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I. Elements of Poetry

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Tone An author writes a story and puts a sinister and scary tone to it. Mood It creates a scary atmosphere and a frightening mood for the readers.

Persona refers to the one talking in the poem. It is often called the voice. Imagery Imagery creates a visual (sensory images), which means the idea is concrete. Example: I dream of rainbows lighting up the sky.
(In this part, the persona visualizes rainbows that may be streaming in the sky)

Theme It refers to the universal fact talked about the story. The job of the theme is to create a point in a certain topic. Say your topic is love. A theme suited for that may be Love is blind, or Love makes the world go round.

Symbolism Symbolism refers to an object that symbolizes a particular idea. Example: Let the firework ignite inside you.
(Not literally, but if taken figuratively, may mean firework is courage)

II. Sound Devices

Alliteration The repetition of consonant sounds, especially at the beginning of words. Example: "Fetched fresh, as I suppose, off some sweet wood." Hopkins, "In the Valley of the Elwy." Assonance The repetition of similar vowel sounds in a sentence or a line of poetry or prose, as in "I rose and told him of my woe." Whitman's "When I Heard the Learn'd Astronomer" contains assonantal "I's" in the following lines: "How soon unaccountable I became tired and sick, / Till rising and gliding out I wandered off by myself." Onomatopoeia The use of words to imitate the sounds they describe. Words such as buzz and crack are onomatopoetic.

Tone Tone in literature tells us how the author thinks about his or her subject. The author's style conveys the tone in literature. Tone is the author's attitude toward story and readers. Mood Mood is the effect of the writer's words on the reader. Mood is how the writers words make us feel.

To know the flow:

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certain measure.

Rhyme The matching of final vowel or consonant sounds in two or more words. The following stanza of "Richard Cory" employs alternate rhyme, with the third line rhyming with the first and the fourth with the second:
Whenever Richard Cory went down town, We people on the pavement looked at him; He was a gentleman from sole to crown Clean favored and imperially slim.

Note: Haikus do not have persona. Once writing a haiku, there should be no first person point of view, nor leaving a mark of the speaker.

Repetition It refers to the use of any element of language (sounds, word, phrase, clause, or sentence) more than once.
Que Sera, Sera, Whatever will be, will be, The futures not ours to see, Que Sera Sera.

IV. Figures of Speech

Simile A figure of speech involving a comparison between unlike things using like, as, or as though. An example: "My love is like a red, red rose." Metaphor A comparison between essentially unlike things without an explicitly comparative word such as like or as. An example is "My love is a red, red rose, from Burns A Red, Red Rose. Personification The endowment of inanimate objects or abstract concepts with animate or living qualities. An example: "The yellow leaves flaunted their color gaily in the breeze." Hyperbole A figure of speech involving exaggeration. John Donne uses hyperbole in his poem: "Song: Go and Catch a Falling Star." Irony A contrast or discrepancy between what is said and what is meant or between what happens and what is expected to happen in life and in literature. The

III. Haiku
It is a short form Japanese poetry. It is characterized by three elements. Kigu( )
It refers to the words related to the nature. It is the central topic of the traditional haiku: nature.

Sentiment It refers to the idea that the haiku expresses throughout its verses. In haiku, there are two ideas, particularly the event and the result, connected by the second verse which refers to what the object/subject is doing. Structure Traditional haikus follow the syllabic pattern of 5-7-5, totaling to 17 syllables. It does not rhyme, but it has a
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ing the questions when or why about the main clause, or imposing conditions or opposition on it. Because they talked to him, Ron snobbed them. Note: The subordinating conjunction does not always come between the two clauses it connects. Often, it comes at the beginning of the first clause. Correlative Conjunctions Correlative conjunctions are always used in pairs. They are similar to coordinating conjunctions because they join sentence elements that are similar in importance. Neither Alex nor Alice would want to have a date with him at the soiree.

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Compound words which when first looked at may be contradicting, but depicts another meaning. Original copies, true liar, pretty ugly are examples of oxymoron. Synecdoche A figure of speech in which a part is substituted for the whole. An example: "Lend me a hand." Metonymy A figure of speech in which a closely related term is substituted for an object or idea. An example: "We have always remained loyal to the crown."

VI. Sentence Structure

Simple Sentence This sentence contains only one independent clause. Karl bought his car. Compound Sentence This sentence contains two or more independent clause. It is usually joined by a coordinating or a correlative conjunction, or possibly a semicolon which functions as a connector. Karl bought his car yet he is not satisfied. Complex Sentence This sentence contains an independent clause with at least one dependent clause. A dependent clause, or subordinate clause is usually found with a subordinating conjunction (e.g. although, when, if) at the start or it may start with a relative pronoun (e.g. who, which).

V. Conjunctions
Conjunctions are words that link other words, phrases, or clauses. There are three types of conjunctions. Coordinating Conjunctions They connect two words or groups of words with similar values. In other words, coordinating conjunctions may connect two words, two phrases, two independent clauses, or two dependent clauses. The council and the delegates stood up and pledge their loyalty. Subordinating Conjunctions Subordinating conjunctions connect two groups of words by making one into a subordinating clause. The subordinating clause acts as one huge adverb, answerCopyright 2012-Present by


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Non-restrictive Dependent Clauses are clauses which are not really needed to complete the thought of the whole clause. Therefore, comma is added. Muntader Zaidi, who remained in custody Monday, provided a rare moment of unity in a region often at odds with itself.

Karl, whose parents are in USA, might follow their footsteps. Compound-Complex Sentence It contains at least two independent clauses and one or more dependent clauses. I was tired, but Annie, who welcomed me home, gave me a cold cup of soda. VII. Clauses A clause is a group of words that may or may not express a complete thought but has a subject and a verb. There are two types of clause. Independent Clause/Main Clause It is a clause that express a complete thought and could stand alone. My heart pumped spontaneously Dependent Clause/Subordinate Clause It is a clause that does not express a complete thought and cannot stand alone. Before it could stand alone, it needs a main clause to be connected with. Subordinate clauses usually start at a subordinating conjunction or a relative pronoun. Because you loved me Restrictive and Non-restrictive Dependent Clauses Restrictive Dependent Clauses are clauses which are needed to fulfill the meaning of the sentence and is therefore not included with a comma. Several people who have counseled the governor on the pending vacancy said that Kennedy has emerged as a clear front-runner.

VIII. Clause Modifiers

Adjective Clause Modifiers These are subordinating clauses that function as an adjective. The car which was parked at the street called the attention of the thief. Adverb Clause Modifiers These are subordinating clauses that function as an adverb. Unless the promoter would stop increasing the offer, many people will still bet.

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