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Searched for : propylene In folder(s) : D:\Master of Engineering UMP\Sources\Uncategorized\Book Results : 28 document(s) with 1632 instance(s) Saved on : 11/1/2012 2:39:44 PM
: Book - An-Introduction-to-Chemical-Engineering-Kinetics-Reactor-DesignCharles-G-Hill-Jr.pdf Title : Subject : Author : Keywords :
the hydrogenation of propylene). H i f^ LJ C^ TU (1 T 1
Alder additions of propylene (P) to cyclohexa-1, 3-diene (Chd) to
C. Cumene -> Propylene + Benzene C -• P + B They indicated that
polymers, especially isotactic polypropylene and high-density linear polyethylene. The resultant polymers have number
of acrylonitrile from propylene, ammonia, and air. The noncatalytic applications include the roasting of
to recycle the propylene and ethane and any unreacted propane after separation from the mixture of propane, propylene, and ethane, and the design analysis that we will present
Cyclohexadiene, reaction with propylene, 164-165 Cyclohexane, dehydrogenation, 527-529 Cyclohexanol, reaction with acetic
hydrogenation, 189, 209 Propylene, from cumene, 437 reaction with cyclohexadiene, 164-165 Protein degradation,
: Book - Catalysis-an-Integrated-Approach-to-Homogenous-Heterogenousand-Industrial-Catalysis-044489229X.pdf Title : Catalysis : an Integrated Approach to Homogeneous, Heterogeneous and Industrial Catalysis Subject : Author : Moulijn, Jacob A.; Leeuwen, P. W. N. M. van; Santen, R. A. van Keywords :
33 2.4 Isotactic Polypropylene . . . . . . . . . .
2.7 Styrene and Propylene Oxide (SMPO Process) . . . . . .
223 6.3.3 Isotactic Polypropylene . . . . . . . . . .
I1). 2.4 ISOTACTIC POLYPROPYLENE Overall Reaction Propene Polypropylene (htanium catalyst) Isotactic polypropylene is Overall Reaction Propene Polypropylene (htanium catalyst) Isotactic polypropylene is a stereoregular polymer with htanium catalyst) Isotactic polypropylene is a stereoregular polymer with all methyl groups pointing in stretched. In syndiotactic polypropylene the methyl groups alternate along the chain. The atactic polymer crackers. Product Use Polypropylene is a plastic which finds many end uses with a In general, isotactic polypropylene has a high tensile strength, a low density, a good
(1990) of polypropylene are produced annually. In 1973 this was only 3 million Slurry process for polypropylene with high activity catalyst.
contain dissolved atactic polypropylene which is collected by removal of the solvent with steam.
2.7 STYRENE AND PROPYLENE OXIDE (SMPO PROCESS) Feedstock Ethylbenzene and propene. The former
styrene-butadiene rubber. Propylene oxide is mainly used for the manufacture of propylene glycol the manufacture of propylene glycol and polyurethanes. Scale About 10 million tons of styrene million tons of propylene oxide are produced annually, worldwide. Most of the styrene is 400,000 tons of propylene oxide are produced by the SMPO process.
catalytic epoxidation of propylene with EBHP, affording propylene oxide and a-methylbenzyl alcohol; ( with EBHP, affording propylene oxide and a-methylbenzyl alcohol; (c) Dehydration of athe amount of propylene oxide that can be sold. The flow diagram for the
D, benzene; E, propylene; F, ethylene; G, propane; H, ethane; I, methane .
Feed Product ethylene propylene isobutene n-butane naphthalene methanol ethylene oxide acetaldehyde (liquid acrylonitrile (ammoxidation) propylene oxide (in liquid phase) acrylic acid methyl methacrylate maleic ethane + vinylchloride, propylene + methacrylic acid, or butane + maleic anhydride, became a
the production of polypropylene. For a more extensive review on this matter the reader
applied. 6.3.3 Isotactic Polypropylene As has already been mentioned in Chapter 2 Section 2.4,
van der Ven, Polypropylene and Other Polyolefins: Polymerization and Characterization, Elsevier Science Publishers, New L. Goodall, ”Polypropylene: Catalysts and Polymerization Aspects” in [l],C hapter 1,
control, 231 Isotactic polypropylene, 36 Isotherms, see Adsorption isotherms ISS, 381 Kaminsky, 230 Keime,
INDEX Polymers, 443 Polypropylene - isotactic, 36 - syndiotactic, 36 Pore radii, 433 Pore Propene epoxide, 193 Propylene oxide, 43 Pycnometry, 424 Pyrogenic silica, 313 Quasi-
control, 228 Syndiotactic polypropylene, 36 Syndiotactic polystyrene, 222 Synthesis gas reactions, 159 - Fischer-
: Book - Catalytic-Naphtha-Reforming-Second-Edition-ChemicalIndustries.pdf Title : Catalytic Naphtha Reforming Subject : Author : Aitani, Abdullah M. ;Antos, George J. Keywords :
xylene isomerization, and propylene polymerization. The heats of ammonia adsorption and the observations with
44.32 45.60 38.78 Propylene — 0.59 0.29 iso-butane 19.20 16.64 20.17 n-butane
0 3.97 Propylene 42.081 2.043Eþ4 3.710Eþ0 2.345E21 21.160E24 2.205E28 0 2.14 Propane
not the total feed rate.File Title Subject Author Keywords Page: 82 : Book . a 6.463 Page: 111 B) alkylation with propylene (A) to form cumene (C) were studied in based on the propylene feed rate.520 80 0.086 0.a.pdf : CHEMICAL REACTOR DESIGN : FM: Chemical Reactor Design : Peter Harriott : The hydrogenation of propylene was carried out in a semibatch recirculation reactor with a complex dependence on propylene pressure.Chemical-Reactor-Design-Chemical-Industries. Data for a typical run are given in Table (B) and propylene (C) in a fixed-bed recycle reactor. . atm 0 0. The benzene and adsorbed propylene but with no term for KBCB in the denominator: r Page: 380 of cumene to propylene and benzene has also been studied [5.33-fold equation based on propylene adsorption is needed to fit the fractional-order behavior.7]. The reason for Page: 112 mole fraction of propylene changes from 1/38 to 1/6. the propylene conversion was 86% at 4008C and 93% at 5008C. but this Page: 395 as well as polypropylene and various copolymers. At constant Page: 83 .104 0.138 0. millimole/min Ppropylene. The fluid bed is composed of porous Page: 399 of cumene to propylene and benzene was studied at 8008F using a fluidized bed Page: 402 of acrolein from propylene  or the partial oxidation of nbutane to make Page: 428 catalytic oxidation of propylene was studied in short metal monoliths (SMM) at temperatures in series.563 40 0.
205 1-Butene C4H8 540 70.792 1. propylene when R is a methyl group. These plastics are made in many grades.915 1-Butene C4H8 Page: 231 C2H4 52.392 Propylene C3H6 1500 7. A quite different polymerization mechanism has polymerization to form polypropylene.637 22. polypropylene. and Scaleup : Chemical Engineering : E.510 68.340 1- Page: 465 form polyethylene and propylene polymerization to form polypropylene. A quite different polymerization mechanism has two polymer molecules reacting Page: 469 R is hydrogen. between the polyolefins. Commercial polystyrene is atactic although a syndiotactic variety e. polyethylene.) gives the same empirical formula. polypropylene. but they give polymer of undesirably high polydispersity. etc. Commercial polypropylene is isotactic.pdf : Chemical Reactor Design.File Title Subject Author Keywords Page: 111 : Book .460 Propylene C3H6 19. styrene when R is Page: 470 is hydrogen. Page: 494 or slurry polymerization Polypropylene in a pool of liquid propylene Gaseous monomer .710 62. Optimization. Bruce Nauman : such as polyethylene. PD>10.g.Chemical-Reactor-Design-Optimization-And-Scaleup. and Page: 229 14.706 6.394 4. and polystyrene.. Polypropylene has methyl side-chains on every other carbon atom along Page: 488 the polymerization of propylene and has subsequently come into wide use for the polymerization high stereospecificity for polypropylene. poly(1-butene). CH2.
Polymer Gaspool of liquid propylene Gaseous monomer Polymer Gas-Phase polymerization Fluidized-bed process for Page: 504 g. Loop reactors liquid propylene suspends polypropylene) and so is sensible heat transfer. when liquid propylene suspends polypropylene) and so is sensible heat transfer.. Loop reactors may have .
atm 0 0.File Title Subject Author Keywords Page: 82 : Book .33-fold equation based on propylene adsorption is needed to fit the fractional-order behavior.520 80 0.563 40 0. not the total feed rate. but this Page: 395 as well as polypropylene and various copolymers. .138 0.Chemical-Reactor-Design. The benzene and adsorbed propylene but with no term for KBCB in the denominator: r Page: 380 of cumene to propylene and benzene has also been studied [5.a. The fluid bed is composed of porous Page: 399 of cumene to propylene and benzene was studied at 8008F using a fluidized bed Page: 402 of acrolein from propylene  or the partial oxidation of nbutane to make Page: 428 catalytic oxidation of propylene was studied in short metal monoliths (SMM) at temperatures in series. a 6.463 Page: 111 B) alkylation with propylene (A) to form cumene (C) were studied in based on the propylene feed rate. At constant Page: 83 .pdf : CHEMICAL REACTOR DESIGN : FM: Chemical Reactor Design : Peter Harriott : The hydrogenation of propylene was carried out in a semibatch recirculation reactor with a complex dependence on propylene pressure. millimole/min Ppropylene.7]. Data for a typical run are given in Table (B) and propylene (C) in a fixed-bed recycle reactor.104 0. The reason for Page: 112 mole fraction of propylene changes from 1/38 to 1/6.086 0. the propylene conversion was 86% at 4008C and 93% at 5008C.
. Polystyrene 334. . Propylene Oxide 221 Oxyacylation of Propylene 226 Chlorination of Propylene 226 221 Oxyacylation of Propylene 226 Chlorination of Propylene 226 Hydration of Propylene 227 Properties 226 Chlorination of Propylene 226 Hydration of Propylene 227 Properties and Uses of Isopropanol 226 Hydration of Propylene 227 Properties and Uses of Isopropanol 228 Addition of Organic 232 Hydroformylation of Propylene: The Oxo Reaction 232 Disproportionation of Propylene (Metathesis) 234 232 Disproportionation of Propylene (Metathesis) 234 Alkylation Using Propylene 235 References 236 CHAPTER 234 Alkylation Using Propylene 235 References 236 CHAPTER NINE C4 Olefins and DiolefinsBased Page: 7 324 Polyethylene 324. Polypropylene 329. Nylon Resins 336. . .File Title Subject Author Keywords Page: 3 : Book . Propylene 33. Polyvinyl Chloride 332. Propylene Oxide 221 Oxyacylation of Propylene 226 Chlorination of of Propylene 218. Ammoxidation of Propylene 218. . 213 Oxidation of Propylene 214 Acrolein 215. Mechanism of Propene Oxidation 215.Chemistry-of-Petrochemical-Processes-com. Thermoplastic Elastomers 358 Synthetic Fibers 359 Polyester Fibers Carbon Fibers 369. .pdf : : : : Referex 32 Ethylene 32. . Polypropylene Fibers 370 References 371 Appendix One: Conversion Factors . . Thermoplastic Page: 8 Rubber 356. Ethylene Propylene Rubber 357. Isoprene 37 Aromatic Page: 6 Chemicals Based on Propylene . alternative . Butylenes 34 Dienes 36 Butadiene 37. Acrylic Acid 217. . . Page: 9 Because ethylene and propylene are the major building blocks for petrochemicals.
and propylene would be a product: CH3C + HCH2CH2Rv r RvC + Page: 91 mode of operation. Fluid Page: 10 many polyethylene and polypropylene processes.ways for producing ethylene and propylene is steam cracking.8 Butylene 14.5 14. propylene plus ethylene yields could reach over 25%.3 6. Chapter 8 Page: 88 becomes possible.9 Propylene 20. glycerol. Ethylene is the most important olefin for producing petrochemicals. a Page: 92 6.5 PROPYLENE (CH3CH=CH2) Like ethylene. and acrylonitrile. In addition. Propylene has always been obtained as a for petrochemical use.3 0. and Page: 47 lbs in 1997. propylene (propene) is a reactive alkene that can be obtained main source of propylene.6 11. where it is coproduced special process for propylene production except the dehydrogenation of propane. which is an energy extensive process. is steam cracking of hydrocarbons.0 in which IC4 Page: 102 . however. These olefins are usually coproduced with as polyethylene and polypropylene. Catalyst CH3CH2–CH3 r Page: 48 of Petrochemical Processes Propylene can be polymerized alone or copolymerized with other monomers such are based on propylene such as isopropanol.3 14. the butylenes. allyl alcohol.1 2. Propylene has always been obtained as a coproduct with ethylene from Page: 46 petrochemicals are ethylene. propylene. and isoprene. can polymerize proplylene in two different modes: alternating blocks Page: 45 of propane to propylene for petrochemical use. propylene (propene) is a CH2) Like ethylene.
6 — — — Isohexanes* Page: 105 petrochemicals are ethylene. a trimer or a tetramer is formed.8 31. Residual Page: 112 yields and decreases propylene yield.5 4. Figure 3-13 shows the influence of conversion severity Page: 113 feeds. because cracking at a tertiary carbon is Page: 111 30 25 50 Propylene 2.is either a propylene-propane mixture or propylene-butane mixture where propane and butane propane mixture or propylene-butane mixture where propane and butane are diluents. and butadiene. The product is a mixture of dimers. a conjugated diolefin. butylenes.0 12. Butadiene. and significantly more aromatic pyrolysis gasoline. When propylene is used. This is expected.3. is normally coproduced Page: 110 high yields of propylene.9 Other* 2. Also. The following conditions are typical for naphtha cracking: ethylene and more propylene is produced.8 Butadiene 1. The advantage of using 12. and the butenes are needed.1 Butadiene 4. propylene.5 * Other: Propane 0. tetramers. butadiene. butanes ethylene yield. trimers. The Page: 103 octane number.9 Ethylene 80.4 2 2 used when coproduct propylene. Cracking gas oils for olefin production has been Page: 115 Ethylene 25.8 BTX 10 .4 15 18 13 14 12 Butadiene 1.3 Propylene 16. from dimerization of propylene.2 — — — Propane 34.2 Butenes 7.9 Propylene 1.40 Table 3-14 Typical feed and products from the the dimerization of propylene40 Vol. The Page: 104 and eventually produce propylene tetramer.9 2. a propylene separation tower and a methyl acetylene removal unit are incorporated methane and decreased propylene and butenes. % Total wt % Total Feed Propylene 71 — % Total Feed Propylene 71 — — — Propane 29 100 — — Products — Products LPG Propylene 4. higher propylene and butadiene yields.
0 6.Page: 116 3. a thermoplastic elastomer is obtained.3-pentadiene. Co0 150° Page: 185 At higher temperatures.3 . The use of Page: 172 This process coproduces propylene oxide. Due Page: 202 is polymerized with propylene. t-Butyl alcohol loses water giving isobutene which reacts Page: 178 subsequent hydrogenation are propylene trimer and tetramer for the production of decyl and tridecyl Page: 179 of butyraldehyde from propylene is based on this technology.5 4. Propylene and butylenes do not form epoxides through this route.0 2. phenol. propylene.11 Page: 166 for ethylene and propylene in competition with steam cracking of hydrocarbons. Figure 7-1 illustrates the Page: 205 among lower olefins. sulfur. and ammonia which are used for Page: 163 of ethylene and propylene.7 Butadiene 4. The subject has been reviewed by Chang. alpha olefins. The reaction occurs at 200° Page: 139 products are ethylene. isobutane reacts with oxygen giving tbutyl alcohol and propylene oxide. propylene and ethylene are obtained in addition to hydrogen peroxide.3 Butenes Page: 121 1.2 5.9 13.0 Propylene 14. In this process.8 3.0 13. From Propylene (Goodyear Process) Another approach for producing isoprene is the the dimerization of propylene to 2-methyl-1-pentene.31 Hydroformylation of higher olefins approximate conditions for propylene hydroformylation Process Catalyst Conditions % Normal Ruhrchemie Co2+.0 9.
S. The use of peroxides . It may also Page: 227 Chemicals Based on Propylene INTRODUCTION Propylene. propylene oxide (Ca 10%). propylene demand ws 31 billion pounds and most of it was used to produce polypropylene polymers and copolymers (about 46%). chemicals based on propylene. This complexity of the propylene molecule (due to presence of a methyl group) should limited use of propylene in comparison to ethylene. Figure 8-1 shows the important chemicals based on propylene.” is second to ethylene As an olefin. propylene demand ws 31 billion pounds 1997 U. chemical demand for propylene is a little over one half that for ethylene. Instead. The 1997 U. “the crown prince of petrochemicals. respectively. The following discusses the chemistry of the production of these chemicals. OXIDATION OF PROPYLENE The direct oxidation of propylene using air or oxygen produces direct oxidation of propylene using air or oxygen produces acrolein. Other large volume uses (Ca 13%). Acrolein may further be Page: 229 Chemicals Based on Propylene 215 Ammoxidation of propylene is considered under oxidation reactions because 215 Ammoxidation of propylene is considered under oxidation reactions because it is thought that and ammoxidation of propylene to acrolein and to acrylonitrile.” is second on Propylene INTRODUCTION Propylene. the direct catalyzed chlorination of catalyzed chlorination of propylene produces allyl chloride through substitution of allylic hydrogens by chlorine. “the crown prince of petrochemicals. an unsaturated allylic hydrogens in propylene. many important chemicals are produced are produced from propylene. Nevertheless. cumene (Ca 8%) and oxo Page: 228 chemicals based on propylene. propylene is a reactive compound that can react with many common direct oxidation of propylene using oxygen does not produce propylene oxide as in the does not produce propylene oxide as in the case of ethylene. Similar to the oxidation reaction.S.Page: 213 normally produced from propylene by the Oxo reaction (Chapter 8).
propylene In these experiments. and steam is introduced to the reactor. air. ACROLEIN (CH2=CHCHO) Acrolein (2oxygen oxidation of propylene. ammoxidation of propylene is highly exothermic. This compound is also obtained via a of propylene produces propylene oxide. AMMOXIDATION OF PROPYLENE (Acrylonitrile [CH2=CHCN]) Ammoxidation refers to a reaction produces acrylonitrile from propylene: CH2=CHCH3 + NH3 + 11/2O2 r CH2=CHCN reactions.the oxidation of propylene produces propylene oxide. Also. Oxidation of propylene occurs readily at acrolein. so an efficient heat removal system is that gives 95. As with propylene oxidation.3 In these experiments.8. carbon monoxide from radioactivity: When propylene tagged with 14C at either Cl or C3 was oxidized the oxidation of propylene to acrolein is by a first step abstraction of an from an adsorbed propylene by an oxygen anion from the catalytic lattice to form Page: 231 Chemicals Based on Propylene 217 The next step is the insertion of a lattice Page: 232 industry. CH3CH=CH2 + O2 r CH2=CHCHO + H2O ΔH= a mixture of propylene. Oxidation of propylene occurs readily at Page: 233 Chemicals Based on Propylene 219 Table 8-1 Typical analysis of acrylonitrile. the oxidation of propylene to acrolein over bismuth molybdate. another time at C2 and Page: 230 with ethylene when propylene tagged with 14C at C2 was used. the first step in the ammoxidation reaction is the alpha hydrogen from propylene and formation of an allylic intermediate. propylene was tagged once at Cl. The hot mechanism by which propylene is catalytically oxidized to acrolein over the heterogeneous catalyst surface. the first step in the chemisportion. This compound is also obtained via a chlorohydrination of a chlorohydrination of propylene followed by epoxidation. This sites that block propylene chemisportion.6% propylene conversion and a selectivity above 80% for acrylonitrile. HCN and the conversion of propylene to acrylonitrile does not occur until about 402°C. Although the subsequent steps Page: 235 . As with propylene oxidation.9 The those used in propylene oxidation to acrolein.
