Unit 1. Foundations of Development Handouts | Metaphysics Of Mind | Psychology & Cognitive Science

HUMAN GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT FACTORS OF DEVELOPMENT • Heredity - the transmission of traits from parents to offspring through the

genes • Environment • An individual at any given stage of development is the product of interaction between heredity and environment. • Transcendence Traits Most Influenced by Heredity: • physical features – body built, eye color, hair texture and color • predisposition to certain diseases • intelligence • sensory acuity • mental disorders • other fundamental abilities and capacities Parenting A Two-Dimensional Framework for Parenting Styles adapted from the work of Slater (1962)/ Diana Baumrind Restrictive Demanding Authoritarian Abusive Warm Democratic Indulgent Permissive Protective Nonconformist Authoritative Cold ALFRED ADLER • Striving for perfection – motivating force • Inferiority complex – overwhelmed by the forces of inferiority • Superiority complex – covering up your inferiority • Striving for superiority – the will to power the basic motive of human life • Striving through social interest – social concern (both inborn and unlearned) Three Basic Childhood Situations that Most Contribute to a Faulty Lifestyle: • organ inferiorities as well as early childhood diseases -> “overburdened” - remain focused on themselves - inferiority -> superiority complex - encouragement of loved one • pampering – children are taught, by the actions of others that they can take without giving fails in two ways: a. doesn’t learn to do for himself and discovers later that he is truly inferior b. doesn’t learn any other way to deal with others than the giving of commands society’s response – hatred • neglect/ abuse -> inferiority because they are told and shown that they are of no value -> selfishness because they are taught to trust no one Permissive Indifferent Neglectful

open-communication • increased degree of support nurturance and acceptance of family members Characteristics of Dysfunctional Families (Minuchian.may battle for lost position or act like a baby • second child – has the first child as sort of “pace-setter” ..Birth order – heuristic • only child – lives in a world of adults .tends to be quite competitive or submissive • middle child – most discouraged.may feel incredible inferiority with everyone older and “superior” Functions and Characteristics of Healthy Families (Callaghan.more likely than others to be pampered • first child – begins life as an only child . K. 1987) • clearly identified hierarchy • well-defined parental roles • flexibility and adaptability • consistent. clear rules and expectations • consistent affection • consistent limit-setting • bi-directional. or separation • patterns of parental influence in children showing emotional disturbance: o rejection o overprotection o unrealistic demands o overpermissiveness o faulty discipline o inadequate and irrational communication o undesirable parental modeling o materialism o quantity time without quality or no time at all . 1978) • rigidity • lack of individuation • extreme detachment • scape-goating • triangulation • faulty-problem-solving skills • conflict avoidance • inconsistent application of affection/ discipline • low levels of support/ nurturance/ acceptance • increased degree of expressed hostility towards each other Categories of Family Dysfunction (Johnson. 1989) • inadequate families: lack physical or psychological resources for coping with normal stressors • anti-social families: values encourage dishonesty or deceit • discordant and disturbed families: have poor interpersonal contracts and disturbance • disrupted families: inadequate adjustment to loss by death. divorce.second child “dethrones” the first . what number 1 isn’t • youngest child – most pampered in a family with more than one child .

babies an regulate their cycles of feeding. adaptive behavior (alertness. until Spock (partly influenced by Gesell) published his famous book in 1945 • “the environment may temporarily affect the rate at which a child develops. motor behavior (locomotion. it cannot be influenced on a basic level by exogenous or external factors 5. cephalocaudal (or head-to-tail) trend b. Ames and Ilg – a child’s school readiness is best indicated by the child’s developmental or behavioral age rather than chronological age alone . and wakefulness . sleep. and child. Children who are not learning are simply not ready to learn.cycle begins in infancy and continue at least until age 16 . intelligence.THEORIES ON HUMAN DEVELOPMENT MATURATIONAL MODEL ARNOLD GESELL (1880-1961) . Attempts to intervene before the child is ready will be fruitless and frustrating and can create disharmony among parent. teacher.the organism temporarily loses its equilibrium as it expands into new inner and outer realms. specific motor skills) 2. and walking Personality – integrating introverted and extroverted tendencies . Principle of Developmental Direction – development is not random.to preserve integrity and balance Importance of Individual Differences 1.seen in tonic neck reflex (dominant during the first three months after birth). language behavior (all forms of communication) 4. is of little consequence to the ultimate outcome Skeels and Dye . a reflex which Gesell discovered in humans 4.organism can regulate its own development . it proceeds in an ordered fashion. Principle of Reciprocal Interweaving . a. 2. includes visual behavior.sleeper effects (effects that show up much later in an individual’s life) .early training.too many elements of the research were not well controlled Applications of Gesell’s Theory of Human Development 1. but it organizes 3. Principle of Individuating Maturation – maturation is a process controlled by endogenous or internal factors. different forms of exploration) 3. personal-social behavior (reactions to persons and to the environment) Co-Twin Control Research Method . Principle of Functional Asymmetry – behaviors go through periods of asymmetric (unbalanced) development that allow the organism to achieve a measure of maturity at later stages . proximo-distal (or near-to-far) trend 2. coordination.was the best-known “Baby doctor” in the early 1940s. Principle of Self-Regulatory Fluctuation – every stage of disequilibrium or imbalance in development is followed by a stage of equilibrium .the development process by which two tendencies gradually reach an effective organization Example: in the development of handedness. crawling. before a child is physically mature enough to make significant gains in given behaviors. but individual biological factors ultimately control development” Basic Principles of Development 1.

