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Quadratic Equations and Functions

8.1 Square Root Property and Completing the Square 8.2 Quadratic Formula 8.3 Equations in Quadratic Form 8.4 Graphs of Quadratic Functions 8.5 Vertex of a Parabola and Applications
In Chapter 8 we revisit quadratic equations. In earlier chapters, we solved quadratic equations by factoring and applying the zero product rule. In this chapter, we present two additional techniques to solve quadratic equations. However, these techniques can be used to solve quadratic equations even if the equations are not factorable. Complete the word scramble to familiarize yourself with the key terms for this chapter. As a hint, there is a clue for each word.

8
( __________ root property) ( __________ the square) ( ________ formula) 1b2 4ac2

1. r a e q s u 2. e i t g c o m p l n 3. d q a t r i u a c 4. t a i i c i d s r m n n 5. a o b r p l a a 6. x t e e r v 7. s x i a

(shape of a quadratic function) (maximum or minimum point on the graph of a parabola) ( ________ of symmetry)

551

552

Chapter 8 Quadratic Equations and Functions

Section 8.1
Concepts
1. Solving Quadratic Equations by Using the Square Root Property 2. Solving Quadratic Equations by Completing the Square 3. Literal Equations

Square Root Property and Completing the Square


1. Solving Quadratic Equations by Using the Square Root Property
In Section 5.8 we learned how to solve a quadratic equation by factoring and applying the zero product rule. For example, x2 1x x 92 1x 9 x x
2

81 0 0 x 9 x 0 9 Set one side equal to zero. Factor. Set each factor equal to zero.

81 92

0 or 9 or

The solutions are x 9 and x 9. It is important to note that the zero product rule can only be used if the equation is factorable. In this section and Section 8.2, we will learn how to solve quadratic equations, factorable and nonfactorable. The first technique utilizes the square root property.

The Square Root Property


For any real number, k, if x2 k, then x Note: The solution may also be written as x minus the square root of k.

1k or x

1k, read x equals plus or

1k.

Example 1

Solving Quadratic Equations by Using the Square Root Property


b. 3x2 75 0 c. 1w 32 2 20

Use the square root property to solve the equations. a. x2 81 181

Solution:

a. x2 x x

81

The equation is in the form x2 Apply the square root property.

k.

The solutions are x 9 and x 9. Notice that this is the same solution obtained by factoring and applying the zero product rule.

Avoiding Mistakes:
A common mistake is to forget the symbol when solving the equation x 2 k :
x 1k

b. 3x2

75 3x2 x
2

75 25

1 25

Rewrite the equation to fit the form x2 The equation is now in the form x2 Apply the square root property.

k.

k.

5i

Section 8.1

Square Root Property and Completing the Square

553

The solutions are x Check: x 3x2 3125i2 2 31 252 75 c. 1w w w w 32 2 3 3 3 w 315i2


2

5i and x Check: x 3x2 31 5i2


2

5i. 5i 75 75 75 75 75 0 0 0 0 0 k, where

5i 0 0 0 0 0 120 22
2

75 75 75 75 75 20

3125i2 2 75

31 252

The equation is in the form x2 x 1w 32. Apply the square root property. 5 Simplify the radical.

215 3 215 3 Solve for w. 215 and w 3. 1t 3 215.

The solutions are w


Skill Practice

Use the square root property to solve the equations. 2. 8x2 72 0 52 2 18

1. a

100

2. Solving Quadratic Equations by Completing the Square


In Example 1(c) we used the square root property to solve an equation where the square of a binomial was equal to a constant. 1w 32 2 20
constant square of a binomial

The square of a binomial is the factored form of a perfect square trinomial. For example: Perfect Square Trinomial x2 10x 25 t2 p2 6t 14p 9 49 Factored Form 1x 52 2 1p 1t 32 2 72 2

For a perfect square trinomial with a leading coefficient of 1, the constant term is the square of one-half the linear term coefficient. For example: x2 10x 25 3 1 1102 4 2 2 In general an expression of the form x2 bx n is a perfect square trinomial if n 1 1b2 2. The process to create a perfect square trinomial is called completing the 2 square.
2. x 10 3 12

Skill Practice Answers


1. a 3. t 3i 5

554

Chapter 8 Quadratic Equations and Functions

Example 2

Completing the Square

Determine the value of n that makes the polynomial a perfect square trinomial. Then factor the expression as the square of a binomial. a. x2 c. x2 12x 11x n n b. x2 d. x2 26x 4 x 7 n n

Solution:

The expressions are in the form x2 bx one-half the linear term coefficient 1 1 b2 2. 2 a. x2 x
2

n. The value of n equals the square of

12x 12x 62 2 26x 26x 132


2

n 36 n 3 1 1122 4 2 2 162 2 36.

1x

Factored form n 169 n 3 1 1 262 4 2 2 1 132 2 169.

b. x2 x2 1x

Factored form n 121 4 n 3 1 1112 4 2 2 1 11 2 2 2


121 4 .

c. x2 x2 ax

11x 11x 11 2 b 2 4 x 7 4 x 7 2 2 b 7

Factored form

d. x2 x2 ax

n 4 49 n 31 1 2
4 2 72 4

2 2 72

4 49

Factored form Determine the value of n that makes the polynomial a perfect square trinomial. Then factor. n n 5. y2 7. w2 16y 7 w 3 n n

Skill Practice

4. x2 6. a2

20x 5a

Skill Practice Answers


4. n 5. n 6. n 7. n 100; 1x 64; 1y 25 ; aa 4 49 ; aw 36 102 2 82 2 5 2 b 2 7 2 b 6

The process of completing the square can be used to write a quadratic equation ax2 bx c 0 1a 02 in the form 1x h2 2 k. Then the square root property can be used to solve the equation. The following steps outline the procedure.

Section 8.1

Square Root Property and Completing the Square

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Solving a Quadratic Equation in the Form ax 2 bx c 0 (a 0) by Completing the Square and Applying the Square Root Property
1. Divide both sides by a to make the leading coefficient 1. 2. Isolate the variable terms on one side of the equation. 3. Complete the square. (Add the square of one-half the linear term coefficient to both sides of the equation. Then factor the resulting perfect square trinomial.) 4. Apply the square root property and solve for x.

Example 3

Solving Quadratic Equations by Completing the Square and Applying the Square Root Property

Solve the quadratic equations by completing the square and applying the square root property. a. x2 6x 13 0 b. 2x12x 102 30 6x

Solution:

a. x2 x2

6x 6x

13 13

0 0 Step 1: Since the leading coefficient a is equal to 1, we do not have to divide by a. We can proceed to step 2. 13 13 1 4 9 Step 2: Isolate the variable terms on one side. Step 3: To complete the square, add 3 1 1 62 4 2 9 to both sides of 2 the equation. Factor the perfect square trinomial. Step 4: Apply the square root property. Simplify the radical. Solve for x. 3 2i and

x2 x2 6x 1x x x

6x 9

32 2 3 3 x

2i 3 2i

The solutions are imaginary numbers and can be written as x x 3 2i. b.


2

2x12x 4x2 4x 26x 26x 4 13 x 2

102 20x 30 30 4 15 2 0 0 4 0

30 30

6x 6x Clear parentheses. Write the equation in the form ax2 bx c 0. Step 1: Divide both sides by the leading coefficient 4.

4x2 4 x2

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Chapter 8 Quadratic Equations and Functions

x2 13 x 2 ax ax x

13 x 2 169 16 13 2 b 4 13 2 b 4 13 4 13 4

15 2 15 2 120 16 49 16 49 A 16 169 16 169 16

Step 2: Isolate the variable terms on one side. Step 3: Add 3 1 1 13 2 4 2 2 2 to both sides. 1
13 2 42 169 16

x2

Factor the perfect square trinomial. Rewrite the righthand side with a common denominator.

Step 4: Apply the square root property. Simplify the radical. x 13 4 7 4 20 4 5

7 4

13 4

7 4 x 13 4 7 4 6 4 3 2

The solutions are rational numbers: x


Skill Practice

3 2

and x

5.The check is left to the reader.

Solve by completing the square and applying the square root property. 2 0 9. 2y 1y 12 3 y

8. z2

4z

TIP: In general, if the solutions to a quadratic equation are rational numbers,


the equation can be solved by factoring and using the zero product rule. Consider the equation from Example 3(b). 2x12x 4x 4x2 212x
2 2

102 20x 30 152


32

30 30 0 0
0

6x 6x

26x 13x
5212x

21x

or

3 2

Skill Practice Answers


8. z 9. y 1

2 16 3 and y 2

Section 8.1

Square Root Property and Completing the Square

557

3. Literal Equations
Example 4

Solving a Literal Equation

Ignoring air resistance, the distance d (in meters) that an object falls in t sec is given by the equation d 4.9t 2 where t 0

a. Solve the equation for t. Do not rationalize the denominator. b. Using the equation from part (a), determine the amount of time required for an object to fall 500 m. Round to the nearest second.
Solution:

a. d d 4.9 t

4.9t 2 t2 d A 4.9 Isolate the quadratic term. The equation is in the form t 2 k. Apply the square root property. Because t 0, reject the negative solution.

b. t

500 A 4.9 10.1

d A 4.9

d A 4.9

Substitute d

500.

The object will require approximately 10.1 sec to fall 500 m.


Skill Practice

10. The formula for the area of a circle is A

pr 2, where r is the radius.

a. Solve for r. (Do not rationalize the denominator.) b. Use the equation from part (a) to find the radius when the area is 15.7 cm2. (Use 3.14 for p and round to 2 decimal places.)

Skill Practice Answers


10a. r

A Bp b. The radius is 15

2.24 cm.

Section 8.1
Boost your GRADE at mathzone.com!

Practice Exercises
Practice Problems Self-Tests NetTutor e-Professors Videos

Study Skills Exercise


1. Define the key terms. a. Square root property b. Completing the square

558

Chapter 8 Quadratic Equations and Functions

Concept 1: Solving Quadratic Equations by Using the Square Root Property


For Exercises 217, solve the equations by using the square root property. 2. x2 6. 3v2 10. 13x 14. 6p2 100 33 22 2 3 2 0 5 0 3. y2 7. 4 50 32 2 4 7 3w2 0 4. a2 8. 1p 12. 1h 16. ax 5 52 2 42 2 3 2 b 2 9 8 7 4 0 5. k2 9. 1q 13. 1t 17. am 7 32 2 52 2 4 2 b 5 0 4 18 3 25 0

2m2

11. 12y 15. 15

18. Given the equation x2 a. If k 7 0, then ______ b. If k 6 0, then ______ c. If k 0, then ______

k, match the following statements. i. there will be one real solution. ii. there will be two real solutions. iii. there will be two imaginary solutions. 36 0. Then solve the equation by using

19. State two methods that can be used to solve the equation x2 both methods. 20. State two methods that can be used to solve the equation x2 both methods.

0. Then solve the equation by using

Concept 2: Solving Quadratic Equations by Completing the Square


For Exercises 2130, find the value of n so that the expression is a perfect square trinomial. Then factor the trinomial. 21. x2 25. c2 29. b2 6x c 2 b 5 n n n 22. x2 26. x2 30. m2 12x 9x 2 m 7 n n n 23. t2 27. y2 8t 5y n n 24. v2 28. a2 18v 7a n n

31. Summarize the steps used in solving a quadratic equation by completing the square and applying the square root property. 32. What types of quadratic equations can be solved by completing the square and applying the square root property? For Exercises 3352, solve the quadratic equation by completing the square and applying the square root property. 33. t2 37. p2 41. 2a2 45. p2 49. n1n 8t 4p 4a 2 p 5 42 15 6 5 2 25 7 0 0 0 34. m2 38. q2 42. 3a2 46. n2 50. m1m 6m 2q 6a 2 n 3 102 2 7 1 9 2 8 0 0 0 35. x2 39. y2 43. 9x2 47. 12w 51. 2x1x 6x 3y 36x 521w 62 16 10 40 12 14 0 0 2 36. x2 40. 24 4x 3 2y2 12y 521p 22 5 12 24 2y 0 3

44. 9y2 48. 13p 52. 3x1x

Section 8.1

Square Root Property and Completing the Square

559

Concept 3: Literal Equations


53. The distance (in feet) that an object falls in t sec is given by the equation d a. Solve the equation for t. b. Using the equation from part (a), determine the amount of time required for an object to fall 1024 ft. 54. The volume of a can that is 4 in. tall is given by the equation V measured in inches. a. Solve the equation for r. Do not rationalize the denominator. b. Using the equation from part (a), determine the radius of a can with volume of 12.56 in.3 Use 3.14 for p. For Exercises 5560, solve for the indicated variable. 55. A 57. a2 59. V pr2 for r b2 c2 1r 7 02 for a 56. E 1a 7 02 58. a2 60. V mc2 b2 1 2 sh 3 for c 4pr 2, where r is the radius of the can, 16t2, where t 0.

1c 7 02 1b 7 02

d2

c2 for b for s

1 2 pr h for r 3

1r 7 02

61. A corner shelf is to be made from a triangular piece of plywood, as shown in the diagram. Find the distance x that the shelf will extend along the walls. Assume that the walls are at right angles. Round the answer to a tenth of a foot.

x x 6 ft

62. A square has an area of 50 in.2 What are the lengths of the sides? (Round to 1 decimal place.) 63. The amount of money A in an account with an interest rate r compounded annually is given by A P11 r2 t

where P is the initial principal and t is the number of years the money is invested. a. If a $10,000 investment grows to $11,664 after 2 years, find the interest rate. b. If a $6000 investment grows to $7392.60 after 2 years, find the interest rate. c. Jamal wants to invest $5000. He wants the money to grow to at least $6500 in 2 years to cover the cost of his sons first year at college. What interest rate does Jamal need for his investment to grow to $6500 in 2 years? Round to the nearest hundredth of a percent.

560

Chapter 8 Quadratic Equations and Functions

64. The volume of a box with a square bottom and a height of 4 in. is given by V1x2 (in inches) of the sides of the bottom of the box.

