Food Mayonnaise Baby food Bread Buns Meat sausages Meat rolls and loaves Ketchup Soups Snacks

Pizza sauces Sauces Low fat foods Noodles

Beverage Soft drinks Beer Alcohol Coffee Jelly gums High-boiled sweets Jellies Marchmallows Marmalade Jam

Animal Feed Pellets By products

Plastic Biodegradable plastic

Building Mineral fibre Tablets tiles Dusting powder Gypsum board Concrete Gypsum plaster


Confectionery Agriculture
Seed coating Fertiliser

Warp Fabrics Yarns

Corrugated board

Foundries Water treatment

Cardboard Paper Printing paper Packaging material

Coal Detergent Oil drilling Stain remover Glue Foamed starch

Fermentation Non-Wowen
Vinegar Enzymes Hygienic diapers Baby diapers Sanitary napkins

Ice cream
Dairy cream Fruit fillings

FOOD Application Snacks. High amylose cornstarch is also used in extruded and fried snack products to obtain crisp, evenly browned product and hampers penetration of cooking oils. High amylose cornstarch requires higher cooking temperatures, typically 150-170 oC, to gelatinise properly. Tapioca starch exhibits good clarity and bland flavour. It has good film-forming characteristics with resistance to cracking and chipping. It may be used at a concentration of twenty per cent. The film-forming properties of Tapioca dextrins make it effective as a replacement for gum Arabic in the pan coating of confections. This dextrin can be used as a non-tacky glaze for cakes, donuts, fruit, nuts and candies. go to top Baking. High maltose and high conversion syrups improve moisture retension and colour control in final product. Dextrose syrup improve crust and doug properties. High fructose syrups are used in frosting and fillings. Baby food. Maltodextrin and starch is used as a nutrient with low fermentability. Dextrose as an energy source Noodles. Adding potato starch or better a dual esterifed starch with low gelatinisation point and a high peak viscosity to noodles improves their consistency and mouthfeel. The starch will gelatinise and absorb water before the wheat flour takes over and dominate the viscosity profile. Sauces. A pizza sauce gets improved eye appeal and mouthfeel from a cold water swelling pregelatinized starch. A cross-linked instant starch is easy to disperse in cold mixtures or oil and adds a pulpy and richer look to fruit based sauces. Cross-linking imparts the starch with resistance in acid foods and will even allow retorting. Meat products. Modified waxy maize, potato or tapioca starch added at the chopping stage swells during heating and binds in poultry rolls and meat loaves as well as other cooked meats. The final texture will be firm and retained for prolonged periods. Starch may reduce drip during smoking of meats and weeping of vacuum packed foods. Starch is also used as a skim milk in replacer. go to top Low calorie foods. HFSS 90 is used in low calorie food applications, due to its high sweetening power to calorie ratio.

Tapioca based modified starch can be used as a fat mimetic in dairy systems due to its bland flavour. A low-fat product can be prepared with the organoleptic and textural properties of a traditional fat containing product. Beverages Soft drinks. High fructose starch-based syrup (HFSS), although originally introduced in 1967, it was the fructose level increase to 55% in 1978 which resulted in sugars loss of the soft drink market. HFSS can be produced at considerably lower costs than sugar, giving this product a competitive advantage over sugar. High fructose starch-based syrups (HFSS) are used for soft drinks as a sugar replacement with similar sweetness. HFSS 55, is a most concentrated sweetener used primarily in beverages. It is a direct replacement of sugar. HFSS 42, an all-purpose sweetener, does also find uses in beverages. HFSS stabilize the flavour profile. Beer. High maltose syrups find use as wort syrup in beer production. It is an excellent fermentation substrate and fermentation can be controlled by the sugar spectrum of the syrup. Some yeast species are sensitive to high concentrations of glucose but maltose does not have any suppression effect on yeast. Alcohol. Very high DE glucose syrups are used as a fermentation booster in alcohol fermentation. Dextrose syrup has the advantage, that it is completely used up and do not add to by-products and may improve throughput when capacity is exhausted. Instant coffee. Following conventional coffee cleaning and roasting the prepared coffee is ground and extracted in counter current column batteries using split or fraction technique to optimise yields or by using continuos extraction. The extract is concentrated in falling film evaporators or rotary thin film concentrators with final blending to produce a prime quality concentrate. A maltodextrin (low DE glucose syrup) may be added as a carrier or extender. The concentrate is conducted in a co-current nozzle tower and the coffee powder is discharged in cooled free-flowing form ready for packing. Further agglomeration produces a coarser product. go to top Confectionary Ice cream. Starch products are used as crystal and texture controller. High maltose and high conversion syrups control softness and freezing characteristics. Today's ice cream has the following composition: greater than 10% milkfat - usually between 10% and as high as 16% fat in some premium ice creams 9 to 12% milk solids-not-fat: this component contains the proteins (caseins and whey proteins) and carbohydrates (lactose) found in milk 12 to 16% sweeteners: usually a combination of sucrose and glucose syrup 0.2 to 0.5% stabilizers and emulsifiers 55% to 64% water which comes from the milk or other ingredients A sweet ice cream is usually desired by the consumer. As a result, sweetening agents are added to ice cream mix at a rate of usually 12 - 16% by weight. Sweeteners improve the texture and palatability of the ice cream, enhance flavors, and are usually the cheapest source of total solids. In addition, the sugars contribute to a depressed freezing point so that the ice cream has some unfrozen water associated with it at very low temperatures typical of their serving temperatures, -15 to -18 C. Without this unfrozen water, the ice cream would be too hard to scoop. It has become common in the industry to substitute all or a portion of the sucrose content with sweeteners derived from starch syrup. This sweetener is reported to contribute a firmer and more chewy body to the ice cream, is an economical source of solids, and improves the shelf life of the finished product. Starch syrup in either its liquid or dry form is available in varying

dextrose equivalents (DE). As the DE is increased by hydrolysis of the starch, the sweetness of the solids is increased and the average molecular weight is decreased. This results in an increase in the freezing point depression, in such foods as ice cream, by the sweetener. The lower DE starch syrup contains more dextrins which tie up more water in the mix thus supplying greater stabilizing effect against coarse texture. HFSS High fructose starch-based syrup can be used to a much greater extent in sucrose replacement. However, these HFSS further reduce the freezing point producing a very soft ice cream at usual conditions of storage and dipping in the home. A balance is involved between sweetness, total solids, and freezing point. go to top Confectionery. High conversion glucose syrups replase sucrose and imparts products with less hygroscopicity and a better viscosity profile. High maltose syrups controls moisture and texture in soft confections. Candy. High amylose cornstarch contains as much as 70% amylose compared to 25-28% in ordinary cornstarch. This makes it a particular strong gelling agent in the manufacture of fine jelly gum candies. High amylose cornstarch is used in combination with normal fluidity starches (thin boiling starches). Up to half the starch is commonly replaced by high amylose starch to obtain quick setting candy piece with an attractive texture. Tapioca speciality dextrins replaces from 20% to 40% of gum Arabic in some hard gum candies. High-Boiled Sweets. High-boiled sugar confectionery is expected not to be sticky or crystallised when reaching the consumer. The stability with respect to moisture pickup and stickiness depends on its ERH. The ERH of high- boiled sweets is approximately 30%, and since the atmospheric humidity is nearly always above this, there is a tendency to absorb moisture from the atmosphere. Initially this occurs on the surface, with a thin film of a solution of lower solids forming with a lower viscosity. This in turn leads to crystallization of the sucrose (graining). To produce highboiled sweets with a satisfactory shelf life, the final product must contain a minimum amount of residual moisture and the correct balance of sugar and glucose. To obtain a product with satisfactory texture and shelf life, a combination of sucrose and glucose in a 60:40 ratio is generally used. Medium conversion glucose syrup (42DE) is commonly used, which contains a wide range of simple to higher sugars. This is more resistant to water absorption from the atmosphere due to a raised ERH value and is less liable to grain, however, there are some downside effects - such as a higher viscosity, which makes the finished product difficult to crunch; the sweetness level is lower. Some of these can be overcome by the use of more specialized syrups such as High Maltose. The use of invert sugar as a doctor in high-boiled sweets has all but been replaced by glucose syrup. Glucose syrup (42 DE) exhibits a higher relative vapour pressure and at the levels required to prevent sugar crystallization, the invert sugar will cause serious stickiness due to hygroscopicity. go to top Marshmallows. As marshmallows have a soluble solids content of 78-80%, the prevention of crystallization depends on the choice of an effective doctor carbohydrate. The hygroscopic nature of these products is again influenced by the ERH and marshmallows have an ERH range of 65-75%. When considering an appropriate doctor for marshmallow, we find the use of invert sugar, 42DE glucose syrup and 63 DE glucose syrup. When comparing the relative vapour pressure, we find that where invert sugar is used, the relative vapour pressure (73.3%) is lower than when glucose syrups are used and therefore will pickup moisture from the atmosphere. This is important to remember if selling product in high humidity markets.

The use of 42 DE glucose will give lower moisture pickup, but may not deliver the desired sweetness or texture levels. It may be more desirable to use 63 DE glucose. This will retain more moisture and facilitate faster whipping, (due to a lower viscosity) and deliver a higher sweetness level. Marmalade and jam. For proper texture, jellied fruit products require the correct combination of fruit, pectin, acid, and sugar. Sugar serves as a preserving agent, contributes flavor, and aids in gelling. Cane and beet sugar are the usual sources of sugar for jelly or jam. Starch syrup may be used to replace part of the sugar in recipes, but too much will mask the fruit flavor and alter the gel structure. Too little sugar prevents gelling and may allow yeasts and molds to grow. Medium high glucose syrup - 63 DE - replaces sugar in marmalade and jam. To provide good shelf life a high sugar concentration is required and for the purpose a 63 DE syrup is preferred to the traditional 42 De syrup. High conversion syrups and HFS adds more sweetness and increase osmotic pressure (better shelf life). Canning. Maltodextrins and low conversions syrups add body to canned sauces. High conversion syrups add body and sweetness to canned fruit. HFS add seetness. Foundries. Starch is used as a core binder in castings (cast molds). go to top Animal feed. Starch is used as a binder and nutrient in animal feed pellets. Pulp wet as is like roughage or dried. The dried pulp finds some use as a moisture absorber in soft foods for fur animals and fish. Wheat gluten is used as a meat extender or replacer in pet food Potato protein is a valuable protein for fur animals and small pigs. Concrete. Starch finds use as a retarder in concrete. Starch products are used for reducing settime in cement. go to top Oil drilling. Pregelatinized starch is used to increase viscosity of drilling mud and to reduce fluid loss by sealing the walls of boreholes. Cross-linking imparts higher temperature stability. Starch ethers impart tolerance to polyvalent cations and sea water. Read more ... Gypsum & Mineral Fiber. Starch is used as a binder in gypsum plaster, gypsum and mineral fibre board. Nappy / Diaper. Starch is used as an adhesive. Diapers with superabsorbent gelling materials in their core has been developed with gelling materials capable of sequestering 80 times their weight of moisture. Starch based products may substitute high-molecular-weight, cross-linked sodium polyacrylate polymers as the absorbent. go to top Water. Starch products are used as flocculants in many industrial water treatment plants for flocculation purposes. Coal. Briquettes made of coal dust and fines are bound with starch as a binder Detergent. Starch finds use as a redeposition inhibitor of dirt once it has been released from the fabric. Pharmacy. Starch acts as a binder in pharmaceutical tablets and as a disintegrating agent as well. Special starch is used as dusting powder and surgical glove powder. go to top Agriculture. Copolymerizing starch with acrylonitril and alkaline hydrolysis gives a super absorbing polymer, "Super-Slurper" used for coating of seeds to improve presence of water for faster germination and to improve water capacity of soil for potted plants. go to top