iconic stage – 2-3 years 1. orderly changes by which mental processes become more complex and sophisticated JEAN PIAGET “Play is child’s work” • schema – the primary unit of mental organization and the structure through which a person adapts to the environment o reflexes – schemes oparating at birth o quickly replaced with constructed schemes through the processes of organization and adaptation • adaptation – the individual’s adjustment to the environment. symbolic stage – 7 years 2. length.COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT – gradual. formal operational stage 3. takes place simultaneously with organization intelligence – how an organism adapts to its environment two processes used by the individual in its attempt to adapt o assimilation – the individual incorporates new experiences into already existing schemata. social speech (or external (toddler and early childhood old speech) – 3 years old – 2 to 7 years) visual images use of symbols egocentrism 3. or structures o accommodation – modifying existing schemata to satisfy the requirements of new experiences JEAN PIAGET JEROME BRUNER LEV SEMYONOVITCH Stages of Cognitive VYGOTSKY (1896-1934) 1. independently without the help of anyone else zone of proximal development (zpd) – level of development immediate above a person’s present level . concrete operational 3. and reversibility decentration 4. mass. egocentric speech – 3-7 stage (elementary and old years old early adolescence – 7 to 11 abstract reasoning private speech years) 7 types of conservation: number. weight area. pre-operational stage 2. liquid. enactive stage – dominant (infancy – birth to 2 years) during infancy motor activity motor responses object permanence 2. inner speech – older (adolescence and children and adults adulthood – 11 years to logical memory adulthood) abstract Constructivism Discovery learning Scaffolding The Importance of Social Interaction • actual development level – all functions and activities that a child can perform on his own. volume. sensorimotor stage 1.

She needs access to the machine to live. so there is a waiting list for those not yet on it. Johnson take another patient off the machine to put his daughter on? Why or why not? MORAL DEVELOPMENT Lawrence Carol Gilligan’s Robert Selman’s Eisenberg’s Martin Hoffman’s Kohlberg’s Stages Stages of Ethic of Levels of Levels of Development of of Moral Care Perspective Prosocial Empathy Reasoning Taking * Behavior * Level One: Preconventional Morality (7-10 years old) Stage 1: PunishmentObedience Orientation Stage 2: Instrumental Relativist Orientation Level 1: Preconventional – goal is individual survival * transition is from selfishness – to – responsibility to others Level 0: Egocentric perspective taking (most pre-school and a few early elementary students) Level 1: Subjective perspective taking (most early and middle elementary students) Level 1: Selfish and self-centered orientation (most preschool and many early elementary students) Level 2: Superficial “needs of others” orientation (some preschool and many elementary school students) Level 3: Approval and stereotypic good boy/ girl orientation (some elementary and secondary school students) Level 4: Empathic orientation (a few elementary and many secondary students) 3.Dilemma: Dr. Level 3: Postconventional Morality Stage 5: Social Contract Orientation Stage 6: Universal Ethical Principle Orientation Level 5: Internalized values orientation (a few high school students) 4. reciprocal perspective taking (many upper elementary school students) Level 3: Thirdperson. Global empathy 2. Dr. Johnson makes decisions about which patients have access to a kidney machine. Should Dr. Johnson's young daughter is injured in a car accident and has kidney damage.Nice Girl Orientation Stage 4: Law and Order Orientation Level 2: Conventional or social – selfsacrifice is goodness * transition is from goodness – to – truth that she is a person too Level 2: Secondperson. do not hurt others or self Level 4: Societal. There are far more people who need the machine than can be accommodated by it. Egocentric empathy Level Two: Conventional Morality (10-13 years old) Stage 3: Good Boy. Empathy for another’s feelings 1. Empathy for another’s life conditions . symbolic perspective taking (some junior high and many high school students) act as they do. Patients who do not get access will die. mutual perspective taking (many middle school and junior high school students) Level 3: Postconventional or principled – principle of nonviolence.