4x2, where x is the length

4 in. x x

a. If the volume of the box is 289 in.3, find the dimensions of the box. b. Are there two possible answers to part (a)? Why or why not? 65. A textbook company has discovered that the profit for selling its books is given by
Profit P(x) ($1000) P(x) 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 Number of Textbooks (thousands) x

P1x2

1 2 x 8

5x

where x is the number of textbooks produced (in thousands) and P(x) is the corresponding profit (in thousands of dollars). The graph of the function is shown at right. a. Approximate the number of books required to make a profit of $20,000. [Hint: Let P1x2 20. Then complete the square to solve for x.] Round to one decimal place. b. Why are there two answers to part (a)?

66. If we ignore air resistance, the distance (in feet) that an object travels in free fall can be approximated by d1t2 16t2, where t is the time in seconds after the object was dropped.

a. If the CN Tower in Toronto is 1815 ft high, how long will it take an object to fall from the top of the building? Round to one decimal place. b. If the Renaissance Tower in Dallas is 886 ft high, how long will it take an object to fall from the top of the building? Round to one decimal place.

Section 8.2 Quadratic Formula

561

Quadratic Formula
1. Derivation of the Quadratic Formula
2

Section 8.2
Concepts
1. Derivation of the Quadratic Formula 2. Solving Quadratic Equations by Using the Quadratic Formula 3. Using the Quadratic Formula in Applications 4. Discriminant 5. Mixed Review: Methods to Solve a Quadratic Equation

bx c 0 1a 02 by completing If we solve a general quadratic equation ax the square and using the square root property, the result is a formula that gives the solutions for x in terms of a, b, and c. ax2 ax2 a x2 bx bx a b x a x2 x2 b x a a ax ax 1 2 c c a c a b x a b 2 b a b 2 b 2a b 2 b 2a b 2a b 2a x a 0 0 a 0 c a 1 2 b 2 b a c a 4ac
2

Begin with a quadratic equation in standard form. Divide by the leading coefficient.

Isolate the terms containing x. c a Add the square of 1 the linear 2 term coefficient to both sides of the equation. Factor the left side as a perfect square. Combine fractions on the right side by getting a common denominator. Apply the square root property. Simplify the denominator. Subtract b from both sides. 2a

b2 4a2 b2 B

4a

x x

2b2 4ac 2a b2 4ac 4a2 2b2 2a

b 2a b

2b2 4ac 2a 4ac

Combine fractions.

The solution to the equation ax2 bx c 0 for x in terms of the coefficients a, b, and c is given by the quadratic formula. 2b2 2a

The Quadratic Formula

For any quadratic equation of the form ax2 tions are x b

bx 4ac

0 1a

02 the solu-

The quadratic formula gives us another technique to solve a quadratic equation. This method will work regardless of whether the equation is factorable or not factorable.

562

Chapter 8 Quadratic Equations and Functions

2. Solving Quadratic Equations by Using the Quadratic Formula


Example 1

Solving a Quadratic Equation by Using the Quadratic Formula


2x2 3x 5

Solve the quadratic equation by using the quadratic formula.

Solution:

2x2 2x a
2

3x 5 3,

5 0 c 5 Write the equation in the form ax2 bx c 0. Identify a, b, and c. Apply the quadratic formula. 41221 52 Substitute a and c 5. Simplify. 2, b 3,

3x

2, b

TIP: Always remember


to write the entire numerator over 2a.

x x 3 3

1 32

149 4

19 4

2b 2a b

21 32 2 2122
2

4ac

40

x 3 4 x 7

3 4 3 4

10 4 4 4
5 2

5 2 1 1. Both solutions check in

There are two rational solutions, x the original equation.


Skill Practice

and x

Solve the equation by using the quadratic formula. 4

1. 6x 2

5x

Example 2

Solving a Quadratic Equation by Using the Quadratic Formula


x1x 62 11

Solve the quadratic equation by using the quadratic formula.

Solution:

x1x x
2

62 11

11 0 Write the equation in the form ax2 bx c 0.

6x

Skill Practice Answers


1. x 1 ;x 2 4 3

Section 8.2 Quadratic Formula

563

11 x2 x
2

6x 6x

112 11 0

1102

a x x

1, b b

1 62 6 6 6

1 8 2 2i12 2

136 2

2b2 2a

If the leading coefficient of the quadratic polynomial is negative, we suggest multiplying both sides of the equation by 1. Although this is not mandatory, it is generally easier to simplify the quadratic formula when the value of a is positive. Identify a, b, and c. Apply the quadratic formula.

6, and c

21 62 2 4ac 2112 44

11

41121112

Substitute a Simplify.

1, b

6, and c

11.

Simplify the radical. Factor the numerator. Simplify the fraction to lowest terms. x 3 3 3 i12 i12 i12 and x 3 i12.

213 i122 2 2 13 i122 2

i12 x

There are two imaginary solutions, x


Skill Practice

2. y 1y

Solve the equation by using the quadratic formula. 2

32

3. Using the Quadratic Formula in Applications


Example 3

Using the Quadratic Formula in an Application

A delivery truck travels south from Hartselle, Alabama, to Birmingham, Alabama, along Interstate 65. The truck then heads east to Atlanta, Georgia, along Interstate 20. The distance from Birmingham to Atlanta is 8 mi less than twice the distance from Hartselle to Birmingham. If the straight-line distance from Hartselle to Atlanta is 165 mi, find the distance from Hartselle to Birmingham and from Birmingham to Atlanta. (Round the answers to the nearest mile.)
117 2

Skill Practice Answers


2. y 3

564

Chapter 8 Quadratic Equations and Functions

Solution:

The motorist travels due south and then due east. Therefore, the three cities form the vertices of a right triangle (Figure 8-1).
Hartselle 165 mi

I-65

I-20 Birmingham 2x 8 Figure 8-1 Atlanta

Let x represent the distance between Hartselle and Birmingham. Then 2x 8 represents the distance between Birmingham and Atlanta.

Use the Pythagorean theorem to establish a relationship among the three sides of the triangle. 1x2 2 12x 82 2 64 11652 2 x2 5x2 a x x x x x 5 4x2 32x b

32x

27,225 0 Write the equation in the form ax2 bx c 0. 27,161 41521 27,1612 Identify a, b, and c. Apply the quadratic formula. Simplify.

27,161 21024 10 32

1 322

32 32 32 32

1544,244 10

21 322 2 2152 c

543,220

1544,244 10

1544,244 10

76.97 mi 70.57 mi

or We reject the negative solution because distance cannot be negative.

Recall that x represents the distance from Hartselle to Birmingham; therefore, to the nearest mile, the distance between Hartselle and Birmingham is 77 mi. The distance between Birmingham and Atlanta is 2x 8 21772 8 146 mi.
Skill Practice

3. Steve and Tammy leave a campground, hiking on two different trails. Steve heads south and Tammy heads east. By lunchtime they are 9 mi apart. Steve walked 3 mi more than twice as many miles as Tammy. Find the distance each person hiked. (Round to the nearest tenth of a mile.) Skill Practice Answers
3. Tammy hiked 2.8 mi, and Steve hiked 8.6 mi.

Section 8.2 Quadratic Formula

565
h(t)

Example 4

Analyzing a Quadratic Function

A model rocket is launched straight up from the side of a 144-ft cliff (Figure 8-2). The initial velocity is 112 ft/sec. The height of the rocket h(t) is given by h1t2 16t 2 112t 144

208 144

where h(t) is measured in feet and t is the time in seconds. Find the time(s) at which the rocket is 208 ft above the ground.
0

t Figure 8-2

Solution:

h1t2 208 16t 2 16t 2 16 112t 112t 16 64 64 16 0

16t 2 16t
2

112t 112t

144 144 Substitute 208 for h(t). Write the equation in the form at 2 bt c 0. Divide by 16. This makes the coefficients smaller, and it is less cumbersome to apply the quadratic formula. 233 2 233 2 The equation is not factorable. Apply the quadratic formula. Let a 6.37 1, b 7, and c 4.

0 16

t2 1 72

7t

233 2

21 72 2 2112 4

0 4112 142 t 7

0.63

The rocket will reach a height of 208 ft after approximately 0.63 sec (on the way up) and after 6.37 sec (on the way down).
Skill Practice

4. An object is launched from the top of a 96-ft building with an initial velocity of 64 ft/sec. The height h 1t2 of the rocket is given by Find the time it takes for the object to hit the ground. (Hint: h 1t2 the object hits the ground.) h 1t2 16t 2 64t 96 0 when

4. Discriminant
The radicand within the quadratic formula is the expression b2 4ac. This is called the discriminant. The discriminant can be used to determine the number of solutions to a quadratic equation as well as whether the solutions are rational, irrational, or imaginary numbers.
4. 2 110

Skill Practice Answers


5.16 sec

566

Chapter 8 Quadratic Equations and Functions

Using the Discriminant to Determine the Number and Type of Solutions to a Quadratic Equation
Consider the equation ax2 bx c 0, where a, b, and c are rational numbers and a 0. The expression b2 4ac is called the discriminant. Furthermore, 1. If b2 4ac 7 0, then there will be two real solutions. a. If b2 4ac is a perfect square, the solutions will be rational numbers. b. If b2 4ac is not a perfect square, the solutions will be irrational numbers. 4ac 6 0, then there will be two imaginary solutions. 4ac 0, then there will be one rational solution.
2

2. If b2 3. If b

Example 5

Using the Discriminant

Use the discriminant to determine the type and number of solutions for each equation. a. 2x2 c. 5x 9 32 0 1 b. 3x2 d. 3.6x
2

2 1.2x 0.1

2x12x

Solution:

For each equation, first write the equation in standard form ax2 Then determine the discriminant. Equation a. 2x2 5x 9 0 Discriminant b2 4ac 1 52 2 4122192 25 72 47

bx

0.

Solution Type and Number Because 47 6 0, there will be two imaginary solutions.

b. 3x2 3x
2

x x 2

2 0 b2 4ac 112 2 4132 1 22 1 1 242 25 Because 25 7 0 and 25 is a perfect square, there will be two rational solutions.

c.

2x12x 4x 4x2
2

32 6x 1 0

1 1 b2 4ac 162 2 41 42112 36 1 162 52 Because 52 7 0, but 52 is not a perfect square, there will be two irrational solutions.

6x

Section 8.2 Quadratic Formula

567

d. 3.6x2 3.6x
2

1.2x 1.2x

0.1 0.1 0 b2 4ac 11.22 2 413.62 10.12 1.44 1.44 0 Because the discriminant equals 0, there will be only one rational solution.

Skill Practice

Determine the discriminant. Use the discriminant to determine the type and number of solutions for the equation. 3 9 0 6. 4t 2 2 8. x 2 3 6t 2 x 3 2 1 6 0

5. 3y 2 7. 3t 1t

y 12

With the discriminant we can determine the number of real-valued solutions to the equation ax2 bx c 0, and thus the number of x-intercepts to the function f 1x2 ax2 bx c. The following illustrations show the graphical interpretation of the three cases of the discriminant. f 1x2 x2
y 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 x

4x

3 Use x2 4x discriminant. b2 3 0 to find the value of the 4ac 1 42 2 4 4112132

Since the discriminant is positive, there are two real solutions to the quadratic equation. Therefore, there are two x-intercepts to the corresponding quadratic function, (1, 0) and (3, 0).

f 1x2

x2
y 5 4 3 2 1

1 Use x2 x 1 discriminant. b2
1 2 3 4 5 x

0 to find the value of the 4ac 1 12 2 3 4112 112

5 4

3 2 1

1 2 3 4 5

Since the discriminant is negative, there are no real solutions to the quadratic equation. Therefore, there are no x-intercepts to the corresponding quadratic function.

f 1x2

x2
y 5 4 3 2 1

2x

1 Use x2 2x discriminant. b2 1 0 to find the value of the 4ac 1 22 2 0 4112112 Skill Practice Answers
5. 35; two imaginary solutions 6. 4; two rational solutions 7. 117; two irrational solutions 8. 0; one rational solution

5 4

3 2 1

1 2 3 4 5

2 3

Since the discriminant is zero, there is one real solution to the quadratic equation. Therefore, there is one x-intercept to the corresponding quadratic function, (1, 0).

568

Chapter 8 Quadratic Equations and Functions

Example 6 Given: f 1x2 1 2 x 4

Finding the x- and y-Intercepts of a Quadratic Function


1 x 4 1 2 b. Find the x-intercept(s).

a. Find the y-intercept.


Solution:

a. The y-intercept is given by

f 102

1 2 102 4 1 2

1 102 4

1 2

The y-intercept is located at 10, 1 2. 2

b. The x-intercepts are given by the real solutions to the equation f 1x2 In this case, we have f 1x2 1 2 x 4 1 x 4 1 x 4 x2 112 1 2 1 2 x 1 2 1 b 2 2 0 4102 0 Multiply by 4 to clear fractions. The equation is in the form ax2 bx c 0, where a 1, b c 2. Apply the quadratic formula. Simplify.

0.

1 4 a x2 4

1 7 17 i 2

2112 2 2112

1, and

4112122

These solutions are imaginary numbers. Because there are no real solutions to the equation f 1x2 0, the function has no x-intercepts. The function is graphed in Figure 8-3.
5 4 3 2 1

y 5 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5

f(x)
1 2 3

0
4 5 x

Figure 8-3

Skill Practice
9. x-intercepts: 11 16, 02 11 16, 02

9. Find the x- and y-intercepts of the function given by f 1x2 1 2 x 2 x 5 2

Skill Practice Answers


13.45, 02, 1 1.45, 02; y-intercept: a0, 5 b 2

Section 8.2 Quadratic Formula

569

5. Mixed Review: Methods to Solve a Quadratic Equation


Three methods have been presented to solve quadratic equations.

Methods to Solve a Quadratic Equation


Factor and use the zero product rule (Section 5.8). Use the square root property. Complete the square, if necessary (Section 8.1). Use the quadratic formula (Section 8.2).

Using the zero product rule is often the simplest method, but it works only if you can factor the equation. The square root property and the quadratic formula can be used to solve any quadratic equation. Before solving a quadratic equation, take a minute to analyze it first. Each problem must be evaluated individually before choosing the most efficient method to find its solutions. Example 7

Solving Quadratic Equations by Using Any Method


9x 8 b. x2 2 5 2 x c. 1 p 22 2 11 0

Solve the quadratic equations by using any method. a. 1x 32 2 x2

Solution:

a. x
2

1x 9

32 2 x
2

x2 9x

9x 8

8 0 Clear parentheses and write the equation in the form ax2 bx c 0. This equation is factorable. Factor. Apply the zero product rule. Solve for x.

