UNIT-3 Question Bank

Short Answer Type Questions 1. Define the following Term: a) Secure Electronic Transaction Secure Electronic Transaction (SET) was a standard protocol for securing credit card transactions over insecure networks, specifically, the Internet. SET was not itself a payment system, but rather a set of security protocols and formats that enabled users to employ the existing credit card payment infrastructure on an open network in a secure fashion. However, it failed to gain traction. VISA now promotes the 3-D secure scheme. b) E-Cash Electronic cash is the debit card system of the German Central Credit Committee, the association which represents the top German financial interest groups. Usually paired with a checking account, cards with an Electronic Cash logo are only handed out by proper credit institutions. An electronic card payment is generally made by the card owner entering their PIN (Personal Identification Number) at a so-called EFT-POSterminal (Electronic-Funds-Transfer-Terminal). The name “EC” originally comes from the unified European checking system Euro cheque. Comparable debit card systems are Maestro and Visa Electron. Banks and credit institutions who issue these cards often pair EC debit cards with Maestro functionality. c) Protocol Protocols exist at several levels in a telecommunication connection. For example, there are protocols for the data interchange at the hardware device level and protocols for data interchange at the application program level. In the standard model known as Open Systems Interconnection (OSI), there are one or more protocols at each layer in the telecommunication exchange that both ends of the exchange must recognize and observe. Protocols are often described in an industry or international standard. d) Electronic Cheque System An e-Cheque is an electronic document which substitutes the paper check for online transactions. Digital signatures (based on public key cryptography) replace handwritten signatures. The e-Cheque system is designed with message integrity, authentication and non-repudiation features, strong enough to prevent fraud against the banks and their customers.

In an encryption scheme. to randomly produce keys. There are two basic types of encryption schemes: private-key encryption and public-key encryption. all encryption schemes have been private-key schemes. shipping address and credit card details.). in public-key schemes. that usually requires a secret decryption key. Thus communicating parties must agree on a secret key before they wish to communicate. anyone (friend or foe) has access to the encryption key. f) Credit Cards A credit card is a payment card issued to users as a system of payment. By contrast. which specifies how the message is to be encoded. turning it into an unreadable cipher text (ibid. For technical reasons. in one central place. an encryption scheme usually needs a key-generation algorithm. . However only the receiving party has access to the decryption key and thus is the only one capable of reading the encrypted messages. but that authorized parties can.The issuer of the card creates a revolving account and grants a line of credit to the consumer (or the user) from which the user can borrow money for payment to a merchant or as a cash advance to the user. It allows the cardholder to pay for goods and services based on the holder's promise to pay for them. Also. Differentiate between Public & Secret Key Encryption. is able to decode the cipher text using a decryption algorithm. Ans. and can encrypt messages. that adversaries do not have access to. however. Public-key encryption is a relatively recent invention: historically. passwords.e) Electronic Wallet An online wallet is a program or web service that allows users to store and control their online shopping information. like logins. In private-key schemes. What is Encryption? Explain the Encryption Policies in E-commerce. the message or information (referred to as plaintext) is encrypted using an encryption algorithm. the encryption and decryption keys are the same. Any adversary that can see the cipher text should not be able to determine anything about the original message. the encryption key is public: that is.encryption is the process of encoding messages (or information) in such a way that eavesdroppers or hackers cannot read it. An authorized party. This is usually done with the use of an encryption key. Long Answer Type Questions 1.