cups etc or used as loose-fill for packaging. Zea Mays. Spread the starch round. warmer climates than found in the temperate zones to grow to maturity. Starch is is used for finishing fabrics to add feel. enzymes are also responsible for the re-conversion of starch to sugar released from the seed as energy for the growing plant. Thin-boiling starches is used as sizing on most paper. THE OCCURRENCE OF STARCH Starch makes up the nutritive reserves of many plants. the following spring. It can be used as packaging material or can be pressed into starch-based sheet for thin-walled products. Read more . disposable dishes.Stain remover. Card board may be produced by gluing liners together with a starch based glue. Foamed Starch. The conversion of sugar to starch takes place by means of enzymes. During the growing season. go to top Paper. Starch is used for for coating. Dusting powder consists of finely powdered substances free of grittiness.. They are used on normal intact skin prophylactically to reduce friction (talc) or moisture (starch). Native starch in mixture with pregelatinized starch is applied on top of the corrugated flute before lining. This energy is transported as a sugar solution to the starch storage cells. Thin-boiling starches are preferred.. stiffness or to provide a good printing surface. therefore a good replacement for polystyrene foam. Textile Starch is used for sizing yarn to improve abrasion resistance in fast looms. Starch can be environmentally friendly blown into a foamed material using water steam. is grown in most countries throughout the world.. Then.. using water for non-greasy stains and a grease solvent (see "for greasy marks"). such as trays. Plastics & Packaging. If a mark still remains after this. To remove a stain with an absorbent powder. It offers numerous disposal alternatives and can be a good substitute of CFCs-blown PS. and the sugar is converted to starch in the form of tiny granules occupying most of the cell interior. Cationic starches are used as wet-end additives improving filler retension and reducing effluent load. mix the powder to a paste. sprinkle a layer of starch powder over the stain. . then brush off. By cross-linking starch can be stand sterilising in autoclave and be used as surgical dusting powder. It requires. Foamed starch is antistatic. Leave standing till dry. Corrugated board. the green leaves collect energy from the sun. THE DIFFERENT KINDS OF CORN Corn. and as soon as it becomes gummy lift. however. insulating and shock absorbing. In plastics starches improve the biodegradability of plastic and finished products. shake or brush it off. Dusting powders. Read more . Repeat this until nothing further is being absorbed. The native starch acts as an instant glue with good tack when heat is applied.

It was the original corn grown by the Indians. FLOUR corn. It is similar to dent and is used for the same purposes. chaff and foreign material are removed.6-4.7 59. which has small ears and small pointed or rounded kernels with very hard corneous endosperm that. and form a white starchy mass many times the size of the original kernel. is also called "field" corn. or multicoloured kernels. Dent Corn Composition (15% Moisture Basis. or frozen. horny. The steeping is carried out . In South America this corn is grown in various colours to make food and beer. FLINT corn. INDIAN corn has white.7 5. dust. a subspecies (Zea Mays rugosa). also called "soft" corn or "squaw" corn. Most of it is grown in South America. It is occasionally considered a distinct species (Zea saccharata or Zea rugosa). or a specific mutation of dent corn.DENT corn. The cleaning is normally done twice before wet processing. are popped or everted by the expulsion of the contained moisture. the scientific name of which is Zea Mays Indentata. SWEET or "green" corn is eaten fresh. Zea Mays everta. It is distinguished by kernels containing a high percentage of sugar in the milk stage when they are suitable for table use. It is a major crop used to make food. canned.9 (%) 61. WAXY corn is a corn variety with grains that have a waxy appearance when cut. chips. It is a type of corn that is grown in many horticultural varieties. International Starch has a process for the extraction and refining of starch even from corn flour or mill by-products. and industrial products. STEEPING A proper steeping is essential for high yields and high starch quality. The corn is inspected and cob. on exposure to dry heat. This is the variety to be considered for cornstarch manufacturing. and is known by the scientific name Zea Mays.8 CLEANING The raw material for wet milling is shelled dent corn delivered in bulk. The USA grows small amounts of blue flour corn to make tortillas. has kernels shaped like those of flint corn and is composed almost entirely of soft starch.7 (%) 3. and baked goods. purple. animal feed. brown. POPCORN is a variety of corn. red. rounded. It is known by the scientific name Zea Mays amylacea.7-9. and that contains only branched-chain starch. USA) Number of Samples Protein Oil Starch 151 Average Range (%) 7. known by the scientific name Zea Mays indurata. It is grown to make special starches for thickening foods. or short and flat kernels with the soft and starchy endosperm completely enclosed by a hard outer layer.9-64. After cleaning the corn is transported to the steeps.3 2. It is a corn variety with kernels that contain both hard and soft starch and become indented at maturity. It is many times seen in harvest time and Halloween decorations. is a variety of corn having hard.

in a continuous counter-current process. are washed free from adhering starch and gluten (insoluble . The germs are washed repeatedly counter-currently on a three-stage screen to remove starch. Refined corn oil has a pleasant taste and does not develop off-flavours in cooking and frying. Process wash water is added at the last stage. The lightweight germs are separated from the ground slurry by hydrocyclones in a two step separation with regrinding in between. where the corn is soaked in hot water 30 to 48 hours to begin breaking the starch and protein bonds . A typical yield per ton corn is 27 kg corn oil. The crude oil is refined and filtered. A good steeping ensures that the germ will be freely released intact from the kernel by a gentle milling operation with no free oil.a valuable nutrient in the fermentation industry . The high content of polyunsaturated fats is a nutritional advantage. Low moisture content improves shelf life. while suppressing detrimental bacteria. During refining free fatty acids and phospholipids are removed. The steepwater is condensed to an auto-sterile product . GERM SEPARATION The soften kernels are broken up in attrition mills to loosen the hull and break the bonds between germ and endosperm. The condensate from the first evaporator stage will therefore be discharged after the heat is recovered by preheating the entering steepwater. and the germ is easy to separate by centrifugal force. The kernel swells to more than double size and increases its moisture content from about 15% to 45%. Sulphur dioxide improves the fermentation by enhancing growth of favourable micro-organisms. moulds. Solubles are extracted and the kernel softens.or concentrated to approximate 48% dry matter and mixed and dried with the fibre fraction. Because modern processes call for more strict and narrow dosage. The dewatered and clean germs are fed to a rotary steam tube bundle dryer and dried to approximate 4% moisture. Water is added to assist the wet milling. The steeping is actually a controlled fermentation. The gluten bonds within the corn begin to loosen and release the starch. fungi and yeast. hull and larger fibres. The cleaned corn is filled into a battery of large steeping tanks (steeps). GERM DRYING Surface water is removed from the germs by a tapered screw press. STEEPWATER EVAPORATION The steepwater containing approximately 10% dry substance is drained from the kernels and condensed on a multi-stage evaporator. The residual extracted corn germ meal is used in animal feeds or combined with the gluten feed. Most organic acids formed during the fermentation are volatile and evaporate with the water. Oil constitutes half the weight of the germ at this stage. preferably lactobacillus. The germs are cooled and pneumatically transported to a germ silo ready for bagging or oil extraction. SO2 The sulphur dioxide may be prepared by burning sulphur and absorbing the gas in water. a supply of sulphur dioxide gas under pressure is preferred or SO2 is replaced by sodium hydrogen bisulphite where no local gas supply is available. CORN OIL Mechanical presses and/or solvent extraction are used to extract the crude oil from the germ. where starch and gluten is screened off. FINE GRINDING AND SCREENING After germ separation the mill flow is finely ground in impact or attrition mills to release starch and gluten from the endosperm cell walls (fibres). The degerminated mill starch leaving the fine mill is pumped to the first stage of a fibre washing system. The finished corn oil finds uses as food and cooking oil or as raw material for margarine. The overs.

the incoming fresh water is used on the very last step and the overflow is reused for dilution on the previous step. The high xanthophyll content . gluten and solubles. Drying is facilitated by powder recycling. PRIMARY SEPARATION Crude starch milk from the dewatering screen ahead of the fine mill and from the first stage fibre washing are combined. i. The dried gluten is sold as corn gluten meal with 60% protein. STARCH REFINING Washing with fresh clean water refines the crude starch milk. The gluten separator splits the gluten fraction in two streams: Process water Overflow Gluten Underflow Multi-Stage Hydrocyclone Unit. The dried fibre are pelletized to reduce bulkiness and pneumatically transported to a silo ready for shipping. The fibre fraction is a valuable constituent of animal feeds.makes it an efficient pigmenting ingredient in poultry feeds. but require strict pH-adjustment to the iso-electrical point of the gluten.a gluten thickener.e. The decanter removes more water. and so on. is discharged to the gluten dewatering section. To save water the wash is done counter currently. The crude starch milk contains starch. The underflow. With hydrocyclones it is feasible to reduce fibre and solubles including soluble protein to low levels with a minimum of fresh water. By using . The last fibre washing stage has a slightly courser screen for pre-dewatering the fibre prior to a tapered screw press. It is a valuable source of methionine. FIBRE DRYING The dewatered fibres from the dewatering press may be mixed with concentrated steepwater and cakes from the oil press and dried to approximate 12% moisture. GLUTEN RECOVERY The gluten fraction from the primary separator is traditionally concentrated on a nozzle type continuous centrifugal separator . GLUTEN DEWATERING AND DRYING The gluten slurry is dewatered on a vacuum belt filter or decanter. A primary separator splits by gravity the mill stream in two fractions: Gluten Overflow Starch Underflow A mill stream thickener may be applied on the separator feed. Dewatering splits the gluten stream in: Process water Gluten (moist) The dewatered gluten is dried in a rotary steam tube bundle dryer to approximately 10% moisture and disintegrated in a hammer mill. which is mainly protein and a small amount of starch.typically 500 ppm .protein) on screens in counter-current with process wash water added at the last stage.

