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4. Topography of the Areas Surveyed in Syria
Since our object was the discovery of cave sites, we investigated mainly Jebel Aabd el Aaziz (Fig. 6), Palmyra region (Fig. 8), Jebel Maaloula (Fig. 9), and Jebel Ansarieh (Fig. 10) and Jebel ed Drouz (Fig. 11),
Fig.-6 Topographical map of Jebel Aabd el Aaziz
u-tokyo.1 Page 2 of 11 Fig.ac.html 7/21/2012 .jp/publish_db/Bulletin/no01/no01006.Bulletin No. eliminating the Valleys less than 2km wide http://www.-8 The Summit Lebel map of Palmyra region.um.
html 7/21/2012 .Bulletin No.u-tokyo.um.1 Page 3 of 11 http://www.jp/publish_db/Bulletin/no01/no01006.ac.
Bulletin No.ac.u-tokyo.jp/publish_db/Bulletin/no01/no01006.um.html 7/21/2012 .1 Page 4 of 11 http://www.
um.ac. running in an east-west direction for over 60 km and from 10 to 15 km wide. Its geological structure is an anticlinal mountain. The main ridge of 700 to 900 m in height is situated in the northern http://www. Nahr Khabour. in the northeastern part of Syria.u-tokyo. Its highest peak is 920 m the mountain does not undulate much.1 Page 5 of 11 (a) Jebel Aabd el Aaziz This is a block mountain between the Euphrates and its tributary.Bulletin No. continuing from Jabal Sinjar in the western part of Mosul in Iraq.html 7/21/2012 .jp/publish_db/Bulletin/no01/no01006.
although the difference in the thickness has nothing to do with the topography. while its southern slope is gentle. has deep eroded valleys. with less than 10°. The investigated area is the summit of Aabd el Aaziz mountain ridge in the east. and 100 m from the cliff the average diameter ranges between 6 to 8 cm.1 Page 6 of 11 part. The obsequent valleys. Therefore. but cave formation is poor. Wadi Jaafar. covering every wadi and northern slope. and are not suitable for cave formation. 6). However. there are Wadi Marhlouja. 7. dipping toward the north with less than 5°. Near Cheikh Aabd el Aaziz. As is clear from the northsouth direction projected profiles in Fig.um. Wadi Rhara.ac. they become a flat surface with less than 2° dip toward the north. the steep cliff recedes with considerable speed. From the abovementioned reason. etc. Wadis erode the upper steep slope 5 to 10 m deep. Due to erosion of the wadis and weathering. which rises symmetrically. most widely distributed in the northern part of the mountains. This area. marl. but less in the middle gentle slope. Wadi Soussa. The deposits farther away from the steep cliff. For instance. Wadi el Khazne. and the slope which continues on from the edge of the cliff ranges from 20° to 30°. http://www.. and cave formation is poor. which erode deeply the steep cliff of the northern slope. our investigation was chiefly on the area along the wadis which cut the northern slope. and there are fewer wadis and they become shallower (Ph. to Wadi Jaafar in the west.u-tokyo. the thickness of Pleistocene deposits reaches 75 to 110m near Tell el Rhara. However. Cretaceous clayey limestone. all running north. The wadis are shallow also. and conglomerate from badland topography. compact limestone area. In the lower level.Bulletin No. the northern slope forms a steep cliff of 350 m height.jp/publish_db/Bulletin/no01/no01006. we investigated chiefly the Eocene organic. penetrate deep into the southern slope with headward erosion. because of the fault system running in an east-west direction. and boulders with maximum diameter of 5 m and average diameter of 40 cm a cover the bedrock for about a 5 m thickness. The slope below it makes a clear knick point. there is a great quantity of flint scattered all over the slope next to the steep cliff. are finer.html 7/21/2012 .
which branch out of the Anti-Lebanon Mountains.um. 8 (Ph. Jebel el Marah.350 m high. consist of several mountains which run in a northeast-southwest direction. as partly shown in Fig.ac. The altitude of the mountains themselves is 1. and base level varies depending upon the location of the mountain block.jp/publish_db/Bulletin/no01/no01006.Bulletin No. 8). and Jebel el http://www. its drainage pattern is not clear. Although there are two paralleling mountain ranges near Palmyra. 1.300 m and the differences of altitude at its foot reach 500 to 700 m. 1.250 m high. since this is an inland area.000 to 1.html 7/21/2012 . Besides. in the rest of the places it is only block mountain and does not form a range.u-tokyo.1 Page 7 of 11 (b) Palmyra Region The Palmyrides. The center of this area is Jebel Abou Rejmeine.