6x

12x 2x 1 x 0
1 2

2x2

12 1x

3x

1 12 1 x

0 0 0 1

or or

This equation could have been solved by using any of the three methods, but factoring was the most efficient method. b. x2 2 x2 x a
2

5 2

Clear fractions and write the equation in the form ax2 bx c 0.

5 5 2 0

2x 2122 2 2112 c 5 This equation does not factor. Use the quadratic formula. Identify a, b, and c. 4112 152 Apply the quadratic formula. Simplify.

2x b x

122 2

1 16 2

570

Chapter 8 Quadratic Equations and Functions

2 2 1

4i 2i

Simplify the radical. Reduce to lowest terms. 2 2 4i 21 1 2i2 2

c. 1 p

This equation could also have been solved by completing the square and applying the square root property. 22 2 1p 11 22 2 p 2 p 2 0 11 111 111 The equation is in the form x2 x 1p 22 . Apply the square root property. Solve for p. k, where

Skill Practice Answers


10. t 11. x 12. y 3 1; t 11 4 i 13

5 3 197

This problem could have been solved by the quadratic formula, but that would have involved clearing parentheses and collecting like terms first.
Skill Practice

10. 2t 1t

Solve the quadratic equations by using any method. t2 5 11. 0.2x 2 1.1x 0.3

12

12. 12y

62 2

12

Section 8.2
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Practice Exercises
Practice Problems Self-Tests NetTutor e-Professors Videos

Study Skills Exercise


1. Define the key terms. a. Quadratic formula b. Discriminant 15 is a solution to x2

Review Exercises
2. Show by substitution that x 3

6x

0.

For Exercises 36, solve by completing the square and using the square root property. 3. 1x 1320 4 52 2 49 4. 16 1180 3 12x 32 2 5. x2 2x 1 147 7 10 0 6. x2 4x 1 175 5 15 0

For Exercises 710, simplify the expressions. 7. 16 8. 18 9. 14

10.

10

Concept 2: Solving Quadratic Equations by Using the Quadratic Formula


11. What form should a quadratic equation be in so that the quadratic formula can be applied?

Section 8.2 Quadratic Formula

571

12. Describe the circumstances in which the square root property can be used as a method for solving a quadratic equation. 13. Write the quadratic formula from memory. For Exercises 1439, solve the equation by using the quadratic formula. 14. a2 17. 2t2 20. z2 4 6w 12 11a 3t 12 7 2z 6k 14 7y1y 0 22 6 0 35 0 15. 5b2 18. 12p2 21. 12x2 24. 25x2 27. 2m2 30. 33. 4a2 2 2 p 3 14b 4p 5x 20x 3m 2a 1 p 6 3 1 2 3 5 2 4 2 0 0 0 0 0 16. 9y2 19. 22. a2 25. 9y2 28. 1x 31. 34. 5n2 3a 2y 4n 8 12y 221x 5m h 3 5 32 3 0 4 1 0 5 6 0 0

23. k2 26. w2 29. 3y1y 32.

2m2 1 2 h 5

1 2 2 2 y y 2 3 3 (Hint: Clear the fractions first.) 1 2 w 4 7 w 4 0.7t 1 0

35.

36. 0.01x2 0.06x 0.08 0 (Hint: Clear the decimals first.) 0 39. 0.01x2 0.04x 0.07 0

37. 0.5y2

0.7y

0.2

38. 0.3t2

0.5

For Exercises 4043, factor the expression. Then use the zero product rule and the quadratic formula to solve the equation. There should be three solutions to each equation. 40. a. Factor. x3 b. Solve. 42. a. Factor. b. Solve. x
3

27 27 6x2 6x2 0 6x 6x 0

41. a. Factor. 64x3 b. Solve. 64x


3

1 1 5x2 5x2 0 10x 10x 0

3x3 3x3

43. a. Factor. 5x3 b. Solve. 5x3

44. The volume of a cube is 27 ft3. Find the lengths of the sides. 45. The volume of a rectangular box is 64 ft3. If the width is 3 times longer than the height, and the length is 9 times longer than the height, find the dimensions of the box.

Concept 3: Using the Quadratic Formula in Applications


46. The hypotenuse of a right triangle measures 4 in. One leg of the triangle is 2 in. longer than the other leg. Find the lengths of the legs of the triangle. Round to one decimal place.

572

Chapter 8 Quadratic Equations and Functions

47. The length of one leg of a right triangle is 1 cm more than twice the length of the other leg. The hypotenuse measures 6 cm. Find the lengths of the legs. Round to 1 decimal place. 48. The hypotenuse of a right triangle is 10.2 m long. One leg is 2.1 m shorter than the other leg. Find the lengths of the legs. Round to 1 decimal place. 49. The hypotenuse of a right triangle is 17 ft long. One leg is 3.4 ft longer than the other leg. Find the lengths of the legs. 50. The fatality rate (in fatalities per 100 million vehicle miles driven) can be approximated for drivers x years old according to the function, F1x2 0.0036x2 0.35x 9.2. Source: U.S. Department of Transportation a. Approximate the fatality rate for drivers 16 years old. b. Approximate the fatality rate for drivers 40 years old. c. Approximate the fatality rate for drivers 80 years old. d. For what age(s) is the fatality rate approximately 2.5? 51. Mitch throws a baseball straight up in the air from a cliff that is 48 ft high. The initial velocity is 48 ft/sec. 16t2 48t 48. Find the time at which the The height (in feet) of the object after t sec is given by h1t2 height of the object is 64 ft. 52. An astronaut on the moon throws a rock into the air from the deck of a spacecraft that is 8 m high. The initial velocity of the rock is 2.4 m/sec. The height (in meters) of the rock after t sec is given by h1t2 0.8t2 2.4t 8. Find the time at which the height of the rock is 6 m. 53. The braking distance (in feet) of a car going v mph is given by d 1v2 v2 20 v v 0

a. How fast would a car be traveling if its braking distance were 150 ft? Round to the nearest mile per hour. b. How fast would a car be traveling if its braking distance were 100 ft? Round to the nearest mile per hour.

Concept 4: Discriminant
For Exercises 5461: a. Write the equation in the form ax2 b. Find the value of the discriminant. c. Use the discriminant to determine the number and type of solutions. 54. x2 57. 2n 60. 4n1n 2x 5n2 22 1 0 5n1n 12 4 55. 12y 58. 5p2 61. 12x 9 21 12 1x 4y2 0 32 9 56. 19m2 59. 3k2 7 8m bx c 0, a 7 0.

For Exercises 6265, find the x- and y-intercepts of the quadratic function. 62. f 1x2 x2 2x2 5x x 3 5 63. g1x2 65. h1x2 x2 3x2 x 2x 1 2 64. f 1x2

Section 8.2 Quadratic Formula

573

Concept 5: Mixed Review: Methods to Solve a Quadratic Equation


For Exercises 6683, solve the quadratic equations by using any method. 66. a2 68. x2 70. 4y2 72. ax 74. 2y1y 76. 12t 78. a2 80. 32z2 82. 3p2 3a 2 8y 1 2 b 2 32 521t 2a 3 20z 27 0 3 0 12 4 0 5 4 1 1t 321t 82 0 0 0 67. 4z2 69. b2 71. k2 73. 12y 75. w1w 77. 1b 79. x2 81. 8k2 83. 5h2 7z 7 k 32 2 52 121b x 30 14k 125 3 0 0 0 8 9 4 42 13b 221b 12 0 0

Sometimes students shy away from completing the square and using the square root property to solve a quadratic equation. However, sometimes this process leads to a simple solution. For Exercises 8485, solve the equations two ways. a. Solve the equation by completing the square and applying the square root property. b. Solve the equation by applying the quadratic formula. c. Which technique was easier for you? 84. x2 6x 5 85. x2 10x 27

Expanding Your Skills


86. An artist has been commissioned to make a stained glass window in the shape of a regular octagon. The octagon must fit inside an 18-in. square space. See the figure.
18 in.
18 2 x

18 2

a. Let x represent the length of each side of the octagon. Verify that the legs of the small triangles formed 18 x by the corners of the square can be expressed as . 2 b. Use the Pythagorean theorem to set up an equation in terms of x that represents the relationship between the legs of the triangle and the hypotenuse. c. Simplify the equation by clearing parentheses and clearing fractions. d. Solve the resulting quadratic equation by using the quadratic formula. Use a calculator and round your answers to the nearest tenth of an inch. e. There are two solutions for x. Which one is appropriate and why?

18 in.

574

Chapter 8 Quadratic Equations and Functions

Graphing Calculator Exercises


87. Graph Y1 64x3 in Exercise 41. 88. Graph Y1 x3 in Exercise 40. 89. Graph Y1 5x3 5x2 90. Graph Y1 3x3 6x2 5x3 10x 3x3 6x 1. Compare the x-intercepts with the solutions to the equation 64x3 27. Compare the x-intercepts with the solutions to the equation x3 1 0 found

27

0 found

5x2 10x. Compare the x-intercepts with the solutions to the equation 0 found in Exercise 43. 6x2 6x. Compare the x-intercepts with the solutions to the equation 0 found in Exercise 42. 1.12t2 204.4t 6697,

91. The recent population (in thousands) of Ecuador can be approximated by P 1t2 where t 0 corresponds to the year 1974.

a. Approximate the number of people in Ecuador in the year 2000. (Round to the nearest thousand.) b. If this trend continues, approximate the number of people in Ecuador in the year 2010. (Round to the nearest thousand.) c. In what year after 1974 did the population of Ecuador reach 10 million? Round to the nearest year. (Hint: 10 million equals 10,000 thousands.) d. Use a graphing calculator to graph the function P on the window 0 x 20, 4000 y 12,000. Use a Trace feature to approximate the year in which the population in Ecuador first exceeded 10 million (10,000 thousands).

Section 8.3
Concepts
1. Solving Equations by Using Substitution 2. Solving Equations Reducible to a Quadratic

Equations in Quadratic Form


1. Solving Equations by Using Substitution
We have learned to solve a variety of different types of equations, including linear, radical, rational, and polynomial equations. Sometimes, however, it is necessary to use a quadratic equation as a tool to solve other types of equations. In Example 1, we will solve the equation 12x2 52 2 1612x2 52 39 0. Notice that the terms in the equation are written in descending order by degree. Furthermore, the first two terms have the same base, 2x2 5, and the exponent on the first term is exactly double the exponent on the second term. The third term is a constant. An equation in this pattern is called quadratic in form.
exponent is double 3rd term is constant

12x2

52 2

1612x2

52 1

39

0.

To solve this equation we will use substitution as demonstrated in Example 1.

Section 8.3 Equations in Quadratic Form

575

Example 1 Solve the equation.

Solving an Equation in Quadratic Form


12x 2 52 2 1612x 2 52 39 0

Solution:

12x2

52 2

1612x 2

52

39

0
12x 2 52 .

Substitute u

If the substitution u 12x2 52 is made, the equation becomes quadratic in the variable u. The equation is in the form au2 bu c 0. The equation is factorable.

u2 1u u 1321u 13

16u 32 or 0 u

39

Apply the zero product rule.

Reverse substitute.

2x2

5 2x
2

13 18 9 19

or or or or or 3, x

2x2

5 2x
2

3 8 4 14 2

Avoiding Mistakes:
When using substitution, it is critical to reverse substitute to solve the equation in terms of the original variable.

x2 x

x2 x

Write the equations in the form x2 k. Apply the square root property.

3 The solutions are x

3, x

2, x

2.

Substituting these values in the original equation verifies that these are all valid solutions.

Skill Practice

Solve the equation. 513t 2 102 14 0

1. 13t 2

102 2

For an equation written in descending order, notice that u was set equal to the variable factor on the middle term. This is generally the case. Example 2 Solve the equation. p2 3
Solution:

Solving an Equation in Quadratic Form


2p1 3 8

p2 3 p
23

2p1 3
13

8 0 Set the equation equal to zero. Skill Practice Answers


1. t 1, t 1, t 2, t 2

2p

576

Chapter 8 Quadratic Equations and Functions

1 p1 3 2 2

21p1 3 2 1

0
p1 3.

Make the substitution u

p1 3.

Substitute u

Then the equation is in the form au2 bu c 0.

1u

u2

42 1u u 4

2u 22

8 0 or

0 The equation is factorable. 1p


3

3 1 1p2 3 3

p1 3

1p

Apply the zero product rule.

Reverse substitute.

4 4 142 3 64 64 2p1 3 8 8 8
13

or or or or

3 1 1p2 3

p1 3

2 2 1 22 3 8 8 2p1 3
13

The equations are radical equations. Cube both sides.

p Check: p 1642 p2 3
23

p Check: p 1 82 p2 3
23

8 8 8 8

21642 16

21 82 4

2142 8

2 1 22 4 4

8 64 and p 8.

The solutions are p


Skill Practice

Solve the equation. 12

2. y

23

13

Example 3 Solve the equation.

Solving a Quadratic Equation in Quadratic Form


x 12 0

1x

The equation can be solved by first isolating the radical and then squaring both sides (this is left as an exercisesee Exercise 24). However, this equation is also quadratic in form. By writing 1x as x1/2, we see that the exponent on the first term is exactly double the exponent on the middle term.
Solution:

x1 1u u
2

x1/2 42 1u u

12 12 32

0 0 0 3 3 3 Let u Factor. Solve for u. Back substitute. Solve each equation for x. Notice that the principal square root of a number cannot equal 3. x1/2.

1x x1/2 Skill Practice Answers


2. y 64, y 27

4 or x1/2

4 or 1x 4 or u

16 16

The solution x

Skill Practice

3. z

1z

Section 8.3 Equations in Quadratic Form

577

2. Solving Equations Reducible to a Quadratic


Some equations are reducible to a quadratic equation. In Example 4, we solve a polynomial equation by factoring. The resulting factors are quadratic. Example 4 Solve the equation. 4x4
Solution:

Solving a Polynomial Equation


7x2 2 0

4x4 14x2 4x
2

7x2 121x2

2 22

0 0 0 1 2 i12
1 2,

This is a polynomial equation. Factor. Set each factor equal to zero. Notice that the two equations are quadratic. Each can be solved by the square root property. Apply the square root property. Simplify the radicals. x
1 2,

1 x2 x x 1 4

0 or x 1 A4 1 2

2 x2 or x x

or

or

The equation has four solutions: x


Skill Practice

i12, x

i 12.