propylene chlorohydrin is produced. Byproduct then distillation. propylene oxide produces propylene glycol. Propylene oxide also reacts with alcohols. producing polypropylene glycol ethers. but method to obtain propylene oxide is chlorohydrination followed by epoxidation. Propylene oxide also reacts with alcohols. the hydration of propylene oxide the hydration of propylene oxide produces propylene glycol.produce adiponitrile via propylene is the electrodimerization of acrylonitrile. a precursor for glycerol.12 Page: 237 Chemicals Based on Propylene 223 C6H5CH2CH3 + O2 r C6H5CH(CH3)OOH Table 8for epoxidation of propylene and the coproducts with economic value. Byproduct propylene dichloride may be purified for use as a solvent or important process for propylene oxide is epoxidation with peroxides. The next step is the dehydrochlorination Page: 236 of Petrochemical Processes Propylene oxide is purified by steam stripping and then distillation. propylene chlorohydrin is produced. Epoxidation of propylene with ethylbenzene hydroperoxide is carried out at approximately 130°C process for producing propylene oxide. which are used to produce polyurethane foams and detergents. Many hydroperoxides have been used values. Chlorohydrination is the reaction between an olefin and hypochlorous acid. This older method still dominant role in propylene oxide production.l2 Epoxidation with hydrogen claimed to produce propylene oxide in high yield: Deriatives and Uses of Propylene Oxide and Uses of Propylene Oxide Similar to ethylene oxide. Isomerization of propylene oxide produces allyl alcohol. Propylene oxide also reacts with alcohols.11 The following is a Chemicals Based on Propylene 221 Propylene oxide is similar in its structure to ethylene on Propylene 221 Propylene oxide is similar in its structure to ethylene oxide. The reaction occurs is the reactant. producing polypropylene glycol produces propylene glycol. . When propylene is the reactant. producing polypropylene glycol ethers. The reaction occurs at approximately 35°C HOCl r CH3CHOHCH2Cl Propylene chlorohydrin Approximately 87–90% yield could be achieved. which with alcohols. The main by-product is propylene dichloride (6–9%).
di-. was approximately 3. The catalyzed reaction occurs at approximately 180°C and 4 l5 CHLORINATION OF PROPYLENE (Allyl Chloride [CH2=CHCH2Cl]) Allyl chloride is a direct chlorination of propylene at high temperatures (approximately 500°C and one atmosphere).The 1994 S. The reaction conditions carbon dioxide produces propylene carbonate. Propylene Glycol (CH3CH(OH)CH2OH) Propylene glycol (1.and polypropylene glycols can be di-.2-propanediol) CH3CH(OH)CH2OH) Propylene glycol (1. It can be produced from allyl chloride or from acrolein Page: 240 Processes OXYACYLATION OF PROPYLENE Like vinyl acetate from ethylene. tri.2-propanediol) is produced by the hydration of the hydration of propylene oxide in a manner similar to that used for ethylene used to epoxidize propylene12 Peroxide feedstock Epoxidation coproduct Coproduct derivative Acetaldehyde Acetic acid — Page: 238 1992 U. The reaction between The reaction between propylene oxide and carbon dioxide produces propylene carbonate. Page: 241 Chemicals Based on Propylene 227 Glycerol.7 billion 1992 U.S. production of propylene oxide. is used to produce polyurethane . The reaction conditions are approximately 200°C and 80 Page: 239 Chemicals Based on Propylene 225 Propylene carbonate is a liquid used as a specialty on Propylene 225 Propylene carbonate is a liquid used as a specialty solvent and catalytic isomerization of propylene oxide at approximately 280°C. a trihydric alcohol. propylene oxide capacity14 Annual capacity (millions Basic Location of lb) Depending on the propylene oxide/water ratio. tri. the 35th highest-volume chemical.S. allyl acetate is produced by phase oxyacylation of propylene.and polypropylene glycols can be made the main products. propylene oxide capacity of the three firms producing it and the chemicals based on propylene oxide. The reaction of allyl alcohol with H2O2 produces glycidol as also based on propylene. Propylene Glycol (CH3CH(OH)CH2OH) Propylene glycol ( on propylene oxide. The reaction is catalyzed with obtained at a propylene oxide conversion around 25%: Allyl alcohol is used in the to epoxidation of propylene).
plasticizers. HYDRATION OF PROPYLENE (Isopropanol [CH3CHOHCH3]) Isopropanol (2propanol) is an of isopropanol from propylene occurs by either a direct hydration reaction (the newer realized at 75% propylene conversion. the metathesis of propylene to produce 2-butene and ethylene. yielding ethylene and butylenes. (2) reactor. A high yield of the ester can be realized ( acrylic acid to propylene. For example. on the other hand.23 Anderson and Brown . This Page: 246 acetic acid to propylene. propylene could be disproportionated over different catalysts. (2) 16 (1) propylene recovery column. Page: 248 22 DISPROPORTIONATION OF PROPYLENE (Metathesis) Olefins could be catalytically converted into shorter and reaction. (4) distillation. The reaction occurs in the liquid phase at about 100° plasticizer. (3) residual gas separation Page: 243 Chemicals Based on Propylene 229 Table 8-4 Acid concentration and temperatures used for 98 60–80 Propylene CH3—CH=CH2 75-85 25–40 Butylenes CH3—CH2— direct oxidation of propylene with oxygen is a noncatalytic reaction occurring at approximately 90– Page: 244 for acetone from propylene was developed using a homogeneous catalyst similar to Wacker system Page: 245 Chemicals Based on Propylene 231 CH3 | Methyl Methacrylate (CH2=C-COOCH3).16 Gas phase hydration. The only important byproduct is diisopropyl ether (about diagram of the propylene hydration process. Page: 242 the hydration of propylene to isopropanol:16 (1) propylene recovery column. HYDROFORMYLATION OF PROPYLENE: THE OXO REACTION (Butyraldehydes) The catalytic hydroformylation of olefins The reaction of propylene with CO and H2 produces n-butyraldehyde as the main Page: 247 Chemicals Based on Propylene 233 Figure 8-5 shows the homogeneous Hoechst and Rhone to strip unreacted propylene to recycle).
with respect to propylene is to convert excess propylene to olefins of greater economic to convert excess propylene to olefins of greater economic value. However.8 96. is produced by the chlorohydrination of l-butene with those used for propylene: CH3CH2CH=CH2 + HOCl r CH3CH2CHOHCH2Cl Butylene chlorohydrin Figure 9- Page: 259 of ethylene or propylene and results in a mixture of sec-butyl hydrogen sulfate Page: 261 maximum conversion to propylene is 63%. and ethylene from propylene (Chapter 8). Page: 251 Chemicals Based on Propylene 237 Page: 252 either ethylene or propylene. The amount of 2-pentene depends on the ratio of Page: 262 overall 87. More discussion regarding olefin Page: 249 Chemicals Based on Propylene 235 Figure 8-6. The Hoechst AG process for producing butyl) ALKYLATION USING PROPYLENE Propylene could be used as an alkylating agent for aromatics. (3. Page: 250 and ethylene from propylene:23 (1) metathesis reactor. (2) fractionator (to (to separate propylene recycle from propane).8 94. C4 olefins and diolefins are precursors for some significant Page: 253 that used for propylene. 4) fractionator for separating ethylene. The reverse reaction is used to prepare prepare polymer-grade propylene form 2-butene and ethylene:10 CH3CH=CHCH3 + CH2= 2-pentene and propylene. the major route for obtaining acetic acid (ethanoic Page: 258 Butylene oxide. like propylene oxide. Higher conversions require recycling unreacted butenes after fractionation. Currently.6 Propylene product % selectivity 93.11 OLIGOMERIZATION OF BUTENES 2- .6 % yield from butene-2 producing polymer grade propylene from ethylene and 2-butene.
69. a isotactic form of propylene has better physical and mechanical properties than the three . A selectivity of 10-5). Page: 324 Petrochemical Processes When propylene is polymerized with free radicals or some ionic initiators. Page: 277 such as ethylene. Surplus ter-butyl alcohol could Page: 272 1. In polymerizing these compounds. However. fresh propylene feed is combined with fresh and recycled benzene. the yield is low. then passed Page: 316 copolymerizing ethylene and propylene: Block copolymers are formed by reacting two different prepolymers.Page: 264 the oxidation of propylene. Ahigh benzene/propylene ratio is also used to decrease polyalkylation. the direct oxidation of Page: 265 to ammoxidation of propylene to acrylonitrile. mixture. which Page: 323 synthesized a stereoregular polypropylene with a Ziegler-type catalyst. and other stereoregular polymers. and Cl2–Cl4 alpha olefins are used to produce benzene Page: 283 is alkylated with propylene to isopropylbenzene. These catalyst combinations are now (nonbranched).” Hydrocarbon Processing. “Propylene From Ethylene and Butene-2. Either a liquid or a gas-phase process feed is used..4-BDO) from propylene via the carbonylation of allyl acetate is noted in Chapter Page: 274 et al. propylene. Vol. cis-polybutadiene. stereoregular polypropylene. which produces acrolein and acrylic acid. No. Propylene can be as low as 40% of the feed mixture. EPOXIDATION OF ISOBUTYLENE way similar to propylene oxide and butylene oxide by a chlorohydrination route followed by Page: 267 the synthesis of propylene oxide using tertiary butyl hydroperoxide.
Figure 11-1. Linear polyethylene occurs whether the reaction takes place by insertion in a syndiotactic polypropylene when propylene is the ligand. Page: 326 metallocene produces isotactic polypropylene. syndiotactic polypropylene when propylene is the ligand. the catalyst produces alternating blocks of Page: 334 are polyethylene and polypropylene. Isotactic polypropylene. is an amorphous gum elastomer. 16. in which the stereo centers are arranged randomly. Page: 338 polymers and copolymers.Figure 11-1. in which all of the stereo cen. polypropylene.11 Polymerizing propylene with Ziegler-Natta catalyst produces mainly isotactic polypropylene. These materials reduce the cost and Page: 343 properties of polyethylenes. POLYPROPYLENE Polypropylene (PP) is a major thermoplastic polymer. Although polypropylene thermoplastic polymer. Thermosetting plastics are usually rigid due to high crosslinking between Page: 336 R. As the ligands form produces atactic polypropylene. atactic polypropylene.tactic radical polymerization). As the ligands rotate. Propylene can undergo polymerization in three different ways to form atactic b). polycarbonates. The Cosseproduces mainly isotactic polypropylene.. and polyvinyl chloride. “Elastomeric Polypropylene Oscillating Catalyst Controls Microstructure. or syndiotactic polypropylene (c). Although polypropylene did not take its position among the large volume polymers The delay in polypropylene development may be attributed to technical reasons related to its . The Cosse-Arlman model explains the formation of the stereoregular producing an isotactic polypropylene. whereas the achiral form produces atactic polypropylene.10 Page: 325 By contrast. Polypropylene consisting of blocks of atactic and isotactic stereo sequences is rubbery. Jan.” Chemical and Engineering News.
to its polymerization. Polypropylenes with a 99% isotactic index are currently produced. Polypropylene can be extruded into sheets and thermoformed by solidphase weight and toughness. Titanium residues resulting from the catalyst are Page: 344 process for producing polypropylene14: (1) reactor. (2) centrifugal compressor. the properties of polypropylene. turning point in polypropylene production was the development of a Ziegler-type catalyst by olefins (ethylene. Polypropylene could be produced in a liquid or in a gaswide range of polypropylenes are made in a fluidized bed gas phase reactor. Page: 346 Articles made from polypropylene have good electrical and chemical resistance and low water absorption.4) catalysts can polymerize propylene in two different ways. As a result.16 Properties and Uses and Uses of Polypropylene The properties of commercial polypropylene vary widely according to the properties of commercial polypropylene vary widely according to the percentage of crystalline isotactic polymer degree of polymerization. and flexible atactic polypropylene grow within the same polymer chain. An example Page: 345 process for producing polypropylene in a liquid-phase7: (1) tubular reactor. (3) heat from reacted gas). propylene) occurs in the total absence of inert solvents such as such as liquefied propylene in the reactor. Improvements processes have made polypropylene accessible for fiber production. polypropylene and its copolymers are extensively used in automobile parts. Gaseous propylene and ethylene are first reactor. Gaseous propylene and ethylene are fed to the impact reactor to produce of ethylene and propylene are highly amorphous. Polypropylene produced by free radical initiation is mainly the atactic form. and they have rubbery properties.l4 after transferring the polypropylene resin from the first reactor. Rigid chiral metallocene produce isotactic polypropylene metallocene produce isotactic polypropylene whereas the achiral forms of the catalysts produce atactic polypropylene. (2. The polymer microstructure is a function of the reaction conditions isomer produces isotactic polypropylene and the other produces the atactic polymer. catalysts produce atactic polypropylene. Low-cost fibers made .
which is rigid. Crosslinking EPR use of ethylene-propylene rubber is to produce automotive parts such as gaskets. is used Page: 356 ethylene oxide or propylene oxide are suitable for producing polyurethanes. and ethylene-propylene-diene terepolymer. The copolymer with ethylene or propylene with ethylene or propylene (Tg = 80°C). termed ethylene-propylene terepolymer (EPT). Polyurethane polymers are either from glycerol and propylene oxide are used for producing block slab foams. with ethylene-propylene terepolymer elastomer. °C Page: 347 are vinyl acetate. This 3 Properties of Polypropylene Density. Block copolymers of styrene copolymers. Major markets for polyurethanes are Page: 365 polyisoprene. mechanical Page: 372 polyolefins such as propylene copolymers. ethylene. Block copolymers of styrene with other monomers such ethylene or ethylene/propylene are the most widely used TPE’s. propylene. and vinylidine chloride.91 Fill temperature. ETHYLENE-PROPYLENE RUBBER Ethylene-propylene rubber (EPR) is a stereoregular copolymer PROPYLENE RUBBER Ethylene-propylene rubber (EPR) is a stereoregular copolymer of ethylene and of ethylene and propylene. Styrene-butadiene-styrene ( Page: 384 million pounds/year. These polyols Page: 358 with ethylene and propylene oxides to produce the polyol. POLYPROPYLENE FIBERS Polypropylene fibers represent a small . g/cm3 0. Elastomers of this type do not possess the double bonds elastomer. World demand World demand for polypropylene is expected to be 30 billion pounds by 2002.from polypropylene fibers made from polypropylene are replacing those made from sisal and jute.90–0. with ethylene-propylene terepolymer elastomer. max. can be crosslinked using sulfur. It also includes thermoplastic elastomers that are not Page: 371 a sealant.
was approximately 2.) Ethane chemicals from. 248 from propylene disproportionation. Page: 393 monoolefins. 344–346 production. (Most polypropylene is used as a thermoplastic. including polypropylene fibers. strength. 159 properties. 96 ethyl chloride from. it starts to soften at of fiber-grade polypropylene are given in Table 12-8. low Important characteristics of polypropylene are high abrasion resistance.) ter- Page: 396 carbon monoxide. 222 Epoxy resins. 88 Alkylbenzene sulfonate from. 225 Allyl chloride. low static buildup.) Ethane chemicals from. POLYPROPYLENE FIBERS Polypropylene fibers represent a small percent of the total polypropylene production. 215 oxidation. 169 cracking. strength. 160 Andrussaw Page: 394 of. 217 Acrylic acid from acrolein. 226 Alphabutol process for l-butene. 269 of olefins. (See Ethylene propylene rubber. 234 n-Butyl alcohol (See n-Butanol. 234 toluene. Important characteristics of polypropylene are high abrasion resistance. 279 Ammoxidation of propylene.) EPT (See Ethylene propylene terepolymer. 285 DMT (See Dimethylterephthalate.5 billion pounds. Polypropylene fibers are used for face pile of needle felt. . 260 191 isobutylene. tufted polyolefin fibers. 217 from ethylene. 251 propylene. 225 from propylene oxide.) Dodecanedioic acid. 344 properties and uses. of the total polypropylene production.) The production. Page: 385 of fiber-grade polypropylene56 Fiber-grade Fiber-grade Property homopolymer copolymer Specific gravity at Page: 392 215–217 from propylene. 124 propylene. and resistance of fiber-grade polypropylene is moderate and when heated. 275 using propylene. Melt spinning is normally high MP of polypropylene is attributed to low entropy of fusion arising from stiffening of the chain.) The fibers are usually manufactured manufactured from isotactic polypropylene. (See Ethylene propylene terepolymer. 85–88 process conditions. 218 ter-Amyl methyl ether production.percent of the total year. (Most polypropylene is used as a thermoplastic.
XXX Ethylene-propylene terepolymer. 310 production. 97 from propylene disproportionation. 227–228 process. 310 production. 29–32 constituents of crude oils. 218 Propylene acetone from. 106 from propylene. 12 Page: 402 318 viscosity. 213 disproportionation. 310 from propylene using Ziegler-Natta catalysts. 90 Oligomers butadiene. 148–149 Hydrocarbon 163–164 of propylene. 229 allyl acid from. 202 Page: 397 production. . 253 propylene to isopropanol. 330–331 Spherical liquidphenylene) oxide. 226 chemicals. production and uses. isotactic. 357 Hexamethylenediamine for nylon 364 from adipie acid. 107 polymers and copolymers. 228 isopropyl acetate from. 221 toluene to benzoic acid. XXX Ethylene-propylene terepolymer. 88 analysis of products. 227– from. Hexadiene for ethylene-propylene rubber. 229 allyl acetate from. 229 from propylene. 248 propylene. 370 properties. Triolefin Process. 371 Polystyrene production. 310 from propylene using Ziegler-Natta catalysts. 318 Polypropylene isotactic. 221 toluene to benzoic acid. 226 Paraffinic hydrocarbons. rubber. 283 Page: 398 butyl alcohol. 286 p-xylene to 165 Oxyacylation of propylene. 236 Methacrolein. 232–233 Rhone Poulenc process. 111–114 from methylal. 250 Methacrylic Page: 400 ethylene. 286 p181 propylene to propylene oxide. 227 Hydrazine.) Propiolactone acrylic acid from. 234 vinyl acetate from. 354 Isopropanol (2-propanol). 342 Ethylene-propylene rubber. 357 2-Ethylhexanol from butyraldehyde. 205–206 propylene. 340 Polypropylene fibers. 233 Hydrogen.cracking. 334–335 batch suspension Propene (See Propylene. 357 2Ethylhexanol from butyraldehyde. 200 vinyl chloride from. 234–235 Phillips Co. 232 isopropyl acrylate Page: 399 chart for. 181 propylene to propylene oxide. 259–260 2- Page: 401 acetic acid. 233– 234 Hoechst process. 218 Propylene acetone from.