text. Censorship is the suppression of speech or other public communication which may be considered objectionable. I urge that the new provisions also be considered in view of congressional regulation of art funded by the National Endowment for the Arts. an important part of the Internet. and to protect intellectual property. It may or may not be legal. When the originating user sends information via public-key encryption. or other controlling body. Many countries provide strong protections against censorship by law." The visual images possible through the graphics capabilities on the World Wide Web. along with television. television. harmful. films. are better understood by comparison with art galleries. and books. the computer uses a second encryption key to decode the data back into plain text content. media outlet. the computer changes the content to cipher. to prevent slander and libel. intent. books. . but none of these protections are absolute and it is frequently necessary to balance conflicting rights in order to determine what can and cannot be censored. radio. Private-key encryption requires Public-key encryption gains its name from protection of not only the original data but of this fact. the encryption key itself 2. to promote or restrict political or religious views. or coded. When the receiver downloads the information. one of the keys can be public key become known to parties with malicious without compromising the secure connection. The effectiveness of private-key encryption Because public-key encryption uses two is more easily compromised should the single separate keys. or inconvenient as determined by a government. Explain the concept of Internet Indecency & Censorship Ans-Legal scholars and lawyers analyzing new prohibitions on "obscenity" and "indecency" on the Internet have focused primarily on the legal precedents from broadcasting and telephones. and telephones. including prohibitions on the funding of "indecency. to control obscenity. the press. It occurs in a variety of different contexts including speech. sensitive. It can be done by governments and private organizations or by individuals who engage in self-censorship. music. and the Internet for a variety of reasons including national security. films and other arts. child pornography. to protect children. and hate speech.SECRET KEY ENCRPTION Secret-key cryptography requires both users (or the computers of the users) to share the same encryption key because this method uses the same key for both encryption and decryption PUBLIC KEY ENCRYPTION Public-key encryption uses two keys. radio.

Discuss the salient features of IT 2000 Act. there was a 2-year confidential period -post registration -which prohibited taking inspection/certified copy of any entry in the records. A Design registration has been brought within the domain of the public records right from the date it is physically placed on the Register. Under the previous law. a Design registration can now be obtained for new or original features of shape. 3. . India is a member of WTO. A Design registration would be valid for 10 years (from the date of registration which is also the date of application) renewable for a further period of 5 years. Under the previous law. 8. A provision claiming priority from a Design application filed in any Convention country has been introduced. International classification based upon Locarno classification has been adopted wherein the classification is based on articles -the subject matter of design. A concept of "absolute novelty" has been introduced whereby a 'novelty' would now be judged based on prior publication of an article not only in India but also in other countries. 2. no provision relating to restoration upon expiration of the Design registration was provided. the position was ambiguous. configuration pattern. whether in 2 or 3 dimensions or both. Under the previous Act. Paris convention and has also signed Patent Cooperation Treaty. As a result members to these conventions can claim priority rights. Under the previous law the validation period was 5 years which was extendable for 2 terms of 5 years each.3. 5. Cancellation of a Design registration under the new law is possible only before the Controller and there are a couple of additional grounds which have been recognized:(a) The subject matter of Design not registerable under the Act (b) The subject matter does not qualify as a 'Design' under the Act. 6. 7. In the previous Act. the cancellation was provided for before the Controller within 12 months from registration on limited grounds and in the High Court within 12 months or thereafter. Any member of public can take inspection of the records and obtain a certified copy of the entry. Ans-1. 4. Under new law. ornamentation or composition of lines or colours as applied to an article. Under the previous law a 'Design' was classified on the basis of the material of which the article was made. A Design registration can be restored within a year from its last date of expiry.