4. 9x4

35x2

Example 5 Solve the equation.

Solving a Rational Equation


3y y 2 y 2 1

Solution:

3y y a y 3y y 3y1y 2 2 3y 2 1y 12 y

2 1 2 y 1

1 b 1y 12 22

This is a rational equation. The LCD is 1y 221y 2 1y y 1 221y 12 1y 12 1 1y 221y 22 1y 12 12 1 1y

22 1y

12.

Multiply both sides by the LCD. 221y 12 Skill Practice Answers Clear fractions.
3. z 4. x 4 1 ,x 3 2i

221y 21y

578

Chapter 8 Quadratic Equations and Functions

3y2

3y 3y
2

2y 5y 6y 6y 2

4 4 2 2 2

y2 y
2

y y

2y 2

Apply the distributive property. The equation is quadratic. Write the equation in descending order. Each coefficient in the equation is divisible by 2. Therefore, if we divide both sides by 2, the coefficients in the equation are smaller. This will make it easier to apply the quadratic formula.

2y2 2y2 2 y2 1 32 3 19 2

0 0 2 0 41121 12 113 2 113 2 3

3y

11 32 2 2112 1 4

Apply the quadratic formula.

113 2

The values y equation.


3 15 2

113 and y 2 y

3 3

113 are both defined in the original 2

Skill Practice

Skill Practice Answers


5. t 5

5.

t 2t 1 t

1 4

Section 8.3
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Practice Exercises
Practice Problems Self-Tests NetTutor e-Professors Videos

Study Skills Exercise


1. What is meant by an equation in quadratic form?

Review Exercises
For Exercises 27, solve the quadratic equations. 2. 16 5. x 1x 12x 82 32 2 16 3. ax 6. 6k2 3 2 b 2 7k 7 4 6 4. n 1n 7. 2x2 62 8x 13 44 0

Concept 1: Solving Equations by Using Substitution


8. a. Solve the quadratic equation by factoring. u2 b. Solve the equation by using substitution. 1y2 10u 5y2 2 24 101y2 0 5y2 24 0

Section 8.3 Equations in Quadratic Form

579

9. a. Solve the quadratic equation by factoring. u2 b. Solve the equation by using substitution. 1w2 b. Solve the equation by using substitution. 1x2

2u 6w2 2 2u 5x2 2 4u p2 2

35

0 6w2 35 0

21w2 24 21x2 3 0 0

10. a. Solve the quadratic equation by factoring. u2

5x2

24

11. a. Solve the quadratic equation by factoring. u2

b. Solve the equation by using substitution. 12p2

412p2

p2

For Exercises 1223, solve the equation by using substitution. 12. 1x2 2x2 2 m1 3 7t1 5 61y 31x x 6 b
2

21x2 6 3 16 2 8a 0 x 0 0

2x2

13. 1x2 15. 2n2 3 17. p2 5 19. p 21. 3t

x2 2

81x2 15 2 15 2
2

x2 0 0

12

14. m2 3 16. 2t2 5 18. y 20. 2x 22. 16 a

7n1 3 p1 5 81p 51t

0 6a x 3 b 1 0

24. In Example 3, we solved the equation x 1x 12 0 by using substitution. Now solve this equation by first isolating the radical and then squaring both sides. Dont forget to check the potential solutions in the original equation. Do you obtain the same solution as in Example 3? 6 4 4 b 1 0 23. 9 a x 3 2 b 2

Concept 2: Solving Equations Reducible to a Quadratic


For Exercises 2534, solve the equations. 25. t4 t2 12 172 2 1 z 3z 2 z x 3 2 1 0 15 26. w4 29. y 10 2t t 3 t 4w2 1 1 4 45 12 5y 1 0 27. x2 19x2 30. x x x 2x 1 x 5 72 x 2 1 2 2 x 19 4x

28. y2 14y2 31. 3x x

32.

33.

34.

Mixed Exercises
For Exercises 3554, solve the equations. 35. x4 37. 14x 39. 4m4 16 52 2 9m2 0 314x 2 0 52 2 0 36. t4 38. 215x 40. x4 625 32 2 7x2 0 15x 12 0 32 28 0

580 44. 14t 41. x6 47. x2/3 50. 2c4 52. b3 9x3 1 x1/3 c2 9b 1 b2 8 t 20 0 9 0 0 1

Chapter 8 Quadratic Equations and Functions

42. x6 45. 2a t

26x3 4 3 b
2

27 a t 3 2 a2 4x2

0 4 b 3 0

43. 2x2 46. a x 5 1

20 b
2

32x 3a 8 x 5 0 1 b 10 0

48. x2/5 51. a3 53. x3

3x1/5 16a 5x

49. m4 16 20

2m2

0 Hint: Factor by grouping first. 0 54. y3 8y 3y2 24 0

Graphing Calculator Exercises


55. a. Solve the equation x4 4x2 4 0. x4 4x2 b. How many solutions are real and how many solutions are imaginary? c. How many x-intercepts do you anticipate for the function defined by y d. Graph Y1 x4 4x2 4 on a standard viewing window. 2x2 1 0. x4 2x2 4?

56. a. Solve the equation x4

b. How many solutions are real and how many solutions are imaginary? c. How many x-intercepts do you anticipate for the function defined by y d. Graph Y1 x
4

1?

2x

1 on a standard viewing window. x3 6x2 0. x4 x3 6x2?

57. a. Solve the equation x4

b. How many solutions are real and how many solutions are imaginary? c. How many x-intercepts do you anticipate for the function defined by y d. Graph Y1 x4 x3 6x2 on a standard viewing window. 10x2 9 0. x4 10x2

58. a. Solve the equation x4

b. How many solutions are real and how many solutions are imaginary? c. How many x-intercepts do you anticipate for the function defined by y d. Graph Y1 x
4

9?

10x

9 on a standard viewing window.

Section 8.4 Graphs of Quadratic Functions

581

Graphs of Quadratic Functions


In Section 5.8, we defined a quadratic function as a function of the form f 1x2 ax2 bx c 1a 02. We also learned that the graph of a quadratic function is a parabola. In this section we will learn how to graph parabolas. A parabola opens upward if a 7 0 (Figure 8-4) and opens downward if a 6 0 (Figure 8-5). If a parabola opens upward, the vertex is the lowest point on the graph. If a parabola opens downward, the vertex is the highest point on the graph. The axis of symmetry is the vertical line that passes through the vertex.
a
y 10 8 6 4 2 10 8 6 4 2 2 4 6 8 10 2 10 8 6 4 2 10 8 6 4 2 2 4 6 8 10 2

Section 8.4
Concepts
1. Quadratic Functions of the Form f(x) x 2 k 2. Quadratic Functions of the Form f(x) (x h)2 3. Quadratic Functions of the Form f(x) ax 2 4. Quadratic Functions of the Form f (x) a(x h)2 k

a
y

h(x)
4 6

x2
8 10

4x
x

g(x)
4 6

x2
8 10

2x
x

Figure 8-4

Figure 8-5

1. Quadratic Functions of the Form f (x)

x2

One technique for graphing a function is to plot a sufficient number of points on the function until the general shape and defining characteristics can be determined. Then sketch a curve through the points. Example 1

Graphing Quadratic Functions of the Form k f (x ) x2


f 1x2 x2 g1x2 x2 1 h1x2 x2 2

Graph the functions f, g, and h on the same coordinate system.

Solution:

Several function values for f, g, and h are shown in Table 8-1 for selected values of x. The corresponding graphs are pictured in Figure 8-6. Table 8-1
x f(x) x2 g(x) x2 1 h(x) x2 2
10

g(x) x2 1 f(x) x2 y h(x) x2

3 2 1 0 1 2 3

9 4 1 0 1 4 9

10 5 2 1 2 5 10

7 2 1 2 1 2 7
10 8 6 4 2

8 6 4 2 2 4 6 8 10 2 4 6 8 10 x

Figure 8-6

582

Chapter 8 Quadratic Equations and Functions

Notice that the graphs of g 1x2 x2 1 and h 1x2 x2 2 take on the same shape as f 1x2 x2. However, the y-values of g are 1 greater than the y-values of f. Hence the graph of g 1x2 x2 1 is the same as the graph of f 1x2 x2 shifted up 1 unit. Likewise the y-values of h are 2 less than those of f. The graph of h 1x2 x2 2 is the same as the graph of f 1x2 x2 shifted down 2 units.
Skill Practice

1. Refer to the graph of f 1x 2 determine the value of k.

k to
10 8 6 4

10 8 6 4 2 2 2 4 6 8 10 2 4 6 8 10 x

The functions in Example 1 illustrate the following properties of quadratic functions of the form f 1x2 x2 k.

Graphs of f (x )

If k 7 0, then the graph of f 1x2 shifted up k units. If k 6 0, then the graph of f 1x2 shifted down 0k 0 units.

x2

x2 x2

k is the same as the graph of y k is the same as the graph of y

x2 x2

Calculator Connections
Try experimenting with a graphing calculator by graphing functions of the form y x2 k for several values of k.

Example 2

Graphing Quadratic Functions of the Form k f ( x) x2


b. n1x2 x2 7 2
m(x) 10 8 6 4 2 10 8 6 4 2 2 4 6 8 10

Sketch the functions defined by a. m1x2


Solution:

x2

m(x)

x2

a. m1x2 m1x2 Skill Practice Answers


1. k 8

x2 x2

1 42

2 4 6

8 10

4, the graph is obtained by shiftBecause k ing the graph of y x2 down 0 4 0 units (Figure 8-7).

Figure 8-7

Section 8.4 Graphs of Quadratic Functions

583

b. n1x2

x2

7 2 x2 up
7 2

Because k 7 , the graph is obtained by shifting the graph of y 2 units (Figure 8-8).
n(x) 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 1 2 1 2 3 4 5 x

n(x)

x2

7 2

Figure 8-8

Skill Practice

Graph the functions. 3 3. h1x2 x2 5

2. g 1 x 2

x2

2. Quadratic Functions of the Form f(x )

The graph of f 1x2 x2 k represents a vertical shift (up or down) of the function y x2. Example 3 shows that functions of the form f 1x2 1x h2 2 repre2 sent a horizontal shift (left or right) of the function y x . Example 3

(x

h)2

Graphing Quadratic Functions of the Form f (x ) (x h)2


x2 g1x2 1x 12 2 h1x2 1x 22 2

Graph the functions f, g, and h on the same coordinate system. f 1x2


Solution:

Several function values for f, g, and h are shown in Table 8-2 for selected values of x. The corresponding graphs are pictured in Figure 8-9. Table 8-2
x f(x) x2 g(x) (x 1)2 h(x) (x 2)2
g(x) (x 1)2 f(x) x2 y h(x) (x

4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5

16 9 4 1 0 1 4 9 16 25

9 4 1 0 1 4 9 16 25 36

36 25 16 9 4 1 0 1 4 9
10 8 6 4 2

10 8 6

2)2

Skill Practice Answers


23.
2 4 6 8 10 x y 10 8 6 4 2 10 8 6 4 2 2 4 6 8 10 2 4

4 2 2 4 6 8 10

g(x)

x2

h(x)

x2
x

6 8 10

Figure 8-9

584

Chapter 8 Quadratic Equations and Functions

Skill Practice

4. Refer to the graph of f 1x2 the value of h.

1x

h2 2 to determine

10 8 6 4 2 10 8 6 4 2 2 4 6 8 10 2 4 6 8 10 x

Example 3 illustrates the following properties of quadratic functions of the form f 1x2 1x h2 2.

Graphs of f (x)

If h 7 0, then the graph of f 1x2 shifted h units to the right. If h 6 0, then the graph of f 1x2 shifted 0h 0 units to the left. From Example 3 we have h1x2 1x 22 2

(x

h)2

1x 1x

h2 2 is the same as the graph of y h2 2 is the same as the graph of y

x2 x2

and

g1x2 g1x2

1x

3x

12 2

1 12 4 2

x2 shifted 2 units to the right

x2 shifted 0 1 0 unit to the left

Example 4 1x

Graphing Functions of the Form f(x)


b. q1x2 1x 1.62 2

(x

h)2

Sketch the functions p and q. a. p1x2


Solution:

72 2

a. p1x2

1x

72 2 x2 to the right 7 units

Because h 7 7 0, shift the graph of y (Figure 8-10).


p(x) 10 8 6 4 2 10 8 6 4 2 2 4 6 8 10 2 4 6 8 10

p(x)

(x

7)2

Figure 8-10

Skill Practice Answers


4. h 4

Section 8.4 Graphs of Quadratic Functions

585

b. q1x2 q1x2

1x

3x

1.62 2

q(x) 10 8 6 4 2 10 8 6 4 2 2 4 6 8 10

1 1.62 4 2

1.6 6 0, shift the graph of Because h y x2 to the left 1.6 units (Figure 8-11).

q(x)

(x

1.6)2
x

4 6

8 10

Figure 8-11

Skill Practice

5. g 1 x 2

1x

Graph the functions. 32 2 6. h1x2 1x 62 2

3. Quadratic Functions of the Form f( x)


Examples 5 and 6 investigate functions of the form f 1x2 Example 5 ax2

1a

ax 2
02 .

Graphing Functions of the Form f ( x)


f 1x2 g 1x2 h 1x2 1 2 x 2

ax 2

Graph the functions f, g, and h on the same coordinate system. x2 2x2

Solution:

Several function values for f, g, and h are shown in Table 8-3 for selected values of x. The corresponding graphs are pictured in Figure 8-12.
g(x) 2x2 f(x) x2 1 y h(x) 2 x2
10 8 6 4 2 10 8 6 4 2 2 4 6 8 10 10 8 6 4 2 2 4 6 8 10 2 4 6 8 10 2 4 6 8 10 x

Table 8-3
x f(x) x2 g(x) 2x 2 h(x)
9 2

1 2 2x

3 2 1 0 1 2 3

9 4 1 0 1 4 9

18 8 2 0 2 8 18

Skill Practice Answers


56. g(x)
(x 3)2
y 10 8 6 4 2 x

h(x)

(x

6)2

2
1 2

0
1 2

2
9 2

Figure 8-12

Skill Practice

7.