221–222 from propylene epoxidation. 356 ethylene butyl. 221 Propylene glycol. 334–336 polyvinyl chloride. 223 uses. 321. 359 polypropylene. 223 Propylene oxide allyl alcohol from. 225 coproduct with Propylene glycol. 222 in polyurethane synthesis. 221 Propylene glycol. 356 ethylene propylene. 350–359 butyl. 353 polybutadiene. 329–331 polystyrenes. 332–334 properties. 185 butyl. 340 polypropylene. 33–34 Propylene dichloride. 223 Pruteen (from methanol). 309 in production of nitrile rubber. Page: 405 vinyl acetate. 356 ethylene-propylene. 352–353 polyisoprene. 223 uses. 6 in ethylene and propylene polymerization. 353 phenylene) oxide. 342 Page: 403 Index 389 propylene carbonate from. 223 Propylene oxide allyl alcohol from. 224 propylene glycol from. 221–222 from propylene epoxidation. 353 in stereoregular . 354 properties. 230 Water removal from natural gas. 351 nitrile. 223 Pruteen carbonate from.properties. Propylene dichloride. 370-371 Synthetic rubber. 351 styrenebutadiene. 353 polyisoprene. 158 from MTBE. 357 nitrile. 223 Propylene oxide allyl alcohol from. 357 natural. 200 propylene oxidation to acetone. 222 in polyurethane synthesis. 225 coproduct with MTBE. 354 Page: 404 362 polyesters. 224 propylene glycol from. 158 from propylene chlorohydrin.
liquid is a dispersed . adipic acid dinitrile.Computational-Flow-Modeling-for-Chemical-Reactor-Engineering. propylene) and so on Gas–liquid Oxidations (ethylene. poly-propylene) are listed below.File Title Subject Author Keywords Page: 310 : Book . ethanol benzene. In this process. acrilonitrile. propylene. Page: 391 olefins (polyethylene/polypropylene) Coal gasification Fischer–Tropsch synthesis Acrylonitrile/metacrylonitrile Calcination/roasting of Page: 443 liquid reaction (propylene oxide manufacturing process). benzene.pdf : : : : Referex styrene. Chlorinations poly-ethylene. paraffins). tolune olefins methanol. nitroaromatics. ethylene. Computational flow modeling can make substantial contributions Page: 352 aromatic hydrocarbons ethanol.
since it lacks syndiotactic polypropylene).1 Stochastic Model for Polymer Growth The propylene polymerization is Polymer Growth The propylene polymerization is shown in Figure 9. 3. since it lacks long-range Page: 72 complexed olefinic (propylene) unit made up of the old (propyl) growing chain. Thus. in most polypropylene samples obtained by these catalytic systems the regioirregularities are usually Page: 58 Metals 47 syndiotactic polypropylenes are partially crystalline materials with relatively high melting points ( C for syndiotactic polypropylene).File Title Subject Author Keywords Page: 57 : Book .pdf : Computational Modeling of Homogeneous Catalysis : : Feliu Maseras and Agusti Lledos : fact.Computational-Modeling-of -homogeneous-catalys. atactic polypropylene is a fully amorphous polymer.2.or 2.1-insertion route. For Page: 373 . one Page: 83 simulations for the propylene polymerization catalyzed by the Pd-based bis-imine catalyst with Page: 85 analysis of the polpropylenes that for this catalyst insertion happens only at the primary Page: 88 experimental data for propylene polymerization with the Pd-based catalyst for different substituents. atactic polypropylene is a fully amorphous polymer. In the case of Page: 80 and insert a propylene molecule via either 1. Page: 79 the polymerization of propylene.
62. .polarization functions 41 propylene polymerization 68 pyrazole ligand 303 QM/MM methods 13.
e.File : Book . ..pdf Title : Subject : Author : Keywords : Page: 129 Hydration.Coulson-and-Richardson-Chemical-Engineering-Volume-3-ThirdEdition-Chemical-and-Biochemical-Reactors-Process-Control.g. propylene to isopropyl alcohol CH.OH + isoC4HB -+ methyl tert.
g. (1980) Not currently available Not currently Page: 63 236.3545 1.0996 Propylene — 1.0036 0. R.Coulson-and-Richardson-s-Chemical-Engineering-Vol-1-Heat Transfer.00 Page: 152 Fluid State: 7.4178 Page: 96 0..7259 1. Arp.1408 0.6646 223. D. Pergamon Press.080 365.39 87.0901 2.9116 2.5375 1. R-1270) T 160.0018 0.1898 1.46 0. Oxford.57 4.0550 1.File : Book . Page: 1057 with water and propylene glycol flows in annuli with fluted or corrugated tubes ( (e..00 240.00 200.0667 1.07.28:1314 Author : Fred Schoerner (Photo Comp Serv #1) 719 2001 Feb 21 14:51:40 Keywords : Page: 60 113–500 30 Propylene Angus et al.pdf Title : Subject : TeX output 2003. D..40 Propyne 40. propylene glycol) and/or large temperature-dependent viscosity variations in the Page: 1267 Anhydride/maleic Anhydride/propylene Glycol (2:1:3) Crosslinking agent: styrene monomer ( .0274 1.14 Propylene 42. Propylene.3210 0.32 0. V.00 180.0003 Propylene (Propene.00 220.060 Page: 66 1.2592 2.950 225. McCarty. IUPAC.
I. The compounds have close boiling points and the cent w/w propylene.File : Book . Chlorobenzenes from benzene and 4. G. Ethylhexanol from propylene and synthesis gas.0 3.46 Propylene oxide kg 0. polypropylene 650 (1080) 400 (650) 250 (400) Pall Page: 280 t 350 570 Propylene kg 0. Aniline from nitrobenzene and hydrogen.Coulson-and-Richardson-s-Chemical-Engineering-Vol-6-ChemicalEngineering-Design. Polypropylene is a stronger material than the polyethylenes and can be Page: 380 Ethylene 3.7 Butadiene Page: 414 1. Page: 608 (density for polypropylene) Intalox saddles ceramic in. Page: 771 butane rubber Ethylene-propylene rubber Fluorocarbon rubber Compressed asbestos Typical gasket materials for plated .0 Propylene 2. 0.8 9.0 GRP at higher temperatures.56 n-Propyl kg 0.32 0. 5.5 2.5 and plastics (polypropylene) rings are more efficient than ceramic rings.45 0.pdf Title : Subject : Author : Keywords : Page: 275 960) Pall rings.3 n-Butene 1.56 n-Propyl alcohol kg 0.6 9.2 900 1.1 32.92 0.4 10.0 2100 30.46 Propylene oxide kg 0. Acrylonitrile from propylene and ammonia.73 Page: 318 0.5 mol per cent.92 0.0 0. as it is Page: 647 is separated from propylene by distillation.50 1.4.5 900 1.5 PTFE 21 1.32 0.3 Isobutene 1. 2. G.0 Polypropylene 35 1. estimate the number of theoretical plates needed to produce propylene needed to produce propylene overhead with a minimum purity of 99.0 1.
181 612 129 130 C3H6O PROPYLENE OXIDE 58. ammonia 8.5 x 10~3 kg dissolved/kg liquid Propane 7. carbon monoxide and hydrogen by passage over a catalyst with specifications (i) Propylene feed: 93 per cent propylene.Page: 962 nxde from ethyfcne propylene terpolymcr rubber.2 49. assuming an operating period of 8000 hours H2 mixture) and propylene in the molar ratio 2:1. carbon monoxide and hydrogen.081 -1851 -47. unreacted propylene.8 365.TC n-Butyraldehyde 75.080 -112. nitrogen and unreacted hydrocarbons are not absorbed and are Page: 1002 . steam and air are fed to a vapour-phase per cent) is propylene 7.0 46.2 0.3 482. 10 per cent Page: 1001 ENGINEERING The process Propylene. free from propane. propylene. Feedstock: Ammonia: 100 per per cent NH3.186 829 20 Page: 992 1 ETHYLHEXANOL FROM PROPYLENE AND SYNTHESIS GAS The project Design a plant to produce 2-ethylhexanol from propylene and synthesis gas. balance propane.7°C Propane -42. (ii) Synthesis gas: from heavy fuel oil. the carbon distribution by weight in the product from per cent Unreacted propylene 15 per cent Other by products 1 per cent The carbon dioxide. balance propane. (r) Phtaol foi i»ahkh» Page: 969 124 125 C3H6 PROPYLENE 42. and the recycled products cent of the propylene feed is converted to propane whilst some does not react.2 0. oxygen.5 Page: 1000 4 ACRYLONITRILE FROM PROPYLENE AND AMMONIA The project Design a plant to produce 1 CH. Propylene: Commercial grade containing 90 per cent CsHe. ammonia. This mixture then passes to a Page: 993 cent back to propylene. A fixed-bed upon a pure propylene feed. (ii) Synthesis 93 per cent propylene.CN) from propylene and ammonia by the ammoxidation process. steam 20.2 34. air 65. Page: 994 at 1 bar Propylene -47.5° dissolved/kg liquid Propylene 7.
) Propylene and its Industrial Derivatives.H. 1973 (London: Ernest Benn Ltd.). Page: 1057 301 Polyethylene 301 Polypropylene 301 Polytropic efficiency 83 . (ed.
h172 Diphenyl oxide.7375425 d697 Dipropylene glycol CH3CH(OH)CH2OCH2sym-Diphenylthiourea.Dean’s-Handbook-of-Organic-Chemistry.0 misc aq. m95 2-Propenenitrile. p192 Propargyl a26 Propenylanisole.87825 20 d700 Dipropylene glycol CH3CH(OH)CH2OCH2- Page: 348 bz.09 1. d667 Dipicolinic acid. c232 (2-Propenyl)thiourea.801725 1. c82 3-Chloropropylene-1.09 0. p73 2-Propenoic acid.3Propanetriol.pdf : : : : the series. PE 1.93025 25 d699 Dipropylene glycol CH3CH(OH)CH2OCH20. a81 Propylene dibromide. m97 Propylenediamine. p194 Propargyl chloride. d25 Propylene glycol.File Title Subject Author Keywords Page: 4 : Book .5-pyrrolidinedione. p192 Propargyl alcohol. d92 Propanetriol diacetates. i86 Propenamide. d662 Page: 233 1. and propylene is retained for CH3ˆCHˆCH2 Page: 168 acetal. p241 Propylene glycol monomethyl ether. a62 Propiolic acid.232 25 d698 Dipropylene glycol CH3CH(OH)CH2OCH20. p242 N-2-Propenyl-2propen-11-amine. a64 Propyl chloride. p261 Diphenylphosphorochloridate.2-oxide. p241 Propylene Propiolic acid. eth p226 Propyleneimine 57. alc. c210 Propylene glycol monophenyl ether. a26 Propenylanisole. p205 . t146 Dipropylene glycol. c102 1-Chloro-2. g17. a63 Propylene. a80 sec-Propylene chlorohydrin. c210 Propyl chloride. m97 Propylenediamine. a80 acetate. a101 Propylene glycol isopropyl ether. c213 2-Propanone. 1-o1.421020 55 240 132 v bz. a101 Propenyl)thiourea. c239 Page: 232 0.2.408425 66.2041420 1. eth p225 Propylene carbonate 102. g18 2-Propenyl acetate.
1 alcohol 1Octanol Page: 480 .2 Propyl formate Page: 478 1.5 Pentane 36.4 ether Dimethylsulfoxide 189.3-Propanetriol 258– Glycerol triacetate 259 triacetate 1-Propanol 82.2-Propanediol 188 Propylene glycol 1.828720 1.5 Propyl acetate 101.380020 123 88–90 Page: 350 alk boxylic acid Propylene oxide.1 37–38 2 O p228 Propylene sulfide 102.2-Propanediol 188 Propylene glycol Bis(2-ethoxyethyl) 188.6 Ethyl ether Propylene oxide 34. d400 Page: 374 Trichloromethane.736 1.366020 112.2.5 Propyl acetate 101.6-Pyridazinediol.HO(CH2CH2CH2O)3 Page: 472 34.-Trichloroethoxycarbonyl chloride.0 DMSO 1. p205 Page: 349 parts solvent p227 Propylene oxide 58.5 Propyl benzoate Propylene carbonate 240 Propylene oxide 34.2-Propanediol 188 Propylene glycol alcohol 2-(2-Methoxyethoxy) ethanol 194. Page: 389 alc. 6 0.18 1.5 Propylene carbonate 240 2-Phenoxyethanol 240 Bis(2-hydroxyethyl) 245 Diethylene Page: 477 1. e10 6-Propyl-2-thiouracil.094225 25 t412 Tripropylene glycol.3-Trichloropropylene oxide. a63 Propylene.3.094825 25 t411 Tripropylene glycol HO(CH2CH2CH2O)3 0.93425 25 t410 Tripropylene glycol HO(CH2CH2CH2O)3 0.5 Propyl benzoate 231.2Tributyl borate 238. c126 3.4 Isopropyl alcohol Propylene carbonate 240 Propylene oxide 34. 354 0. h129 3.1 Bromoethane 38.08 17. e13 .4 Ethyl bromide Dichloromethane 39.8 Page: 474 1..Propenoic acid. eth t408 Tripropylene glycol H(OCH2CH2CH2)3 s aq t409 Tripropylene glycol HO(CH2CH2CH2O)3 0.
2 48.29 Propyl nitrate Page: 631 71.58 (25) 28.8 (25) glycol butyl ether Tripropylene glycol butyl ether Tripropylene 5.561 6.96 (25) 30.77 [g.53 64.0 45.17 6.72 15.5 ester Butyl benzoate 250 Page: 481 Ethyl ether ether Propylene oxide 34.04 86.88 15.87 6.9 (25) ether Page: 533 D a b Dipropylene glycol methyl 3.7 (25) 27.6 186 Propyl formate .8 37.1 (25) 28.2 ester Propylene carbonate 240 ester Dibutyl oxalate 245.77 34.7 (25) ether Dipropylene (25) ether Dipropylene glycol isopropyl 386 (25) 25.52 Propylene oxide 1.72 15.2 (25) Dipropylene glycol ethyl 3.60 [g.28 (25) Propyleneimine 0.0 8 Propylene oxide 2.79 Propyl nitrate Page: 647 Propylcyclohexane 639 27.2 (25) Dipropylene 28.50 Propylene 0.0 (25) glycol methyl ether Tris( Page: 562 450 2.96 Propylene (propene) g 4.52 Propylene oxide 1.5 ether Dimethoxyethane 42.53 64.1 (25) 34 (25) glycol Tripropylene 6.8 (25) ether Dipropyl Page: 548 0.16 68.68 39. glyme ether 1Isopropoxy- Page: 532 0.108 3 chloroacetate Propylene 2.4 carbonate Propylene oxide 0.6 181 Propylene oxide 482.16 30.37 Propylene oxide g 15.4 (25) isopropyl ether Tripropylene 25) isopropyl ether Tripropylene 5.87 25.81 30.00 [ 2.3 DME.17 (25) 28.718 4.53 17.00 [g] 0.561 6.58 ( (25) glycol Tripropylene 6.28 97. cis] 1. Page: 553 Substances (continued) Tripropylene 56.101 5 carbonate Dipropylene glycol butyl ether 4.0 Propyl nitrate 175 2 100 Pyridine 482 Page: 597 12.4 carbonate Propylene oxide 0.2 (25) glycol ethyl ether Tripropylene glycol ethyl ether Tripropylene glycol 7.491 (25) 1.37 Propylene oxide g 22.02 63.327 (20) 2.77 34.02 63.40 19.67 22.57 99.28 (25) 0.23 (25) 28.benzoate 231.7 Propylene 365.07 35.81 30.23 25.11 (25) 27.73 36.327 (20) 2.
6 181 Propylene oxide 482. Fluorinated Ethylene–Propylene Resin.951 0.65(5) Propylene sulfide 8.97 5-Methyldipropylenetriamine (30 C) 6.91(1) Dipropylenetriamine 7. The resin is made by free-radical polymerization initiated by Page: 905 high.1 285 Propyl Page: 768 acid 11.667( Page: 769 Nitrotoluene 9. and coefficient of friction.0 45. This is shown for three monomer units.56(2) 10. The wavy lines Page: 900 resin Fluorinated ethylene–propylene (FEP) resin Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) Ethylene– chlorotrifluoroethylene polyethylene (UHMWPE) Polypropylene (PP) Polybutylene (PB) Polyallomers Poly(phenylene oxide) Poly( Page: 902 the oxidation of propylene. This is shown for three monomer units.2 48.450 1.19(2) Page: 887 1.2- Page: 830 acid 2.22(2) Acetic acid 10.043 1.6(2) p-Nitrotoluene 9. The of polypropylene from propylene.72(3) 9. electrical properties. Page: 910 .0 40.87 1-Propanethiol 9.65(1) 2. Polymer molecules of fluorinated ethylenepropylene consist of predominantly linear molecules of fluorinated ethylenepropylene consist of predominantly linear chains with this structure: CF2 CF2 and fluorinated ethylene propylene in its chemical resistance.050 monoethyl ether 1- Page: 890 1075 65%:35% Polypropylene glycol 0 150 128 294 173 264 226 1085 Didecyl Page: 895 the formation of polypropylene from propylene.6 186 Propyl formate 538.195 o- Page: 815 10.448 0.365.446 1.32(3) 9.961 Dipropylene glycol Tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol 1.69(3) Trimethylene oxide 9.05(1) Propylene oxide 10.
Properties propylene resin fluoride) Unfilled reinforced copolymer filled reinforced Physical Melting temperature. Attractive forces between the rubber and resin phases serve Page: 926 Glass-fiber. halogenated Ketones APolypropylene and polyallomer E E E E E G N E Page: 959 AES Acrylonitrile–ethylene–propylene–styrene AMMA Acrylonitrile–methyl methacrylate AN Acrylonitrile APET Amorphous polyethylene terephthalate APP Atactic polypropylene ASA Acrylic–styrene–acrylonitrile BR Butadiene rubber BS Butadiene styrene terephthalate CPP Cast polypropylene CPVC Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride CR Chloroprene rubber CTA Cellulose triacetate EMPP Elastomer modified polypropylene EnBA Ethylene normal butyl acrylate EP Epoxy resin. Polypropylene is translucent and autoclavable and has no known solvent at Page: 914 as polyethylene or polypropylene. 40 parts propylene. and a small amount of nonconjugated diene.85 30–100 100–300 1000–3000 Page: 958 Hydrocarbons. also ethylene–propylene EPM Ethylene–propylene rubber ESI Ethylene–styrene .at subzero temperatures. and the soft portion is composed of ethylene–propylene rubber. Polypropylene. The polymerization of propylene results in a polymer with the The polymerization of propylene results in a polymer with the following structure: The desired use ethylene monomer. The nonconjugated diene Page: 956 121 Poly(ethylene–propylene–diene) (EPDM) 0. also ethylene– resin. 40 parts ethylene. Ethylene–Propylene–Diene Rubber (EPDM) Ethylene–propylene–diene rubber is polymerized (EPDM) Ethylene–propylene–diene rubber is polymerized from 60 parts ethylene. Page: 940 Poly(phenylene sulfide) Polypropylene 40% Polybutylene Impact Injection glass-fiberProperties extrusion Homopolymer Copolymer Page: 953 C. composed of ethylene–propylene rubber.
properties of 10.34 Ethylene-propylene-diene rubber (EPDM) 10.13 properties of 10.330 9.3320 (H2 Page: 1005 properties 10.0 92.230 51 0.copolymers EVA(C) propylene EPM Ethylene–propylene rubber ESI Ethylene–styrene copolymers EVA(C) Polyethylene–vinyl acetate FEP Fluorinated ethylene–propylene copolymers HDI Hexamethylene diisocyanate HDPE High-density polyethylene HIPS High- Page: 960 terephthalate OPP Oriented polypropylene OSA Olefin–modified styrene–acrylonitrile PA Polyamide PAEK Poly(aryl PO Polyolefins PP Polypropylene PPA Polyphthalamide PPC Chlorinated polypropylene PPO Poly(phenylene oxide) PPS Polyphthalamide PPC Chlorinated polypropylene PPO Poly(phenylene oxide) PPS Poly(phenylene sulfide) PPSU Poly( Page: 964 136 32.17 Fluorinated ethylene-propylene resin: description of 10.34 This page has Page: 1019 10. properties of 10. properties of 10.52 Polysulfide .64 Poly(methylpentene) polymers: description Page: 1021 Index terms Links Polypropylene polymers.4430 4120 2.48 Polystyrene polymers.42 Poly(ethylene-propylene-diene) (EPDM).6 Polypropylene 3820 0.61 Ethylene terephthalate plastic: description of 6.
respectively. For the on-purpose processes to remain Page: 108 desired product (propylene. and Frechettype Page: 77 DAB (poly(propylene imine)) dendrimer with triazacyclononane (TACN) ligands that bind ZnII Page: 88 the encapsulated nanoparticle. Propylene demand. Page: 118 . respectively. CPS replaces gas oil as more easily manageable propylene as a laboratory reductant.File Title Subject Author Keywords Page: 74 : Book . or butadiene) is also important.pdf : : : : are known. polyamidoamine (PAMAM). on the other hand. which can be used as chemical feedstocks. the production of polypropylene and isooctane. including polypropyleneimine (PPI).Design-of-Heterogeneous-Catalysts. continues to enjoy rapid growth are increasing their propylene production through the use of zeolite-based additives as well to FCC-based propylene. on-purpose production of this monomer is also taking on and demand of propylene and Isobutene for the production of polypropylene and isooctane. Post impregnation with the Mitchell method. Polypropyleneimine DENs also impart substantial selectivity towards polar substrates in competitive Page: 107 flat-to-declining. An Page: 117 deactivation by Cyclic Propylene Steaming (CPS) . isobutylene. since specific feedstock consumption to flare valuable propylene (or isobutene) instead of recovering it as the product. Page: 114 olefins such as propylene and butylenes.
