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molecular transfer of energy. •Consider to parallel plates one is maintained at temperature T₁ and another at temperature T₂. •Such that T₁ >T₂. •The space b\w. Them is filled with a gas at very low temp and pressure. •In this gas the number density of molecules is very low. •So that number of intermolecular collision is very small. •The average kinetic energy of molecules is related to temperature.

Physical mechanism

The molecules leaves the surface at temperature at T₁ will collide with the next molecules and net heat transfer to lower temperature T₂. Thus, there is a net transfer of energy from plate A to plate B and the rate is determined by the number density of the molecules and temperature. This mechanism can also result in transfer of a chemical spices from one surface to another. e.g is aluminizing large mirrors. In liquids, this mechanism is same excepts that the interaction are far more frequent. In solids energy is carried not in translation but in vibration of molecules within lattice. Translation motion of highly mobile free electrons in metals adds to there lattice waves generated by such molecular vibration.

As we know conduction heat transfer is a diffusion process in which energy passes from a molecules to adjacent molecules . Rate is determined by temperature gradient. This is possible in the case when local bulk motion is absent. Bulk motion is directed motion of groups of molecules rather than random motion of individual molecules.

**Heat transfer in fluids (convection)
**

Consider a fluid flowing in pipe. Each molecule has two motion. Random motion- axial direction. Local bulk motion- as directed by laws of fluid dynamics. If there is a superposed of local bulk motion Fourier’s law is still applicable. But if we are intersted in finding the flux of thermal energy crossing a surface stationary in space; we need convective heat transfer mechanism. Conduction is superposed by convection in liquids.

Free or natural convection. Forced convection. Free or natural convection. • Let us take an example of a plate held vertically in a cooler atmosphere. • Heat conducted from hot surface into air. • Adjacent layer is heated up and the layer is heated with lesser extant. • In this way a temperature gradient is set up. • But this gradient creates a density gradient but In reverse direction. • So that lightest fluid nearest to plate. • Buoyancy forces are set up and fluid layer immediately next the plate will move up.

Types of convection

The velocity at wall is zero. Some distance away from plate wall, the heating effect decreases. Because the velocity and density gradient is decreases. As the heat flow there, the hotter layer is replaced with the colder, so that it termed as free convection. If the blowers are used in case of airs to force up the colder air, that type of convection is termed as forced convection.

Formula used. Q = h(TW-TF) A. Where Q = Rate of heat transfer. h = convective heat transfer co=efficient(W/m2 .k) A= area of wall. TW= temp of wall. TF = temp of fluid.

**h depends upon: Properties of fluid. Geometry of surface. Nature of motion.
**

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