7. Graph the functions f, g, and h on the same coordinate system. f 1x2


g1x2 h1x2

g(x) 3x2 f(x) x2 y h(x)


10 8 6 4 2 10 8 6 4 2 2 4 6 8 10 2 4

1 2 3x

3x2 1 2 x 3

6 8 10

586

Chapter 8 Quadratic Equations and Functions

In Example 5, the function values defined by g 1x2 2x2 are twice those of f 1x2 x2. The graph of g 1x2 2x2 is the same as the graph of f 1x2 x2 stretched vertically by a factor of 2 (the graph appears narrower than f 1x2 x2). In Example 5, the function values defined by h1x2 1 x2 are one-half 2 those of f 1x2 x2. The graph of h1x2 1 x2 is the same as the graph of 2 f 1x2 x2 shrunk vertically by a factor of 1 (the graph appears wider than f 1x2 x2). 2

Example 6

Graphing Functions of the Form f ( x)


f 1x2 g 1x2 h 1x2 1 2 x 3

ax 2

Graph the functions f, g, and h on the same coordinate system. x2 3x2

Solution:

Several function values for f, g, and h are shown in Table 8-4 for selected values of x. The corresponding graphs are pictured in Figure 8-13.

Table 8-4
x f(x) x2 g(x) 3x 2 h(x)
1 2 3x

y 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 x

3 2 1 0 1 2 3

9 4 1 0 1 4 9

27 12 3 0 3 12 27

3
4 3 1 3

h(x) = 1 x2 3

0
1 3 4 3

6 7 8

g(x) = 3x2

f(x) = x2

Figure 8-13

Skill Practice

8. Graph the functions f, g, and h on the same coordinate system. f 1x2 x2 2x 2 1 2 x 2

g1x2 h1x2

Skill Practice Answers


8.
y 10 8 6 4 2 10 8 6 4 2 2 4 6 8 10 2 4 6 8 10 x

Example 6 illustrates that if the coefficient of the square term is negative, 3x2 is the same as the graph of the parabola opens down. The graph of g 1x2 1 2 2 f 1x2 x with a vertical stretch by a factor of 0 3 0 . The graph of h1x2 3 x is 2 x with a vertical shrink by a factor of 0 1 0 . the same as the graph of f 1x2 3

f(x) = x g(x) = 2x2


2

h(x) = 1 x2 2

Section 8.4 Graphs of Quadratic Functions

587

Graphs of f( x )

ax 2

1. If a 7 0, the parabola opens upward. Furthermore, If 0 6 a 6 1, then the graph of f 1 x2 ax2 is the same as the graph of y x2 with a vertical shrink by a factor of a. If a 7 1, then the graph of f 1 x2 ax2 is the same as the graph of y x2 with a vertical stretch by a factor of a. 2. If a 6 0, the parabola opens downward. Furthermore, If 0 6 0a 0 6 1, then the graph of f 1x2 ax2 is the same as the graph x2 with a vertical shrink by a factor of 0 a 0 . of y If 0a 0 7 1, then the graph of f 1x2 ax2 is the same as the graph of y x2 with a vertical stretch by a factor of 0a 0 .

4. Quadratic Functions of the Form k f (x) a( x h)2


We can summarize our findings from Examples 16 by graphing functions of the form f 1x2 a1x h2 2 k 1a 02 . The graph of y x2 has its vertex at the origin 10, 02 . The graph of f 1x2 a1x h2 2 k is the same as the graph of y x2 shifted to the right or left h units and shifted up or down k units. Therefore, the vertex is shifted from (0, 0) to (h, k). The axis of symmetry is the vertical line through the vertex, that is, the line x h.

Graphs of f( x )

a( x

h)2

k
h.

1. The vertex is located at 1h, k2 . 2. The axis of symmetry is the line x 3. If a 7 0, the parabola opens upward, and k is the minimum value of the function. 4. If a 6 0, the parabola opens downward, and k is the maximum value of the function.
a
f(x)

0
f(x)

Maximum (h, k) point (h, k) Minimum point


x x

a x h x h

Example 7

Graphing a Function of the Form k f (x ) a(x h)2


f 1x2 21x 32 2 4

Given the function defined by a. Identify the vertex. c. Identify the axis of symmetry. d. Identify the maximum or minimum value of the function. b. Sketch the function.

588

Chapter 8 Quadratic Equations and Functions

Solution:

a. The function is in the form f 1x2 a1x k 4. Therefore, the vertex is 13, 42 . b. The graph of f is the same as the graph of y x2 shifted to the right 3 units, shifted up 4 units, and stretched vertically by a factor of 2 (Figure 8-14).

h2 2

k, where a
f(x) 10 8 6 4 2 10 8 6 4 2 2 4 6 8 10 2

2, h
f(x)

3, and
2(x 3)2 4

(3, 4)
4 6 8 10 x

c. The axis of symmetry is the line x

3.

Calculator Connections
Some graphing calculators have Minimum and Maximum features that enable the user to approximate the minimum and maximum values of a function. Otherwise Zoom and Trace can be used.

d. Because a 7 0, the function opens upward. Therefore, the minimum function value is 4. Notice that the minimum value is the minimum y-value on the graph.
Skill Practice

Figure 8-14

9. Given the function defined by g1x2 31x 12 2 3 a. Identify the vertex. b. Sketch the graph. c. Identify the axis of symmetry. d. Identify the maximum or minimum value of the function.

Example 8

Graphing a Function of the Form k f ( x) a( x h)2


g 1x2 1x 22 2 7 4

Given the function defined by

a. Identify the vertex. b. Sketch the function. c. Identify the axis of symmetry. d. Identify the maximum or minimum value of the function.
Solution:

a. g 1x2

1x 13 x

22 2

1 22 4 2

7 4

7 b 4
g(x) 10 8 6

Skill Practice Answers


9a. Vertex: ( 1, b. 3)
y 10 8 6 4 2 10 8 6 4 2 2 4 6 2 4 6 8 10 x

The function is in the form g 1x2 a1x h2 2 k, where a 1, 7 h 2, and k . Therefore, the vertex 4 is 1 2, 7 2 . 4 b. The graph of g is the same as the graph of y x2 shifted to the left 2 units, shifted down 7 4 units, and opening downward (Figure 8-15). c. The axis of symmetry is the line x d. The parabola opens downward, so the maximum function value is 7. 4
1
( 2,
10 8
7 4

4 2 2 4 6 8 10 2 4 6 8 10 x
7 4

6 4

g(x)

(x

2)2

2.
x

8 10

Figure 8-15

c. Axis of symmetry: x d. Minimum value: 3

Section 8.4 Graphs of Quadratic Functions

589 Skill Practice Answers

Skill Practice

10. Given the function defined by h1x2 a. b. c. d.

1 1x 2

42

10a. Vertex: (4, 2) b.


y 10 8 6 4 2 10 8 6 4 2 2 4 6 2 4 6 8 10 x

Identify the vertex. Sketch the graph. Identify the axis of symmetry. Identify the maximum or minimum value of the function.

8 10

c. Axis of symmetry: x d. Maximum value: 2

Section 8.4
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Practice Exercises
Practice Problems Self-Tests NetTutor e-Professors Videos

Study Skills Exercise


1. Define the key terms. a. Parabola d. Maximum value b. Vertex e. Minimum value 4. 12a 0 8. m2 1m2 c. Axis of symmetry

Review Exercises
For Exercises 28, solve the equations. 2. x2 6. 2z2 x 3z 5 9 0 0 3. 1y 32 2 5x1/3 4 6

7 62

1 27

5. 5t1t

22

7. x2/3

Concept 1: Quadratic Functions of the Form f (x)

x2

k
x2 k.

9. Describe how the value of k affects the graphs of functions of the form f 1x2 For Exercises 1019, graph the functions. 10. g1x2 x2
y 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 1 2 1 2 3 4 5 x 5 4 3 2 1

11. f 1x2

x2
y 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 1 2

12. p1x2

x2
y 5 4 3 2 1

5 4

2 1

1 2 3 4 5

1 2

3 4

1 2

3 4

590

Chapter 8 Quadratic Equations and Functions

13. q1x2

x2
y 5 4 3 2 1

14. T(x)

x2
y 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

3 4

15. S1x2

x2
y 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

3 2

5 4

2 1

1 2 3 4 5

1 2

3 4

5 4

2 1

1 2 3

1 2

3 4

x 5 4 3 2 1

1 2

1 2

3 4

16. M1x2

x2
y 5 4 3 2 1

5 4

17. n1x2

x2
y 5 4 3 2 1

1 3

18. P1x2

x2
y 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

1 2

5 4 3 2 1

1 2 3 4 5

1 2 3 4 5

5 4

2 1

1 2 3 4 5

1 2

3 4

5 4 3 2 1

1 2 3

1 2 3 4 5

19. Q1x2

x2
y 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

1 4

5 4

1 2 3

1 2

3 4

Concept 2: Quadratic Functions of the Form f (x)

(x

h)2
1x h2 2.

20. Describe how the value of h affects the graphs of functions of the form f 1x2 For Exercises 2130, graph the functions. 21. r1x2 1x 12 2
y 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 1 2 3 4 5 x
6 5 4 3 2 1

22. h1x2

1x
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 1 2 3

22 2
y

23. k1x2
y 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

1x

32 2

24. L1x2
y 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

1x

42 2

1 2

3 4

1 2 3

1 2

3 4

5 6 7

1 2 3

1 2

3 4

5 6 7 8

Section 8.4 Graphs of Quadratic Functions

591 ax
y 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

25. A1x2

ax
y 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

3 2 b 4

26. r1x2

ax

3 2 b 2
y 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

27. W1x2

ax
y 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

5 2 b 4

28. V1x2

1 2 b 3

5 4

2 1

1 2 3

1 2

3 4

6 5 4

1 2 3

1 2

3 4

5 4 3

2 1

1 2 3

1 2

3 4

5 4 3

2 1

1 2 3

1 2

3 4

29. M1x2

1x

4.52 2
y 5 4 3 2 1

30. N1x2
y 5 4 3 2 1 1 2 x 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 1

1x

3.52 2

8 7 6

4 3

2 1

1 2 3 4 5

4 5 6 7

Concept 3: Quadratic Functions of the Form f (x)

ax 2
ax2, where a bx c 1a 0. 02 opens up or

31. Describe how the value of a affects the graph of a function of the form f 1x2 32. How do you determine whether the graph of a function defined by h1x2 down? For Exercises 3340, graph the functions. 33. f 1x2 2x2
y 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 x 5 4 3 2 1

ax2

34. g1x2

3x2
y 5 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 x

35. h1x2

1 2 x 2
y 5 4 3 2 1

36. f 1x2

1 2 x 3
y 5 4 3 2 1

5 4 3

1 2 3 4 5

1 2 3

5 4 3

1 2 3 4 5

1 2 3

592

Chapter 8 Quadratic Equations and Functions

37. c1x2

x2
y 5 4 3 2 1

38. g1x2

2x2
y 5 4 3 2 1

39. v1x2

1 2 x 3
y 5 4 3 2 1

40. f 1x2

1 2 x 2
y 5 4 3 2 1

5 4 3

1 2 3 4 5

1 2 3

5 4 3

1 2 3 4 5

1 2 3

5 4 3

1 2 3 4 5

1 2 3

5 4 3

1 2 3 4 5

1 2 3

Concept 4: Quadratic Functions of the Form f (x)


41. f 1x2 45. t1x2 a.
5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 x 5 4 3 2 1

a(x

h)2

k
1x 1x
y 5 4 3 2 1

For Exercises 4148, match the function with its graph. 1 2 x 4 x2


y

42. g1x2 46. m1x2 b.

1x x2
y 5 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5

32 2 4

43. k1x2 47. p1x2 c.

32 2 12 2 3

44. h 1x2 48. n1x2 d.

1 2 x 4 1x
y 5 4 3 2 1

22 2

1 2 3

5 4

3 2 1

1 2 3 4 5

2 3

5 4

3 2 1

1 2 3 4 5

2 3

e.
5

y 4 3 2 1

f.
5

y 4 3 2 1

g.
5

y 4 3 2 1

h.
5

y 4 3 2 1

5 4

3 2 1

1 2 3 4 5

2 3

5 4

3 2 1

1 2 3 4 5

2 3

5 4

3 2 1

1 2 3 4 5

1 2 3

5 4

3 2 1

1 2 3 4 5

2 3

For Exercises 4966, graph the parabola and the axis of symmetry. Label the coordinates of the vertex, and write the equation of the axis of symmetry. 49. y 1x
8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 3 2 1 1 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 x 3 2 1

32 2

50. y

1x
8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 1 2

22 2

51. y

1x

12 2
y 5 4 3 2 1

52. y

1x

32 2
y 6 5 4 3 2 1

5 4

1 2 3 4 5

1 2

3 4

x 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

1 2 3 4

3 4

5 6 7

Section 8.4 Graphs of Quadratic Functions

593 56. y 1x 22 2
y 5 4 3 2 1

53. y
y 2 1 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

1x

42 2

54. y

1x
y 2 1

22 2

55. y

1x

32 2
y 5 4 3 2 1

1 2

3 4

5 6 7 8

3 2 1

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

5 4

1 2 3 4 5

1 2

6 5 4 3 2 1

1 2 3 4 5

1 2 3 4

57. y

1x

12 2
y 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

58. y
y 4 3 2 1 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 6

1x

42 2

59. y

31x
y 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

12 2

60. y

31x
y 5 4 3 2 1

12 2

3 4

5 6 7 8

4 3 2

5 4

1 2 3

1 2

3 4

1 2 3 4 5

2 3 4

4 3 2

1 2

2 3 4

61. y

4x2
y 6 5 4 3 2 1

62. y

4x2

3
y 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 x

63. y

21x

32 2
y 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

5 4 3

2 1

1 2 3 4

1 2 3

7 6 5 4 1 2 3 4 5

5 4 3

2 1

1 2 3

64. y

21x

32 2
y 3 2 1

65. y

1 1x 4
y 6 5 4 3 2 1

12 2

66. y

1 1x 4
y 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

12 2

7 6 5 4

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

4 3 2

1 2 3 4

2 3 4

4 3 2

2 3 4

594

Chapter 8 Quadratic Equations and Functions

For Exercises 6778, write the coordinates of the vertex and determine if the vertex is a maximum point or a minimum point. Then write the maximum or minimum value. 67. f 1x2 70. h1x2 41x 3 1x 7 6x2 62 2 9 68. g1x2 31x 1 1x 2 4x2 42 2 7 69. p1x2 2 1x 5 2 1x 9 21x 22 2 5

52 2 21 4 32 2 1 4

10

71. k1x2

82 2 1 6

72. m1x2

112 2 3 2

73. n1x2

74. q1x2

75. A1x2

72 2

76. B1x2

51x

77. F1x2

7x 2

78. G1x2

7x2

79. True or false: The function defined by g1x2 80. True or false: The function defined by f 1x2

5x2 has a maximum value but no minimum value. 21x 52 2 has a maximum value but no minimum value. 2.