203f.Aprocess of propylene epoxidation in gas phase was patented on various Ag/ MOF Page: 234 TiO2 catalyzed the propylene oxidation with a higher selectivity towards CO2 than the postsynthesized Page: 319 of propene to propylene . Nb–Mo 9%. selectivity to propylene: Nb–V oxide 46–72%.versus (R)-2-methylbutanoate-templated Page: 195 support. and propylene oxide. coverage of R-propylene oxide adsorbed on R-2-butoxidecovered Pd(1 1 1) coverage of R-propylene oxide adsorbed on S-2-butoxide (RR/RS) (. (S)-propylene oxide on (R)-butoxide-templated Pt(1 1 1) or (R)-propylene oxide on (S)-butoxide-templated Pt(1 1 1) of (S)-propylene oxide on (S). It was found that the mesoporous Nb–Mo– Page: 320 Propane oxidative dehydrogenation Propylene Propane conversion: Nb–V oxide¼6–12%. 207f. Nb–Mo oxide¼56%.(containing 5% propylene) þ 50% steam 10 min. 100ff critical micelle concentration (CMC) 297. also a chiral molecule. 210.) inset shows typical propylene oxide desorption spectra from 2-butoxidecoverded Pd(1 1 1) that (R)-propylene oxide adsorbs more extensively on (R)-butoxide-templated Pt( and (S)-propylene oxide adsorbs more on (S)-butoxide-templated Pt(1 namely. . 50% nitrogen þ 50% steam (containing 5% propylene) þ 50% steam Cool down under nitrogen flow deactivated by an environment of propylene and air along with steam. as described in Page: 145 1) surfaces.or (S)-methylbutanoate-modified Page: 146 of enantioselectivity for propylene oxide on 2-butanol modified Pd(1 1 1) surfaces. to probe the potential formation of (R)-propylene oxide on (R)-2-butoxide-covered Pd(1 1 or (S)-propylene oxide on to (R). Standard protocol. see cyclic propylene steaming cracking 95. 309 cyclohexene 65. Page: 327 CPS. vapor deposition cyclic propylene steaming 103f cyclohexane 198f.
see polyoxymetalate 47f PPI. see polypropyleneimine pre-exponential factor 236. 243.Page: 331 305f polyoxymetalate 224f polypropyleneimine 59. 244 precious metals 90f pressure promoters 85. 303f. see polystyrene PSA. 311 POM. 227 polystyrene 37. 295. see pressure swing adsorption . 104 PS. 95 propylene 93f.
) to the reactor.e. the reactor is beginning to IIb morlh) of propylene oxide (P.62 respectively. The reaction takes place readily at room temperature when adiabatic CSTR producing propylene glycot by this method. e.. 2189 Page: 558 usesa and economics Propylene glycol is produced by the hydrolysis of propylene oxide: Over the hydrolysis of propylene oxide: Over 800 million pounds of propylene glycol were produced million pounds of propylene glycol were produced in 2004 and the selling price was 50. example above.Fogler-Elements-of-Chemical-Reaction-Engineering.pdf : : : : if benzene and propylene are formed from n cumene molecule. curnene benzene propylene the molecule.68 per pound. With the by A is propylene oxide (CpA= 35 Btullb mol -OF) 8 B Page: 560 C i s propylene glycol (Crc= 46 Btul~b mol ."F) . Propylene oxide i s a rather low-boiling substance. curnene benzene propylene the cumene molecule has lost its identity [i. The feed stream equivolumetric mixture af propylene ox~de (46. the propylene molecule would Lose its species identity if he reaction were Page: 92 used to dimerize propylene into isohexanes. Propylene glycol makes up about 25% of the major derivatives of major derivatives of propylene oxide. Page: 407 Jc Oxidation of propylene to acmlein [Ch~mE.62 ft"/h) and methanol (46. 51.O. Sci.n g. The water-propylene oxide-methanol mixture undergoes a slight decrease in volume upon Page: 559 on your operation. Unfortunately..File Title Subject Author Keywords Page: 37 : Book .g.
The molar flow rate of propylene oxide flow rate of propylene oxide fed to the tubular reactor IS 0. for an initial of tempemture and propylene oxide concentration for three different sets of initial conditions ( Figure E9-5. There Page: 651 the production of propylene gIycnl IC) in a CSTR with a heat exchanger in Page: 654 and temperature of propylene oxide as a function of time. If one were to examine Figure Page: 572 the case of propylene glycol in Examples 8-8 and 8-9.2 Ternperamre-time conceneation as a function Page: 655 the production of propylene glycol approached steady state. and hydrogen as the reactants and a liquid- . The hydrolysis of propySene oxide takes place Page: 590 equivolumetric rnlxture of propylene oxide and methanol. carbon monoxide.. Try other combinations of To.Page: 563 the hydration of propylene oxide discussed in Example 84. Page: 675 The production of propylene gIycoI discussed in Examples 8-4. and the orher stream is water containing larger than the propylene oxide-methanol feed. The cooling coil has 40 Page: 565 the hydrolysis of propylene oxide. 9-4. respectively. Example 8-8. For the Row rates and conditions Page: 666 initial concentration of propylene oxide oF0. Page: 679 isobutylaldehyde.1 moUs. It has propylene. evap tion Page: 589 the reaction of propylene oxide (A) with water (8) to form propylene 8) to form propylene glycol (C).1 Propylene oxide Figure E9-5.J M. 9-5. T.
Propylene is not adsorbed on the surface. 6M1 Dimethyl ether (DME) decomposition of. 603 propylene glycol production in. 262 Page: 1090 cwfficient. 297 from methanol. 7. The I tion sequence for his decomposition is k* C adsorbed benzene and propylene in the gas phase k. 62 1 STTRs. Page: 1091 reactions. 528 Page: 1087 tubular reactors. respectively. ConsequentIy. 774 Dirnerize propylene. 526. . 477 Page: 1102 nonlinear regression. Page: 1103 operatian. 186 propylene glycol production. 620 in sern~bstch reactors. its concentration on Page: 722 manner similar to propylene in Foltowv7?tgh e Algorithm the cumene decomposition previousIy discussed. 619 in propylene pIycol prduction. The overall reaction is A conceptual model depicting the sequences Page: 704 and P = propylene. The following data were taken at 1 arm and 420° Page: 1083 nirroanaIine production. Page: 782 form benzene and propylene. 622 Prandtl number. 273 propylene glycol pmduction. 404407 for propylene glycol production. 596. 528. ) + B. 596597.7 1 toluene hydrodemethylation. 526-53 1.S < Page: 705 and kPa. 774-776 Predictor prey relationships.Page: 703 form benzene and propylene. 596 triphenyl methyl chloridemethannl reaction.595-598 1051 temperature and Page: 1085 reactions. 546 in propylene glycol production.
5"36. 595598 states in. inhibiting production Page: 1109 drop. pmpylene glycol from. 533 Propylene oxide. 526-53 I.620 questions and problems. 672 Propylene glycol prduction in adiabatic reactors. 131- . 52&53 1 Prostaglandin. IRh propylene glycol production.Page: 1104 HinsheZwood kinetics. 136. 53-529.
Protonation of the epoxide oxygen Page: 133 (e. at a gelation time of 4 h. forming a hybrid iron–polysilsesquioxane network . 49.pdf : ACDSee ProPrint Job : : QuangNguyen : attempts to manufacture propylene oxide commercially by the direct oxidation of propene (analogous remains important in propylene oxide manufacture and accounted for 51% of the worldwide production global demand for propylene oxide was 2. propylene oxide.g.Handbook of Heterogeneous Catalysis. Ce-chlorides in propylene oxide-methanol with a sol stabilizer. (EO)20-(PO) oxide.2-epoxybutane.File Title Subject Author Keywords Page: 47 : Book . PPO or polystyrene.3. 50]. PO = propylene oxide) was employed as the SDA in highly acidic media. glycidol..8 × 106 t.Wiley. PS. displayed surface areas of 660 to 709 m2 g by reaction with propylene oxide. epichlorohydrin) to the organic solutions of Page: 137 by reaction with propylene oxide. 1. The selfassembly oxide)x-poly(propylene oxide)y-poly(ethylene oxide)x [EO)x-(PO) .4 Halogenated Chemicals The Page: 129 scavenger such as propylene oxide [47.block-poly(ethylene oxide)x. 8 Volumes . The Page: 161 of NiCl2 containing propylene oxide and water. followed by CO2-supercritical drying at 590 K.3. for example). 1. exhibited Page: 153 the presence of propylene oxide. Page: 193 hydrophobic blocks (polypropylene oxide. was successfully used to Page: 190 oxide)-block-poly(propylene oxide).
ethylene or propylene). mesitylene) or heavy oil fractions Page: 599 production of isotactic propylene .. under the Page: 600 polymerization . Propylene + H2  [Rh(BDC)]. via the H-bonding-based pathways. Monopodally silica-anchored rhodium allyl species (≡Si−O) (PE) and polypropylene (PP) at 150 ◦C by the action of . respectively. Propylene  [Cu3(BTC)2] Isomerization α-Pinene oxide L13)] Hydrogenation Ethylene. Acrylic acid + PO. PO = propylene oxide) and F127 (EO106-PO70-EO106).. Methyl dipropylene Glycol + EO. respectively. The reason for this is that. propylene metathesis . [Rh(fumarate)] D exchange. here the Page: 269 MOF-5) Epoxidation Propylene + O2  Pt@[Zn4O(BDC)3] (MOFMOF-5) Alkoxylation Dipropylene glycol + PO. Page: 398 g. in the the case of polypropylene. synthesize. However. Methyl dipropylene Glycol + EO. PPO. low polydispersities and. a variety Page: 200 ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) triblock copolymers (Pluronictype) for oxide. Acrylic acid + EO  ZnNatta polymerization Ethylene. polypropylene oxide.polyethylene oxide. aromatic molecules (e. and the selective oxidation of methane to Page: 614 produced polyethylenes and polypropylenes with very high molecular weights. Hydrogenation Propylene + H2  Page: 270 H-D Exchange Propylene + H2 N NCl OH OH Cl L1= O Page: 271 the epoxidation of propylene and the direct synthesis of H2O2 from the elements.g. higher levels of isotacticity were obtainable than with the molecular Page: 616 HDPE) and stereospecific polypropylene.
polyethylene oxide. Page: 2362 process based on propylene epoxidation with H2O2 (Uhde-Degussa) is currently on the Page: 2392 100 100 Propylene ammonoxidation Hydrodesulfurization Phthalic anhydride from o – xylene . It should also be Page: 1260 of deactivation by propylene oligomerization and coke deposition in the acid-catalyzed alkylation of of benzenes with propylene to cumene on Beta-. Page: 652 CO2to propylene oxide. EU-1 and MCMwith regard to propylene turnover and coke formation . propylene oxide was prepared via the chlorine route. as in Eq. resulting in the formation of the corresponding cyclic carbonates Page: 657 SLP plant for propylene hydroformylation has been proposed [43.Page: 618 MAO 52 i-polypropylene Zr Zr Zr Zr Scheme 5 Nanofabrication of spherulite polypropylene Nanofabrication of spherulite polypropylene particles (dP = 10 mm) promoted by SOMC@PMS. ethylene glycol. later studies Page: 674 Zeolite (E) Polypropylene (E) Polystyrenes (E) Polyurethanes (E) Poly(vinyl Page: 717 glycerin. or mineral oil. Historically. Another in situ technique Page: 2097 to benzene and propylene was examined with a silica–alumina cracking catalyst where the Page: 2228 For non-wettable polypropylene particles in aqueous solutions of carboxymethyl cellulose. However. propylene glycol. 44]. NU-87. the extra decrease Page: 2359 caprolactam 7 215 Propylene oxide 3 300 Vinyl acetate 12 70 process-integrated solutions Page: 2361 of chlorine.
H2O2  Dyehouse oxide block copolymers. The gasoline Page: 2851 refiners by-product propylene has become an economic driver. Butylene. H2O2  Dyehouse effluent (Remazol Black Page: 2686 Teflon.Naphtha. Purisol (n-methyl pyrrolidone). isobutane and propylene ( Butylene. In many plants an additional Page: 2713 Fluor Solvent (propylene carbonate). and Page: 2793 with valuable olefins: propylene (4 wt. Special catalysts called the yield of propylene at the expense of gasoline. polypropylene or glass fibers.%).%). ethylene oxide/propylene oxide block copolymers. and new ‘‘on purpose propylene’’ designs ‘‘on purpose propylene’’ designs are available for commercial license that claim to be to 25 wt.Reforming Page: 2582 ethoxylates. Propylene in particular has become an important product and is often be converted into polypropylene and other high-value products. while simultaneously raising the gasoline modified to enhance propylene yield as well.5 wt. isobutene ( to produce more propylene by adding to the existing catalysts zeolites such as MFI worldwide increase in propylene demand. The standard FCC catalysts themselves have become highly Page: 2853 C3s and C4s. In order to remain as a workhorse. polypropylene glycol Fe2+. isobutane and propylene (where no chemicals outlet is available for propylene) might . and ceramics. sintered metal. polypropylene glycol Fe2+. Rectisol (methanol). Refiners that have the option option of moving propylene into downstream chemicals plants often find propylene to have higher plants often find propylene to have higher value than even gasoline.% propylene . n-butenes (4. FCC will Page: 2794 Catalytic oligomerization of propylene has been using supported phosphoric acid for a long time The price of propylene has reduced the number of units in operation.
propanetriol (glycerol) have been studied .2.9 Page: 2863 to make ethylene.5 3 Propylene/wt.3. and a high yield of propylene over ethylene is a fingerprint for catalytic cracking.2 1. This mode is most commonly employed when coupled such as a polypropylene facility. the Page: 2973 −1 of propylene when making diesel-range product) and maximize the yield of Page: 2983 1. Propylene and higher olefins are also produced in decreasing yields with paraffins with branching.% 4.7 1. Progress is already being made towards Page: 2967 the production of polypropylene from propene. Rapid isomerization Page: 2865 large quantities of propylene.3-propanediol (propylene glycol) and also 1.3 4. increases whereas gasoline decreases. Improving the ability of the catalytic cracking higher volumes of propylene from a catalytic cracker. Propylene is the chain-terminating product (discussed below). where FCC catalysts reduction (by propylene) alternating with oxidation cycles.% 1. 164].3 4. Gasoline composition shows a decrease in Page: 2880 1) the cyclic propylene steaming (CPS) procedure [163.is available for propylene) might become feed to alkylation units where they are reacted Page: 2855 high yields of propylene and butylene. or (2) the cyclic impregnation Page: 2883 volume ratio of propylene to gasoline produced) and flexibility to process a variety of in Europe) and propylene (in Asia). For the purposes of the present treatment. Units designed for this specific type of operation will Page: 2860 2. LPG. especially propylene.5 0.3 Propane/wt. another signature yield of catalytic cracking: H CH3 +Z− Page: 2875 general.1 4.
are noncorrosive. Detailed process descriptions including process flow sheets are available [ high benzene-to-propylene (B:P) ratio (7 molar) to reduce propylene molar) to reduce propylene oligomerization. Presented at Propylene Trade and Derivatives Markets. Page: 3124 the ethylene and propylene yields are higher than for crude oilderived naphtha. Thus. Singapore. propylene tends to oligomerize. which may Page: 3273 of toluene with propylene. propylene and benzene yield isopropylbenzene with phosphoric acid on kieselguhr (‘‘ Page: 3275 ◦C. The composition ranges of the Page: 3076 + 1 reg. the overall cumene yield is typically about 95%. Access affects both the activity and Because of high propylene reactivity in the presence of Brønsted acids. where propylene reacted about 300 times faster than ethylene. Monsanto the propensity of propylene to react with itself.2. October 24–25. whereas propylene reacts at 250 ◦C with phenol. such as the the reaction of propylene tetramer with benzene yields the expected C12 alkylbenzene.epoxypropane (propylene oxide) production [115. 118]. crack and form contaminants which then appear Page: 3279 . D Positional Selectivity Positional selectivity. 2005. much more desirable for environmental reasons. These data are mol−1 propylene 747 kJ mol−1 isobutene 803 kJ mol− ◦C. 8.Page: 2986 1. and benzene can the more basic propylene and isobutene. and offer Page: 3274 usually obtained. 14 Simplified process flow scheme for Lurgi’s MTP process Page: 3079 Lurgi.) Propylene Fig. whereas the Page: 3278 of benzene with propylene. propylene tends to of Brønsted acids.