STARCH DEWATERING. pH. Actually. Starch is among the most pure of all agricultural products. The purified starch milk is discharged to a peeler centrifuge for dewatering. purity is the most important parameter in being competitive. . STARCH DRYING From the moist starch hopper the starch is fed by a metering screw conveyor into a flash dryer and dried in hot air. A most versatile principle comprises a three step wet modification: By applying different reaction conditions . fibres and starch: Although some impurities go with the starch in the means of a sieve . but centrifuges still hold a defensive position in gluten concentration. These speciality products are named modified starches. Many and sophisticated techniques are applied. but the modification has introduced improved qualities in the starch when cooked. Impurities not removed this way are not removable by any known technique. The refined starch milk contains an almost 100% pure starch slurred in pure water. there is . The moisture of cornstarch after drying is normally 12-13 %. The technological development and quality demands have forced centrifuges to give way for hydrocyclones in corn starch refining. film-forming ability etc. MODIFICATION Most starch is used for industrial purposes. Starch is tailor made to meet the requirements of the end-user giving rise to a range of speciality products. With a middling separator the overflow from the starch refining hydrocyclones may be refined into: Process water Overflow Starch Underflow In the strong gravitational fields of a hydrocyclones and a centrifuge. They still retain their original granule form and thereby resemble the native (unmodified) starch in appearance. The inlet air temperature is moderate.a last chance to remove the larger particles. Refining is based on the differences in weight density between water.multi stage hydrocyclones all soluble materials and fine cell residues are removed in a water saving process. viscosity. the starch settles quickly. The dewatered starch is batch-wise peeled off and discharged by gravity to the moist starch hopper. additives .temperature. The centrifuge obtains its gravitational force by spinning the bowl. The paste may have obtained improved clarity. Before delivery the starch is screened on a fine sieve in order to remove any scale formed in screw conveyors etc. The hydrocyclone has no moving parts and the separation is totally dependent on the pressure difference over the cyclone. The peeler filtrate is recycled to starch refining. The dried starch is pneumatically transported to a starch silo ready for screening and bagging.and strict process control speciality products with unique properties are made. CENTRIFUGES AND HYDROCYCLONES.

Corn Wet Milled Feed Products: Corn Germ Meal is a by-product from the extraction of oil. corrugated board etc. Corn Steep Liquor also known as condensed fermented corn extractives is a high protein ingredient. and it is down there that the sugar is converted to starch in the form of tiny granules occupying most of the cell interior. During the growing season. the green leaves collect energy from the sun. the tubers stay alive and need some air for respiration and life activity. Commercial cornstarch is used in the manufacture of sweeteners. enzymes are also responsible for the re-conversion of starch to sugar . corn germ meal and other process residuals. In the field or stored in clamps during winter.transported upwards as energy for the growing plant. but may be sold as is with approximate 23% protein and 50% dry substance for cattle feeds or as a pellet binder. Corn Gluten Meal is the dried gluten from the gluten concentration. starch has a multitude of applications. tablets. 75% of the potato crop is grown for industrial processing and the Danes produce per capita more starch than any other nation. It contains typically 20-21% protein and 90% dry matter. OCCURRENCE OF STARCH Starch constitutes the nutritive reserves of many plants. Per capita sweetener consumption is now evenly divided between sucrose and HFS. and paper. A typical yield per ton corn is 50 kg corn gluten meal with 60% protein and 89-90% dry substance. If this . sizing of paper and textile and as a food thickener and stabilizer. Corn Gluten Feed is a mixture of the hulls & fibre fraction with steepwater. Potatoes consume a small amount of their own starch during winter to maintain life functions until spring. THE BASIS FOR STARCH QUALITY IS LAID IN THE POTATO CLAMP. The by-products are valuable feed ingredients. and plays a prominent part in our everyday life. the tubers try to save their skin by extensive conversion of starch to sugar in order to lower the freezing point in the cell juice. Then next spring. Potato starch has been produced in Denmark on an industrial scale since 1900. The conversion of sugar to starch takes place by means of enzymes. If the surrounding temperature falls with a risk of frost. Starch finds uses in fast food. In potatoes this energy is transported as a sugar solution down to the tubers. It is often a constituent of corn gluten feed. This requires fresh air and the respiration causes generation of heat. sausages. In 2004 more than fifty percent of starch was converted to High Fructose Syrups (HFS). A typical yield per ton corn is 250 kg corn gluten feed with 18-22% protein and 89-90% dry substance.APPLICATION. Being a pure renewable natural polymer. sweets.

to the washing station. Potatoes therefore must be adequately covered when stored. the lesser the problems with stones and sand in the fluming channels later. The potato store is a necessity to secure the supply of potatoes overnight. sand and gravel are removed on a rotating screen before the potatoes are deposited in the store . Smashed potatoes loose a lot of juice. It is therefore of utmost importance to handle the potatoes during transport as carefully as possible with the techniques and equipment available. Every single blow damages cells. raising the temperature further. with fresh water added through pressure nozzles in the final step. EFFICIENT WASHING MAKES REFINING EASIER. which are disruptive for the process. Loose dirt. rotten spots. REFINING BEGINS ALREADY DURING RAW MATERIAL INTAKE. . in the worst case. skin and dirt from the surface.does not suffice. while the heavier stones are trapped and collected on a stone conveyor. The water level in the washing drum has to be kept low so that the potatoes do not float. The stone trap utilises the difference in specific weights between stones and potatoes . Supplies for the weekend may also be required because of restrictions on heavy road transport outside ordinary working hours. damage can be reduced by covering buffer silos with rubber and minimising drop impact with rubber curtains. The drum is not merely a conveyor.passing a stone trap . The soil also contains considerable quantities of nutrients. The ideal situation is to reach the bottom of the potato store every morning.the better the dirt removal. If the potatoes get warm. which will dissolve in the washing water and contribute to the environmental effect caused by the effluent. causing foam and unnecessary problems in the washing station. respiration increases. Damage during transport also causes quality problems. The washing is a counter current process. Supplies of bad potatoes have to be upstream water flow carries the potatoes over the stone trap. Soil and dirt not removed in the washing station give problems later. the tubers die. but also ensures that the potatoes rub vigorously against each other. A lot of starch is used for the respiration and the tubers will die of heat. dead and smashed potatoes. Unfavourable storage conditions cause starch losses and. The floating water may be recycled after settling of sand in pools. The rubbing is essential for the removal of fungi. with starch losses and a dead spot on the tuber as a result. because the potatoes suffer during long storage in thick layers without adequate ventilation. The potatoes are flumed by water in channels . The washing is therefore very important. During unloading at the factory. Drop damper for initial filling of empty store.

Operating Principle of a Starch Extractor. Water has previously been used for the extraction. The cell juice is rich in sugar and protein. The pulp leaves the dewatering sieves as drip. The extraction is a counter current process in which the pulp-dewatering screen is actually the last step. the number of spray nozzles with washing water is reduced. The slurry obtained can be considered as a mixture of pulp (cell walls). rasping is a one-pass operation only. The extraction takes place on rotating conical sieves. Sufficient sulphur has to be added to maintain the juice and pulp light yellow. reducing transport costs for its use as a fertiliser. where centrifugal power increases the capacity per unit of area. so washing the potatoes is the only way to get rid of them. Sulphur dioxide gas or sodium-bisulphite-solution therefore has to be added. Instead continuous back spraying is maintained to ensure that the dry pulp will slide down the screen. If the pulp is required in almost dry form. The flushed-out starch discharges from the extraction sieves along with the fruit juice.dry . approximately 8% dry matter. CONCENTRATING THE CRUDE STARCH SLURRY. RASPING. . When opening the cells the juice is instantly exposed to air and reacts with the oxygen.the cells are torn apart in the rasper and form a filtering mat that tries to retain the starch. forming coloured components. which will withstand abrasion and CIP-chemicals. which may adhere to the starch. The quantity of water used for fluming and washing is identical with the quantity of clean water applied in the final high-pressure spray. but today extraction takes place in closed systems allowing the use of the potato juice itself. The sieve plates have long perforations only 125 microns across. and the cell walls (pulp) are pumped to the pulp dewatering sieves. EXTRACTION. The quantity of impurities adhering to the potatoes on delivery depends to a great extent on weather conditions and on the soil where the potatoes are cultivated.i.e. USE OF SULPHUR. Powerful washing is needed to flush the starch granules out from the cells .A high standard of washing improves refining because many impurities resemble starch in specific density and size. With modern high-speed raspers. The high efficiency makes it feasible to utilise high quality sieve plates made of stainless steel. fruit juice and starch. A considerable reduction potential of the sulphur compounds prevents discoloration. It has the advantage that the juice can later be recovered in concentrated and undiluted form. Rasping is the first step in the starch extraction. The goal is to open the tuber cells and release the starch granules.

The concentrating stage typically consists of a unit with hydrocyclone blocks for defoaming. By creating a water flow moving towards the starch.e.05 1. REFINING It now remains to purify the crude starch milk (suspension) and remove residual fruit juice and wring and soak in clean water again and again. Refining is based on the difference in specific density of water. the incoming fresh water is used on the very last step and the overflow is recycled for dilution on the previous step and so on. The particles are not spherical.a last chance to remove the larger particles .55 1. In the recovery steps all starch has to be retained in the underflow so only very little is wasted in the effluent (fruit water).i.00 above 2 In the strong gravitational fields of a hydrocyclone and a centrifuge. concentrating and starch recovering arranged in series. HYDROCYCLONES. In the same way. Although some impurities go with the starch in the underflow. The starch leaves the concentrator as pumpable slurry of approximately 19 oBe. The juice is directly diluted in the water and goes with the water means of a sieve . there is . To save rinsing water the wash is done counter currently .On hydrocyclone unit as much juice is excreted as possible. On the contrary. lots of fibres just floating in the water may be forced into the overflow. Impurities not removed this way are not removable by any known technique.that is particles larger than 125 microns. starch settle quickly. while fibres (pulp residuals) just float in the water. are of equal density or heavier than starch and it is not possible to separate these particles from starch by centrifugal force . Everyone doing laundry realises how often it is necessary to wring before the rinsing water is completely clear and that the harder you wring the fewer rinsing steps are required. COOLING . sand Specific density g/ml 1. if the spray pressure is too high. Soil. fibres and starch: Starch Cell walls (fibres) Water Soil.that is why it is so important to remove as many impurities as possible from the potato surface in the washing station. they are of irregular shape and may be forced through refining sieve. The way it is done is more or less based on the same principles used when removing soap water from the laundry . the starch slurry is diluted and concentrated again and again. sand and many fungi etc.