81. True or false: If the vertex 1 2, 82 represents a minimum point, then the minimum value is

82. True or false: If the vertex 1 2, 82 represents a maximum point, then the maximum value is 8. 83. A suspension bridge is 120 ft long. Its supporting cable hangs in a shape 1 that resembles a parabola. The function defined by H1x2 90 1x 602 2 30 1where 0 x 1202 approximates the height of the supporting cable a distance of x ft from the end of the bridge (see figure). a. What is the location of the vertex of the parabolic cable? b. What is the minimum height of the cable? c. How high are the towers at either end of the supporting cable? 84. A 50-m bridge over a crevasse is supported by a parabolic arch. The function defined by f 1x2 0.161x 252 2 100 1where 0 x 502 approximates the height of the supporting arch x meters from the end of the bridge (see figure).
f(x) 50 m H(x) 120 ft

0 0

0 0

a. What is the location of the vertex of the arch? b. What is the maximum height of the arch (relative to the origin)?

Section 8.5

Vertex of a Parabola and Applications

595

Graphing Calculator Exercises


For Exercises 8588, verify the maximum and minimum points found in Exercises 6770, by graphing each function on the calculator. 85. Y1 87. Y1 41x 2 1x 5 62 2 22 2 9 5 1Exercise 672 86. Y1 88. Y1 31x 3 1x 7 42 2 52 2 7 1Exercise 682

1Exercise 692

10

1Exercise 702

Vertex of a Parabola and Applications


1. Writing a Quadratic Function in the Form f(x) a(x h)2 k
2

Section 8.5
Concepts
1. Writing a Quadratic Function in the Form f(x) a(x h)2 k 2. Vertex Formula 3. Determining the Vertex and Intercepts of a Quadratic Function 4. Vertex of a Parabola: Applications

A quadratic function can be expressed as f1x2 ax bx c 1a 02. However, by completing the square, we can write the function in the form f1x2 a1x h2 2 k. In this form, the vertex is easily recognized as (h, k). The process to complete the square in this context is similar to the steps outlined in Section 8.1. However, all algebraic steps are performed on the right-hand side of the equation. Example 1 Given: f 1x2 x2

Writing a Quadratic Function in the Form f(x) a(x h)2 k (a 0)


8x 13 a1x h2 2 k.

a. Write the function in the form f 1x2

b. Identify the vertex, axis of symmetry, and minimum function value.


Solution:

a. f 1x2

x2 11x2 11x2

8x

13

8x2 8x

13 2 13

Rather than dividing by the leading coefficient on both sides, we will factor out the leading coefficient from the variable terms on the right-hand side. Next, complete the square on the expression within the parentheses: 3 1 182 4 2 16. 2 13 Rather than add 16 to both sides of the function, we add and subtract 16 within the parentheses on the right-hand side. This has the effect of adding 0 to the right-hand side.

Avoiding Mistakes:
Do not factor out the leading coefficient from the constant term.

11x2

8x

16

162

596

Chapter 8 Quadratic Equations and Functions

11x2

8x

162

16

13

1x b. f 1x2 1x

Use the associative property of addition to regroup terms and isolate the perfect square trinomial within the parentheses. Factor and simplify.
y 10 f(x) 8 6 4 2 10 8 6 4 2 2 4 6 8 10 2

42 2 42 2

3 3 32 . 4.

The vertex is 1 4,

(x

4)2

The axis of symmetry is x

Because a 7 0, the parabola opens upward. The minimum value is


Skill Practice

4 6

8 10

3 (Figure 8-16).

( 4, x

3) 4

1. Given: f 1x2 x 2 8x 1 a. Write the equation in the form f 1x2 a1x h2 2 k. b. Identify the vertex, axis of symmetry, and minimum value of the function.
Figure 8-16

Example 2 Given: f 1x2 2x2

Analyzing a Quadratic Function


12x 16 a1x h2 2 k.

a. Write the function in the form f 1x2 c. Find the x- and y-intercepts. d. Graph the function.

b. Find the vertex, axis of symmetry, and maximum function value.

Solution:

a. f 1x2

2x2

12x

16 2 9

To find the vertex, write the function in the form f 1x2 a1x h2 2 k. 16 92 16 Factor the leading coefficient from the variable terms. Add and subtract the quantity 3 1 1 62 4 2 9 within the 2 parentheses. 16 To remove the term 9 from the parentheses, we must first apply the distributive property. When 9 is removed from the parentheses, it carries with it a factor of 2. Factor and simplify.

21x2 21x2

6x 6x

21x2

6x

92

1 221 92

21x 21x Skill Practice Answers


1a. f 1x2 1x 42 2 17 b. Vertex: 1 4, 172; axis of symmetry: x 4; minimum value: 17

32 2 32 2

18 2

16

Section 8.5

Vertex of a Parabola and Applications

597

b. f 1x2 21x 32 2 2 The vertex is (3, 2). The axis of symmetry is x 3. Because a 6 0, the parabola opens downward and the maximum value is 2. c. The y-intercept is given by f 102 The y-intercept is 10, 162 . f 1x2 2x2 2x
2

2102 2

12102

16

16. 0.

To find the x-intercept(s), find the real solutions to the equation f 1x2 12x 12x 42 1x x 6x 16 16 82 22 2 0 0 0 x 4 Substitute f 1x2 Factor. 0.

21x2 21x or

The x-intercepts are (4, 0) and (2, 0). d. Using the information from parts (a)(c), sketch the graph (Figure 8-17).
8 6 4 y 12 8 4 2 4

(3, 2)
x

4 6

8 12 16 20

f(x)

2x2

12x

16

Figure 8-17

Skill Practice

2. Given: g 1x2 x 2 6x 5 a. Write the equation in the form g 1x2 a1x h2 2 k. b. Identify the vertex, axis of symmetry, and maximum value of the function. c. Determine the x- and y-intercepts. d. Graph the function.

2. Vertex Formula

Completing the square and writing a quadratic function in the form f 1x2 a1x h2 2 k 1a 02 is one method to find the vertex of a parabola. Another method is to use the vertex formula. The vertex formula can be derived by completing the square on the function defined by f 1x2 ax2 bx c 1a 02. f 1x2 ax2 a ax2 a ax2 a ax2 bx b x a b x a b x a b2 4a2 b2 b 4a2 c 1a 02 b b2 b 4a2 1a2a c c b2 b 4a2 Factor a from the variable terms. Add and subtract 3 1 1b a2 4 2 2 b2 14a2 2 within the parentheses. c Apply the distributive property and remove the term b2 14a2 2 from the parentheses.

Skill Practice Answers

2a. g1x2 1x 32 2 4 b. Vertex: (3, 4); axis of symmetry: x 3; maximum value: 4 c. x-intercepts: (5, 0) and (1, 0); y-intercept: (0, 5) y d.
10 8 6 4 2 10 8 6 4 2 2 4 6 2 4 6 8 10 x

8 10

598

Chapter 8 Quadratic Equations and Functions

a ax a ax

b 2 b 2a b 2 b 2a b 2 b 2a b 2 b 2a a

b2 4a c

c b2 4a b2 4a

Factor the trinomial and simplify. Apply the commutative property of addition to reverse the last two terms. Obtain a common denominator.

a ax a ax acx f 1x2

4ac 4a

4ac b2 4a 4ac b2 4a

b 2 bd 2a

The function is in the form f 1x2 h Hence, the vertex is

a1x

h2 2

k a1x and h2 2 k k, where 4ac b2 4a

b 2a

b 4ac b2 , b 2a 4a

Although the y-coordinate of the vertex is given as 14ac b2 2 14a2, it is usually easier to determine the x-coordinate of the vertex first and then find y by evaluating the function at x b 12a2 .

The Vertex Formula


For f 1x2 ax2 bx a c

1a

02 , the vertex is given by or a b b , fa bb 2a 2a

b 4ac b2 , b 2a 4a

3. Determining the Vertex and Intercepts of a Quadratic Function


Example 3 Given: h1x2 x2

Determining the Vertex and Intercepts of a Quadratic Function


2x 5

a. Use the vertex formula to find the vertex. b. Find the x- and y-intercepts. c. Sketch the function.

Section 8.5

Vertex of a Parabola and Applications

599

Solution:

a. h1x2 a 1

x2 b

2x 2

5 c 5 Identify a, b, and c. b 2a 1 22 2112 1. 2112 5 4.

The x-coordinate of the vertex is

The y-coordinate of the vertex is h112 The vertex is (1, 4). b. The y-intercept is given by h102 The y-intercept is (0, 5). 102 2

112 2

2102

5.

To find the x-intercept(s), find the real solutions to the equation h1x2 h1x2 0 x2 x
2

0.

2x 2x 1 22

2 1 16 2 2 4i 2 1 2i

2 14 20 2112

21 22 2 5 5 2112

This quadratic equation is not factorable. Apply the 2, c 5. quadratic formula: a 1, b 4112152

The solutions to the equation h1x2 are no x-intercepts. c.


y 8 7 (0, 5) h(x) 6 5 4 (1, 4) 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 1 2 1

0 are not real numbers. Therefore, there

TIP: The location of the vertex and


x2 2x 5

Because a 0, the parabola opens up.


2 3 4 5 x

Figure 8-18

the direction that the parabola opens can be used to determine whether the function has any x-intercepts. Given h(x) x2 2x 5, the vertex (1, 4) is above the x-axis. Furthermore, because a 7 0, the parabola opens upward. Therefore, it is not possible for the function h to cross the x-axis (Figure 8-18).

Skill Practice Answers


3a. Vertex: 1 2, 22 b. x-intercepts: none; y-intercepts: (0, 6) y c.
10 8 6 4 2 10 8 6 4 2 2 4 6 2 4 6 8 10 x

Skill Practice

4x 6 3. Given: f 1x2 x a. Use the vertex formula to find the vertex of the parabola. b. Determine the x- and y-intercepts. c. Sketch the graph.
2

8 10

600

Chapter 8 Quadratic Equations and Functions

4. Vertex of a Parabola: Applications


Example 4

Applying a Quadratic Function

The crew from Extravaganza Entertainment launches fireworks at an angle of 60 from the horizontal. The height of one particular type of display can be approximated by the following function: h1t2 16t 2 12813t

where h(t) is measured in feet and t is measured in seconds. a. How long will it take the fireworks to reach their maximum height? Round to the nearest second. b. Find the maximum height. Round to the nearest foot.

Calculator Connections
Some graphing calculators have Minimum and Maximum features that enable the user to approximate the minimum and maximum values of a function. Otherwise, Zoom and Trace can be used.

Solution:

h1t2

16t2

12813t

This parabola opens downward; therefore, the maximum height of the fireworks will occur at the vertex of the parabola. 128 13 21 162 c 0 1616.92 2 Identify a, b, and c, and apply the vertex formula.

16

12813

The x-coordinate of the vertex is b 2a

12813 32

6.9

The y-coordinate of the vertex is approximately h16.92 The vertex is (6.9, 768). a. The fireworks will reach their maximum height in 6.9 sec. b. The maximum height is 768 ft.
Skill Practice

1281316.92

768

4. An object is launched into the air with an initial velocity of 48 ft/sec from the top of a building 288 ft high. The height h(t) of the object after t seconds is given by h 1t2 16t 2 48t 288

a. Find the time it takes for the object to reach its maximum height. b. Find the maximum height.

Example 5

Applying a Quadratic Function

A group of students start a small company that produces CDs. The weekly profit (in dollars) is given by the function P1x2 2x2 80x 600 where x represents the number of CDs produced. Skill Practice Answers
4a. 1.5 sec b. 324 ft

a. Find the x-intercepts of the profit function, and interpret the meaning of the x-intercepts in the context of this problem. b. Find the y-intercept of the profit function, and interpret its meaning in the context of this problem.

Section 8.5

Vertex of a Parabola and Applications

601

c. Find the vertex of the profit function, and interpret its meaning in the context of this problem. d. Sketch the profit function.
Solution:

a. P1x2 0 0 0 x

2x2 2x2 21x 21x 10


2

80x 80x 102 1x or x 40x

600 600 3002 302 30

The x-intercepts are the real solutions of the equation P1x2 0.

Solve by factoring.

The x-intercepts are (10, 0) and (30, 0). The x-intercepts represent points where the profit is zero. These are called break-even points. The break-even points occur when 10 CDs are produced and also when 30 CDs are produced. 2102 2 80102 600 600. The y-intercept is b. The y-intercept is P102 10, 6002. The y-intercept indicates that if no CDs are produced, the company has a $600 loss. c. The x-coordinate of the vertex is b 2a The y-coordinate is P1202 80 21 22 20 600 200.

21202 2

801202

The vertex is (20, 200). A maximum weekly profit of $200 is obtained when 20 CDs are produced. d. Using the information from parts (a)(c), sketch the profit function (Figure 8-19).
y 200 0 Profit 200 400 600 Number of CDs Produced x

10

20

30

40

Figure 8-19

Skill Practice Answers


5a. x-intercepts: (5, 0) and (25, 0). The x-intercepts represent the breakeven points, where the profit is 0. b. y-intercept: 10, 5002. If the service does no tutoring, it will have a $500 loss. c. Vertex: (15, 400). A maximum weekly profit of $400 is obtained when 15 hr of tutoring is scheduled. y d.
600 400 200 0

Skill Practice

5. The weekly profit function for a tutoring service is given by P 1x2 4x 2 120x 500, where x is the number of hours that the tutors are scheduled to work and P 1x2 represents profit in dollars. a. Find the x-intercepts of the profit function, and interpret their meaning in the context of this problem. b. Find the y-intercept of the profit function, and interpret its meaning in the context of this problem. c. Find the vertex of the profit function, and interpret its meaning in the context of this problem. d. Sketch the profit function.