They seem genuinely the two-person relationship. love withdrawal 3. emotional needs. reciprocal perspective Level 3: Approval and stereotypic good boy/ girl taking orientation (many upper elementary school students) (some elementary and secondary school students) Students realize that others may have mixed and possibly Students advocate prosocial behavior on the grounds that contradictory feelings about a situation. mutual perspective taking Level 4: Empathic orientation (many middle school and junior high school students) (a few elementary and many secondary students) Students not only see things from their own and another’s Students have true empathy for another’s situation and a perspective but also can take an “outside” perspective of desire to help a person in need. Level 2: Second-person. induction The Development of Perspective Taking and Prosocial Behavior Selman’s Levels of Perspective Taking * Eisenberg’s Levels of Prosocial Behavior * Level 0: Egocentric perspective taking Level 1: Selfish and self-centered orientation (most pre-school and a few early elementary students) (most preschool and many early elementary students) Students are incapable of taking anybody else’s Students show little interest in helping others apart from perspective. things they didn’t intend to do. compromise. and equality of all human beings. power assertion 2. and trust Level 4: Societal. but their concern is simplistic and lacks one-dimensional fashion. They express a strong They begin to develop an understanding of the desire to help others in need and to improve the unconscious – the idea that people are not always aware conditions of society as a whole. true understanding of the other’s situation. circumstances contribute to personality and behavior. of why they act as they do. They also it’s the “right” thing to do and that they will be liked or understand that people may feel differently from what appreciated if they help. Level 3: Third-person. behavior primarily to benefit themselves Level 1: Subjective perspective taking Level 2: Superficial “needs of others” orientation (most early and middle elementary students) (some preschool and many elementary school students) Students realize that others have thoughts and feelings Students show some concern for another’s physical and different from their own but perceive these in a simplistic. They hold stereotypical views of their behaviors indicate and that they sometimes do what “good boys and girls” and “bad boys and girls” do.Hoffman’s Theory of Discipline Three Categories of Discipline Techniques 1. symbolic perspective taking Level 5: Internalized values orientation (some junior high and many high school students) (a few high school students) Students recognize that people are a product of their Students have internalized values about helping other environment – that past events and present people – values that reflect a belief in the dignity. satisfy both oneself and another simultaneously and therefore understand the advantages of cooperation. They appreciate the need to concerned with the well-being of others. They exhibit prosocial and feelings different from their own. They don’t realize that others have thoughts serving their own interests. . rights.

III genital locomotor or initiative vs Exploration/ to go after. Work and To make be. Success leads to feelings of autonomy.rejectivity adult stagnation Adults need to create or nurture things that will outlast them. ego-identity vs peer groups. politics. generativity vs VII (40’s to selfhousehold. resulting in a sense of guilt.infant mistrust in return withdrawal Children develop a sense of trust when caregivers provide reliability. Success leads to a sense of competence. #1) Stage (age) Psychosocial Significant crisis relations Important event . Success leads to feelings of usefulness and accomplishment. narrow 12 or so) -industry vs neighborhood School to make things competence virtuosity -school-age inferiority and school together inertia child Children need to cope with new social and academic demands. ruthlessness -family play age (3-6) guilt Independence play courage inhibition -. V (12-18 or to be oneself. while failure results in regret.middle care absorption/ workmates Parenthood to take care of -. Chart adapted from Erikson's 1959 Identity and the Life Cycle (Psychological Issues vol 1. faith distortion – (0-1) -. overextension 65’s) -. to purpose. Success in this stage leads to a sense of purpose. IV latency (7to complete. II muscular autonomy vs to hold on. etc. care. loyalty role-confusion role models relationships repudiation adolescence oneself Teens need to develop a sense of self in relationship to others and to own internal thoughts and desires (Later work has shown two substages: a social identity focusing on which group a person will identify with and a personal identity focusing on abilities. Love find oneself in promiscuity -love young adult isolation friends relationships a exclusivity another Young adults need to form intimate. Peer/ Social fanaticism -so) -to share fidelity.preschooler Children need to begin asserting control and power over the environment. through (65’s and Ego integrity mankind or and having been. failure results in feelings of shame and doubt.old vs despair “my kind” acceptance of to face not despair adult one's life being Older adults need to look back on life and feel a sense of fulfillment. Success leads to strong relationships. bitterness. possibilities. goals. loving relationships with other people.intimacy vs partners. and affection. Success at this stage leads to feelings of wisdom.) The teenager must achieve a sense of identity in occupation. and despair.Erik Erikson's 8 Stages of Psychosocial/ SocioEmotional Development Maladaptation Psychosocial Psychosocial s& modalities virtues malignancies sensory I oral sensory trust vs to get. sexroles. while failure results in feelings of inferiority. often by having children or creating a positive change that benefits other people. VIII maturity Reflection on To be. impulsivity -anal (2-3) -shame and parents Toilet training let go determination compulsion toddler doubt Children need to develop a sense of personal control over physical skills and a sense of independence. To lose and VI (the 20’s) -. A lack of this will lead to mistrust. to give mother Feeding hope. while failure results in loneliness and isolation. to will. while failure results in shallow involvement in the world. Children who try to exert too much power experience disapproval. presumption -wisdom beyond) -. and religion.