Opportunity was given us also to investigate a few Tells around el Kaum.100 to 1. etc. 10). Geologically. http://www. However. Wadi ez Zkara. and Dahr Rouaissafe Abou Fares. conglomerate. Jebel ed Douara. the newly discovered sites which we investigated were nothing but small caves and shelters made of Paleogene limestone. is 1. Wadi ez Zkara drainage basin.. etc. but it might also indicate that in connection with the quality of rock which forms caves. Jurassic. Jebel el Abiad. 9) (Ph. and marl. Cretaceous limestone. sandstone. Jebel el Douara. Jebel Haiyane. clay. Jebel ed Douara.html 7/21/2012 . and therefore we carried on quite detailed investigations around the southern slope of Jebel Mqeita (Ph. and do not form a clear range system. are lower than the main ridge. It is a wide area. Jebel Qettar. and all these mountains are accordant. Dissected fans with different levels were frequently found below the steep cliffs of Jebel Mqeita. northeast of Palmyra. Paleogene limestone was more suitable in this area. Wadi el Ahmar.1 Page 8 of 11 Abiad. geomorphic development and prehistorical remains in the Pleistocene. with some foldings.um.150 m high. dolomite which form folds and faults make up Jebel ett Taniyet Sahle.u-tokyo. which constitute the main range of the Palmyrides. etc. clay. Jebel Abou Rejmeine. This would naturally depend upon the condition of the area where the caves were situated. they consist of Paleogene-Neogene limestone. offering an interesting area in which to study the relationship of climatic change.ac. The prehistory of the Palmyra region has been unexplored. marl. on which we placed the most emphasis.jp/publish_db/Bulletin/no01/no01006.Bulletin No.
are called the Palmyrides.jp/publish_db/Bulletin/no01/no01006. and run paralled with the main range up to the neighbourhood of Nebek.000 to 2.Bulletin No. Jebel Maaloula 1. and Jebel Chemal 1.800 to 1.um. All of http://www. which branch out of the Anti-Lebanon Mountains near Damascus.u-tokyo. etc.ac.1 Page 9 of 11 (c) Anti-Lebanon Mountains Range Jebel Maaloula. The Anti-Lebanon Mountains are 2.600 to 1.700 m high.html 7/21/2012 . Jebel Chemal.600 m high.900 m high.
Cretaceous limestone. the main ridge is situated in the easternmost part. The mountains in the north of Banias are 1. Every mountain is extremely dissected. it is extremely difficult to determine their geological age. and falls sharply to the lowland called Ghab.u-tokyo. just as in the case of the Lebanon Mountains. Because Pliocene basalt flow is dammed up at Jisr ech http://www. the height drops. they form Questa topography (Ph. so that the topographybecome complicated. 10. 9. Paleogene limestone. and downstream. but farther from the main range. which flows to the south of Lattakia. As shown in Fig. clay and dolomite form anticlinal ridges. just like the mountain range. We investigated Nahr Barada near Draij along the Wadi el Rih. it dips westward. and Wadis on the northern side of Skifta Valley in Yabroud. and are separated from the Lebanon Mountains by the depression of Tripoli-Homs. In the depression between northern Jebel Ansarieh and the mountains consisting of Triassic rocks in the north of Nahr el Kebir. which intermittently continues from Bekka valley.um.html 7/21/2012 . In the center of Ghab.000 to 1. too. But the base level in the inland drainage basins naturally varies depending upon where it is.Bulletin No. are distributed in belts.jp/publish_db/Bulletin/no01/no01006. 12). The Nahr el Kebir flows in the middle of a syncline. limestone.ac.500 m high. Cretaceous. the Orontes runs north. sedimentary rocks of Miocene transgression are found. dolomite. and Jurassic dolomite. the topography gently slopes down toward the west.000 to 1.Pliocene. (d) Jebel Ansarieh and Ghab (Coastal Area) Jebel Ansarieh are mountains which run approximately parallel with the Mediterranean coast from the border of Turkey. peridotite and serpentine. The area north of Nahr el Kebir. but as a whole. consists of Triassic olivinite. so that even if cave sites arediscovered. many eroded valleys on western slope of Jebel Maaloula. there are thick Pliocene sediments. and Jebel Dmeir at the southeasternmost part is 1.1 Page 10 of 11 these mountains are accordant.100 m high. Volcanic activitysouth of Banias caused the flow of basalt during the . Geologically. In this area. sandstone. marl. theyfrom 400 to 600 m high mountains. As shown in Fig. by a clear steep cliff. accompanied by intensive folding and faulting. Reflecting the geological structure. developing three river terraces in the downstream area.
11. Nahr el Kandil and Nahr Aarab. As shown in the projected profiles of Fig. 11).um. where Palaeolithic sites have not yet been discovered. and the western and eastern walls of Ghab were surveyed.100 m. Jebel ed Drouz is as high as 1.800 m. Nahr Banias. Nahr el Kich. Nahr el Qaqi.000 to 1. Previous page | Index page of Bulletin No. consisting of Eocene limestone. No promising site was discovered. So we conducted only surface collection near Taibe. it had become a swamp. Because of time limitations. Nahr el Snoubar. Nahr el Kebir (Ph.u-tokyo. it possesses a knick point at 1. and report of VAN LIERE (1964) on Nahr el Kebir. between Deraa and Bosra. marl and clay.html 7/21/2012 . but now a drainage arrangement has turned it into excellent arable land in recent years. we found out that this mountain was an area where cave formation was extremely poor due to the numerous basalt eruptions between the Pleistocene and Holocene. but in view of the condition of the Lebanon coast. there is a great possibility that this area will yield prehistoric sites if more detailed investigations are conducted.1 | Next page http://www. Nahr el Qass.jp/publish_db/Bulletin/no01/no01006.1 Page 11 of 11 Chorhour. But the slope below it dips gently toward the mountains at the border of Jordan. but the valley development is poor because of the basalt flow. East of Ghab is a part of the undulating Syrian desert. We surveyed only the western slope of the mountains near BosraSoueida-Chahba and hardly any cave sites were discovered.ac.Bulletin No. we covered this vast area mainly from the car window. (e) Other Areas We had intended to investigate Jebel ed Drouz. However. Nahr Hraissoun.
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