Profit

x 5 10 15 20 25 30 200 400 600 Number of Tutoring Hours

602

Chapter 8 Quadratic Equations and Functions

Example 6

Applying a Quadratic Function

The average number of visits to office-based physicians is a function of the age of the patient. N1x2 0.0014x2 0.0658x 2.65

where x is a patients age in years and N(x) is the average number of doctor visits per year (Figure 8-20). Find the age for which the number of visits to office-based physicians is a minimum.
Average Number of Visits to a Doctors Office per Year Based on N(x) Age of Patient 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Age (years) Figure 8-20
(Source: U.S. National Center for Health Statistics.)

Number of Visits

Solution:

N1x2 b 2a

0.0014x2

1 0.06582 210.00142

0.0658x 23.5

The average number of visits to office-based physicians is lowest for people approximately 23.5 years old.
Skill Practice

6. In a recent year, an Internet company started up, became successful, and then quickly went bankrupt. The price of a share of the companys stock is given by the function S 1x2 2.25x 2 40.5x 42.75

Skill Practice Answers


6. The maximum price for the stock occurred after 9 months.

where x is the number of months that the stock was on the market. Find the number of months at which the stock price was a maximum.

Section 8.5
Boost your GRADE at mathzone.com!

Practice Exercises
Practice Problems Self-Tests NetTutor e-Professors Videos

Study Skills Exercise


1. Write the vertex formula.

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90

2.65 Find the x-coordinate of the vertex.

Section 8.5

Vertex of a Parabola and Applications

603

Review Exercises
2. How does the graph of f 1x2 3. How does the graph of p1x2 4. How does the graph of Q1x2 5. How does the graph of r1x2 6. How does the graph of s1x2 7. How does the graph of t1x2 2x2 compare with the graph of y
1 2 4x

x2? x2? x2? x2? x2? x2? 4.

compare with the graph of y


8 3

x2 x2 1x 1x

compare with the graph of y

7 compare with the graph of y 42 2 compare with the graph of y 102 2 compare with the graph of y 21x 32 2

8. Find the coordinates of the vertex of the graph of g1x2 For Exercises 916, find the value of n to complete the square. 9. x2 13. b2 8x 2 b 9 n n 10. x2 14. m2 4x 2 m 7 n n 11. y2 15. t 2

7y 1 t 3

n n

12. a2 16. p2

a 1 p 4

n n

Concept 1: Writing a Quadratic Function in the Form f (x )


For Exercises 1730, write the function in the form f 1x2 vertex. 17. g1x2 20. f 1x2 23. k1x2 26. g1x2 29. P1x2 x2 4x2 x2 x2 8x 16x 7x 5x 2x2 x 10 2 5 19 18. h1x2 21. p1x2 24. m1x2 27. F1x2 30. Q1x2 x2 3x2 x2 5x2 3x2 x 10x 12x a1x 4x 6x

a(x
h2 5 5
2

h) 2

k by completing the square. Then identify the 19. n1x2 22. q1x2 25. f 1x2 x2 4x2 2x2 2x2 8x 4x 12x 12x 1 7 13 11

8 1

28. G1x2

Concept 2: Vertex Formula


For Exercises 3144, find the vertex by using the vertex formula. 31. Q1x2 34. s1x2 37. m1x2 40. h1x2 43. A1x2 x2 2x2 1 2 x 2 x2 1 2 x 3 4x 12x x 4x x 5 2 3 7 19 32. T1x2 35. N1x2 38. n1x2 41. f 1x2 44. B1x2 x2 x2 1 2 x 2 2x2 2 2 x 3 8x 8x 2x 4x 2x 17 1 3 6 33. r1x2 36. M1x2 39. k1x2 42. g1x2 3x2 x2 x2 3x2 6x 6x 2x 12x 5 2 9 5

604

Chapter 8 Quadratic Equations and Functions

Concept 3: Determining the Vertex and Intercepts of a Quadratic Function


For Exercises 4550 a. Find the vertex. b. Find the y-intercept. c. Find the x-intercept(s), if they exist. d. Use this information to graph the function. 45. y x2 9x
y 6 4 2 10 8 6 4 2 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 2 4 6 8 10 x

46. y

x2

7x

10
y 6 5 4 3 2 1

47. y

2x2

2x
y 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

5 4

2 1

1 2 3 4

1 2

5 4

2 1

1 2

1 2

3 4

48. y

2x2

12x

19

49. y

x2

3x
y 3 2 1

9 4

50. y

x2

3 x 2
y 5 4 3 2 1

9 16

y 28 24 20 16 12 8 4 10 8 6 4 2 4 8 2 4 6 8 10 x 5 4 3 2 1

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

1 2 3 4

5 4

1 2 3 4 5

3 4

Concept 4: Vertex of a Parabola: Applications


51. Mia sells used MP3 players. The average cost to package MP3 players is given by the equation C1x2 2x2 40x 2200, where x is the number of MP3 players she packages in a week. How many players must she package to minimize her average cost? 52. Ben sells used iPods. The average cost to package iPods is given by the equation C1x2 3x2 120x 1300, where x is the number of iPods packaged per month. Determine the number of iPods that Ben needs to package to minimize the average cost. 53. The pressure x in an automobile tire can affect its wear. Both overinflated and underinflated tires can lead to poor performance and poor mileage. For one particular tire, the function P represents the number of miles that a tire lasts (in thousands) for a given pressure x. P1x2 0.857x2 56.1x 880

where x is the tire pressure in pounds per square inch (psi). a. Find the tire pressure that will yield the maximum mileage. Round to the nearest pound per square inch. b. What is the maximum number of miles that a tire can last? Round to the nearest thousand.

Section 8.5

Vertex of a Parabola and Applications

605

54. A baseball player throws a ball, and the height of the ball (in feet) can be approximated by y1x2 0.011x2 0.577x 5 where x is the horizontal position of the ball measured in feet from the origin. a. For what value of x will the ball reach its highest point? Round to the nearest foot. b. What is the maximum height of the ball? Round to the nearest tenth of a foot.
y

0 0

55. For a fund-raising activity, a charitable organization produces cookbooks to sell in the community. The profit (in dollars) depends on the number of cookbooks produced, x, according to p1x2 1 2 x 50 12x 550, where x 0.

a. How much profit is made when 100 cookbooks are produced?


Profit ($)

b. Find the y-intercept of the profit function, and interpret its meaning in the context of this problem. c. How many cookbooks must be produced for the organization to break even? (Hint: Find the x-intercepts.) d. Find the vertex. e. Sketch the function.

p(x) 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 200 400 600 800

100

200

300

400

500

x 600

Number of Cookbooks Produced

f. How many cookbooks must be produced to maximize profit? What is the maximum profit? 56. A jewelry maker sells bracelets at art shows. The profit (in dollars) depends on the number of bracelets produced, x, according to p1x2 1 2 x 10 42x 1260 where x 0.

a. How much profit does the jeweler make when 10 bracelets are produced? b. Find the y-intercept of the profit function, and interpret its meaning in the context of this problem. c. How many bracelets must be produced for the jeweler to break even? Round to the nearest whole unit.

606 d. Find the vertex. e. Sketch the function.

Chapter 8 Quadratic Equations and Functions

f. How many bracelets must be produced to maximize profit? What is the maximum profit? 57. Gas mileage depends in part on the speed of the car. The gas mileage of a subcompact car is given by the function m1x2 0.04x2 3.6x 49, where 20 x 70 represents the speed in miles per hour and m(x) is given in miles per gallon. At what speed will the car get the maximum gas mileage?

p(x) 4000 3000 2000 1000 x 0 100 200 300 400 1000 2000 3000 Number of Bracelets Produced

58. Gas mileage depends in part on the speed of the car. The gas mileage of a luxury car is given by the 0.015x2 1.44x 21, where 25 x 70 represents the speed in miles per hour and L(x) function L1x2 is given in miles per gallon. At what speed will the car get the maximum gas mileage? 59. Tetanus bacillus bacterium is cultured to produce tetanus toxin used in an inactive form for the tetanus vaccine. The amount of toxin produced per batch increases with time and then becomes unstable. The amount of toxin (in grams) as a function of time t (in hours) can be approximated by the following function. b1t2 1 2 t 1152 1 t 12

How many hours will it take to produce the maximum yield? 60. The bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa is cultured with an initial population of 104 active organisms. The population of active bacteria increases up to a point, and then due to a limited food supply and an increase of waste products, the population of living organisms decreases. Over the first 48 hr, the population can be approximated by the following function. P1t2 1718.75t 2 82,500t 10,000 where 0 t 48

Find the time required for the population to reach its maximum value.

Expanding Your Skills


61. A farmer wants to fence a rectangular corral adjacent to the side of a barn; however, she has only 200 ft of fencing and wants to enclose the largest possible area. See the figure. a. If x represents the length of the corral and y represents the width, explain why the dimensions of the corral are subject to the constraint 2x y 200. b. The area of the corral is given by A xy. Use the constraint equation from part (a) to express A as a function of x, where 0 6 x 6 100. c. Use the function from part (b) to find the dimensions of the corral that will yield the maximum area. [Hint: Find the vertex of the function from part (b).]
x

Profit ($)

corral

Section 8.5

Vertex of a Parabola and Applications

607

62. A veterinarian wants to construct two equal-sized pens of maximum area out of 240 ft of fencing. See the figure. a. If x represents the length of each pen and y represents the width of each pen, explain why the dimensions of the pens are subject to the constraint 3x 4y 240. b. The area of each individual pen is given by A A as a function of x, where 0 6 x 6 80. xy. Use the constraint equation from part (a) to express

c. Use the function from part (b) to find the dimensions of an individual pen that will yield the maximum area. [Hint: Find the vertex of the function from part (b).]

y x y

Graphing Calculator Exercises


For Exercises 6368, graph the functions in Exercises 4550 on a graphing calculator. Use the Max or Min feature or Zoom and Trace to approximate the vertex. 63. Y1 65. Y1 67. Y1 x2 2x2 x2 9x 2x 3x 8 4 9 4 (Exercise 45) (Exercise 47) (Exercise 49) 64. Y1 66. Y1 68. Y1 x2 2x2 x2 7x 12x 3 x 2 10 19 9 16 (Exercise 46) (Exercise 48) (Exercise 50)

608

Chapter 8 Quadratic Equations and Functions

Chapter 8
Section 8.1
Key Concepts
If x
2

SUMMARY
Square Root Property and Completing the Square
Examples
Example 1 1x x 52 2 5 x 5 1 13 13 i 113

The square root property states that k then x

1k

(square root property)

Follow these steps to solve a quadratic equation in the form ax2 bx c 0 1a 02 by completing the square and applying the square root property: 1. Divide both sides by a to make the leading coefficient 1. 2. Isolate the variable terms on one side of the equation. 3. Complete the square: Add the square of one-half the linear term coefficient to both sides of the equation. Then factor the resulting perfect square trinomial. 4. Apply the square root property and solve for x.

Example 2 2x2 2x 2
2

6x 6x 2 x2

5 5 2 3x 1 32 d 9 4 9 4 119 2 3 2 3 2 b 2

0 0 2 5 2
2

Note: c x2 x2

1 2

9 4 9 4 9 4 119 2

3x 3x ax x

5 2 10 4 19 4

19 A 4 x 3

3 2

or

Summary

609

Section 8.2
Key Concepts

Quadratic Formula
2b2 2a

Example
Example 1 3x2 a x 2 2 2 1 3 1 22 14 6 b 21 22 2 2x 4 2 2132 48 0 4 4132142

The solutions to a quadratic equation ax2 bx c 0 1a 02 are given by the quadratic formula x b 4ac

The discriminant of a quadratic equation ax bx c 0 is b2 4ac . If a, b, and c are rational numbers, then
2

4ac 7 0 , then there will be two real 1. If b solutions. Moreover, a. If b2 4ac is a perfect square, the solutions will be rational numbers. b. If b2 4ac is not a perfect square, the solutions will be irrational numbers. 2. If b2 4ac 6 0 , then there will be two imaginary solutions. 3. If b2 4ac 0 , then there will be one rational solution. Three methods to solve a quadratic equation are 1. Factoring and applying the zero product rule. 2. Completing the square and applying the square root property. 3. Using the quadratic formula.

1 44 6

2i111 6 i111 3

The discriminant is 44. Therefore, there will be two imaginary solutions.

Section 8.3
Key Concepts

Equations in Quadratic Form


Examples
Example 1 x2
3

Substitution can be used to solve equations that are in quadratic form.

x1

3 1 3

12

Let u 1u x u2

x . Therefore, u2 u 12 32 or or or x 0 0 u
1 3

1x1 3 2 2

x2 3

421u u 4 4 64

3 3 27 Cube both sides.

1 3

610

Chapter 8 Quadratic Equations and Functions

Section 8.4
Key Concepts

Graphs of Quadratic Functions


Examples
Example 1
y 6 5 4 3 2 1 6 5 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 6

k shifts A quadratic function of the form f 1x2 x the graph of y x2 up k units if k 7 0 and down 0k 0 units if k 6 0.
2

f(x)

x2

x2
4 5 6 x

1 2 3

1x h2 2 A quadratic function of the form f 1x2 2 shifts the graph of y x right h units if h 7 0 and left 0 h 0 units if h 6 0.

Example 2
y 6 5 f(x) 4 3 2 1 6 5 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 1

(x

2)2

y
2 3

x2
4 5 6 x

The graph of a quadratic function of the form f 1x2 ax2 is a parabola that opens up when a 7 0 and opens down when a 6 0. If 0a 0 7 1, the graph of y x2 is stretched vertically by a factor of 0 a 0 . If 0 6 0 a 0 6 1, the graph of y x2 is shrunk vertically by a factor of 0a 0 .

Example 3
y 6 5 4 3 2 1 6 5 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 x

x2

f(x)

x2

A quadratic function of the form f 1x2 a1x h2 2 k has vertex (h, k). If a 7 0, the vertex represents the minimum point. If a 6 0, the vertex represents the maximum point.