The air is indirectly heated. because they still retain their original granule form and thereby resemble the native (unmodified) starch in appearance. sweets. DRYING AND SIFTING. The moist starch from the rotating vacuum filters is dried in a flash dryer with moderate hot air. Modification. Tanks are most efficiently CIP'ed with rotating disc nozzles . CIP . Many and sophisticated techniques are applied. To retard bacterial growth refrigerator temperatures are ideal. Starch finds uses in fast food. film-forming ability etc. and paper. Starch is tailor made to meet the requirements of the end-user giving rise to a range of speciality products. Cleaning in Place is done with caustic and hypochlorite as cleaning agents. sausages. Before delivery the starch is sifted on a fine sieve in order to remove any scale formed in screw conveyors etc. cooling during extraction is a must because in hot juice microbes that break down protein and a bad smell may take control. Being a pure renewable natural polymer starch has a multitude of applications Composition of potato starch . corrugated board etc.The lower the water consumption. additives . the more pumps are involved in the process and the more heat is generated. A most versatile principle comprises a three step wet modification: Preparation v Reaction v Finishing By applying different reaction conditions . Caustic is a powerful agent for removal of the protein build-up on the interior walls and the hypochlorite is an efficient germ killer During CIP it is of the utmost importance to keep the pipes filled up.and covered tanks are required.CLEANING IN PLACE. But the modification has introduced improved qualities in the starch when cooked. These speciality products are named modified starches. and plays a prominent part in our everyday life.temperature. pH.and strict process control speciality products with unique properties are made. tablets. Most starch is used for industrial purposes. viscosity. The paste may have obtained improved clarity. In the effluent of concentrated fruit juice.

3% 0.07% 0. 30 ha/g Specific density app.1% Size distribution.09% 0. dry substance Water Ash Sand Protein Phosphor.5 0.2 2. 0. Interval.03% 3 ppm 0. . microns 87-140 53-87 38-53 28-38 22-28 17-22 13-17 10-13 8-10 6-8 0-6 Properties of starch.55 g/ml Specific heat 1. P Calcium. 0.02% 0.3 0.7 3.6 g/ml Brightness (MgO2 = 100%) app. 1. Surface of starch granules app.9 0.Constituents Starch.22 J/g Bulk weight of starch 80% DS app.0 Determination of starch content in potatoes. 95 % % 3 24 34 17 9. Ca Iron. Fe Cold water soluble Typical analysis 80% 20% 0.1 7.7 g/ml DS of moist centrifugate app.

015059)/ 0.33 15.089 1.190 4.Wu) g/ml Starch dry matter = (dpotato -1.31 14.533 6.308 as follows: Starch dry matter of potatoes 4 % 13 14 15 16 17 Potatoes to produce 1 t commercial starch 5 kg 6.093 g 352 372 392 412 430 5050 5050 5050 5050 5050 . July 1996 .664 5.065 5.0046051 % The calculated figure in per cent deviate less than 0.671 3. Wo = weight of the potato sample Wu = weight of sample under water Density dpotato = Wo / (Wo .39 Wo g 1 Wu 2 Density d 3 g/ml 1.05 from values read out of the EU-table enforced by the European Commission covering potatoes with 8% to 23% starch dry matter.35 16.456 ECU/t potato 13.405 3.960 EU-subsidy EU-subsidy I to the II to the factory 7 factory 8 ECU/t potato 3.38 17.924 4.The starch content of fresh potatoes is correlated with potato density.520 41.110 34.590 37.080 1.000 EUminimum price 6 ECU/t potato valid per 1.084 1. A short version of the table .075 1. A sample of 5050 g potato in a net basket is weighed above water and then again immersed in clean water of maximum 18 o C.040 39.

670 51.234 4. 6) The minimum price to be paid by the manufacturer directly to the farmer in order to qualify for a subsidy.180 5. dicoccum) and spelt (T. enzymes are also responsible for the re-conversion of starch to sugar . Flour from hard varieties derived from bread wheat (T.720 4. WHEAT VARIETIES Wheat is a cereal plant of the genus Triticum of the family Gramineae (grass family).107 1.117 1.720 4.42 19. spelta) are still being cultivated for specialty purposes. 8) A subsidy II.46 20.482 18. This empirical method is used to settle accounts with suppliers of potatoes to starch factories. The conversion of sugar to starch takes place by means of paid to the manufacturer. WHEAT GLUTEN Gluten is proteins of the wheat.5050 5050 5050 5050 5050 5050 1 450 470 488 508 527 545 1. This energy is transported as a sugar solution to the starch storage cells. but the soluble non-starch fraction and the fraction of particular starch grains are indistinguishable from one another by practical accurate means.a production premium . aestivum) contains a high gluten content and is preferred in bakery products. 7) An EUsubsidy I. the following spring.709 4.released from the seed as energy for the growing plant.121 18 19 20 21 22 23 paid directly to the factory.960 48.most of the wheat grown is winter wheat.056 44. 4) Starch content according to the official table.43 ) Weight of potato sample above water. Some ancient varieties of wheat like einkorn (T.140 4. the green leaves collect energy from the sun. Therefore the method only apply to fresh potatoes. monococcum). Then.253 5. This gives . The exchange rate 1.macaroni wheat (T. Modern wheat varieties are usually classified as winter wheat (fall-planted) and spring wheat . 2) Weight of sample immersed in water. Gluten forms long molecules insoluble in water. it is essential for the manufacture of pasta products.103 1.550 50. During the growing season.987 5.800 49. 3) Calculated density = (Wo / (Wo -Wu)). Triticum aestivum is by far the most important of all wheat species. durum). OCCURRENCE OF STARCH Starch makes up the nutritive reserves of many plants.22 20.440 46.467 4. if he pays the EU-minimum price or better.112 1.373 5. emmer ( equalisation payment . Unfavourable storage conditions however may cause enzymatically conversion of starch to glucose affecting starch yield without changing the underwater-weight and density of potatoes.00 21.098 1.299 4. The hardest-kernelled wheat is durum . and the sugar is converted to starch in the form of tiny granules occupying most of the cell interior. The method is by no means scientifically correct. Reliable methods for the determination of carbohydrates in potatoes exist. Similar method is used for cassava.24 US$.53 21. July 1996 was 1 ECU = 1. if he pays the EU-minimum price or better.

Another invention combines emulsifiers and gluten into a spray dried powder improving both baking quality of the flour and shelf life of the bread. Commercial gluten is dried to minimum 90% dry matter and a typical composition is: • 70 . Pulling the dough at this point will elongate the lump until it bursts.85 %) are 20 . A remedy is mixing it with French or Canadian wheat known for their better gluten quality. If so it is designated "vital gluten". lipids and protein to an extent requiring special treatment in the factory WHEAT GERM OIL . The white starch will run off with the water and may be collected while the dough stays coherent.20 %) is 2 .8 . A KITCHEN EXPERIMENT.35 m. • 10 . If the gluten is extracted and gently dried in hot air at moderate temperatures it maintains it's characteristics.dough its characteristic texture and permits breads and cakes to rise because the carbon dioxide released by the yeast is trapped in the gluten superstructure. Gluten in general is used as a meat extender in both food and feed. The gluten content is low and the texture of the gluten is short. Apply water sparingly while kneading. Gluten is an invisible integrated part of the wheat flour.4 % minerals. The elongation before bursting indicates the baking quality of the flour.14 % carbohydrates. The fermentation industry consumes large amounts of gluten and by acid hydrolysis it is used for production of hydrolyzed vegetable protein and glutamic acid.15 m diameter and the larger A-starch granules (80 . A gluten based meat analogue was invented by the International Starch Group. Gradually the starch is washed out and the remaining dough is made up of pure gluten with a cohesive chewing gum like consistence. B-starch (15 .1. To make it visible and to illustrate its vital properties a small and simple experiment may serve the purpose. Gluten is particular important in the manufacture of starch from wheat because gluten is a most valuable by-product representing half the turnover. Form flour into a dough with a little water. WHEAT STARCH Wheat starch granules are divided in two groups by size. It replaces up to one third of minced meat in popular meat balls. As an alternative the baking characteristics may be improved by mixing it with vital gluten powder. B-starch is contaminated with pentosans. The Danish and Scandinavian climate favours weak wheat of poor baking qualities. fibres. Vital gluten may be added as a dry powder to flour otherwise low in gluten and thereby improve the baking qualities of the flour. In fact the starch is by some manufacturers considered the by-product and gluten the main product.80 % crude protein. • 0. • 6 .8 % crude lipids. Knead by hand a small lump of dough under a squirt of tap water.

Flour extraction ranges from 73 to 77 % resulting in an average mill feed production of about 25 %.0 % Ash content: 0.Wheat germ oil is contained at 8 . Wheat germ oil is expelled or extracted from the germ. but typically the starch manufacturer prefers to buy flour from a flour mill. The classic Martin process uses ordinary baking equipment for the kneading and maturing of the dough. Typical flour composition on dry matter basis Moisture content: 13. Because the germ is removed from the endosperm during the dry milling it is not a by-product from the industrial wet milling of wheat. in addition to the bran.75 % The flour must be suitable for human consumption and it has to be milled to a specific particle size distribution. It is apparent that the mill feed contains.12 % in the fresh wheat germ which is 2 % of total grain weight.5 % Total protein content: 13 % Fibre content: 1. The combination of kneading and time develops the gluten and makes it cohesive. Its fatty acid composition (%) is: C16:0 C18:0 C18:1 C18:2 C18:3 11-20% 1-6% 13-30% 44-65% 2-13% Due to its high level of linoleic acid (C18:2) wheat germ oil is used for dietary purposes and in cosmetic preparations. Composition of the wheat kernel Bran 12 % Germ 2 % Endosperm 82 % The number of parts by weight of flour that is produced from 100 parts of wheat is termed the extraction rate. The process resembles very much the described experiment demonstrated by washing out the starch from a lump of dough with tap water. THE SCANDINAVIAN PROCESS . THE MARTIN PROCESS The kitchen experiment previously described is also a demonstration of the old Martin process still in use. Until matured by kneading and time gluten will not allow the starch to be flushed out without falling apart with losses of both starch and gluten. RAW MATERIAL FOR STARCH Wheat grain may be taken in as raw material as is the case with corn. a significant portion of the starchy endosperm.

