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© 2011 Sajid
Chapter
Dr Muhammad Sajid
Assistant Professor
NUST, SMME.
Reference Text:
Fundamentals of Fluid
Mechanics, 6th Ed
By Munson, Young, Okiishi
and Huebsch
Email: m.sajid@smme.nust.edu.pk
Tel: 9085 6065
Fluid Mechanics  II
12Sep12
0
8
• Viscous flow in pipes
– Pipe flow characteristics
– Fully developed laminar
& turbulent flow
– Major & Minor losses
Fluid Mechanics  II
Introduction
• Now, we cover fluid with internal viscous
friction attributed by the viscosity
properties and friction between the flows
and any adjacent walls.
• We will look into how to analyse the
laminar and turbulent pipe flows, and to
calculate friction losses due to pipe walls
as well as pressure losses due to fitting
components such as valves, junctions,
faucets and flow measurement apparatus.
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Fluid Mechanics  II
Pipes and ducts
• Duct: A conduit with non circular cross
section.
• Pipe: A conduit of circular cross section.
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Fluid Mechanics  II
Pipe system components
• Pipes
• Fittings / Connectors
• Flow Control devices
• Pumps / Turbines
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Fluid Mechanics  II
CHARACTERISTICS OF PIPE FLOW
Chapter 8. Page384
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Fluid Mechanics  II
Flow Characteristics
Pipe flow
• Completely filled.
• Pressure driven.
• Assumption: Round
Cross section
Open channel flow
• Partially filled
• Gravity driven
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Fluid Mechanics  II
Laminar – Turbulent Flow
• Flow in pipes can be divided into two different
regimes, i.e. laminar and turbulence
• Experimental demonstration of flow transition
from laminar to turbulent flow regimes.
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Fluid Mechanics  II
Time Dependence of Fluid velocity
• ‘x’ component of velocity as a function of
time at A.
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Fluid Mechanics  II
Laminar – Turbulent Flow
• Streak lines for small, medium and large
flow rates (Re).
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Fluid Mechanics  II
Example
Consider water flow in a pipe having a diameter of D = 20 mm which is
intended to fill a 0.35 liter container. Calculate:
(a) the minimum time required if the flow is laminar,
(b) the maximum time required if the flow is turbulent.
Density µ = 998 kg/m
3
and dynamic viscosity µ = 1.12×10
–3
kg/m·s.
Solution:
(a) For laminar flow, use Re =µVD/µ = 2100:
Hence, the minimum time t is:
(b) For turbulent flow, use Re = µVD/µ = 4000:
Hence, the minimum time t is:
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( )
( )( )
s m
D
V 118 . 0
020 . 0 998
10 12 . 1 2100 2100
3
=
×
= =
÷
µ
µ
V D
V
Q
V
t
2
4
t
= =
( )
( )( )
s m
D
V 224 . 0
020 . 0 998
10 12 . 1 4000 4000
3
=
×
= =
÷
µ
µ
V D
V
Q
V
t
2
4
t
= =
( )
( ) ( )
s t 45 . 9
118 . 0 02 . 0
10 35 . 0 4
2
3
=
×
=
÷
t
( )
( ) ( )
s t 96 . 4
224 . 0 02 . 0
10 35 . 0 4
2
3
=
×
=
÷
t
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Fluid Mechanics  II
Entrance region & fully developed flow
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Fluid Mechanics  II
Entrance length
• The entrance region can be represented by entrance length l
e
, which
can be empirically determined by the following formulae for both
regimes:
• Laminar:
• Turbulent:
• Due to different boundary layer thickness in the inviscid core, the
pressure distribution behaves nonlinearly in this region and the
pressure slope is not constant as shown in Fig. 8.5. However, after
the flow is fully developed, the slope becomes constant and the
pressure drop Ap is directly caused only by viscous effect.
• By projecting the graph back towards the tank, we can estimate the
pressure drop due to entrance flow. Hence, by using the Bernoulli
equation with losses, the pressure value at all position along the
same pipe can be calculated.
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Re 06 . 0 =
D
e
6 1
(Re) 4 . 4 =
D
e
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Fluid Mechanics  II
Problem 8.6
• Solution
– Volume flow rate = 0.1 m
3
/s
– Diameter, D = 20 cm
– Viscosity, µ = 1.79x10
5
• Step – 1:
– V = (4 x 0.1)/(tD
2
) = 0.4/0.1256 = 3.185 m/s
– Re = µVD/µ = 42,700
• Step – 2:
– l
e
= 4.4(42700)
1/6
0.2 = 5.2 m
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Fluid Mechanics  II
END OF WEEK # 1
Home Work problems. 8.2, 8.4, 8.6 & 8.8
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Fluid Mechanics  II
Fully developed laminar flow
• Fully developed: the velocity
profile is the same at any
cross section of the pipe.