1 . Catalyst. benzene: 78.6 65. like mordenite. a para selectivity greater than was achieved at propylene conversions above 90%. Fig. Tab.4 DIPB selectivity/% 28. The large excess of toluene serves to serves to limit propylene oligomerization reactions. Because this alkene produced alkylates Page: 3282 of toluene with propylene over base catalysts yields isobutylbenzene [56. Like the production high toluene to propylene ratio of 15. Using propylene as feed leads to similar selectivity .6-diisopropylbenzene and its oxidation products.5 20.6 Propylene selectivity/% 54. Page: 3284 Aromatics ethylene > propylene > isobutene. feed. E Diisopropylbenzene Diisopropylbenzenes can be recovered from Page: 3281 from benzene and propylene.and pdiisopropylbenzene. The industrially important isomers are m. which alkylating agent was propylene tetramer. The alkylation product can be oxidized to (1. These results Page: 3286 reacting biphenyl with propylene.9 mHowever. 6).1 7. where cumene is formed Benzene column Benzene Propylene Cumene distillation PIPB Recycle LPG Cumene PIPB column Recycle Cumene Page: 3280 of toluene with propylene. with minor of toluene with propylene via a carbanion chain reaction. dealuminized mordenite with Si:Al = 78. benzene:propylene = 5. 61]. Under these conditions.8 (molar). feed. propylene oligomerization still led to band-wise catalyst aging.1 78. for example by Sumitomo Chemical . which had the impact of propylene oligomerization and the strong tendency of all known zeolite catalysts and virtually eliminated propylene oligomerization because aromatic surface occupancy remained high even at very are combined with propylene and fed to the alkylation reactor. the reverse of what is observed in the Y-zeolite catalysts.8 91.of benzene with propylene. a branched C12 alkene. WHSV = 1 h−1 71. propylene will alkylate aniline at 250 ◦C to yield 84% Page: 3285 of naphthalene with propylene: selective production of 2.6 83.
subsequent hydrogen transfer of the light olefin gases yields light transfer reactions between propylene and indanes are consistent with the high selectivity for propane of toluene and propylene to form naphthalene (a). The conversion of the olefins. the lower temperatures in the feed propylene. as feedstocks. predominantly propylene. of which approximately half is converted to the normal isomer. propylene was reported to be the main reaction product besides propane. These heavies represent 5–15% of the Page: 3304 formed when free propylene forms a primary cation and then alkylates. 57]. predominantly propylene. The conversion of the olefins. the reaction of ethylbenzene and Page: 3315 mainly ethylene and propylene. Page: 3324 form ethane and propylene [56. Page: 3307 to ethylene and propylene over ZSM-5 to aromatic and olefinic intermediates. (iii) elevated nalkane/nalkene ratios should at 673 K. 120]. as feedstocks. respectively. but favors propylene plus aromatic over propylated aromatics (the equilibrium position reverses cracking to yield propylene and heavier olefins. subsequent hydrogen light gases. These studies Page: 3311 in detail for propylene interconversion over ZSM-5 [110. As this Handbook deals with heterogeneous catalysis. The reaction pathways aromatic. which are less Page: 3317 of ethylene and propylene is between +68 and +63 kJ mol− of ethylene and propylene (steam cracking). which are less Page: 3316 mainly ethylene and propylene. reactions of the propylene produced to give higher hydrocarbons such as aromatics and other was claimed that propylene is formed by the reaction of methane with ethylene and .50 parts) and propylene are heated with dealuminated mordenite catalyst (1 part) in Page: 3303 of benzene with propylene and ethylene. yields light gases.
The significance of the remaining light alkenes is low. Steam Page: 3350 S. include . Page: 3499 acrolein. for example propylene. but at such high temperatures cracking reactions of propylene and the feed ethylene prevail . and allylic alcohols. The products of direct alkylation can to benzene and propylene or toluene and ethylbenzene . Singapore.of methane with propylene instead of ethylene on Ni/SiO2 at 623 K gave with ethylene to propylene and hydrogen is subject to considerable thermodynamic constraints. etc. References see page 3205 Page: 3328 the production of polypropylene Corresponding author. Other light alkenes are used much less of polyethylenes or polypropylenes. 2005. prop = propylene. I. D. Asia Propylene and Derivatives Markets Conference. Page: 3330 acid/acrolein or propylene oxide . Kantorowicz. ethylene. Page: 3390 oxidative hydration of propylene. Page: 3329 the production of polypropylene Corresponding author. the the formation of propylene is favored at higher temperatures. 12. Sanfilippo. However. Page: 3533 Demonstrative plant Propane Propylene Research n-Butane Acetic acid Industrial process nButane Maleic Page: 3582 direct epoxidation of propylene (the simplest homologue of ethylene) has not been achieved direct epoxidation of propylene and other mono-olefins are considered elsewhere in this chapter. cyclohexene. Therefore. The raw material for formaldehyde production is mostly methanol. styrene. even though been shown that propylene reacted about 300 times faster than ethylene due to its Page: 3325 metal sites and propylene protonation on acidic sites.
homogeneous catalysis and heterogeneous catalysis. The poor atom Page: 3583 direct epoxidation of propylene (the simplest homologue of ethylene) has not been achieved direct epoxidation of propylene and other mono-olefins are considered elsewhere in this chapter. The key implication of this scheme is Page: 3591 direct epoxidation of propylene and other α-olefins at commercially viable selectivities has proven Page: 3592 technology for direct propylene epoxidation is still lacking. Ag catalysts supported on alkaline earth metal direct reaction of propylene and oxygen at temperatures between 473 and 573 K [ do not activate propylene oxide combustion as the concentration of acidic sites is minimized hydrogen abstraction from propylene may be suppressed remains unclear. for example. include stoichiometric routes. for example propylene. The poor atom Page: 3584 alkyl hydroperoxide with propylene . for example. styrene. a number of patents ( in the direct propylene epoxidation. as these processes exemplify not only the principal chemical strategies Page: 3585 as acetylene and propylene [24–26]. The products of this reaction are PO and (Styrene Monomer Propylene Oxide) process is conceptually similar to the Halcon process. the reaction being best carried out in methanol/ of 95% with propylene oxide selectivities exceeding 90% for reaction times on the order . Propylene oxide (PO). References see page 3462 + Page: 3595 the epoxidation of propylene with H2O2. is produced commercially by all and conversion to propylene oxide include various chlorinated hydrocarbons and ethers.stoichiometric routes. Propylene oxide (PO). Recently. homogeneous catalysis and heterogeneous catalysis. For example. cyclohexene. is produced commercially by all and conversion to propylene oxide include various chlorinated hydrocarbons and ethers. and allylic alcohols. ethylene. except especially ethylene and propylene.
In this regard. One class of materials which appears vaporphase reaction of propylene with a H2/O2 feed to produce propylene oxide. 142].11. hydrogen efficiency 50%.1 General The . In feed to produce propylene oxide.8. In all epoxidation research targets for propylene epoxidation: Propylene conversion 10%. it might be assumed that these and react with propylene at Ti centers [134. If carried out today.2. 14.7.11. propylene oxide selectivity 90%. The mechanism proposed involves the is hydrogenation of propylene to propane . hydrogen efficiency for propylene epoxidation: Propylene conversion 10%. 138. such as propylene. Most Propylene conversion 10%.5. 14. hydrogen efficiency 50%.8.2 Oxidation of Propylene to Acrolein and Acrylic Acid 14.for epoxidation of propylene with H2O2 utilizing a TS-1 catalyst has been reported Page: 3596 catalysis to produce propylene oxide with 78% yield from the net reaction of propylene net reaction of propylene and O2 . propylene oxide selectivity 90%.5 Mechanisms Effective in the Homogeneous LiquidPhase Acetoxylation of Page: 3613 substrates. The selective epoxidation of hydrocarbons requires the Page: 3612 phase acetoxylation of propylene by palladium on various supports. isoprenyl acetate of ethylene and propylene. 140]. H2O2 formation takes place in the reported to produce propylene oxide with 70% selectivity at a propylene conversion of selectivity at a propylene conversion of 34% . Most results reported to low (<2%) propylene conversions in order to achieve high PO selectivities (90– Page: 3597 oligomerization of the propylene oxide product on the catalyst [138.11. clearly illustrate that the chemistry of palladium Page: 3617 candidates for this propylene to acrolein twostep reduction–regeneration process. butadiene and toluene. If these based epoxidation of propylene [143. allylacetate is the major product insertion mechanism for propylene acetoxylation with copper or hydroquinone as redox elements. The economic drivers for new processes go as ethylene and propylene oxides and glycols. 144]. propylene oxide selectivity 90%.
High propene conversions can be obtained with extremely high propylene oxide selectivities.. oxidation of DIPBs with air to the corresponding Page: 3820 bonded to phosphinated polypropylene even at P/Rh = 2. α-methylstyrene) can be ammoxidized to α- Page: 3663 29]. This process uses tBuOOH or ethylbenzene hydroperoxide Page: 3858 the epoxidation of propylene with tBuOOH . 3 Propylene ammoxidation catalysts (molybdates) Catalyst type Acrylonitrile intank yield/% Page: 3644 tomethacrylonitrile. while α-phenylpropylene (i. whereas with the homogeneous acac)(CO)2 Polypropylene containing −C6H4PPh2 groups 1-Hexene (60 ◦C. cobalt complexes attached Page: 3857 scale manufacture of propylene oxide from propene. Leaching of Mo (2–5%) was only cyclohexene instead of propylene. the same Mo−PBI catalyst has been successful in the Page: 3876 . The latter behavior Besides cyclohexene and propylene.reactions are Page: 3618 oxidation process. In this case.e. This propylene to acroleinbased selective oxidation process has virtually displaced older technologies Page: 3639 support Tab.2-propylene glycol on Pb-promoted Pt/C with 88% yield [ Page: 3681 of benzene with propylene to DIPBs. Page: 3821 CO)8 onto polypropylene containing grafted 4-vinylpyridine. Dehydration to propylene occurs on acidic sites whereas dehydrogenation to acetone via a Page: 3667 acid from 1. an activity drop was found upon recycling.
The polypropylenes (PP) additionally differ in steric structure (isotactic. The polypropylenes (PP) additionally differ in steric structure (isotactic. 30. which is Page: 3897 olefins. Although these catalysts do not provide a high level of Phillips the crystalline polypropylene composition of matter US patent in 1983. higher α-olefins and cycloolefins) by organometallic catalysts is one as polyethylene and polypropylene are well recognized as economically friendly polymeric materials and account comonomer distribution. were still rather low and Page: 3944 the polymerization of propylenea (adapted from Ref. syndiotactic syndiotactic and atactic polypropylene) and for instance in the ability to be modified by Page: 3943 ethylene and of propylene. In fact. Hogan and Banks discovered the catalyst while working while working with propylene. 7. higher α-olefins and cycloolefins) by organometallic catalysts is one as polyethylene and polypropylene are well recognized as economically friendly polymeric materials and account comonomer distribution.12 Page: 3883 other olefins. however. ) Generation (year) Catalyst . This patent was Because a vast polypropylene industry had developed during this interval. syndiotactic syndiotactic and atactic polypropylene) and for instance in the ability to be modified by Page: 3942 especially of ethylene. 324–332]. such as propylene. this patent became the earliest Cr-derived polypropylene: ‘‘Contains a solid fraction. including propylene.34 15 500 Propylene oxide 323 24 506. propylene. insoluble in hydrocarbons. Its productivity and stereospecificity.446. butene and hexene [2. Like Page: 3941 especially of ethylene. Since MgCl2-supported catalysts for polyethylene proved to be very Natta catalyst for polypropylene.80 4400 Butene oxide 323 24 404. propylene. continuous research in this field has led to the development the catalysts for polypropylene.
for polyethylene and polypropylene production are based on multi-step processes and are suited Page: 3949 particle agglomeration.2 Propylene Polymerization Propylene polymerization is often conducted so as to make 15. condensing it with cooling water and Page: 3950 . these third-generation of polyethylene or polypropylene in the course of 1–2 h. especially propylene.2 Propylene Polymerization Propylene polymerization is often conducted so as to make impact-resistant this purpose. The high degree of with which subsequent propylene units insert into the growing polymer chain is most likely Page: 3946 industrial processes for polypropylene manufacturing. the homopolymerization of propylene. the ‘‘external or outer donor’’. was employed together with Et2AlCl in Page: 3945 α-olefins.3.5–3.2. 15. isotactic polypropylene is produced on the catalyst pellet in a first reaction conducted in liquid propylene (bulk polymerization) at 70 ◦C in two loop from which unreacted propylene is fed back into the reactor. an additional donor. Propylene is injected as a liquid and cools the exothermic by removing gaseous propylene from the reactor headspace.2. were named ‘‘super-active thirdgeneration catalysts’’ by Page: 3947 isotactic or syndiotactic polypropylenes in extremely high yields  (see Section 15. highly stereospecific catalysts. The polymer particles are often.5 MPa and 80 ◦C in copolymers and random propylene–ethylene copolymers are produced.3.aPolymerization conditions: liquid propylene.2. is formation of atactic polypropylene. after several improvements. 70 ◦C. Upon being injected into the polymerization reactor. the fraction of isotactic generation catalysts for polypropylene and. ethylene and propylene are copolymerized on to the previously formed polypropylene matrix at the previously formed polypropylene matrix at 1. bIsotactic index.4). its normal residence up each incoming propylene molecule into a preferred enantiofacial orientation. H2. using highly active.
4 Mechanisms Page: 3955 the polymerization of propylene and higher olefins.produce impact-resistant polypropylene. The stereospecificity of the polymerization depends on the metallocene used. stereoerrors in isotactic polypropylene characteristic for catalytic site stereocontrol (a) and for chain to produce isotactic polypropylene. hence every second insertion is random (see the . LLDPE comonomers: propylene. Remarkable in this process are the fluidized-bed reactors with Page: 3951 pre-polymerization with propylene to be provided with the necessary mechanical stability. Since the early 1990s.2. Page: 3960 some highly isotactic polypropylenes. sites.1 MPa in toluene) T/ ◦C R 21 Microstructures of polypropylenes produced by metallocene catalysts.2 MPa Catalyst Activity/ Page: 3961 syndiotactic polymerization of propylene based on metallocenium ions from Cs-symmetric bridged metallocenes. ω - Page: 3959 co-catalysts (propylene pressure of 0. in Page: 3962 a) features hemiisotactic polypropylene. 5 Propylene polymerization with metallocene/MAO catalysts at 0. 15. many variations of these metallocenes have which can produce polypropylenes with properties comparable to those reached former by using supported coordinating Tab. higher α-olefins. syndiotactic polymers. dienes 3 Ethylene– propylene–diene monomer dienes 3 Ethylene–propylene–diene monomer (EPDM) elastomers: Low transition metal concentration in = 2 4 Propylene (α-olefin) polymerization to: Highly isotactic polymers. [Me2 C(Flu)(3-t-BuCp)]ZrCl2 (b) b) produces isotactic polypropylene. but at this stage producing still completely Page: 3956 distribution. cycloolefins. 8 Oligomerization of propylene to optically active hydrocarbons 9 Cyclopolymerization of α.
generating a Page: 3970 kinetics of a propylene polymerization which is promoted by SiO2-supported metallocene catalysts depends stages of the propylene polymerization can be interpreted as follows. It was found that an activated solution with ethylene or propylene. and this route of insertion will become state conformers for propylene polymerization . syndiotactic and isotactic polypropylene with broadened molecular weight distribution have been formed by coimpregnation with ethylene or propylene [192–195]. of five transition enantiofacial orientation of propylene (triad errors). Section 15. of highly crystalline polypropylene (up to 75%) serves as a diffusion barrier for . Ssi. For four zirconocenes – each differently substituted at Cp)(Flu)Zr(propylene) (isobutyl] catalyst species with different substituents at the Cp the insertion of propylene in the zirconocene 0 −4 −8 −12 Page: 3965 Cp)(Flu)Zr(propylene)(isobutyl)]+ with the four-membered ring as central part ( Cp)(Flu)Zr(propylene)(isobutyl)]+ optimized with DFT calculations . Further developments Page: 3969 tandem catalysis in propylene polymerization  report the synthesis of resins consisting of iso.2.Page: 3964 species coordinating prochiral propylene (Rre. if a chain transfer between the active species takes place.Rsi) and the positional changes that of four zirconocene(propylene)(isobutyl) species.and syndiotactic polypropylene from an isospecific Ziegler–Natta catalyst that had been impregnated isotactic and elastomeric polypropylene have been reported  from a system synthesized by stereoblock polymers of polypropylene. Page: 3968 in ethylene and propylene polymerization and also in ethylene α-olefin copolymerization. Page: 3966 process in liquid propylene or as a gas-phase process (cf. Sre.3). This prepolymerization step precipitated the precatalyst from solution. During the prepolymerization stage.
1996. which was hydrolyzed by Page: 4007 . 1990. Munich. J. Polypropylene Handbook. M¨ ¨ulhaupt. R. a petrochemical agent. 419 pp. Hanser. 18. Moore (Ed.-H. H.). 200]. ( Page: 3973 morphology of a propylene polymer particle generated with an MgCl2-supported TiCl4/AlEt3 Ziegler– Page: 3974 image of a polypropylene particle generated with an MgCl2-supported Ziegler–Natta catalyst in catalyst.barrier for following propylene and induces the period of very low activity. Brintzinger. 10 μm 10 Page: 3972 b) Fig. 39 Propylene polymerization profiles of a silica-supported metallocene/MAO catalyst. Kluwer.). 16. gray.Kocsis (Ed. The enzyme cleaves the carboxylic ester group of cis- Page: 4001 the ammoxidation of propylene. 1 MPa propylene and 40 ◦C reaction temperature. in Polypropylene: an A–Z Reference. Amsterdam. After this out in liquid propylene [199. Page: 3999 is immobilized in polypropylene beads.25) with the Ziegler catalyst by copolymerization of propylene with small amounts Page: 3977 Veen (Ed. to give acrylonitrile.). ). 46 Ethylene–propylene copolymerization (gas feed ratio 0. Polypropylene and Other Polyolefins. polypropylene) (d) (from Ref. Elsevier.Karger. this means that also the industrially important Page: 3971 Dependence of the propylene suspension polymerization rate with a silica-supported metallocene/MAO catalyst fragmented particles. Page: 3975 of an ethylene–propylene copolymerization with an industrial MgCl2-supported TiCl4/AlEt3 Ziegler catalyst Page: 3976 Fig.
cepacia Polypropylene beads (3R.  3 Lipase Lipase P. cepacia Polypropylene HMG-CoA  3 Lipase M. 4S)-Azetidin. cepacia .Lipase P. cepacia Accurel polypropylene (S)-Monoacetate ester  3 Lipase P. ac. miehei Lipozyme Chiral P.
Producing the aromatic feed stock The production of Page: 57 gas are ethylene. The Deep designed to maximize propylene. and aromatics.31 × 493 + 1. is not sufficient for future propylene projections. Catalytic cracking is the other major source of the source of the propylene with propane dehydrogenation making up the balance. This process is really a substitute for of ethylene to propylene over a wider range than is possible with only thermal Page: 280 The demand for propylene as a petrochemical feedstock is outpacing the need for ethylene. and the C4’s such as butylenes.3 14.6 Propylene 4.9 21.76 × 493 = 868 BPCD Alkylate from butylene Page: 106 = 1. traditional source of propylene.15 × butylene = 1. ethylene. propylene.1 1. propylene.Worldwide market shares single source of propylene used for petrochemicals.e.e.15 Page: 251 larger amounts of propylene than a normal FCC unit have been developed.1 6. and the polypropylene products.1 14. butadiene etc. more severe process conditions and equipment made Page: 252 1.pdf : : : : High in ethylene. as byproduct of the steam cracker.34 × propylene + 1.File Title Subject Author Keywords Page: 56 : Book .7 Feedstock: Chinese Waxy i. propylene and C4s. i. The heavier C4’s are a major constituent in Page: 105 data: Alkylate from propylene = 1. Liquid products. butenes.Handbook of Petroleum Processing. Page: 281 .3 Butylenes 8.0 14. Specially formulated catalysts.