The Scandinavian process also works well with completely fresh and unconditioned flour minimizing storage capacity requirement. Gluten Maturing.the light phase from the tricanter . Water and flour is mixed in-line and the slurry obtained is homogenized in a highspeed in-line disintegrator.Middle phase • Pentosanes . By gentle drying in hot air in a ring dryer the gluten retains its vital properties. The homogenized slurry is right away separated into the following fractions by a three-phase decanter (tricanter): • Starch . The wet gluten is dewatered on screw presses and dried. It is preferably mixed with other by-products and used as a wet feed.contains various gums. After in-line milling and classification the product leaves the dryer ready for packing and sale as Vital Gluten. During maturing the “gluten matrix” of wheat flour is softened and bound starch granules are released. Glutenin and gliadin proteins can now start to form long molecular chains i. Gluten Agglomeration and Recovery.much in the same way as starch of any other origin as described in "Starch Refining". B-starch and some A-starch. gluten formation can take place. The Scandinavian process is based on wheat flour as raw material and it is designed to process even weak (soft) Scandinavian wheat difficult to process otherwise and nevertheless obtain vital gluten of excellent properties. It contains the gluten. In general the Scandinavian process is very robust and of advantage to any wheat. but the Scandinavian Process is by far the most elegant and efficient. The wet feed may be dried. . Several variants have been practiced over time. solubles. The gluten lumps are screened off and washed on bend screens.Heavy phase • Gluten . fibres. The reactor is specially designed for the maturing of gluten.Slurry processes (batter processes) are more industry friendly and make closed continuous handling possible. THE GLUTEN FRACTION is the complex middle phase. THE PENTOSANE FRACTION . mixed with bran or sold as such. Before separating the gluten fraction the stream is carefully treated in a maturing reactor. After maturing of the gluten these constituents are split into subfractions. The gluten maturing step is followed by a treatment in special gluten agglomerators. It is reslurred and refined . The control system continuously discharges flour into a stream of warm water.e.Light phase THE STARCH FRACTION is the heavy phase containing the major part of A-starch. In the agglomerators the matured gluten is combined into lumps formed of glutenin and gliadin. Flour is pneumatically conveyed from intermediate silos into a feeding bin equipped with means to separate air and flour.

The dewatered starch is batch-wise peeled off and discharged by gravity to the moist starch hopper. Starch is among the most pure of all agricultural products. Solubles. The B-starch is dried in hot air in a ring dryer or drum dried and used as pregelatinized starch. The refined starch milk contains an almost 100% pure starch slurred in pure water. and so on.e. A-STARCH DEWATERING. The moisture of starch after drying is normally 12-13 %. To save water the wash is done counter currently. The clarified overflow leaves the factory as an effluent to be disposed of by landspreading or biogas digestion. The purified A-starch milk is discharged to a peeler centrifuge for dewatering. . B-starch is recovered from the overflow by special recovery cyclones and dewatered on a decanter. Cleaning and preventative maintenance must be planned once a month. CLEANING IN PLACE (CIP) To secure a high standard of sanitation in the plant a cleaning system is necessary. A clarifier removes the last bit of starch from the overflow and only solubles and water remains. the incoming fresh water is used on the very last step and the overflow is reused for dilution on the previous step. all equipment is designed to minimize the need of frequent cleaning. A-STARCH REFINING Starch is refined by washing with fresh clean water. The dried starch is pneumatically transported to a starch silo ready for screening and bagging. The peeler filtrate is recycled to the process. purity is the most important parameter in being competitive. The inlet air temperature is moderate. After gluten recovery the residual fraction is separated on hydrocyclones. Actually. The heavy A-starch goes in the underflow and the lighter B-starch goes with the overflow. Before delivery the starch is screened on a fine sieve in order to remove any scale formed in screw conveyors etc.B-starch recovery. i. By using multi stage hydrocyclones all soluble materials and fine cell residues are removed in a water saving process. A-starch recovered with the underflow is concentrated and combined with the A-starch main stream. To minimize shutdown periods and thereby causing production losses. A-STARCH DRYING From the moist starch hopper the A-starch is fed by a metering screw conveyor into a flash dryer and dried in hot air. With hydrocyclones it is feasible to reduce fibre and solubles including soluble protein to low levels with a minimum of fresh water.

A low DE hydrolysate is formed and at this point the starch has been converted into a maltodextrin. For wheat starch the glucose is particular important. ION EXCHANGE. (DE= Dextrose Equivalent). These specialty products are named modified starches. Anion resins remove ions like chloride. sulphate. The glucose hydrolysate is heated and treated with activated carbon to remove impurities and colour bodies and then filtered.MODIFICATION Most starch is used for industrial purposes. The liquefaction is typically a two stage process. The low DE hydrolysate is pH and temperature adjusted once again and new enzymes added to produce glucose with a higher DE. additives . The glucose hydrolysate is demineralised with ion exchange resins in a "merry go round" arrangement. They still retain their original granule form and thereby resemble the native (unmodified) starch in appearance. The combination of heat and enzymes gelatinizes and thins the starch.and strict process control specialty products with unique properties are made. The paste may have obtained improved clarity. The enzyme does the work by cutting the long starch molecules into pieces by hydrolysis. CARBON TREATMENT. but the modification has introduced improved qualities in the starch when cooked. calcium. phosphate and most residual amino acids. EVAPORATION. PROTEIN FILTRATION. Glucose of different composition can be made depending on the enzymes added and the process applied . The syrup is now ready for drumming off or for road tanker transport.temperature. The refined A-starch slurry is pH-adjusted and enzymes are added. film-forming ability etc. viscosity. Many and sophisticated techniques are applied.even products close to pure dextrose. STARCH SWEETENERS Starch sweeteners are an important outlet for wheat starch and in many plants starch is not dried at all. Basic and typical units of operation are: LIQUEFACTION. Starch is tailor made to meet the requirements of the end-user giving rise to a range of specialty products. traces of iron and some amino acids. New technology allows cross-flow membrane filtration of the hydrolysate. In stead the refined A-starch slurry is further processed into starch syrups. The refined glucose syrup is concentrated by evaporation to its final commercial dry matter content. SACCHARIFICATION. pH. A most versatile principle comprises a three step wet modification: By applying different reaction conditions . The prepared slurry is heated by direct steam in a steam jet. By dia-filtration glucose may be recovered from the filter residue leaving a protein rich mud to be discharged as animal feed. Cation resins remove various ions as sodium. .

APPLICATION. however. Being a pure renewable natural polymer.until the officials in Brussels took over. not fitting into the EU system for the simple reason that potatoes can not be stored making it impossible for the Commission to purchase and put them in store. In the European Union 40% of native and modified starches is consumed by the paper industry being the most important outlet at present.A MULTITUDE OF SWEETENERS. By varying the procedures a range of commercial products can be made and the pure dextrose syrups may even form basis for further processing into High Fructose Syrups utilizing sophisticated techniques like enzymatically isomerising and chromatography. On the other hand . In USA this development has already started on maize as raw material.and they shield the market with an import duty filling the gap between the EU and the world market price. OBS! The regulations are continously updated and this site is not.only the raw materials for starch like wheat and maize. In order to give the farmer a fair competition when he has to export any surplus food. Be aware of large changes planned for 2010.industrial products are not. In Europe wheat is the prime candidate FEOGA The fundamental objectives of the European Union (EU) agricultural settlement are to secure an adequate supply of food to the people and a decent income to the farmer and his family. the Eurpean Commission decides a target price on some basic agricultural products . Increasing amounts of grain. Starch is therefore not supported as such .high enough to encourage the farmer . Potatoes are an awkward product. To achieve this. he is offered export restitution matching the import duty. starch has a multitude of applications. Commercial wheat starch is used in the manufacture of sweeteners. . Nine million t per annum of starch and starch sweeteners are manufactured in the European Union and one third is originating from wheat.An European Starch Crop Only basic agricultural commodities are regulated directly . sizing of paper and textile and as a food thickener and stabilizer. The thoughts of the wise fathers about the regulations was that simple . if other means to control the market mechanisms fail. is supposed to be consumed by the new bio-fuel industry.potatoes are a fundamental European crop for starch and it is of great concern to keep the potato starch competitive with maize starch made from imported maize. Potatoes .

The actual calculation is: Export restitution of maize: + EU Import duty on maize + Threshold price regulations + Freight (From US to EU) . listing some of the price tools and terms used by the commission to administer the market regulations. This fact adds confusion to many a detail in the administration of the FEOGA settlement and may confuse newcomers. but for several reasons the value is modified. The most important reason is to save money for the Commission and therefore the restitution has always come out at a lower level than the import duty.Standard deduction (5%) = Export restitution for maize .EU preference = Basic restitution . This paper contains a glossary.To overcome this controversy and find a modus vivendi. potato starch is associated to the regulation of maize and is in many ways treated and even named as maize starch.World market price = Import duty The world market price is an artificial price based on statistics obtained on a daily basis. The import duty is calculated as: + EU threshold price . whereas the threshold price is decided politically once a year. In order to understand the impact of the regulations on international trade we need an understanding of some of these tools. In principle the export restitution should be equal to the import duty.

6 to convert it to the equivalent quantity of maize starch. The influence of export restitution on the price level outside EU is obvious.80 .20 + 0.1.To translate the restitution of maize to starch. which again have a feed back effect on EU export restitution.60 3. The corresponding national currency is calculated by means of the green exchange rate. Go to top The hen and the egg. but who is the mother of whom? The export restitution was introduced as a consequence of low prices outside EU. The Commission gives all figures in ECU. The following example illustrates the effect the restitution may have on world market prices. which again are influenced by the restitution. the restitution of maize is multiplied by 1. Starch price example DKK/kg Ex works EU Freight to non-EU Destination Export restitution 3.27 .

to be effected in two equal steps. accompanied by appropriate proposals.5% for the marketing years 2000/2001 and 2001/2002. Berlin European Council: Agenda 2000. However. if necessary. conclusions of the Presidency) The content of the CAP reform aims to ensure that European agriculture is multifunctional.000 ha to 118. In view of the specificity of agriculture in Portugal. For oilseeds. and underlines that this reform will constitute an essential element in defining the Commission's negotiating mandate for the forthcoming multilateral trade negotiations within the World Trade Organisation (WTO). Agriculture must play its role in preserving the countryside and natural open spaces. Moreover. will amount to 63 euro. the maximum guaranteed area for durum wheat will be increased from 59.2006. the European Council recognised the need to improve the balance of the support granted to agriculture by means of rural development measures financed from the EAGGF Guarantee section.34 euro multiplied by the reference yield).000 ha. It recognises the efforts which have been made to curb the budget within the framework of CAP reform. Monthly increments will be maintained at the current level. Only three parameters will be modified: o The intervention price will be reduced by 15% in two equal steps of 7. market development as of the marketing year 2002/2003 will be analysed closely in order to establish whether further reductions are required. will be issued at the end of the second phase. An analysis of the production potential. progressive adjustments aligning aid per hectare to that of cereals is confirmed. sustainable and competitive throughout Europe. and will stabilise agricultural expenditure over the period. o Compensation of approximately 50% of the reduction of the intervention price is maintained. the principles of the proposed reform were endorsed. Agriculture (Arable crops): Measures adopted by the European Council The European Councils amendments to the compromise on the proposals for the dairy and cereals sector reached at the Agriculture Council on 11 March 1999 reflect efforts to take account of the budgetary constraints. including regions with specific problems.  Arable crops: For cereals. It must be capable of responding to consumer concerns as regards food quality and safety. . The increase of compensation payments per hectare (currently 54.53 CAP & GATT This effect is subject to criticism from members of other members of GATT (General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs). environmental protection and the safeguarding of animal welfare. The European Council considers that the implementation of the reform within the new financial framework will be more in keeping with actual levels of spending. and make a key contribution to the vitality of rural life.Price in non-EU country 2. CAP reform (Source:March 1999. o The base rate of compulsory set-aside will be fixed at 10% for the period 2000 .