• Whether the flow is laminar
or turbulent,
– Flow in a long, straight,
constant diameter sections of
a pipe becomes fully
developed.
– But the other flow properties
are different for these two
types of flow.
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Fluid Mechanics  II
Fully developed laminar flow
• Knowledge of the velocity profile can lead
directly to other useful information such as
pressure drop, head loss, flowrate.
• We begin by developing the equation for
the velocity profile in fully developed
laminar flow.
– If the flow is not fully developed, a theoretical
analysis becomes much more complex
– If the flow is turbulent, a rigorous theoretical
analysis is as yet not possible.
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Fluid Mechanics  II
Fully developed laminar flow
• There are numerous ways to derive
important results pertaining to fully
developed laminar flow.
• Three alternatives include:
– From F = ma applied directly to a fluid
element,
– From the Navier –Stokes equations of motion,
&
– From dimensional analysis methods.
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Fluid Mechanics  II
F = ma Applied to a Fluid Element
• Consider the motion of a cylindrical fluid
element at time ‘t’ within a pipe.
– The local acceleration is zero because the flow is
steady (V/ t = 0), and
– The convective acceleration is zero because the
flow is fully developed (V.V= u u/x i = 0).
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Fluid Mechanics  II
F = ma Applied to a Fluid Element
• Every part of the fluid merely flows along its
streamline parallel to the pipe walls with
constant velocity,
• Velocity varies from one pathline to another.
• This velocity variation, combined with the fluid
viscosity, produces the shear stress.
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Fluid Mechanics  II
F = ma Applied to a Fluid Element
• If gravitational effects are neglected, the
pressure is constant across any vertical cross
section of the pipe, although it varies along
the pipe from one section to the next.
• If the pressure is P
1
at section (1), it is P
1
P
at section (2).
• A shear stress , acts on the surface of the
cylinder of fluid it is a function of the radius of
the cylinder, = (r).
• We isolate the cylinder of fluid and apply
Newton’s second law, F
x
= m a
x
,
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Fluid Mechanics  II
F = ma Applied to a Fluid Element
• The fluid is not accelerating, so that a
x
= 0.
• Thus, fully developed horizontal pipe flow is a
balance between pressure and viscous forces
– The pressure difference acting on the end of the
cylinder of area r² and
– The shear stress acting on the lateral surface of the
cylinder of area 2rl.
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Fluid Mechanics  II
F = ma Applied to a Fluid Element
• This force balance can be written as
• which can be simplified to give
• Since neither p nor l are functions of the
radial coordinate, r, it implies that 2/r must
also be independent of r.
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Fluid Mechanics  II
F = ma Applied to a Fluid Element
• That is, = Cr , where C is a constant.
– At the centerline of the pipe (r = 0) there is no
shear stress = 0.
– At the pipe wall (r = D/2) the shear stress is a
maximum, denoted
w
the wall shear stress.
• Hence, C= 2
w
/D and the shear stress
distribution throughout the pipe is a linear
function of the radial coordinate
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Fluid Mechanics  II
F = ma Applied to a Fluid Element
– If the viscosity were zero there would be no
shear stress, and pressure would be constant
throughout the pipe
• We get a relation between
– pressure drop, and
– wall shear stress
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Fluid Mechanics  II
F = ma Applied to a Fluid Element
• To carry the analysis further we must
prescribe how the shear stress is related to
the velocity.
• For a laminar flow of a Newtonian fluid, the
shear stress is simply proportional to the
velocity gradient. = du/dy
• In the notation associated with our pipe
flow, this becomes
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Fluid Mechanics  II
F = ma Applied to a Fluid Element
• The two governing laws for fully developed
laminar flow of a Newtonian fluid within a
horizontal pipe
• By combining these equations & integrating
• where c
1
is a constant.
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Fluid Mechanics  II
F = ma Applied to a Fluid Element
• Because the fluid is viscous it sticks to the
pipe wall so that u = 0, at r= D/2.
• V
c
is the centerline velocity
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Fluid Mechanics  II
F = ma Applied to a Fluid Element
• The volume flowrate through the pipe can
be obtained by integrating the velocity
profile across the pipe.
• The average velocity is the flowrate divided
by the crosssectional area,
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Fluid Mechanics  II
Poiseuille flow
• These results show that for laminar pipe
flow in a horizontal pipe the flowrate is
– directly proportional to the pressure drop,
– inversely proportional to the viscosity,
– inversely proportional to the pipe length, and
– proportional to the pipe diameter to the fourth
power.