Example 4
y 8 7 6 5 4 3 1 6 5 4 3 2 1 1 2 1 2 3 4 x

f (x)

(x

2)2

minimum point ( 2, 3) 2

Review Exercises

611

Section 8.5
Key Concepts

Vertex of a Parabola and Applications


Examples
Example 1 f 1x2 3x2 31x
2

Completing the square is a technique used to write a quadratic function f 1x2 ax2 bx c 1a 02 in the form f 1x2 a1x h2 2 k for the purpose of identifying the vertex (h, k).

6x 2x 2x 2x 12 2 1 12 4

11

2 12 3

11 11 11

31x2 31x 31x 33x


2

1 12 8
2

The vertex is 1 1, 82. Because a 3 7 0, the parabola opens upward and the vertex 1 1, 82 is a minimum point. The vertex formula finds the vertex of a quadratic function f 1x2 ax2 bx c 1a 02. The vertex is b 4ac b2 a , b 2a 4a or b b a ,fa bb 2a 2a Example 2 f 1x2 a x 5 4 21 52 5x2 b 2 5 2 2 5a b 5 2 4a b 5 1 1 5 4x 4 1 c 1

The vertex is 1 2, 1 2. Because a 5 6 0, the 5 5 parabola opens downward and the vertex 1 2, 1 2 is a 5 5 maximum point.

2 fa b 5

Chapter 8
Section 8.1

Review Exercises
10. Use the square root property to find the length of the sides of a square whose area is 81 in.2 11. Use the square root property to find the length of the sides of a square whose area is 150 in.2 Round the answer to the nearest tenth of an inch. For Exercises 1215, find the value of n so that the expression is a perfect square trinomial. Then factor the trinomial. 12. x2
10 in. h 10 in. 10 in.

For Exercises 18, solve the equations by using the square root property. 1. x
2

5 81 22 2 12 2 72 3

2. 2y

8 19 52 2 42 2 9 15

3. a2 5. 1x 7. 13y

4. 3b2 6. 12x 8. 31m

9. The length of each side of an equilateral triangle is 10 in. Find the height of the triangle. Round the answer to the nearest tenth of an inch.

16x 1 y 2

n n

13. x2 15. z2

9x 2 z 5

n n

14. y2

612

Chapter 8 Quadratic Equations and Functions

For Exercises 1621, solve the equation by completing the square and applying the square root property. 16. w2 18. 3x2 20. 2x2 4w 2x 12x 13 1 6 0 17. 4y2 19. b2 21. t2 12y 7 b 2 8t 2 25 0 13 0

a. Find the landing distance for a plane traveling 150 ft/sec at touchdown. b. If the landing speed is too fast, the pilot may run out of runway. If the speed is too slow, the plane may stall. Find the maximum initial landing speed of a plane for a runway that is 1000 ft long. Round to 1 decimal place. 42. The recent population (in thousands) of Kenya can be approximated by P1t2 4.62t2 564.6t 13,128, where t is the number of years since 1974. a. If this trend continues, approximate the number of people in Kenya in the year 2025. b. In what year after 1974 will the population of Kenya reach 50 million? (Hint: 50 million equals 50,000 thousand.)

Section 8.2
22. Explain how the discriminant can determine the type and number of solutions to a quadratic equation with rational coefficients. For Exercises 2328, determine the type (rational, irrational, or imaginary) and number of solutions for the equations by using the discriminant. 23. x2 25. z2 27. 10b 5x 23 1 6 17z 25b
2

24. 2y2 26. a2 28. 3x


2

3y a 15 1 0 0

Section 8.3
For Exercises 4352, solve the equations by using substitution, if necessary. 43. x 41x 61n 11y2 m2 t1 5 3p1 5 3 2 m 2 52 2 32 2 m 3 21x2 51x2 21 8 18 3 6 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0

For Exercises 2936, solve the equations by using the quadratic formula. 29. y2 31. 6a1a 33. b2 35. 32 4y 12 4 25 4x 1 10 3 b 5 x2 0 0 a 30. m2 32. 3x1x 34. k2 36. 8y 5m 32 0.4k y2 25 x 0.05 10 0 8

44. n 45. y4 46. 2m4 47. t2 5 48. p2 5 49. 2t t 1 m

For Exercises 3740, solve using any method.


37. 3x2 39. y2 4x 14y 6 46 38. b 8 2 b 12 2 3 4 11

50.

2 52 32 8 4 0 0

40. 1a

51. 1x2 52. 1x2

41. The landing distance that a certain plane will travel on a runway is determined by the initial landing speed at the instant the plane touches down. The function D relates landing distance in feet to initial landing speed s: D1s2 1 2 s 10 3s 22 for s 50

where s is in feet per second.

Review Exercises

613

Section 8.4
For Exercises 5360, graph the functions. 53. g1x2
3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 5 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 x

x2
y

54. f 1x2

x2
y 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 1 1 2

For Exercises 6162, write the coordinates of the vertex of the parabola and determine if the vertex is a maximum point or a minimum point. Then write the maximum or the minimum value. 61. t1x2 1 1x 3 5 1x 7 42 2 5 3 1 7

62. s1x2

12 2

3 4

For Exercises 6364, write the equation of the axis of symmetry of the parabola. 63. a1x2 3 ax 2 4 ax 3 2 2 b 11 3 2 b 16 4 13 2 9

55. h1x2
y 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 2 1 1 2 1 2

1x

52

56. k1x2

1x
y 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

32

64. w1x2

Section 8.5
1 2 3 x

3 4

5 6 7 8

5 4

1 2 3

For Exercises 6568, write the function in the form f 1x2 a1x h2 2 k by completing the square. Then write the coordinates of the vertex. 65. z1x2 66. b1x2 67. p1x2 x2 x2 5x2 3x2 6x 4x 7 44 10x 24x 13 54

57. m1x2
y 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

2x2

58. n1x2
y 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 6

4x2

1 2

3 4

1 2

3 4

68. q1x2

For Exercises 6972, find the coordinates of the vertex of each function by using the vertex formula. 69. f 1x2 70. g1x2 71. m1x2 72. n1x2
1 2 3 x

2x2 4x2 3x2 3x2

4x 8x 3x 2x

17 3 11 7 1x 22 2 4

59. p1x2
y 1 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2

21x

52 2

60. q1x2

41x
y 5 4 3 2 1

32 2

3 4

5 6 7 8

5 4 3

2 1

73. For the quadratic equation y

1 2 3 4 5

a. Write the coordinates of the vertex. b. Find the x- and y-intercepts.

614

Chapter 8 Quadratic Equations and Functions

c. Use this information to sketch a graph of the parabola.


y 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 x

74. The height of a projectile fired vertically into the air from the ground is given by the equation h1t2 16t2 96t, where t represents the number of seconds that the projectile has been in the air. How long will it take the projectile to reach its maximum height? 75. The weekly profit for a small catering service is 4x2 1200x, where x is the given by P1x2 number of meals prepared. Find the number of meals that should be prepared to obtain the maximum profit.

Chapter 8

Test
12. A circular garden has an area of approximately 450 ft2. Find the radius. Round the answer to the nearest tenth of a foot. For Exercises 1315, solve the equation by using substitution, if necessary. 13. x 15. 13y 16. p4 6 0 82 30 14. y2/3 0 17. 3 y 2 1 y 1 2y1/3 8 1x

For Exercises 13, solve the equation by using the square root property. 1. 1x 32 2 12 2 25 1 2. 1p 22 2 12 3. 1m

4. Find the value of n so that the expression is a perfect square trinomial. Then factor the trinomial d2 7d n. For Exercises 56, solve the equation by completing the square and applying the square root property. 5. 2x
2

82 2 15p2

1313y 54

12x

36

6. 2x

3x

7 For Exercises 1821, find the x- and y-intercepts of the function. Then match the function with its graph. 18. f1x2 19. k1x2 20. p1x2 21. q1x2 a. 1 x3
y 25 20

For Exercises 78 a. Write the equation in standard form ax2 bx c 0. b. Identify a, b, and c. c. Find the discriminant. d. Determine the number and type (rational, irrational, or imaginary) of solutions. 7. x2 3x 12 8. y1y 22

x2 x3

6x 4x2 2x2 x2

8 9x 8x 12x b.
y 20 10 5 4 3 2 1 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 1 2 3 4 5 x

36 6

For Exercises 910, solve the equation by using the quadratic formula. 9. 3x2 10. x1x 4x 62 1 11 0 x
5 4 3 2 1

15 10 5 5 10 15 20 25 1 2 3 4 5 x

11. The base of a triangle is 3 ft less than twice the height. The area of the triangle is 14 ft2. Find the base and the height. Round the answers to the nearest tenth of a foot.

Test

615

c.

y 10 8 6 4 2

d.

y 10 8 6 4 2

27. Given the function defined by f 1x2 1x 42 2 2

a. Identify the vertex of the parabola.


2 4 6 8 10 x

10 8 6

2 4 6 8 10

4 6

8 10

10 8 6

2 4 6 8 10

b. Does this parabola open upward or downward? c. Does the vertex represent the maximum or minimum point of the function? d. What is the maximum or minimum value of the function f ? e. What is the axis of symmetry for this parabola? 28. For the function defined by g(x) 2x2 20x 51, find the vertex by using two methods. a. Complete the square to write g(x) in the form g(x) a(x h)2 k. Identify the vertex. b. Use the vertex formula to find the vertex. 29. A farmer has 400 ft of fencing with which to enclose a rectangular field. The field is situated such that one of its sides is adjacent to a river and requires no fencing. The area of the field (in square feet) can be modeled by A1x2 x2 2 200x

22. A child launches a toy rocket from the ground. The height of the rocket can be determined by its horizontal distance from the launch pad x by h1x2

h(x)

h(x) ft

x feet

x2 256

where x and h(x) are in feet. How many feet from the launch pad will the rocket hit the ground? 23. The recent population (in millions) of India can be approximated by P1t2 0.135t2 12.6t 600, where t 0 corresponds to the year 1974. a. If this trend continues, approximate the number of people in India in the year 2014. b. Approximate the year in which the population of India reached 1 billion (1000 million). (Round to the nearest year.) 24. Explain the relationship between the graphs of y x2 and y x2 2. 25. Explain the relationship between the graphs of y x2 and y (x 3)2.

where x is the length of the side parallel to the river (measured in feet).

26. Explain the relationship between the graphs of y 4x2 and y 4x2.

Use the function to determine the maximum area that can be enclosed.

616

Chapter 8 Quadratic Equations and Functions

Chapters 18
1. Given: A a. Find A B. 12x2

Cumulative Review Exercises


52, 8, 12, 166 B. 11. Solve the equation. 12. Solve the equation. 1x 2x2 32 2 5x 16 1 0 0 b. Find A 1x

52, 4, 6, 8, 106 and B

2. Perform the indicated operations and simplify. 52 3215x 1 a b 2


3

22 811
2

13. What number would have to be added to the quantity x2 10x to make it a perfect square trinomial? 14. Factor completely. 15. Graph the line. 3x 5y 10 2x3 250
y 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 x

3. Simplify completely.

40

4. Perform the indicated operations. Write the answer in scientific notation: 13.0 1012 2 16.0 x3 10 3 2

5. a. Factor completely. 6. Multiply. 1 1x 1x3 7. Simplify.

2x2 122

9x

18

b. Divide by using long division. Identify the quotient and remainder. 2x2 4 12x 1221 1x 9x 182 1x 32

16. a. Find the x-intercepts of the function defined by g1x2 2x2 9x 10. b. What is the y-intercept of y g1x2?

8. Jacques invests a total of $10,000 in two mutual funds. After 1 year, one fund produced 12% growth, and the other lost 3%. Find the amount invested in each fund if the total investment grew by $900. 9. Solve the system of equations. 1 x 9 x 1 y 3 1 y 2 9 2 13 9

17. Michael Jordan was the NBA leading scorer for 10 of 12 seasons between 1987 and 1998. In his 1998 season, he scored a total of 2357 points consisting of 1-point free throws, 2-point field goals, and 3-point field goals. He scored 286 more 2-point shots than he did free throws. The number of 3-point shots was 821 less than the number of 2-point shots. Determine the number of free throws, 2-point shots, and 3-point shots scored by Michael Jordan during his 1998 season. 18. Explain why this relation is not a function.

10. An object is fired straight up into the air from an initial height of 384 ft with an initial velocity of 160 ft/sec. The height in feet is given by h1t2 16t2 160t 384

1 2 3

4 5 6

where t is the time in seconds after launch. a. Find the height of the object after 3 sec. b. Find the height of the object after 7 sec. c. Find the time required for the object to hit the ground.

Cumulative Review Exercises

19. Graph the function defined by f 1x2


y 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 x

1 . x

25. Solve.

28x

5 1 p 1 q

22x 1 f 1 8 4 t 4

617

26. Solve for f.

27. Solve.

15 2t y

2 t 2

28. Simplify.

y y 4

20. The quantity y varies directly as x and inversely as z. If y 15 when x 50 and z 10, find y when x 65 and z 5. 21. The total number of flights (including passenger flights and cargo flights) at a large airport can be approximated by F 1x2 300,000 0.008x, where x is the number of passengers. a. Is this function linear, quadratic, constant, or other? b. Find the y-intercept and interpret its meaning in the context of this problem. 12 x, 22. Given the function defined by g1x2 find the function values (if they exist) over the set of real numbers. c. What is the slope of the function and what does the slope mean in the context of this problem? a. g1 72 23. Let m1x2 1x b. g(0) 4 and n1x2 c. g(3) x
2

29. Given: the function defined by f(x)

2(x

3)2

a. Write the coordinates of the vertex. b. Does the graph of the function open upward or downward? c. Write the coordinates of the y-intercept. d. Find the x-intercepts, if possible. e. Sketch the function.
y 20 16 12 8 4 10 8 6 4 2 4 8 10 12 2 4 6 8 10 x

30. Find the vertex of the parabola. f 1x2 x2 16x 2

2. Find

a. The domain of m 24. Consider the function y Find


y 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 1

b. The domain of n f 1x2 graphed here.

3 4

a. The domain c. f 1 22 d. f(1)

b. The range e. f(0) 0?

f. For what value(s) of x is f 1x2