50 72. 6.31 1 101.9 344.31 1 178.31 1 178.9 344.31 1 101.54 58.31 . As from 2002.31 1 178.54 63 63 1 1 1 1 1 1 NB: A special measure applies to cereals and oilseeds in Finland and Sweden: a fixed drying premium of 19 euro per yield tonne will be introduced from the year 2000.9 344.minimum price .6 72.24 in euro/tonne/cereals equivalent Non-textile 4 linseed in euro/tonne Durum wheat Additional payment per hectare 5 105. .74 110.83 98.5 138. compensation was increased to 75 % to offset quota reductions.000 ha.other areas Potato starch per tonne of starch 6 344.9 344.49 58.19 110.9 .25 101.31 1 63 1 63 1 63 1 63 1 63 1 72.78 194.50 81. 5.63 63 1 63 1 63 1 63 1 63 1 .95. aid can be calculated on the basis of the oilseed yield expressed in cereal equivalent multiplied by a factor of 1.94 none 68.37 1 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 101.50 63 3 72.compensation Silage grass in euro/tonne Set-aside in euro/tonne 209. 4.traditional areas .50 63 3 72.5 138.000 ha to 118. 2.31 86.54 63 63 1 110.9 344.34 78.10 88.05 178. May change from 2002 in the event of a reduction of the intervention price and/or an overall revision of the sector.54 63 63 1 110. Subject to Member State quotas. May change from the year 2002 if the intervention price is lowered.6 58.9 344.5 138.Arable Crops : Prices and Payments 1999 Cereals/maize in euro/tonne .compensation Protein crops in euro/tonne 54.5 138. NB: Up to and including 2001.5 138.9 344.5 138. 3.67 6 63 1 178. The Blair House system will apply throughout the whole transitional period (aid reduced if the maximum guaranteed area (MGA) is exceeded). the MGA for Portugal was increased from 59. Subject to maximum guaranteed area per Member State.5 138. No changes for fibre flax.31 1 110.31 178. in which case aid will be increased.50 63 3 2 Oilseeds 94. Subject to the reference price system.50 63 3 72.50 63 3 72.intervention price 119.74 63 72. 1. aid will be calculated on the basis of the cereal yield.26 75.54 63 63 1 110.54 63 63 1 110.31 101.5 138.31 1 101.

Small producers (less than 92 tonnes): exemption from compulsory set-aside is maintained. of November. there is an obligation for the Commission to purchase in order to support the market price. These producers may also participate in the voluntary set-aside scheme. There is no intervention price for potatoes. of July. Potato starch gets 7 monthly adjustments beginning 1st.07 DKK/kg Go to top Intervention price The intervention price of maize is established once a year. but the threshold and the intervention price are derivatives of the target price.5% to 10%. Threshold price The threshold price is in essence a minimum import price.17 DKK/kg Maize starch 2. Threshold adjustment During the production year the threshold prices are adjusted monthly to compensate for storage costs etc. Once a year a target for EU market price is negotiated.92 the derived import duty for starch is: Potato starch 2. The level is fixed for one production year at a time beginning 1st. 01.Set aside: base rate has been cut from 17. protein crops. . EU Starch Glossary: Target price. EU market price The EU market price is fixed daily based on statistics.10. From 2000. This is only an indicative price.17 DKK/kg Wheat starch 3. Import duty The import duty is calculated daily as the difference between the threshold price and the calculated world market price on certain agricultural produce. If the market price falls below the intervention price. linseed and maize will be available to these producers instead of the payments based on the average "all cereals" yields. specific payments for oilseeds. effective rate may be adapted according to market conditions. Payments (currently made between 16 October and 31 December) are made between 16 November and 31 January.

It thus has to be established. It may reach the threshold price or even go above. The calculated world market price . The world market price itself . Through enquiries all over the world the Commission gets daily the basis of statistics on which the import duty is calculated. There is no purchase price for potatoes (they cannot be kept in stock). The purchase price When the market price of maize falls below the intervention well as its sources . This lower price is named the purchase price. Go to top Production restitution Production restitution is obtained by preparation of native potato starch for certain manufactured goods if they are sold on EU markets. but often the market price is rather close to the purchase very sensitive to changes in the value of the US$. but anyone interested may calculate the figure by subtracting the import duty from the EU threshold price.and thus the import duty . A list of manufactured goods entitled to production restitution is kept confidential by the Commission. World market price No such price exists. the Commission is obliged to buy and pay 94% of the intervention price. when necessary.The market price fluctuates widely. . and it is paid in order to guarantee the competitive power of the manufactured goods containing starch.

the production restitution is calculated as the difference between the intervention price and world market price. Maize November 1992 ECU/t Purchase price World market price.36 ECU = 1. The regulation is adjusted by extensive and complicated rules and requires extremely careful use due to the possibilities for fraud.18 -68.856 DKK/t If the market price is equal to or higher than the intervention price. CIF Rotterdam. (25 days average) Basic restitution 155.22 DKK/kg of potato starch.60) = Converted into DKK Rate 8.and is valid for the following month.90x1. The rate is normally fixed at the end of each month .The production restitution is per November 1992: 1. The calculation is based on the purchase/intervention price for maize and an average world market price is deducted. Go to top Export restitution .28 86.97989 139.90 Translated into potato starch (86.04 ECU/t 124.

) Intervention from the Commission normally takes place in order to prevent speculation in restitution decreases.Export restitution is obtained by export of starch products to non-EU-countries. change of rate of restitution etc. provided that the article complies with different quality requirements etc. the institutional prices and market conditions of various grain products at the time of calculation.and it is paid in order to guarantee competitive power on the world market.49 . November 1992 Import duty for maize(Average of 25 days in October) ECU/t 137.5% proportional to the purchase price. Normally the rate for export restitution is fixed at the end of each month (as for production restitution) with effect for the following month. the market price is applied in place of the purchase price in the calculations. . The actual calculation system is rather complicated. it has the authority to carry out different political efforts (suspension of pre-fixation. If the EU market price varies more than +/. If the Commission finds that the market conditions require intervention/regulation. but in short terms the calculation is based on variable import duties for maize (US rate).

This break down of starch can be imitated in a our factories by applying acid or enzymes to cooked starch. The analytical procedure measures reducing end groups and attach a DE of 100 to pure glucose (glucose = dextrose) and a DE of 0 to pure starch.00 144.10 History. Members of The International Starch Group were deeply involved in inventions and development based on the new technique.60)= 146. in the industrial introduction of enzymes for glucose hydrolysis and in new products as Total Sugar. The way we do it cause the starch to hydrolyse into a variety of mixtures of glucose and intermediates and the way we characterise these various mixtures is by its DE number. In 1811 he published a method for acid hydrolisation of starch and that process has since then been modified and improved to produce one of the most versatile sweeteners on the market today. The discovery of the New World gave rise to the import and use of sugar extracted from sugar cane grown especially in the West Indies. .99 -52.06 + 8. The Second World War caused a shortage of sweeteners which brought about a new leap ahead with the invention of the continuos glucose converter by Karl Kroyer. Kirchhoff to invent the process of making a sugar substitute from starch.19 94.Europe) Adjusted import duty Threshold price for maize (October) Purchase price for maize (October) Community preference Adjusted import duty Community preference Basic export restitution Standard deduction 5% Export restitution Translated into potato starch (90. Glucose is formed in plants from carbon dioxide absorbed from the air using sun light as energy source.99 205. Denmark.74 90.68 52.87 -153.06 x 1.99 Freight allowance (USA . In spring starch is broken down again to support new growth.Adjustment of the threshold price +1. Part of the glucose is polymerised into long chains of glucose and stored as starch in granules as a reserve.19 146. Chemistry. The Napoleon Wars caused a temporarily import stop and may indirectly have provoked G.80 -4. DE means Dextrose Equivalent.50 138.

The acid catalyst allows the manufacture of intermediate conversion products ranging from 35 . With enzymes it is possible to produce syrups with DE from 28 and up to 98. Acid . non-crystallising and auto sterile liquid.where the hydrolysate is flashed down to atmospherical pressure. Standard Acid converted 42 DE Syrup.preferably hydrochloric acid. Lowering the DE. After cooling and pH adjustment a saccharification enzyme like amyloglucosidase is applied. Dependent on raw material and end product requirements various filtration steps and deionization etc. Dextrose monohydrate is pure glucose. Filter aid is added as body feed and the filtered off on a filter press. enzymes and acid breaks down starch differently resulting in different sugar composition for identical DE.42 DE and evaporated to a viscous liquid with a dry matter of 80% . stores and ship well in drums or tank lorries. jam. The liquefaction temperature is kept for a few minutes. Large quantities are also used as a booster in the fermentation of alcohol The relative sweetness of 42 DE to sucrose is 40 . Starch is hydrolysed by acid or enzymes to 40 . However.via a back pressure valve . Glucose syrups may be grouped according to the degree of conversion: Conversion Groups Conversion Low Intermediate DE 20-38 38-58 . The degree of liquefaction (hydrolysis) is controlled by the temperature in the holding zone. The acid is neutralised and the hydrolysate enters a cyclone . The purified hydrolysate passes a check filter and the water clear hydrolysate is evaporated until the dry substance reaches 80 .Only glucose solution of high DE can crystallise easily and yield a product in powder or granular form. HCl is added to the slurry in order to acidify before cooking. but it is possible to work around that problem and even produce the classic 42 DE syrup by an all-enzyme process only. the syrup loose gradually its tendency to crystallise and below approximately 45 DE the syrup can be evaporated into a stable. A less purified product known as Total Sugar is produced by instant crystallising a 97 DE syrup leaving no hydrol (mother liquor) to dispose off. the liquefaction.84%. High quality starch is supplied either as a slurry from a starch factory or a slurry of approximately 21 oBe is prepared from ordinary native dried starch. A most popular crystallised product is dextrose monohydrate with applications in medicine and used in chewing tablets by people doing sport. ice cream.45%. The acidified slurry is heated to the desired temperature by injecting steam of 9 bar. soft drinks.55 DE. The crude hydrolysate is refined by means of activated carbon in order to remove discoloration from the interaction of protein and other starch constituents during hydrolysation.typically in a two step process. Intermediate and higher conversion products for special purposes can also be made by substituting acid with enzymes . From the evaporator the final product can be drummed off. For the first step. This standard product has a bland sweet taste. candy and all kinds of confectionery. may be added to the process Enzymes as catalysts. It find applications in canned fruit preserves. Except for a different holding time the processes are in principles identical regardless of catalyst.84 %. These qualities are one of the reasons behind the success and wide spread use of the standard 42 DE syrup. termostable a-amylase or acid is used. bakery products.