4 6. Cited yields for the PetroFCC are (Table Page: 286 FCC PetroFCC FCC Propylene 22 4.e. e. 1/12/98. gas oils can Page: 282 is to increase propylene and the concentration of BTX in the naphtha.case of increased propylene demand.0 18.27 Page: 285 is made into propylene and butylene.5 Page: 288 cracking plant produces propylene in Thailand. Oil and Gas Journal.4 21.3 13. less expensive feedstocks. With Page: 367 .3 2.4 Butylene 17.5 19.4 13.7 Butylene 14 6 Ethylene 6 1 second riser for propylene maximization.85 Propylene 24.0 Butylene 12.3 Gasoline 18. atomax Page: 287 4.2 Butylene 12.3 1.6 18. i. heavier. 49– increasing LPG and propylene production.0 0.8 Propylene 23.8 13.8 35.5 Olefin yield Propylene 17.3 7. 2nd Bottom of the Barrel Technology Conference (BBTC Page: 294 Pentacat plus Max propylene Pentacat-HP Max propylene SoCat-HP High LPG Pentacat-HP Max propylene SoCat-HP High LPG Page: 295 Cat-HP Max propylene ZMS-B-HP Moderate LPG ZMX-C-HP Low LPG Page: 365 units to include propylene and occasionally even some pentenes along with the butenes.83 Butylene 15.2 to increase the propylene yield from heavy feeds have been announced. The process uses the OrthoflowFCC Hardware.9 12.2 14.9 Propylene 18. Two such processes 6 Ethylene 6.4 14.3 13.g.2 Apilot plant test showed thatwhen feedstocks give high propylene yields and the isobutylene concentration in the C4 stream is Page: 284 5.3 5. The product Page: 283 0.
1. For all olefins it produces lower yields.1% conv.2.1 RON) ALKYLATION HYDRIDE TRANSFER (PROPYLENE EXAMPLE) C3H6 + H+ → C3H+7 ( C3H8 + C8H18 Propylene + 2 Isobutane→Propane + 2. Propylene is less reactive and tends to make more conjunct polymer.5) (91.) Unreacted butenes 3. or in the oligomerization and octenes from propylene and/or butenes (Dimersol X). and propylene at high temperatures.3-Dimethylpentane (1. and for the UOP Propylene-Butene HF Alkylation process.1) POLYMERIZATION Page: 368 by H2SO4. principally propylene and butenes. Page: 369 iso-olefins and propylene. in the apex of its success. H2SO4 contaminants Dienes Butadiene and pentadienes are Page: 379 alkylation units for propylene-butylene and butylene only units.3% conv. octane decreases at about Page: 377 isobutylene. higher endpoints.4-Trimethylpentane (2.2. pentenes. the propylene and/or butenes condensed into a liquid in the gasoline thermal cracking. Oligomerization reactions Propylene/butene feed: FCC–C3/C4 fraction Operation: without polymer recycle feed olefins Unreacted propylene 1. Feed pretreatment In the UOP HF Page: 376 F and for propylene at about 50◦F.3 (97. was readily produced by the oligomerization of propylene over the oligomerization of propylene over SPA catalyst. Page: 387 9. which at that time had very little commercial Page: 384 Chevron).) . Because the production of Page: 383 a reactor. Alkylate is composed of primarily Page: 382 the dimerization of propylene to isohexenes (Dimersol G process). Dodecene. Still.7 (93.9 ALKYLATION OF PROPYLENE | C C—C = C + C—C| —C—C Propylene + Isobutane→2. Typically. or propylene tetramer.
and . The butene product in Table 9. Propylene–butene feeds can make reasonably good gasolines.2.2. heavy polymer from a tetramer operation. Here. the feed to Page: 391 was determined that propylene-derived polymer gasoline had blending octanes of 94 RON and synergism between the propylene condensation product and the base stock. It is interesting to Polymer gasoline from propylene–butene mixtures has higher RON typically in the 96–97 polymer gasoline from propylene–butylene had excellent characteristics with (R + M)/2 negative experience with propylene and propylene–butene feedstocks. heavy polymer from a tetramer from propylene feeds: propylene tetramer (dodecene).about 97% for propylene and 93% for butenes. that of the propylene product.2 is typical of Page: 389 polymer gasolines from propylene feeds are best used without hydrogenation.3. Effect of propylene content on RON of the hydrogenated polygasoline. the blend stock observations is that propylene polymer gasoline is fairly poor for most motor fuel applications. the hydrogenated product from an allbutene feed Page: 390 110 wt % propylene reacted relative to total gasoline RON of the hydrogenated product 9. The objective is to maximize the for propylene or propylene– butene feeds. the hydrogenated product from an allwith propylene and propylene–butene feedstocks. and the gasoline Page: 392 outlet temperatures for propylene or propylene– butene feeds. but this may vary somewhat depending gasoline made from propylene only with no attempt made to produce higher olefins beyond Page: 388 100%) for a propylene feed are higher than for mixed feeds or butene feeds. The objective is to maximize the yield in Page: 394 products derived from propylene feeds: propylene tetramer (dodecene). The situation with the situation with the propylene–butenes polymer gasoline is quite different. motor fuel applications.
Though initially recovered by fractionating olefins out of the Page: 397 80 100 % propylene in olefins heptene yield isobutene mixed butenes n-butene Figure equal proportions of propylene and butenes. Figures 9. for example.7 .0 4. in Page: 406 range than just propylene or butenes.9 10. illustrate the Page: 688 SAFETY 681 Poly-propylene can be used as filter material for AHF alone if Page: 1081 for the UOP propylene–butene HF alkylation process.9.3 6.0 17.2 Propylene 4. There are also a few highly selective processes that Selective dimerization of propylene to 2-methyl-1-pentene over triethylaluminum in a process Selective dimerization of propylene to 4-methyl-1-pentene over organopotassium compounds or. in units that may also process Page: 399 enhanced by adding propylene to the feed.2.2. After pretreatment to remove H2S and Page: 1162 3.diesel fuel from propylene was built in South Africa. Dimerization of propylene and butenes. The commercial results agree reasonably Page: 395 range Heavy polymer Propylene Heavy propylene Tetramer plus from C3/C4 tetramer polymer heavies polymer Propylene Heavy propylene Tetramer plus from C3/C4 tetramer polymer heavies gasoline API dodecene (or propylene tetramer).8 and 9.0 8.5 Propane 2. separately or combined The Dimersol process (Figure the dimerization of propylene to isohexenes used in gasoline blending Dimersol E—for of ethylene and propylene olefins contained in FCC gases and already described above for selective dimerization of propylene and butenes for the production of heptenes or for the Page: 400 acid to produce propylene tetramers.5 2.0 Butylene 6. Isobutene tends to produce significantly higher yields of that process only propylene in the feed. However.8 4. It is worth noting though that in C.
0 2.3.0 2.8 Butylene 5.0 Propylene 8.1 8.3 3.0 3.0 Butylene 5.0 24.3 .6 4.4 Propane 2.1 3.0 4.5 Page: 1163 3.8 8.8 5.9 Propylene 3.5 6.0 6.4 4.0 10.0 6.8 5.0 Propylene 3.2 4.0 Butylene 15.0 41.0 Propane 2.2 6.0 Propane 3.0 13.0 3.
digitalengineeringlibrary.pdf : http://www. By the early Page: 32 . n-butenes.com/mghpdf/0071455914_ar001. and amylenes were also studied. with isobutane to produce a branched-chain paraffinic units to include propylene and occasionally amylenes as well as butylenes. only a portion of the isobutane Page: 22 with mixtures of propylene. Page: 14 recommends processing the propylene at high acid strength. In the autorefrigerated process. and amylenes %) in propane/propylene content. and isoamylene are present in the reaction mixture. butylenes at intermediate strength. The key reaction step is the protonation Page: 27 feedstock compositions including propylene. and with mixtures of iso. Meyers : components such as propylene. the purge from the Page: 21 olefin feed contains propylene.pdf : : Robert A. butylene. and amylene. butenes. butylenes. For all the refrigeration configurations. Mixed propylene and butylene feedstocks can also be processed with less dependence lower from mixed propylene and butylene feed than from butylene-only feed.and normal Page: 25 olefin such as propylene.HANDBOOK OF PETROLEUM REFINING PROCESSES.File Title Subject Author Keywords Page: 5 : Book . and amylenes. The primary temporary deactivation Page: 29 and utilities. Processing some Page: 31 usually mixtures of propylene and butylenes.
3. two molecules of isobutane are required for each molecule Page: 37 of isooctane from propylene or amylenes. all acid catalysts promote the following undesirable side reactions . The reaction also proceeds via the carbenium ion mechanism. which can be accomplished middle carbon of propylene.2. In an ideally designed and operated system. Eq. The Page: 66 from benzene and propylene is a modified Friedel-Crafts alkylation. The actual reactions taking place in the alkylation Page: 33 Trimethylpentane 2. primary Page: 43 Alkylation Product Properties Propylene.4. many different catalysts from benzene and propylene to make a high-octane blending component for military aviation the oligomerization of propylene and the formation of heavy alkylate by-products 2. a mixture of branched C12 olefins.1) CH3- Page: 36 most pronounced with propylene feed.697 Distillation Page: 54 of benzene with propylene tetramer. is growing. Over the years.6. in accordance with Markovnikov’s rule. propylene reacts with isobutane to produce butylene and propane. However.3-Dimethylpentane Isobutane (Isooctane) 2. particularly propylene.4. of benzene with propylene over an acid catalyst.693 0. (1.4-Trimethylpentane (1. Dodecylbenzenes ( Page: 65 converts benzene and propylene to high-quality cumene by using a regenerable zeolitic catalyst.Property butylene feed Butylene feed Specific gravity 0.1 Alkylation chemistry.4-Trimethylpentane Propylene 2. The butylene normally formed from propylene. The addition of the isopropyl – CH3 Benzene Propylene Acid Cumene CH (Isopropylbenzene) CH2 = CH – CH3 CH3 Cumene + Propylene Acid CH Diisopropylbenzene Secondary Reaction FIGURE 1.light olefins. Page: 67 of benzene with propylene.16)].
The bottoms from the depropanizer column are sent to Page: 69 Benzene Propane Benzene Propylene Alkylation Reactors Transalkylation Depropanizer Reactor DIPB Benzene Column Cumene Column of toluene with propylene. The estimated erected cost for Page: 73 . However. the Q-Max process present in the propylene and benzene feeds processed for cumene production. it may also be created through the oligomerization of butylbenzene formation.to carbonium ion with propylene to form a C6 olefin or even further reaction Page: 68 reactor. However. The toluene may already be present as an impurity in Page: 70 impurities in the propylene feed. as with cymene. The fresh propylene feed is split between the four catalyst beds. Sulfur at the levels normally pres- Page: 72 impurity in FCC propylene Water wash or guard bed Arsine (AsH3) impurity in FCC propylene Guard bed ent in propylene and benzene feeds considered for bed ent in propylene and benzene feeds considered for cumene production will normally result wide variety of propylene feedstocks from different sources has demonstrated the flexibility of the and polymer-grade propylene feedstocks can all be used to make high-quality cumene on using typical propylene and benzene feedstock. The remaining 0. CH Propylene Cymene CH3 CH3 CH3 CH3 CH3 CH3 CH3 CH3 CH2CH3 Page: 71 cyclopropane in the propylene feed.6. trace sulfur compounds associated with propylene (mercaptans) and those associated with benzene (thiophenes) are content of the propylene and especially benzene feeds. ethylbenzene can also be formed butylene in the propylene feed. The chemical behavior of cyclopropane is similar to that typical FCC-grade propylene feed containing normal amounts of cyclopropane. An excess entered with the propylene feed.3 wt % or less unit with the propylene feedstock is unreactive in the process and is separated in and chemical-grade propylene is shown in Table 1.4.
59 7. and the demand for propylene from both FCC units and SC units is rising. the MAXOFIN FCC process can produce as much as 20 % or more propylene from traditional FCC feedstocks. Nearly one-half of the manufacture of polypropylene products.6). and a gasoline splitter to produce light and heavy gasoline Page: 178 increased demands for propylene for the manufacture of polypropylene products. PROCESS DESCRIPTION The FCC process may Page: 150 Maximum Traditional fuels propylene production Description Minas VGO and light Minas VGO Feed naphtha Propane 5. 3.37 6. Isobutane reacts with propylene.25 2.22 Propylene 18.23 3. butenes.1.4trimethylpentanes even when propylene or amylenes are the olefin feed. The process increases propylene yield relative The process increases propylene yield relative to that produced by conventional FCC units by alternate between maximum propylene and traditional FCC operations.3-dimethylpentane Isobutylene isobutane → 2. Nearly one-half of the propylene used by the half of the propylene used by the chemical industry is obtained from refineries.22 n-Butane 2. Since .62 Page: 154 the production of propylene from traditional FCC feedstocks and selected naphthas (Fig. Page: 163 separate propane from propylene.MTA Chemical-grade propylene (95 wt %) 74.240 MTA Utility consumption per MT Page: 75 ALKYLATION AND POLYMERIZATION Propylene isobutane → 2. Polymerization produces conjunct polymers. and/or amylenes in the presence of hydrofluoric acid Page: 83 product soluble oil Propylene 153 0 0 0 0 0 Propane 115 7 146 Page: 149 The yields of propylene and butylenes may be increased above that of the maximum allow maximization of propylene as well as ethylene production by incorporation of MAXOFIN FCC 6 wt % propylene.2.17 i-Butane 8.
Feedstocks include wax. is expected to continue growing well into the 21st Page: 179 150. both as an alkylation feed and for polypropylene production. Propylene is abundant in the DCC LPG stream and considerably higher Page: 185 DCC product is propylene.2.2 Maximum propylene DCC unit (type I) process flow diagram. DCC naphtha. thermally cracked gas I (maximum propylene) and type II (maximum isoolefins) are shown in Table YIELDS DCC Maximum Propylene (Type I) A typical DCC maximum propylene yield slate typical DCC maximum propylene yield slate for a Daqing (paraffinic) VGO is shown in Table 3. For a grassroots petrochemical plant.3. a and essentially complete propylene recovery. the gas recovery system the DCC maximum propylene operation (type I). For DCC units in or near a petrochemical process. and Page: 187 refining facility for polypropylene and styrene production. Again.000 MTA of propylene. both as an alkylation The demand for propylene. these catalysts are low hydrogen-transfer catalysts with Page: 184 heavy feedstocks for propylene and isoolefin production. is feed and for polypropylene production.suitable for making propylenes and butylenes. (Steam cracking is highly aromatic. propane. DCC maximum propylene operation (type I) employs both riser and bed cracking Page: 181 FIGURE 3. Each produced. ethane. Propylene and butylene yields are very high for paraffinic feedstocks and Page: 186 unit to increase propylene production in an ethylene facility. whereas ethylene is the major SC component. CRP has a relatively low activity as well as propylene selectivity. The demand for propylene.2. The stripper Page: 183 produce polymer-grade propylene. naphtha. PROCESS DESCRIPTION DCC is a fluidized catalytic process for selectively two modes: maximum propylene (type I) and maximum isoolefins (type II). An example of such a processing scheme .
Page: 188 3. At the same time.3 Polypropylene and styrene production scheme (EXT = aromatics extraction.000 MTA of propylene is 350. and particularly propylene. Given the more favorable . REFERENCES 1.000 MTA of propylene is chosen to illustrate process economics. In a propylene plant (Figure 5.2.45 FIGURE 3.5 overhead product. Unconverted propane Page: 271 the DIB column. HDA Page: 205 olefins.8 wt %.polymer ethylene and propylene sales. Trace levels of methyl acetylene and propadiene are removed from Page: 270 plant. without saturating propylene. the gasoline product.3). the result is a propylene mass selectivity in result is a propylene mass selectivity in excess of 85 wt %. are produced. The splitter produces high-purity propylene produces high-purity propylene as the overhead product. Ethane and lighter material enter the propylene plant in the fresh feed and are also created by to a propane-propylene (P-P) splitter. DEHYDROGENATION PLANTS Propylene Plant Oleflex process units typically operate in conjunction with fractionators plant. PROPYLENE PRODUCTION ECONOMICS A plant producing 350.” Oil & Gas Journal. Typical propylene purity ranges between 99.000 MTA of isobutylene were produced from Page: 269 sections.1.800.” NPRA Annual Meeting.5 and 99. 7. The content of the propylene product is less than 5 wt ppm. a propanerich liquefied petroleum gas ( are selective to propylene and hydrogen. 1998. Typical propylene purity ranges between 99. Two product in propane and propylene. AMCracking Plant Produces Propylene in Thailand. 12. “Deep DCC—A New Propylene Production Process from Vacuum Gas Oil. Jan. which Page: 267 (MTA) of propylene and more than 2. Lark Chapin and Warren Letzsch. The process consists of a single liquid-phase reactor.
Flow rate.0 — — Propane feedstock — 79. Gulf Coast. the pretax 350.3. The fixed expenses in of polymer-grade propylene is approximately $145 million (U.000 MTA. Assuming the values of $180/MT for propane and 420/MT for propylene. An overall mass balance of polymer-grade propylene from C3 LPG is shown in Table 5.1. The Oleflex selectivity to propylene is 90 Oleflex selectivity to propylene is 90 mol % (85 wt %). million million $/year MT C3 Propylene product 147. Propylene Production Costs Representative costs for producing 350. These estimates are based on for the propane-propylene splitter heat-pump compressor.19/lb $420/MT a 350. based on 8000 operating hours per Page: 272 $180/MT Propylene (99. of Polymer-Grade Propylene Using the Oleflex Process Costs Revenues. Page: 276 (propane to propylene and isobutane to isobutylene) in the Oleflex* process.cost component of propylene production. MT/h MTA Feed: C 55.1. and the (MT) of propylene requires approximately 1.00 440.4.25 vicinity of the propylene plant.3 Net Page: 274 between propane and propylene.000 MTA of propylene are summarized in Table 5.000 MTA of propylene.000-MTA Propylene Plant values defined in Table 5.2 MT of propane. polymergrade propylene requires less than 5 wt ppm of dienes and acetylenes Page: 428 .1.75 350. or a differential price of $240/MT.5 wt %) $0. Propylene Production Costs Representative costs for heat-pump compressor.2 226.000 Fuel by-products 11.5 wt %) 43. then hydrogen is 350.2 for a polymer-grade propylene plant producing 350. The quantity of propane consumed per unit of propylene per unit of propylene product is primarily determined by the selectivity of the Oleflex losses throughout the propylene plant are small.000 MTA of polymerof polymer-grade propylene using the Oleflex process are shown in Table 5.1. If chemical hydrogen cannot be exported. These Page: 273 a 350.000-MTA Propylene Plant Flow rate.000 Products: Propylene (99. a number Page: 373 For example.S.1.
239 4. isopropyl alcohol (IPA). DIPE from the Oxypro process generates 112 RONC and 98 recycle streams of propylene. The pyrolysis gasoline Page: 541 areas: recovery of propylene from propane-propylene streams. Oxypro process.1 Conversion steps for Ethylene Propylene Polyethylene Polypropylene GTL GTO GTP FIGURE 15. recovery of C4 olefins. Propylene. principally propylene. this process is known as MTP for methanol-to-propylene. recovery of C4 olefins. where Page: 740 a mixed propane-propylene stream from an FCC after amine and Merox treating.918 10. butene. and water.1.1. The fractionation product is then sent to product recovery. and especially recovery of heavier Page: 723 by-product from propylene oxide production. and from naphtha cracker C4s. Although Page: 738 (DIPE) from propylene and water. and especially propylene from propane-propylene streams. Lurgi has recently developed a modified version of this process maximizes production of propylene at about 70 percent.170 Page: 810 of olefins.attractive option if propylene is available.1 Conversion . thus opening new opportunities utilization. The ether DIPE has high octane. Ethylene and propylene can then be used to satisfy the growing market demand Page: 811 Liquid Fuels Ethylene Propylene Polyethylene Polypropylene GTL GTO GTP FIGURE 15.5 Methanol can also be converted to ethylene and propylene to ethylene and propylene via the UOP/Hydro MTO process. The combined streams are 5 wt % propylene. and light-gas yields decrease slightly. The propylene and water are converted to DIPE at more than 98 and alkylation of propylene. low vapor suited for processing propylene derived from the fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) unit within the FCC-derived propylene is fed directly along with water to the Oxypro process.050 Propane 1. as in a fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) Page: 526 all-normals fractions.100 H2O 328 2. Specifications kg/h Feed: Propylene 2.
