 139 Thomas Mun, quoted in World Civilizations, 141 John Cotton, quoted in The Annals of America, 143

Chapter 9
Edward Bains, The History of Cotton Manufacture in Great Britain, 286 Elizabeth Gaskell, Mary Barton, 290 Hugh Miller, “Old Red Sandstone,” 294 Lucy Larcom, A New England Girlhood, 296 Alexis de Tocqueville, 1848 speech, 301 Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, The Communist Manifesto (1848), 302 Andrew Carnegie, Autobiography of Andrew Carnegie, 307 Friederich Engels, The Condition of the Working Class in England in 1844, 307 Mary Paul, quoted in Women and the American Experience, 307 Walter Crane (political cartoon), 307 Charles Dickens, Hard Times, 309

Chapter 5
Miguel de Cervantes, Don Quixote de la Mancha, 158 Jean Bodin, Six Books on the State, 161 Duke of Saint-Simon, Memoirs of Louis XIV and the Regency, 165 Frederick II, Essay on Forms of Government, 172 From the English Parliament’s Bill of Rights, 185

Chapter 10
Emmeline Pankhurst, Why We Are Militant, 315 William Bennett, quoted in Narrative of a Recent Journey of Six Weeks in Ireland, 320 William Shorey Coodey, quoted in The Trail of Tears, 324 Seneca Falls Convention, “Declaration of Sentiments,” 335

Chapter 6
Galileo Galilei, quoted in The Discoverers, 191 Jean Jacques Rousseau, The Social Contract, 197 Baron de Montesquieu, The Spirit of Laws, 197 Voltaire, Candide, 201 Jonathan Swift, Gulliver’s Travels, 201 William Hogarth, Canvassing for Votes (painting), 201 Preamble, Constitution of the United States, 213

Chapter 11
Cecil Rhodes, Confession of Faith, 341 Edward Morel, The Black Man’s Burden, 348 J. A. Hobson, Imperialism, 351 Dadabhai Naoroji, speech before Indian National Congress, 1871, 351 Jules Ferry, quoted in The Human Record: Sources of Global History, 351 “The Devilfish in Egyptian Waters” (political cartoon), 351 Jamal al-Din al-Afghani, in a letter to Hasan Shirazi, April 1891, 356 Lord Kitchener, quoted in Asia and Western Dominance, 360 King Chulalongkorn, “Royal Proclamation in Education,” 364 Kwaku Dua III to Frederic M. Hodgson, 1889, 367

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Primary and Secondary Sources
Chapter 12
Lin Zexu, quoted in China’s Response to the West, 372 Ponciano Arriaga, speech to the Constitutional Convention, 1856–1857, 390 From an article in the Tokyo Times, 395

(continued)

Chapter 20
Lester R. Brown, 647 The Liberty Institute, 647 Chris Madden (political cartoon), 647 Josef Joffe, from “America the Inescapable,” 665

Chapter 13
Frédéric Passy, quoted in Nobel: The Man and His Prizes, 408 Valentine Fleming, quoted in The First World War, 413 Shirley Millard, I Saw Them Die, 420 Harry Truman, quoted in The First World War, 421 Herbert Sulzbach, With the German Guns, 421 Woodrow Wilson, speech before Congress, April 2, 1917, 423 Erich Maria Remarque, All Quiet on the Western Front, 423 Wilfred Owen, “Dulce et Decorum Est,” 423 Maurice Neumont, “They Shall Not Pass,” 423 From an editorial in Vossische Zeitung, May 18, 1915, 429

Comparing & Contrasting
Unit 1 Niccoló Machiavelli, The Discourses, 149 Garcilaso de la Vega, The Incas, 149 Unit 2 from the English Parliament’s Bill of Rights, 275 Thomas Paine, Common Sense, 276 Simón Bolívar, “The Jamaica Letter,” 277 Maximilien Robespierre, speech of February 5, 1794, 277 Unit 3 Jared Diamond, Guns, Germs, and Steel, 399 John Vaughn, “Thirty Years of the Telephone,” 399 Paul Johnson, The Birth of the Modern, 401 Unit 4 American Consul General at Beirut, attached letter to the U.S. Secretary of State, 1915, 523 Primo Levi, Survival in Auschwitz, 523 Sergeant Major Ernest Shephard, A Sergeant-Major’s War, 524 U.S. Marine Corps correspondent, article, 524 Laura de Gozdawa Turczynowicz, When the Prussians Came to Poland, 525 Tatsuichiro Akizuki, Nagasaki, 1945, 525 Unit 5 David Lamb, The Africans, 669 Ariel Sharon, inauguration speech, March 7, 2001, 670 Abdul Kalam, inauguration speech, July 25, 2002, 670 Vicente Fox, inauguration speech, December 1, 2000, 670 Olusegun Obasanjo, inauguration speech, May 29, 1999, 671 Gloria Macapagal Arroyo, inauguration speech, January 20, 2001, 671

Chapter 14
Mao Zedong, quoted in Chinese Communism and the Rise of Mao, 450 Mohandas K. Gandhi, Chapter XVII, Hind Swaraj, 454 Mohandas K. Gandhi, The Origin of Nonviolence, 454 Mohandas K. Gandhi, Letter to Sir Daniel Hamilton, 459

Chapter 15
F. Scott Fitzgerald, The Great Gatsby, 464 Franklin Roosevelt, First Inaugural Address, 475 Erich Ludendorff, letter to President Hindenburg, February 1, 1933, 478 Winston Churchill, speech before the House of Commons, October, 1938, 485 William Shirer, quoted in The Strenuous Decade, 487

Chapter 16
General Charles de Gaulle, quoted in Charles de Gaulle: A Biography, 493 Lieutenant John Spainhower, quoted in War Diary 1939–1945, 498 Ralph Martin, in The GI War, 501 M. I. Libau, quoted in Never to Forget: The Jews of the Holocaust, 503 Elie Wiesel, Night, 505 Simon Weisenthal, quoted in Never to Forget: The Jews of the Holocaust, 515 From The Christian Century, August 29, 1945, 519

Chapter 17
Winston Churchill, “Iron Curtain” speech, March 1946, 533 Harry S. Truman, speech to Congress, March 12, 1947, 534 Fidel Castro, quoted in an interview, October 27, 1962, 551 Robert McNamara, quoted in Inside the Cold War, 556 Ho Chi Minh, quoted in America and Vietnam, 559

Chapter 18
Jawaharlal Nehru, speech before the Constituent Assembly, August 14, 1947, 565 Zahida Amjad Ali, Freedom, Trauma, Continuities, 565 New York Times, June 28, 1998, 567 Corazón Aquino, inaugural speech, February 24, 1986, 572 Megawati Sukarnoputri, inaugural speech, July 23, 2001, 574 Fawaz Turki, quoted in The Arab-Israeli Conflict, 586 Abraham Tamir, quoted in From War to Peace, 586 Anwar Sadat, Knesset speech, November 20, 1977, 586 Arthur James Balfour, in a letter to Lord Rothschild, November 2, 1917, 595

Chapter 19
Ken Saro-Wiwa, A Month and a Day: A Detention Diary, 608 David M. Kotz, “The Cure That Could Kill,” 616 Xiao Ye, “Tiananmen Square: A Soldier’s Story,” 627 Orville Schell, “The Coming of Mao Zedong Chic,” 633

xxv

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