This value is known as the equilibrium relative humidity (ERH). depending on the external conditions to which they are subjected. High Fructose Starch-based Syrups are produced from refined very high DE glucose syrups.High Very high 58-73 73 Glucose Composition DE Catalyst Glucose Maltose Maltotriose Higher sugars 28 A/E 5 8 16 71 38 A 12 10 10 68 42 A 18 13 12 57 63 A/E 37 34 16 13 98 E 96 2 1 1 A=Acid E=Enzyme A/E=Acid liquefaction plus enzyme saccharification High DE syrups are intermediates for fructose syrup. By using more resin columns in parallel the enzyme activity is completely exhausted before a refill. Glucose syrup and maltose syrup are referred to as wort syrups in breweries.76 0.77 0.71 0.81 0. This syrup . foods etc.64 0. The isomerase catalyses the formation of 42% fructose in equilibrium with glucose. sorbitol.72 0. adjusting protein. Therefore the water activity of the sweetener is an important property.78 0. where they substitute malt improving capacity. Sugar confections will either pickup or lose moisture to the atmosphere. and many fermentation products and find uses in beverages. mouthfeel etc.70 0. taste. An enzymatic process using isomerase fixated on a resin facilitates the conversion of glucose to fructose. Water Activity of Sweeteners Syrup 42 DE Conversion A 60 DE A/E 94 DE High Fructose Liquid Sucrose E E Solids 75 80 85 75 80 85 74 70 67 Water Acitity 0.85 HFSS.

In this way a perfect match with traditional sucrose based liquid sugar is obtained. The fractionation is done more elegantly by chromatography. Demineralisation throughout the HFSS-process and precautions against de-cross-linking by oxygen extends the lifetime of the resins. By auto-matically switching the injection point an endless ring column is simulated and the HFSS-42 is fractionated in fructose and glucose.may be refined and evaporated as such and it is an excellent all-purpose sweetener. Previous attempts to do this by crystallisation have never gained industrial acceptance. The fructose fraction from the chromatographic column can of course be refined and evaporated to a syrup separately as HFSS-90 finding applications in low calorie foods. An HFSS-section should preferably run continuously non-stop. In order to obtain a more perfect match with sucrose based liquid sugar (cane and beet sugar) the fructose content has to be increased to 55% by enrichment. The fructose fraction is backmixed with the HFSS-42 to make up an HFFS-55. A stream of HFSS-42 is fractionated. Starch & Sweetener Process Flow Chart in Principle Corn ↓ Steeping Milling Separation Cassava Potato ↓ Washing Rasping Extraction Native Starch ↓ Cleaning Concentration Refining Slurry preparation Purified starch milk Prepara tion Liquefaction Saccharification Refining Ion exchange Hydrolysate Reaction Crystal lisation Evaporation Hydro Isomerisation genation Refining Ion exchange Evapora tion Enrich ment Ion exchange Finishing Separa tion Granular Native Corn Starch Drying Evaporation Starch Products Hydrolysed Starch products Native Dextrose High DE Modified Malto HFSS HFSS Glucose Tuber Mono Sorbitol Glucose Starch dextrin 55 42 syrup Starch hydrate syrup . Water or condensate is used to eluate the column. The HFSS-55 finds widespread use as sweetener in soft drinks.

A Acid conversion. Arrowroot. Acetylated starch. and about 1% fructose. Malt substitute. Acetyl value. Amylopectin is a branched glucose polymer with typically one 1-6 glucosidic bonds for every 12 glucose units. or cooking banana. For most starches amylopectin is the major component. Amylase. Granular starch ester with a CH3CO-group introduced at low temperature Adjunct. Barley malt is processed from grain. Brand name of bacterial a -amylase hydrolysing 1. Enzyme cutting off glucose from the non-reducing end of starch. 6% glucose. common name for any of a genus of cereal grasses. Adjunct syrup is used as a brewing supplement and booster . Acetylated distarch phosphate. cationic potato starch.145/specific gravity at 60 oF. Acetylated starch crosslinked by adipate groups. Starch hydrolysis with acid as the catalyst Acid treated starch or Acid-thinned starch. For the liquefaction an aamylase of bacterial origin is used. Amylose. AMG cuts both 1-4 and 1-6 bonds and enables the manufacture of up to 98 DE syrups. The crystalline form of pure a-D-glucose. Amylase is an enzyme breaking down starch at random. Baum tables. Acetylated distarch adipate. Method: ISI 14 Determination of Acetyl. native to north temperate regions. Alkali number. Amaranth. Granular starch slightly hydrolysed with acid at low temperature. and one of the most ancient of cultivated plants. Crosslinked starch esterified with acetyl groups. Barley malt. consumed under test conditions. The minor constituent of starch is amylose . Arrowroots belong to the family Marantaceae. Banana. f. Density is measured in Baum: oBe = 145 . acting optimal on molecules that are 4-5 glucose units long Amylopectin.4-a -glucosidic linkages at random. Amaranth . Amylose may contain 200-2000 anhydroglucose units. Amylopectin consists of several 100. B Go to Top BAN. and retains about 40% of its complex carbohydrates. For high maltose syrups a -amylase is applied for saccharification Amyloglucosidase (AMG). The commercial Baum = oBe + 1 is used within the glucose industry. Amphoteric starch is modified starch which both cationic and anionic substituents. Alkali Number is a measure of the average molecular weight of the starch and expressed as ml 0. is classified as Musa x paradisiaca. Alkali lability. . Banana make up the genus Musa of the family Musaceae.a common name used for plants with blossoms that do not readily fade when picked. Substituents of a modified starch removable by hydrolysis with alkali is titrated.a linear glucose polymer with alpha 1-4 glucosidic bonds only. Barley.see wort syrup. The remaining sugar composition is 42% maltose. Anhydrous dextrose. Barley.1N sodium hydroxide. The true arrowroot plant is classified as Maranta arundinacea. Baum (oBe). Acetyl value of a modified starch is % of acetyl groups calculated on starch dry matter. Method: ISI 23 Determination of Alkali Lability. Anhydroglucose unit The glucose unit of amylose and amylopectin minus one molecule of water. The plantain. and amylose the minor component.000 glucose units.e. Content.

oxidised starch.g. Dextrose Equivalent expresses the number of aldehyde groups . Granular cationic starch ether used in papermaking due to its affinity to cellulose fibres and thereby reducing BOD. Depending on the degree of roasting dextrins are grouped as White Dextrin. Corn oil is widely used as a cooking oil and for margarine. Molecular weight of dextrose = 180. Method for industrial separation of glucose and fructose on a resin-filled column. Corn gluten feed. Chips Sliced and dried cassava roots. Activated carbon is used for decolorization and purification of hydrolysates. Dextrin. Percentage (w/w) of a sucrose solution. high-energy ingredient consisting of protein (gluten) and yellow pigments separated in the corn wet-milling process. Brown rice syrup. Bioethanol (Ethyl alcohol. decolorized and at 68% soluble sugar.g. Carbon treatment. and Gellan. maltose. Another term for chemically modified starch e. Corn gluten meal is a high-protein. Cationic starch.Dry matter of Glucose Syrups.relative to pure glucose of same concentration Derivative. Synonym of conversion hydrolysis or hydrolysis. Yellow Dextrin and British gum.A chiral or asymmetric molecule is one which can be distinguished from its mirror image. Brix (oBx). . Brix. cellulose. See table for conversion: Beaume . Brabender Viscograph is the industry standard in determination og starch viscoisty. The increase of dry substance by hydrolysation of starch. glucose. Conversion. Molecular weight of Anhydrous Glucose Unit (AGU) of starch = 162. along with fibre and residual starch Corn gluten meal. CWS Starch. Chemical gain. is relatively concentrated. granular or cold water-swelling are made that way. Black pearl. Chips. alcohol) is made by yeast fermentation of starch or starch crops. Crystallisation.a fermentation-produced polysaccharide as is Xanthan. Industrial dextrin is granular starch with molecules reorganised by roasting causing the granules to be cold water soluble. A second generation of bioethanol is made from agricultural cellulosic byproducts. Brabender. By converting one AGU into dextrose a chemical gain of 18 is achieved equivalent to 11.Cold Water Soluble Starch are made by cooking and spray drying or by alkali/alcohol technology to allow for hydration without cooking.1%. Monosaccahrides or natural organic substance giving monosaccharides by hydrolysis e. C Go to Top Carbohydrate. Black spheres made of tapioca starch and used as a chewy constituent of bubble tea.Brix . . Cassava Flour is a white pure nutritious food extracted from fresh roots and useful as wheat flour extender. Chiral Means "handedness" . In concentrated high DE syrups glucose crystals are formed and precipitate. Chromatography. fructose. Brown rice syrup is an extremely versatile and relatively healthy sweetener which is derived by culturing rice with enzymes to break down the starches. Cassava belong to the family Euphorbiaceae Cassava Flour. D Go to Top DE. Starches labeled instant. etanol.Bioethanol. Concentrated fruit juice is a relatively new sweetener.reducing ends . Cassava. Apparatus for the hydrolysis of starch. Corn gluten feed is a medium protein by-product. It is highly refined. Converter. sugars. Corn oil. ethanol. Concentrated fruit juice. Curdlan . starch.