credit. it has been made mandatory to have the same registered with the Authorities within six months from the date of execution or within an extended time period of six months. backgrounds. Weaknesses might include lack of expertise. Weaknesses Note the weaknesses within your business. Strengths include the positive attributes of the people involved in the business. or the skills they bring. Weaknesses capture the negative aspects internal to your business that detract from the value you offer. manufacturing. and organizational structure. lack of access to skills or technology. Strengths capture the positive aspects internal to your business that add value or offer you a competitive advantage. The more accurately you identify your weaknesses. or project team that give it an advantage over others  Weaknesses (or Limitations): are characteristics that place the team at a disadvantage relative to others  Opportunities: external chances to improve performance (e. They are within your control. This is your opportunity to remind yourself of the value existing within your business. education. make greater profits) in the environment  Threats: external elements in the environment that could cause trouble for the business or project Strengths Strengths describe the positive attributes. and other valuable resources within the business. What is SWOT Analysis? Explain its elements with the help of an example. copyrighted materials. credentials. As regards assignment of Design registration under the new law. such as marketing. finance. inferior service offerings. patents. established customers. including their knowledge. Under the new Act. internal to your organization. 10. reputations. Opportunities. and Threats involved in a project or in a business venture. limited resources.g. or the poor location of your business. tangible and intangible. Strengths also include tangible assets such as available capital. existing channels of distribution. a District Court has been given power to transfer a case to the High Court -having jurisdiction -in the event the Defendant challenges the validity of Design registration. Weaknesses are factors that are within your control that detract from your ability to obtain or maintain a competitive edge. You may want to evaluate your strengths by area.SWOT analysis (alternately SWOT Matrix) is a strategic planning method used to evaluate the Strengths. information and processing systems. These are factors that are under your control. These are areas you need to enhance in order to compete with your best competitor.  Strengths: characteristics of the business. are in need of improvement to effectively accomplish your marketing objectives. the more valuable the SWOT will be for your assessment. Ans. .9. equipment. It involves specifying the objective of the business venture or project and identifying the internal and external factors that are favorable and unfavorable to achieve that objective. Weaknesses/Limitations. 4. contacts. but for a variety of reasons. or place you at a competitive disadvantage.

These are also external – you have no control over them. financial transactions. and in other cases where it is important to detect forgery or tampering. A valid digital signature gives a recipient reason to believe that the message was created by a known sender. or services obsolete. Digital signatures are commonly used for software distribution. at risk. Threats What factors are potential threats to your business? Threats include factors beyond your control that could place your marketing strategy. Part of this list may be speculative in nature. you will want to classify them as strengths.In some countries. What is digital Signature? Explain Ans. If you have identified “opportunities” that are internal to the organization and within your control. further. Digital signatures employ a type of asymmetric cryptography. and still add value to your SWOT analysis 5. but properly implemented digital signatures are more difficult to forge than the handwritten type. A threat is a challenge created by an unfavourable trend or development that may lead to deteriorating revenues or profits. governmental regulation. but you may benefit by having contingency plans to address them if they should occur. devastating media or press coverage. equipment. resolution of problems associated with current situations.A digital signature or digital signature scheme is a mathematical scheme for demonstrating the authenticity of a digital message or document. but not all electronic signatures use digital signatures. or the ability to offer greater value that will create a demand for your services. electronic signatures have legal significance. while also claiming their private key remains secret. India. Digital signature schemes in the sense used here are cryptographically based. or the business itself. and must be implemented properly to be effective. meaning that the signer cannot successfully claim they did not sign a message. positive market perceptions about your business. Other threats may include intolerable price increases by suppliers. Opportunities are external to your business. including the United States. These opportunities reflect the potential you can realize through implementing your marketing strategies. What situations might threaten your marketing efforts? Get your worst fears on the table. Competition – existing or potential – is always a threat. Opportunities may be the result of market growth. Digital signatures are often used to implement electronic signatures. For messages sent through a no secure channel. and members of the European Union. lifestyle changes. some non-repudiation schemes offer a time stamp for the . a shift in consumer behaviour that reduces your sales. Digital signatures are equivalent to traditional handwritten signatures in many respects. economic downturns. Digital signatures can also provide non-repudiation. a properly implemented digital signature gives the receiver reason to believe the message was sent by the claimed sender.Opportunities Opportunities assess the external attractive factors that represent the reason for your business to exist and prosper. or the introduction of a “leap-frog” technology that may make your products. and that it was not altered in transit. a broader term that refers to any electronic data that carries the intent of a signature.

. or a message sent via some other cryptographic protocol. . so that even if the private key is exposed. Digitally signed messages may be anything represent able as a bit string: examples include electronic mail.digital signature. the signature is valid. contracts.

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