Sorenson published a paper (Greenberger. readiness to form alliances iv. general openness to change ii. initiative b. standards of competence ii. Work orientation i. sensitivity to the rights of people who differ from the norm iii. ability to encode messages ii. feelings of community ii. Interpersonal Adequacy a. Communication skills i.PSYCHOSOCIAL MATURITY Some years ago Ellen Greenberger and A. rejection of simplistic view of human nature iii. 329-558) on the concept of psychosocial maturity Three Areas of Psychosocial Maturity 1. Journal of youth and adolescence. rational dependence ii. clarity of self-concept ii. Self-reliance i. internalized values c. Openness to sociopolitical change i. Social Commitment i. recognition of costs of change c. recognition of costs of status quo iii. 3. Enlightened trust i. Social Adequacy a. role-appropriate behavior ii. & Sorenson. Individual Adequacy a. Knowledge of major roles i. Identity i. awareness of constraints on trustworthiness c. absence of excessive need for social validation ii. Tolerance of individual and cultural differences i. ability to decode messages iii. A. sense of control iii. pleasure in work iii. willingness to work for social goals iii. management of role conflict 3. awareness of costs and benefits of tolerance . empathy b. Toward a concept of psychosocial maturity. willingness to interact with people who differ from the norm ii. consideration of life goals iii. interest in long-term social goals b. E. 1974. self-esteem iv.N. general work skills 2.

anal. emotional – a function of experiencing emotional relationships.the most motivating force . quest for knowledge. or places. or delinquent behavior 2. etc. excitation (enthusiasm). preference for violent games. stage. or 7 to puberty (12 yrs old) puberty Anus Holding it in and letting it go Potty training FIXATION Oral-passive Oralaggressive Anal expulsive/ aggressive Anal retentive Poor self worth Effeminism Vanity. most frequently associated with exceptional abilities children 5. feelings of loneliness. pressure for action. depressions. theoretical thinking. kissed. aesthetic interests.. need for comfort and luxury. as well insufficient and 18 as mouth movement. or 7 yrs old 5. interest in food and food preparation. Oral Birth to Mouth Sucking and biting Weaning about Nursing . sensual – a heightened ability to experience sensory pleasure manifesting in an increased need to touch and be touched. use of image and metaphor in verbal expression. anxieties. forceful feeding months including sucking. difficulties of adjustment in new environments . 6. concern for others. dislike of loneliness 3. strong and sharp visualization 4. and phallic stages. restlessness. genital genitalia Sexual intercourse Difficulties at this stage are due to damages was done in earlier oral. psychomotor – an excess of energy manifesting in rapid talk. concern with death. sports. phallic 4. drama. latent genitalia Masturbation Oedipal crisis Oedipus complex Electra complex Sexual impulse is suppressed in the service of learning 5. need for security. affective. need for attention and company. 2. can result in gumming. manifests strong attachment to persons. manifested as a drive to ask probing questions. inventiveness. early signs of sexual interest and development. and psychomotor spheres . fears. 6. image-base information processing with a relative exclusion of sensual. Dabrowski’s Types of OE 1. reverence for logic.SIGMUND FREUD The stages Sex drive . imaginational – internal.association of images and impressions. biting and fixation in this swallowing. hugged.eating. anal 18 months to 3 or 4 years old 3 or 4 to 5. selfcenteredness 3. exclusive relationships. intellectual – processing information and decision making are localized in the cognitive sphere. strong affective memory.the primary motivating force not only for adults but for children and even infants STAGE AGE FOCUS OF FAVORITE ACTIVITIES DIFFICULT PLEASURE STAGE 1. living things. inhibition (timidity and shyness). preoccupation with theoretical problems.

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