di. Produced from high DE syrup by crystallization above 60 oC. Three groups of enzyme catalysts are used in the glucose industry: (1) Alpha-amylase for liquefaction. e. C6H12O6 existing as a . Standard fructose syrup contains as much as 42% fructose and enriched syrups as much as 55%. High Fructose Syrup is a liquid starch hydrolysate with a high content of fructose . and stabilizer. G Go to Top Gari. 55 or 90% fructose HFCS. Carbohydrate with two monosaccharides per molecule. Starch.g. Dextrozyme. (2) Amyloglucosidase for sachharification and (3) isomerase for conversion of glucose to fructose. It has E number E418. Fungamyl. Glucose. Granular starch. A two step hydrolysis: Liquefaction with a-amylase and saccharification with amyloglucosidase. .and -glucose with an optical rotation of +105. Gari is a processed fermented cassava food. Brand name of a pullulanase and AMG mixture DP. Glucose is a monosaccharide. Glucose syrup is a liquid starch hydrolysate of mono. It is used as a food thickener. Dextrose monohydrate. It has good film-forming and produces superior printing paper F Go to Top Fructose. High concentration of fructose is achieved by chromatography. but not completely outdid the classic horizontal batch crystallizer. The continuous vertical crystallizer has advantages. Starch are formed in plants as tiny granules preserved in starches modified at low temperatures. 2-hydroxyethyl ether improves coating and ink holdout. sucrose.and higher saccharides. Within the industry dextrose is used to describe 100 % pure glucose. Ethylated starch. Cooking starch. (1) Dry Substance = Dry Matter (DM). (2) Degree of Substitution. Dextrose anhydrous.Dextrose. Degree of Polymerisation is the average number of monosaccharides in a polymer. emulsifier. Gellan Gum is a water-soluble polysaccharide produced by Sphingomonas elodea. Produced from high DE syrup by crystallization under controlled cooling. Synonym for glucose. Enzyme conversion. DS. Disaccaharide. maltose. The synonym dextrose refers to the positive direction of rotation (dextra = right) Glucose Syrup. The crystalline form of pure a-D-glucose. H Go to Top High Fructose Syrup. DX. Gelatinisation. HFCS = High Fructose Corn Syrup is identical to HFSS. Dextrose E Go to Top Enzyme.typically 42.3o.4-a -glucosidic linkages in formation of substantial amounts of maltose. Sucrose is a disaccharide with one glucose and one fructose per molecule. Both the anhydrous and the monohydrate form is used.2o respectively +20. Brand name of fungal amylase hydrolysing 1. Fructose Alpha-D-fructose is an isomer of alpha-D-glucose. The crystalline form of pure a-D-glucose containing one molecule of water of crystallization.

Mannitol. is a uniquely American product. HFSS = High Fructose Starch-based Syrup. The process reaches a feasible equilibrium with 42% fructose.lysine is an essential amino acide made by fermentation of starch sugars. M Go to Top Maize. Deionization of the hydrolysate in columns of ion exchange resins.HFSS. Karl Kroyer is the Danish inventor of the continuous glucose process. HFSS-55 contains 55% fructose and substitutes sucrose. in which native starch is modified by physical and chemical means to suit various industrial applications. Milium. Honey is a natural invert sugar. Restructuring of glucose to fructose J Go to Top Jet cooker. Pennisetum. Honey. A disaccharide of glucose. . Liquid sugar. but from starch hydrolysates of different Dextrose Equivalent (DE) and different composition. Commercial syrup made by hydrolysing sucrose (invert sugar) or by inverting glucose enzymatically. crystallization modifiers etc. typically 45-50% in ordinary conversion syrup and 65-80% in high maltose syrup. Isomer of sorbitol Maple syrup. Millet belongs to the genera Echinochloa. just like sorbitol. Millet. Maize or Corn. e. Liquefied starch below 20 DE. and Setana all within the family Poaceae (or Gramineae Modification. concentrated from the sap of maple trees.g. Hydrolysis. Partial hydrolysis of cooked starch followed by a viscosity reduction. Enzyme rearranging glucose into fructose. It is estimated to be approximately 25% sweeter than table sugar HSH. . Break down of starch to glucose and smaller polymers by cutting glucosidic bonds with simultaneously uptake of water. They serve as bulk sweeteners.polyglycitol syrups . Starch syrup high in maltose. HFSS-90 contains 90% fructose. viscosity or bodying agents. common name for a cereal grass widely grown for food and livestock fodder Maltitol.are found in a variety of foods.25. Maltodextrin. Panicum. Mother liquor left by crystallisation of dextrose from glucose syrup. -amylase is used for maltose rich syrups. Modification is a process. Maltose. Depending on the catalyst the DE of the liquefied starch is 15 . 53% glucose and 5% higher sugars. Apparatus for continuos gelatinisation of starch by direct steam injection K Go to Top Karl Kroyer. Maltitol is a polyol like sorbitol. L Go to Top Liquefaction. Isomerisation. Maple syrup. humectants (moisture retaining ingredient). Maltose syrup. Hydrolysed sucrose Ion exchange. I Go to Top Invert sugar. HFSS-42 contains 42% fructose and is an all-purpose sweetener. Isomerase. HSH and sorbitol are made the same way. Lysine. Hydrogenated starch hydrolysates (HSH). esterification. Food applications as a carrier and extender. Hydrol. Industrial hydrolysis is a two step operation: liquefaction and saccharification. L.

6-alpha linkages in pullulan and amylopectin and only acts on molecules with at least two 1. g. Mung bean starch is the prime material for making clear starch noodles. N Go to Top Native starch. Precoat filtration. Sago. Potatoes are produced by plants of the genus Solanum. Linear chains of starch are able to form crystalline structures . mannitol etc. Native starches designate starch in its natural unmodified form no modification. Polysaccharide. Starch crystallisation. e. Pregelatinised starch = cooked and dried starch. It is classified as Secale cereale S Go to Top Saccharification. it is much more expensive than tapioca starch often used as a replacement. Carbohydrate giving 2 . of the family Solanaceae. brown. Monosaccharide.causing staling in bread and milky appearance or syneresis in starch gels. Molasses. they have a wide range af applications. The smallest unit obtained by hydrolysis of carbohydrates. Its performance in paper is proven. Hydrolysate filtration on a filter precoated with filter aid and activated carbon.g. R Go to Top Retrogradation.g.6 monosaccharides by hydrolysis Oxidised starch. wheat. cassava. Carbohydrate giving more than 6 monosaccharides by hydrolysis. e. Hydrolysis of starch into higher DE syrups after liquefaction. rice. and a family of sugar alcohols such as sorbitol. Like sorbitol. if manufactured as an end product and not as a by-product of commercial sugar production. Oat belongs to the genus Avena of the family Poaceae (or Gramineae) Oligosaccharide. Rice makes up the genus Oryza of the family Poaceae (or Gramineae).polyglycitol . MSG. Sago starch is prepared from the pith of several genera of palms Second Generation. glucose. Promozyme. Brown rice syrup is an extremely versatile and relatively healthy sweetener which is derived by culturing rice with enzymes to break down the starches Rye. can be a good choice of sweeteners. Brand name of pullulanase reducing oligosaccharides after liquefaction Pullulanase.Molasses. Monosodium Glutamate (MSG) is made by fermentation of starch sugars. Granular starch with carboxyl groups introduced by oxygenation. reduces linting and Improves short-fiber bonding. cellulose. Pregelatinised. maize. The wet residue of tuber and roots after starch extraction. Glucose is the monosaccharide obtained by hydrolysis of starch. amylopectin. native starch from potato. however. Pullulan 6-glucanohyrolase catalysing the hydrolysis of 1. Rice. Rye belongs to the family Poaceae (or Gramineae). O Go to Top Oat. Pulp from potato and cassava is excelent cattle feed. It is also known as the "third spice". With new improved cellulolytic enzymes a whole crop can be turned into .crystallites . amylose.4 bonds. Potato. Polyol . Mung bean starch has 37% amylose and produces a strong gel. e. Rice syrup. P Go to Top Polyol. Pulp.

Wheat makes up the genus Triticum of the family Gramineae Wheat Starch. Sucanat. which cause helix-shaped molecules. Sweet potato belongs to the family Convolvulaceae. Compared to cellulose. It is classified as Ipomoea batatas Sweetzyme. W Go to Top Wheat. Acid treated and oxidised starches with low paste viscosity used in paper and textile Total Sugar. meaning that both starch and cellulose can be digested. Brand name of heat-stable a -amylase hydrolysing 1. V Go to Top Vegetable oil.obtained by hydrogenation of glucose. Sorghum makes up the genus Sorghum in the family Poaceae (or Gramineae). Starch. dehydrated cane juice. Thinboiling starch. is a polymer of glucose found as a reserve in most plants. Second generation biofuel is made that way. starch is made up of alpha glucosidic bonds. The paste is diluted with water and native granular starch is then added. . Anionic starch esterified by succinate groups. T Go to Top Termamyl. Sugar. dehydrated cane juice. Direct hydrolysis of combined starch and cellulosic material increases yield and may do away with cumbersome filtration of cellulosic fibres. Starch ester. This principle may just as well be applied in the process of making starch sweeteners like glucose and for beer etc. The starch may also be crosslinking. Stein-Hall. Sugar = white table sugar is pure sucrose. Synonyms: Saccharose. Sorghum. Sucanat. In the Stein-Hall corrugating process a carrier is prepared by gelatinising 10-20% of the starch using heat and caustic soda. while cellulose build with beta glucosidic bonds giving straight molecules and a fibrous structure.4-alpha-glucosidic linkages at random. soybeans and oil seeds. In EU wheat starch is an important starch. Brand name of immobilised glucose isomerase Syneresis. Sucrose = ordinary sugar from cane or beet is a disaccharide of glucose and fructose. Sucanat (SUgar CAne NATural) is a brand name for organically grown. The free setting of water from a starch gel caused by retrogradation. Sorbitol.a sugar alcohol . cationic starch and carboxymethyl starch Starch succinate.biofuel. Starch ether. Total sugar is high DE-dextrose syrup solidified by evaporation and subsequent instant crystallization. Another glucose polymer found in plants is cellulose. Modified starch with ester groupings like acetylated starch and starch monophosphate. Sweet potato. Modified starch with ether groupings like hydroxypropyl-starch. Starch. Cooking oils are edible oils extracted from olives. Potato starch is a natural starch phosphate ester. sugar. In plants starch is organised in 1-140 m granules. This improves yield or make it even possible just to use the cellulosic parts of the plants saving grain for human nutrition. Sucanat (SUgar CAne NATural) is a brand name for organically grown. Sucrose. Starch xanthate. Starch esterified by xanthate groups. Sorbitol .

Glucose or maltose syrup used as a carbohydrate source (adjunct) in breweries for increasing capacity. Y Go to Top Yam. Yams make up the genus Dioscorea of the family Dioscoreaceae.White dextrin. Its relative sweetness compared to sucrose is between 80 and 100.a fermentation-produced polysaccharide. It is cold water soluble. X Go to Top Xanthan gum . It is made by fermentation of glucose by Xanthomonas campestris bacterium. Xylitol. mouthfeel etc. . Yellow dextrin or Canary dextrin. Polyol with five hydroxyl groups. Produced by roasting acidified starch. taste. adjusting protein content. Xanthan is used as a viscous food additive. Produced by gentle roasting of acidified starch Wort syrup. Used as a glue and has a good tack.

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