25 1. Products. This ethylene yield is significantly higher than cracker yields based .8 to 1.50 Ethlene/Propylene Ratio 80% 40% 3. MT/D MT/D Methanol* 5204 Ethylene 882 5204 Ethylene 882 Propylene 882 Mixed butanes 272 C5 hydrocarbons 100 Fuel Page: 815 for ethylene and propylene. The an ethylene-to-propylene product ratio between 0.600 MTA of polypropylene. the MTO unit would require about 1. A limited amount of butenes and higher olefins is produced of ethylene plus propylene can be almost 80 percent. Ethylene and propylene are produced as polymer-grade products and sent to storage.5. yield ethylene and propylene.25 range. The UOP/Hydro MTO process provides the key link between that can deliver propylene as well as ethylene and satisfy the propylene demand that and satisfy the propylene demand that cannot be met by conventional ethylene plants alone. Approximately 3 tons of methanol is required per ton of Page: 816 $800/MT Polypropylene $705/MT Methanol $120 and $85/MT Page: 817 of polyethylene and polypropylene were desired. based on the carbon content components. This envelope provides (ethylene propylene) Feedstocks.1 for of ethylene and propylene.75 and 1. Tail Gas Ethylene Propylene Mixed C4 C5+ Propane Ethane Dryer DME Recovery Water Water Page: 814 1.1.8 million to polyethylene and polypropylene production today is through steam cracking of naphtha. The GTL 166. The overall yield of (ethylene plus propylene) changes slightly over this range with the highest yields achieved of ethylene and propylene. The UOP/Hydro of ethylene and propylene products by adjusting the operating severity in the reactor.8 Angstroms The unique pore size allows to ethylene and propylene. roughly in the 0.steps for natural gas Page: 812 scale capacity for polypropylene processes is generally considered in the range of 250 to Page: 813 olefins: ethylene and propylene. with approximately 10 percent going to butenes. An example material balance is shown in Table 15.
The remaining 62 to polyethylene and polypropylene.Page: 819 primarily ethylene and propylene and then converted to polyethylene and polypropylene. If this same million MTA of propylene would be produced by the MTO process.5 million MTA (3. The remaining 62 percent of the syngas was converted to 882 882 1300 Polypropylene. Kerosene SMDS kerosene . ECONOMIC SENSITIVITY The Page: 843 of ethylene and propylene in comparison to petroleum-derived naphtha feedstock. then about 14 million MTA of ethylene and 5 million million MTA of propylene would be produced. MT/ Page: 820 additional ethylene and propylene capacity is expected to require about 60 million MTA of MTA of additional propylene production by the year 2015. MT/D — 882 882 490 Other by-products. If we assume that about produce ethylene and propylene.4). This leaves over 75 percent of the of the additional propylene production to be supplied by other sources. Assuming the naphtha and the total propylene production to 21. This percent of additional propylene demand remaining for supply by other routes.1 18.
Page: 99 for. . . . . diglycolamine. . .Industrial-Organic-Chemistry. . . propylene dimers and oligomers (i. .. .pdf : : : : . Page: 218 the manufacture of propylene oxide (c$ Section 1 I . and from propylene oxide via chlorohydrin. . . PP = polypropylene) in several countries. . Oxidation Routes to Propylene Oxide . . . propane Page: 82 polyethylene.File Title Subject Author Keywords Page: 14 : Book .2). . nonenes and dodecenes.I . propylene carbonate or alkali salts of amino acids such as N- Page: 70 chlorobenzene. Secondary Products of Propylene Oxide . for Page: 121 feedstocks for ethylene/propylene production. . . I . . the butadiene share from the cracking process is decreasing. . . . . . the Manufacture of Propylene Oxide . . for example. . . . Propylene Oxide from the Chlorohydrin Process .I . . e. . . . . 1. A more detailed breakdown of the consumption Page: 86 the manufacture of propylene oxide (c$ Section 11 . Page: 35 are diethanolamine. The chlorine required for the chlorinolysis can Page: 80 of ethylene and propylene are LPG and NGL gas mixtures rich in ethane. PropyleneOxide . . . .2). Secondary Products of Propylene Oxide . .
in alkylate 1995 1986 1992 Polypropylene 41 47 35 42 36 49 45 50 17 26 14 18 15 Propylene oxide 9 8 11 11 11 10 7 6 18 with respect to polypropylene. propylene oxide (PO) is. I . dimcthylpropanediol (neopentyl glycol). for example.0 for propylene oxide propyleneoxide production (in 1000 tonnes): was about 4. polypropylene shows strongest growth in all countries Page: 282 of Propene 11.2-diols: ethylene-.Page: 226 . like ethylene oxide. Thus the chlorohydrin process. it is rapidly expanding chemistry. Propylene Oxide Although propylene oxide is not as reactive as ethylene Propylene Oxide Although propylene oxide is not as reactive as ethylene oxide.2. no longer economical for ethylene still important in propylene oxide manufacture. and Japan are presented in production capacity for propylene oxide propyleneoxide production (in 1000 tonnes): was about 4. In addition. acrylonitrile for polyacry"onitrile amounts of propene are used in Western in Germany and polypropylene in Japan are ignored.4Section 7. In addition. where caprolactam and Page: 281 of propene for polypropylene. tion) importance of . though it is in competition with other indirect the share of propylene 1976 1980 1995 oxide capacity based on the chlorohydrin process largest producer of propylene oxide using the chlorohydrin process is Dow. butanediol 1. propylene glycol 1. The fraction of propene used for polypropylene has increased steadily propene used for polypropylene has increased steadily over the last decade and accounts for use in Japan.1.0 x lo6 attempts to manufacture propylene oxide commercially by propylene oxide manufacturing routes: direct oxidation of oxide commercially by propylene oxide manufacturing routes: direct oxidation of propene (analogous to purification of the propylene oxide. propylene is also used ignored. Polypropylene membranes separate the cathode and anode regions. propylene is also used for nonchemical purposes.1) and propylene glycol (cf: Section I 1 .2). The Page: 275 replaced by elcctrodialysis.1. an important key production figures for propylene oxide in USA. Western Europe.3-diols: propanediol.
The formed along with propylene oxide.1. This is then converted into propylene oxide near the then converted into propylene oxide near the cathode where the hydroxide ion concentration is Page: 288 . The propylene oxide selectivity is over 90%. by enrichment of the hydroperoxide the selectivity to propylene oxide is about 90% at a 10070 propene convcrsion. Analogous to ethylene Page: 283 2. The propylene oxide manufacture using peracetic acid from acetaldehyde was practiced by the Manufacture of Propylene Oxide The current situation in propylene oxide manufacture is marked current situation in propylene oxide manufacture is marked in the chlorohydrin route by wastewater larger amounts than propylene oxide itself. can be added directly to motor fuel for deicing Page: 286 Shell process for propylene oxide (SMPO = Styrene Monomer Propylcne Oxide process) is tonnes per year propylene oxide and 330000 tonnes per year styrene began operation in Page: 287 80°C.1. However. alternately. Page: 285 the propene to propylene oxide either directly or. Acetic acid is formed as for it.1. dcliydrochlorination The propylene oxide is then rapidly driven out of the reaction mixture Oxidation Routes to Propylene Oxide The indirect epoxidation of propene is based on the Page: 284 40% of worldwide propylene oxide capacity is based on Halcon (now Arco) with plant capacity for propylene oxide is based on isobutane. propylene oxide could be manufactured in these units. plants based on the chlorohydrin process which Research toward improved propylene oxide production is directed toward one of the following objectives: propene to form propylene chlorohydrin.66 64 11. Propylene Oxide from the Chlorohydrin Process The marked increase in propylene marked increase in propylene oxide production was promoted by the availability of ethylene chlorohydrin only minor modifications. and 44% on ethylbenzene.
but preferably AcOH elimination to third of the propylene oxide is hydrated to propylene glycol and dipropylene glycol ( is hydrated to propylene glycol and dipropylene glycol (c$ Section 1 1. g. dipropylene glycol.2manufacture of 1. NaCI) thc selectivities to propylene oxide are more than 94% (based on HzOJ Page: 289 give selectivities to propylene oxide of up to 95% are used for the catalytic The selectivity to propylene oxide has been reported as 89% at a propene conversion in selectivity of propylene oxide.1.g. Mo compounds for lithium nitrate melt. dipropylene to as simply propylene glycol). In spite of this. dipropylene glycol. of the expensive propylene oxide.2). various propoxylated products and several . This is distilled ovcrhcad and rccirculatcd 8) I OH Propylene chlorohydrin is then dchydrochlorinated with the catholytc (NaOll). propylene glycol monoacetate can also be converted to propylene oxide with be converted to propylene oxide with a selectivity of 80% (based on propene) Secondary Products of Propylene Oxide Propylene oxide is an important intermediate in the manufacture of Propylene Oxide Propylene oxide is an important intermediate in the manufacture of 1. In propylene glycol and dipropylene glycol (c$ Section 1 1. 1.2-propylene glycol (usually referred to as simply propylene glycol). e.2). the diacetate of the diacetate of propylene glycol can be obtained with 93% selectivity by reacting propene raised pressure gives propylene glycol: -H20 [cat. The coproduct D-fructose PO alternate. two-step step route through propylene glycol monoacetate with subsequent hydrolysis. According to research conducted by Haleon. + 2AcOH a mixture of propylene glycol and its monoacetate at the pilot plant scale. A homogeneous catalyst system. various propoxylated products and several minor product simply propylene glycol). direct propylene glycol manufacture from propenc circumventing PO. The most wellis oxidized to propylene oxide on an immobilized enzyme system. Page: 291 the total hydrolysis..low concentrations of propylene oxide from the cathodic liquid..ummus Corporation has recently O to form propylene chlorohydrin and fert-butanol.1. Propylene oxide is produced at 180-250°C with a selectivity Page: 290 Riosynthetie manufacture of propylene oxide has attracted a lot of interest.CH=CH. e.] CH.
Use of propylene oxide (in Yo). then with EO to give block polymers for detergents. Polypropylene glycols can be manufactured by reacting propylene oxide with propylene manufactured by reacting propylene oxide with propylene glycol. e. However. and Japan 3. Like propylene glycol. Polypropylene glycols with a molecular weight propylene oxide with propylene glycol. propylene oxide propylene glycol production (in 1000 tonnes) : 1989 Poulenc. Polypropylene and pharmaceutical products. Polypropylene glycols with a molecular weight of 1000 and above are the alcoholysis of propylene oxide with monohydric alcohols leads to the monoalkyl ethers of . or basic catalysts. Propylene glycol is used as an antifreeze and brake fluid. pharmaceuticals manufacture PO to: 1. However. Polypropylene glycols with a molecular weight of 1000 and with propylene glycol. Western Europe. propylene oxide propylene glycol production (in 1000 tonnes) : 1989 1991 1994 66 manufacture of propylene glycol : catalyzed PO hydration. propylene glycol. propylene glycol can be used in cosmetic and pharmaceutical products. e. of Production figures for propylene glycol in these countries are listed in the adjacent table. propoxyiated products by multiple addition of PO to of PO to propylene glycol or to polyhydric alcohols 2. propylene glycol Product USA Western Europe Japan World 1986 1993 1985 1993 1986 1991 Polypropylene glycol and propoxylated products ] 61 ] 60 ] 66 13 15 14 Propylene glycol 28 25 22 23 16 16 21 21 ( production capacity for propylene glycol was about 0. dipropylene glycol is also used for resins.minor product groups. cost advantages. propylene glycol Product USA polyhydric alcohols 2. In contrast to ethylene oxide. analogous to EO hydration Page: 292 Products use of propylene glycol: antifreeze brake fluid alkyd polyester resins cosmetics. The use of The use of propylene oxide worldwide and in the USA. g. dipropylene glycol is also used for resins. unlike ethylene glycol in the body). propylene glycol ranks behind polypropylene glycols and propoxylated products for polyurethane glycol ranks behind polypropylene glycols and propoxylated products for polyurethane manufacture. important secondary product. most important products from propylene oxide: important products from propylene oxide: 1. and from Rh8ne-Poulenc.. the propylene glycol ethers and the isopropanolamines. unlike Like propylene glycol.97 x lo6 tonnes per year.
propylene glycol. Propylene oxide is then introduced at 275-280°C and up route 2: catalytic propylene oxide isomerization in liquid phase using high-boiling solvent with Page: 317 mixturc of glycerol. about 15% of the styrene produced worldwide is Page: 398 e.C=CHCH. y. or allyl acetate. The conversion can be conducted in either the (alkyl benzenes). polypropylene glycols.O N- Page: 355 of propene to propylene oxide. Propylene carbonate can be manufactured in 9570 yield from the reaction the reaction of propylene oxide with CO. then classical HOCl addition and saponification (e. Oligomeric esters from dicarboxylic acids and . polyethylene glycols.monoalkyl ethers of propylene glycol.C-HC-CH. The main products are main products are propylene glycol monomethyl ether and its ester with acetic acid. Page: 336 Dimethyl sulfoxide/H20 Propylene carbonate Propane/cresol or phenol NFormylmorpholine/H. at 150-200°C and 50-80 Page: 313 from ally1 chloride.] H. [cat. propylene oxide. Isopropanolamines be manufactured from propylene oxide and aqueous ammonia in a method analogous to the constituents from gases. ethylenc glycol). The industrial uses of glycerol are dctcrmined alcohol manufacture from propylene oxide. acrolein. because of expanding propylene oxide capacities. and the reaction products of propylene oxide with polyhydric reaction products of propylene oxide with polyhydric alcohols. The worldwide production capacity for the isomerization of propylene oxide: H. ethylbenzene (in its hydropcroxide form) can be used obtained per kilogram propylene oxide.. Currently. Page: 318 is propoxylated with propylene oxide at 3 -4 bar and 125 “C second only to polypropylene as a chemical use for propene. which have useful solvent properties..
Ponder. Simmrock.1. polymerization Page: 462 acid from acetaldehyde propylene oxide from propene pyridine from acroleidNH. K. Propylene: Demand vs.150 of polypropylene glycols 276 of terephthalic acid 40 1-402 Ethyl acetate . S. Chem. Hydrocarbon ProcessingJ.Tech4. 8. Hydrocarbon Processing. U.. chemistry acrylonitrile 307-308 ethylene glycol 42 Chem Systems process.W eek. T. Sept. generally in a melt. 187 (1978). propylene oxide Chevron catalyst. Page: 456 propiolactone 290 of propylene oxide 276 Aldol condensation of acetaldehyde 184 of acetaldehyde and Page: 460 136 Cetus process. Baehl. Chem.2-hichloroethane to vinylidene chloride 223 alkanes to cycloalkanes 3 Page: 464 148 propene to propylene oxide 266-275 3..1. Page: 451 Die Herstellverfahren fur Propyleneoxid und ihre elektrochemischeA lternative. Make Propylene Oxide Direct. Hasuike. Supply. Page: 452 Young. 37 (1993). Rheniforming process Chloral 351 Chlorination 274-275 Page: 461 oxidation. manufacture of propylene oxide 267-271 of terephthalic acid 397 Cosden process. HydrocarbonP rocessingN. Hydroformylate Propylene at Low Pressure. Yamagishi. Hydrocarbon ProcessingN.4-Epoxy.Page: 405 (1 . March 24. Weaknesso f Propylenei n Europe. 105 (1978). 274 (1 976).-1ng. Numa. ov.Zpropylene glycol or diethylene glycol). 287 170171 27 to ethylene oxide propylene chlorohydrin to propylene 1. uly. K.1 -butene 1 14 149. A subsequent Page: 448 A. 102( 1 976). H.2-hichloroethane to vinylidene chloride 223 alkanes propylene chlorohydrin to propylene 1. ov. 1085( 1 Y. Compare Propylene Oxide Routes. propylene oxide 274 C..
manufacture of propylene oxide IR (polyisoprene rubber) 113 application of isoprene 120 Page: 470 benzoic acid 357 propylene oxide via rev.-bntyl-hypochlorite 272 Lurgi-Liade process Rectisol Page: 473 process.Page: 467 isopropanol 196.198 propylene oxide to propylene glycols 275 manufacture of synthesis gas 19 propylene oxide to propylene glycols 275 manufacture of synthesis gas 19 Hydrocarbon Research process Page: 468 process. manufacture of propylene oxide 268-269 ‘0x0’ alcohols hydrogenation of ‘0x0’ Page: 474 epichlorohydrin 296 of propylene oxide 272-273 Pervaporation 7 1 Petrochemical primary products 8- Page: 475 1 Polypropene 66 Polypropylene glycols 276 Polystyrene 342 Polysulfons 359 Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTEE) 227 -293 to propylene oxide 266-275 P-Propiolactone manufacture 183 thermolysis to acrylic ethylene Propionaldehyde of propylene oxide isomerization 298 Propionic acid 173 139-140 Propionitrile 248 glycerol to tripolyethers Propylene carbonate manufacture 276 purification of synthesis gas 19 301 301 -302 Propylene chlorohydrin 266-267 Propylene glycol manufacture from propene 274 hydration chlorohydrin 266-267 Propylene glycol manufacture from propene 274 hydration of propylene oxide 275 274 hydration of propylene oxide 275 Propylene glycol ether 276 Propylene oxide 266-276 propylene oxide 275 Propylene glycol ether 276 Propylene oxide 266-276 applications 275276 glycol ether 276 Propylene oxide 266-276 applications 275-276 importance and production 266 Page: 476 acid 142 of propylene 270 of synthesis gas 19 metathesis of higher olefins 87- .
+ 2C. + 30. Charles A. oxidation of butadiene Page: 615 the ammoxidation of propylene with air. -+ Page: 605 the ammoxidation of propylene with air. feed contains C3H6 and NH3 . Data and assumptions: l The heat transfer configuration Page: 607 of acrylonitrile from propylene.pdf : Introduction to Chemical Reaction Engineering and Kinetics : Chemical Reaction Engineering : Ronald W.6 X 1015 s-l Page: 590 by ammoxidation of propylene (SOHIO process): 2NH.File Title Subject Author Keywords Page: 154 : Book . Mims e Bradley A. Saville : (A) to propylene (P). in which other nitriles may be formed.H. calculate the following: feed rate of propylene = 40 mol s-l.Introduction-to-Chemical-Reaction-Engineering-and-Kinetics. Page: 171 of cyclopropane to propylene has Arrhenius parameters A = 1. values of the observed first-order rate constant. Missen. and the information given below.
Volume I : : : ethylene oxides and polypropylene oxides of alcohol.Petroleum Engineering Handbook_ Volume I.File Title Subject Author Keywords Page: 565 : Book . ethoxylated the ethylene or propylene oxides can be changed to effect a complete range of . ethoxylated phenols. ethoxylated alcohols and amines.pdf : Petroleum Engineering Handbook . Lake .Larry W.
74 i . molecular Page: 35 a mixture of propylene and butylene) with isobutane to form a high .80 4.Butane 2.38 3.83 2.06 Page: 465 0.45 i .38 Page: 473 Propane 1. propylene is a feedstock for petrochemicals.18 n ..41 Propylene 2.51 3.16 4.61 3.65 1. Rectisol) and dry adsorbent processes (e.pdf : : : : Sulfi nol.File Title Subject Author Keywords Page: 29 : Book .02 1.octane Page: 37 light olefi ns propylene and butylene into molecules two or three times their original Page: 390 butane.Butane 3.butane is a Page: 464 0.87 5.Butane .72 i .64 4.Modeling-and-Simulation-of-Catalytic-Reactors.59 4.18 3. butenes.31 Propylene 6.g.70 3. Selexol.91 3. It is important to note that gasoline compounds can follow Page: 462 used as fuel. and propylenes.87 1.80 Propylene 4.Butane 3.62 1. Propylene Carbonate. i .36 1.
691 –2. Table 4-1 .Modeling-of-Chemical-Kinetics-and-Reactor-Desing-2001-Coker. which is integrated to a petrochemical complex.pdf : : : : 4.File Title Subject Author Keywords Page: 135 : Book .880 273–1500 i-Butane Page: 266 produce polymer grade propylene from heavy gas oils. and it produces three and a half times more propylene and less than half the gasoline than a conventional FCC plant that produces propylene.220 273–1500 Propylene C3H6 0.910 5.753 5.
3.24 The subplots Page: 591 .1 A Page: 101 for polyethylene and polypropylene production using the Ziegler-Natta2 catalyst: see Section 7.1 A Dynamic Mathematical Model Bubble phase Page: 485 for Polyethylene and Polypropylene Production 477 The bubble rising velocity UB is given by Page: 487 for Polyethylene and Polypropylene Production 479 Put into dimensionless form. this equation becomes dX1 Page: 489 for Polyethylene and Polypropylene Production 481 This can be rewritten as ((1 − Page: 491 for Polyethylene and Polypropylene Production 483 Two parameter continuation diagrams Figure 7.3. Develop the mathematical model of a modern of Polyethylene and Polypropylene The bubbling fluidized-bed reactor technology (UNIPOL R Page: 483 for Polyethylene and Polypropylene Production 475 7. 3. 473 7. . These two industrial processes are presented and analyzed in some Page: 481 for Polyethylene and Polypropylene Production 473 3.pdf : : : : for Polyethylene and Polypropylene Production . .File Title Subject Author Keywords Page: 10 : Book . . Page: 180 producing polyethelyne and polypropylene.3.Numerical-for-Chemical-Engineers-Using-MATLAB. . .
21 normalized 24 polypropylene 473 polystyrene 502 porous pellet 298 precision double 18 pressure .
pdf : : : : catalytic oxidation of propylene on bismuth molybdate catalyst to form acrolein.O-levenspiel-Chemical-Reaction-Engineering-3rd-Edition. the following three Page: 580 with 5-cm polypropylene saddles (a = 55 m2/m3) is being designed . With a feed a feed of propylene and oxygen and reaction at 460"C.File Title Subject Author Keywords Page: 268 : Book .
Propylene is the smallest stable unsaturated hydrocarbon molecule that exhibits low existence of the propylene dipole moment of 0.08272 when Page: 2 2 PROPYLENE Vol. Introduction Propylene [115-07-1].Part . eg. 20where A¼0. Equation 2 is the Antoine thermal properties of propylene are reported in Table 2. In: Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology Found 1 instance(s) in additional metadata Page: 1 PROPYLENE 1. B¼0. and in chemicals.2686.373 and b¼0. eg.Kirk Othmer . Experimental solubility data may be Extensive data on propylene solubility in water are available (20). Propyl alcohols). is large quantities of propylene are used in plastics as polypropylene. Chemical Properties The chemistry The chemistry of propylene is characterized both by the double bond and by the allylic hydrogen atoms. 2-propanol. of propylene. and 365.Propylene.2252. Compressed liquid propylene densities for metering purposes may be found in the API pressure.05K (12). Vapor–liquid–equilibrium VLE) data for propylene are given in References (21–35) and correlations of transport properties of propylene are given in Table 3.pdf : "Propylene". Propylene is usually transported in the Gulf Coast as compressed liquid temperatures. CH3CH –– CH PROPYLENE 1. Propylene is produced primarily as a by-product of petroleum ( Physical properties of propylene are listed in Table 1 (1). polypropylene. Carbon atoms 1 and 2 .File Title Subject Author Keywords : Book . acrylonitrile (qv). Pv. Parameters for the per mole of propylene are a¼6. Propylene is produced primarily as a by-product polypropylene. and cumene (qv) ( see Olefin polymers. 3. Propyl alcohols). in plastics as polypropylene. CH3CH –– CH2. In: Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology : : : Document Metadata Title: "Propylene". Introduction Propylene [115-07-1]. and in chemicals.35 D. equations 2 and 3 apply. propylene oxide (qv). propylene oxide ( acrylonitrile (qv).
free-radical. Thus. 20Propylene yield passes through a maximum.or liquid-phase catalysts are used higher levels of propylene purity. 20The radical is much more stable if both reactions for the propylene molecule and are covered in detail elsewhere (see Olefin see Olefin polymers.-catalyzed addition yields 1Using halogens as propylene reactants. the sp3 hybridized carbon of the methyl group changes allyl radical from propylene requires 368 kJ/mol (88 kcal/mol). The allyl hydrogens on propylene reactions can be explained by the stability of allyl radicals is abstracted from propylene. eg. propylene (see Gasoline and other motor fuels). as shown PROPYLENE Vol. propane. 20Propylene yield passes through a maximum. Br. Steam Cracking. Many types of gas. as shown in Figure 1 is beyond the propylene maximum. The first is the slow transfer of to the propylene double bond. ie. to form a carbocation. propylene produced by steam cracking varies according to economic conditions. In plant separation train. The furnace operation usually is dictated by computer optimization. The second is a why hydration of propylene yields isopropyl alcohol rather than n-propyl alcohol. stream. and minor components. a mixture of useful olefins. propylene is obtained by distillation of a mixed C3 stream. Electrophile Addition Reactions. In steam cracking.2.Page: 3 Vol. Under practical Page: 6 6 PROPYLENE Vol. Propylene is . 20 Propylene 3The propylene double bond consists of a s-bond Propylene 3The propylene double bond consists of a s-bond formed by two allylic hydrogens in propylene often serves to distinguish its chemistry from that of ethylene to form when propylene polymerizes in the presence of peroxide initiators (49). The separation train The yield of propylene produced in a pyrolysis furnace is a function of the Typical yields of propylene for various feedstock are available (see Ethylene). This difference Page: 4 4 PROPYLENE Vol. 3. ie. The nhydrogen bromide to propylene yields 2-propylbromide. polypropylene). the furnace.1. 20 Propylene 54. propylene. in a C3-splitter tower. high temperatures and the gas phase favor high radical Page: 5 Vol. The addition of electrophilic ( reagents HZ to propylene involves two steps.
C3-splitter tower. Propylene is produced as the overhead distillation product, and the bottoms purity of the propylene product. Two grades of propylene are commonly produced: a chemical Two grades of propylene are commonly produced: a chemical grade, which consists of 92– of 92–94wt% propylene, and a >90 wt%, polymer-grade propylene. Specifications for wt%, polymer-grade propylene. Specifications for these two grades are listed in Tables 4 produce polymer-grade propylene than to produce the chemical grade, because of the close of propane and propylene. 4.2. Refinery Production. Refinery propylene is formed as a byRefinery Production. Refinery propylene is formed as a by-product of fluid catalytic cracking total amount of propylene produced depends on the mix of these processes and the higher level of propylene production than in Europe, where proportionally more heating oil is gas, and coke. Propylene yield varies, depending on reaction conditions, but yields of 2– fluid coking. Refinery propylene is recovered at the vapor-recovery unit. Refinery wet gas
Vol. 20 Propylene 7to a depropanizer where a propane–propylene stream is where a propane–propylene stream is taken as the overhead. This refinery-grade stream or polymer-grade propylene can be made by further distillation in a propylene concentration distillation in a propylene concentration unit. 4.3. Advanced Cracking Techniques. Technologies were developed to activity. To improve propylene selectivity and to increase the propane conversion, this technology uses this technology for propylene production having a capacity of 245,000 metric tons was built
8 PROPYLENE Vol. 20Fluidized bed dehydrogenation technology is more prevalent in and per-pass propylene yield is low, the effluent compression and product purification sections 5. Economic Aspects Propylene is consumed in both chemical and fuel applications. The manufacture The manufacture of propylene accounts for more than half of the world’s consumption of world’s consumption of propylene for chemical use. Polypropylene demand remains high. It is used for chemical use. Polypropylene demand remains high. It is used as a substitute for automotive industry where polypropylene is used as a replacement for metal allowing improved performance The bulk of propylene production and consumption is concentrated in North America, Western Europe,
S. production of propylene in 2002/2003). Demand in these regions was down in
Vol. 20 Propylene 96. Storage and Handling Precautions must be taken to fire hazards wherever propylene is handled (75). Equipment capable of causing ignition should any cylinder containing propylene should be subjected to temperatures above 325 K. Propylene is above 325 K. Propylene is very volatile and is usually stored as a liquid Waste mixtures containing propylene should not be allowed to enter drains or sewers where Commercial quantities of propylene are shipped by tanker or pipeline and are stored aboveground and Safety Factors Propylene is a colorless gas under normal conditions, has anesthetic properties characteristic of olefins. Propylene is a flammable gas under normal atmospheric conditions. Vapor-cloud Evaporation of liquid propylene can cause skin burns. Propylene also reacts vigorously with oxidizing cause skin burns. Propylene also reacts vigorously with oxidizing materials. Under unusual conditions, eg, reported when liquid propylene contacts water at 315–348K (82). Table 7 shows hydrocarbon. 8. Uses Propylene has many commercial and potential uses. The actual utilization of of a particular propylene supply depends not only on the relative economics of the the value of propylene in various uses, but also on the location of the in which the propylene is available. For example, economics dictate that recovery of high of high purity propylene for polymerization from a small-volume, dilute off-gas stream whereas polymer-grade propylene is routinely recovered from large refineries and olefins steam crackers. States might use propylene as fuel rather than recover it for petrochemical use; a
10 PROPYLENE Vol. 20The uses of propylene may be loosely categorized The uses of propylene may be loosely categorized as refinery or chemical purpose. In In the refinery, propylene occurs in varying concentrations in fuel-gas streams. As a a refinery feedstock, propylene is alkylated by isobutane or dimerized to produce polymer gasoline chemical derivatives include polypropylene, acrylonitrile, propylene oxide, isopropyl alcohol, and others. In 2002, ca include polypropylene, acrylonitrile, propylene oxide, isopropyl alcohol, and others. In 2002, ca 60% of
of the world propylene supplies were consumed in the production of polypropylene (74). the production of polypropylene (74). Polypropylene has been the largest consumer of propylene polypropylene (74). Polypropylene has been the largest consumer of propylene since the early largest consumer of propylene since the early 1970s and is likely to dominate propylene likely to dominate propylene utilization for some time. 8.1. Refinery Fuel. Propylene has a 8.1. Refinery Fuel. Propylene has a net heating value of 45.8 MJ/kg ( gas streams. However, propylene is diverted from streams for refinery fuel use in large or equipment for propylene recovery does not exist or is limited in capacity. Propylene limited in capacity. Propylene is also contained in liquid petroleum gas (LPG), but olefins for alkylation, propylene is also used, depending on the availability of butenes and catalyzed (84). Propylene alkylation requires higher temperatures and acid strengths than alkylation of good promoters of propylene alkylation (85). The principal isomer of propylene alkylation by principal isomer of propylene alkylation by isobutane is 2,3-dimethylpentane as compared to the of butenes and propylene in the refinery, first through thermal, ie, free-radical, reactions (72). Refinery propylene, ie, 67 wt% propylene–33wt% propane, reacts in the liquid ie, 67 wt% propylene–33wt% propane, reacts in the liquid phase with a nickel psi) (88). Propylene conversions are 90–97%. The heat of reaction is removed unreacted propane and propylene, as well as dimerization products consisting mainly of isohexenes. The that of traditional propylene polymer gasoline, ie, 87 (83,84).
Vol. 20 Propylene 118.2. Chemical. Propylene Oligomers. Through acid-catalyzed FriedelCrafts 118.2. Chemical. Propylene Oligomers. Through acid-catalyzed Friedel-Crafts processes similar to those alkylation and polymerization, propylene forms oligomers, eg, nonenes, dodecenes, and higher molecular weight olefins additives (90,91). Polypropylene. One of the most important applications of propylene is as important applications of propylene is as a monomer for the production of polypropylene. Propylene the production of polypropylene. Propylene is polymerized by Ziegler-Natta coordination catalysts (92,93). dry solid particles. Propylene polymerization is an exothermic reaction (94). n C3H6 ðgÞ commercial processes produce polypropylene by a liquid-phase slurry process. Hexane or heptane are
Polypropylene is used in battery cases and in the replacement of growth market for polypropylene.2 atm). unsaturated polyester. Propylene Oxide.00–1. Propylene Oxide. propylene glycols (qv) and polyethers. Acrylonitrile. Propylene may be easily hydrolyzed to isopropyl alcohol. Propylene is hydrated at ca 540K under pressure. followed by epoxidation of the chlorohydrin Page: 12 12 PROPYLENE Vol.34MPa (10–13. Both Shell Netherlands then reacts with propylene at 320–350K and 1. Conversions of ca 75% are obtained for propylene are obtained for propylene hydration over cationexchange resins in a trickle-bed reactor ( water and gaseous propylene are fed concurrently into a downflow. unsaturated polyester. Isopropyl Alcohol. forming propylene oxide and acetic acid. forming propylene oxide and an alcohol.in which liquid propylene is used as the diluent. and propanolamines (see Alkanolamines. polymers). as in the Oxirane process (97). in hydroperoxide reacts with propylene. 20 Propylene 13CH3 H2C CHCH3 CH3 ð14Þ O H CH2 H3CC COH Propylene oxide (qv) uses include manufacture of polyurethanes. The first is chlorohydrination of propylene is chlorohydrination of propylene at ca 310 K. Polypropylene is used in battery as the diluent. polyurethanes. and the main by-products are acetonitrile cyanide (96). forming propylene oxide and an alcohol. fixed-bed reactor at isopropyl alcohol from propylene involves the use of polytungsten compounds in solution in a reactor (101). 13.2 atm). The is produced from propylene by two main processes. Page: 13 Vol. Catalytic oxidation of propylene in the presence of ammonia Catalytic oxidation of propylene in the presence of ammonia (qv) yields acrylonitrile ( Yields based on propylene are 50–75%. 20O 2 CH3CHOHCH2Cl Ca(OH)2 2 involves reaction of propylene with peroxides. CH3C OOH CH3 H3C H Epoxidation of the propylene occurs in the liquid phase under similar conditions in the 10–20% for propylene and greater than 95% for the hydroperoxide. CH3C OOH CH3 with propylene. Propylene oxide is produced from propylene by two main 96). Early commercial processes catalytic hydration of propylene to 2-propanol followed commercialization of the sulfuric acid process amounts of unreacted propylene (101). Conversions are 60– . Propylene oxide is produced from propylene by two main processes.
2000 by Page: 16 16 PROPYLENE Vol.. Page: 14 14 PROPYLENE Vol.of benzene by propylene (103.C. Market Reporter (Oct. J.. ed. Standards Page: 18 18 PROPYLENE Vol.3. ‘‘Propylene’’ in ECT (online). Ethylene can be produced by steam steam cocracking of propylene with ethane and propane. E. which is used in glycerol (qv) phase reaction of propylene and acetic acid over a supported Pd catalyst (eq. 74. Fontana. 21). 2004. Page: 17 Vol. Haflin. ‘‘Propylene. 76. Manufacturing Chemists Association. pp. R. 1974. E. 11.081 freezing temperature. 2CH2 ¼ CHCH3 ! CH2 ¼ be obtained by propylene oxidation in a process similar to ammoxidation (109) ( temperature chlorination of propylene yields allyl chloride. Ethylene and butenes can also be catalytic disproportionation of propylene (108). G. rev. CH3 Page: 15 Vol. pp. and W. M. and catalytic reaction with be made from propylene by reaction with toluene to produce cumene (111). Sheet SD-59. 75. by Amoco Corp. 2091. 2015. C. J. Hancock. Page: 19 Vol. The main application of cumene is the production are produced from propylene by the oxo or hydroformylation process (see Oxo process). Washington.’’ Chem. W. 2003). R. Propylene and its Industrial Derivatives. 20 Propylene 19Table 1. 20 Propylene 15CH3 CH(CH3)2 CH3 CH3 O2 ð24Þ COOH ð25Þ Bibliography ‘‘Propylene’’ in ECT 1st ed. 20 Propylene 1756. Page: 20 Thermal Properties of Propylenea Value of constants Property Equationb A B C . 1973. 193–197. Propylene. Propylene Physical Propertiesa Property Value mol 19Table 1. Thomson.104). Other. D. Earnest Benn Ltd. Chemical Profile. London. Herold. Propylene Physical Propertiesa Property Value mol wt 42. posting date: December 4. acrylic acid and propylene yields isopropyl acrylate (eq. G. 208. 6. H. Wollaston.. W. Hankinson and G. Vol..
Producers of Propylene and Their Capacities. ppm wt Specification ASTM Test method propylene 99. Product Specifications for Polymer-Grade Propylene Component. 20 Propylene 23Table 6. 20 Propylene 25Severity of feedstock conversion Yield Fig. 1. Page: 24 24 PROPYLENE Vol. dienes. Ethylene (—) Ethylene (—) and propylene (–) yields. Producers of Propylene and Their S. Product Specification for Chemical-Grade Propylene for Chemical-Grade Propylene Component Table 5. Chocolate Bayou. La. U. Tw/Tsl Ratios for Liquid Propylene Ratios for Liquid Propylene Spills in Watera Initial water temperature. . Tw. Page: 25 Vol. K Tw/ limit temperature of propylene.5a ASTM Test method propylene 99.S. for Polymer-Grade Propylene Component.Page: 21 Transport Properties of Propylenea Value of constants Property Equation Value at 258C A Page: 22 22 PROPYLENE Vol. Tex.5a D2163 ethane <1000 D2163 total acetylenes. 20Table 7. 20Table 4. 103 ta Producer Capacity 544 Baton Rouge Propylene Concentrator. Test method Constituents propylene 92–94 D2163 ethane and lighter <0. 680 BP Chemicals. Port Allen.4 D2163 ethylene Page: 23 Vol.
Determine the heating load of the .Principles-of-Chemical-Reactor-Analysis-and-Design-New-Tools-forIndustrial-Chemical-Reactor-Operations.9 for propylene and CO2: a31(1) þ a32(0) ¼ Page: 229 catalytic oxidation of propylene on bismuth molybdate to produce acrolein is investigated in a Page: 230 consisting of 60% propylene and 40% oxygen is charged into a 4-L isothermal Page: 334 of ethylene and propylene in (c). 2.File : Book . The reaction Page: 141 catalytic oxidation of propylene on a bismuth molybdate catalyst. The following reactions are taking Eq.pdf Title : Principles of Chemical Reactor Analysis and Design: New Tools for Industrial Chemical Reactor Operations Subject : Wiley-Interscience Author : Uzi Mann Keywords : ISBN-13: 9780471261803 Page: 117 between chlorine and propylene: Cl2 þ C3H6 ! C3H5Cl þ HCl Based on consisting of 50% propylene and 50% chlorine. is fed into the reactor.4. e.
File : Book . copolymer of polypropylene grafted with maleic anhydride and nylon-6.Wiley-Integrated-Chemical-Processes-Synthesis-Operation-Analysisand-Control. These Page: 409 groups.pdf Title : Subject : Author : Keywords : Page: 26 gas. ethylene and propylene through steam cracking. and styrene through dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene. degradation of PET with ethylene glycol . copolymer of polyolefines reactions Degradation of polypropylene by shear-heating.