• This flow, first determined experimentally
by Hagen in 1839 and Poiseuille in 1840,
is termed Hagen–Poiseuille flow.
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Fluid Mechanics  II
Inclined pipes
• Replace the pressure drop p, by the effect
of both pressure and gravity p  l sin.
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Fluid Mechanics  II
From the Navier–Stokes Equations
• General motion of an incompressible
Newtonian fluid is governed by
– the continuity equation, and
– the momentum equation
• For steady, fully developed flow in a pipe,
the velocity contains only an axial
component, which is a function of only the
radial coordinate.
• For such conditions, the lefthand side of
momentum Eq. is zero.
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Fluid Mechanics  II
From the Navier–Stokes Equations
• The Navier –Stokes equations become.
• In polar coordinates
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Fluid Mechanics  II
From Dimensional Analysis
• We assume that the pressure drop in the
horizontal pipe, is a function of
– the average velocity of the fluid in the pipe, V,
– the length of the pipe, l
– the pipe diameter, D, and
– the viscosity of the fluid, .
• The density or the specific weight of the
fluid are not important parameters.
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Fluid Mechanics  II
From Dimensional Analysis
• There are five variables that can be described
in terms of three reference dimensions M, L, T.
• This flow can be described in terms of, k – r = 5
– 3 = 2 dimensionless groups.
• These are
• The value of C must be determined by theory or
experiment.
– For a round pipe, For ducts of other crosssectional
shapes, the value of C is different
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Fluid Mechanics  II
FULLY DEVELOPED TURBULENT
FLOW
Section 8.3
Page 399
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Fluid Mechanics  II
Fully developed turbulent flow
• Turbulent pipe flow is more likely to occur
than laminar flow in practical situations,
• A considerable amount of knowledge about
the topic has been developed, the field of
turbulent flow still remains one of the least
understood area of fluid mechanics.
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Fluid Mechanics  II
Transition from Laminar to Turbulent Flow
• Reynolds number must be less than
approx. 2100 for laminar flow and greater
than approx. 4000 for turbulent flow.
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Fluid Mechanics  II
Transition from Laminar to Turbulent Flow
• Its irregular, random nature is the
distinguishing feature of turbulent flows.
The character of many of the important
properties of the flow (pressure drop, heat
transfer, etc.) depends strongly on the
existence and nature of the turbulent
fluctuations or randomness indicated.
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Fluid Mechanics  II
Transition from Laminar to Turbulent Flow
• Mixing, heat and mass transfer
processes are enhanced in turbulent
flow compared to laminar flow.
• The macroscopic scale of the
randomness in turbulent flow is very
effective in transporting energy and
mass throughout the flow field,
thereby increasing the various rate
processes involved.
• Laminar flow, is very small but finite
sized fluid particles flowing smoothly
in levels, one over another.
• The only randomness and mixing
take place on the molecular scale and
result in relatively small heat, mass,
and momentum transfer rates.
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Fluid Mechanics  II
Turbulent shear stress
• Axial component of velocity, u = u(t), at a
given location in turbulent pipe flow is.
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Fluid Mechanics  II
Turbulent shear stress
• The fundamental difference between
laminar and turbulent flow lies in the
chaotic, random behavior of the various
fluid parameters.
• Such flows can be described in terms of
their mean values (denoted with an
overbar) on which are superimposed the
fluctuations (denoted with a prime).
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Fluid Mechanics  II
Turbulent shear stress
• Thus, if u u(x, y, z, t) is the x component of
instantaneous velocity, then its time mean
(or time average) value, ū , is;
– The time interval, T, is considerably longer
than the period of the longest fluctuations
– And considerably shorter than any
unsteadiness of the average velocity
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Fluid Mechanics  II
Turbulent shear stress
• Can the concept of viscous shear stress
for laminar flow ( = du/dy) to that of
turbulent flow by replacing u, the
instantaneous velocity, by ū, the time
average velocity ?
– The shear stress in turbulent flow is not merely
proportional to the gradient of the time
average velocity: ≠ dū/dy.
– It also contains a contribution due to the
random fluctuations of the components of
velocity.
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Fluid Mechanics  II
Turbulent shear stress
• The shear stress for turbulent flow in terms of
a new parameter called the eddy viscosity, .
• The eddy viscosity changes from one
turbulent flow condition to another and from
one point in a turbulent flow to another.
• The turbulent process could be viewed as the
random transport of bundles of fluid particles
over a certain distance, l
m
, the mixing length,
from a region of one velocity to another region
of a different velocity.
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Fluid Mechanics  II
Turbulent shear stress
• By the use of some ad hoc assumptions and physical
reasoning, the eddy viscosity is then given by.
– The problem is shifted to determining the mixing length, l
m
which
is not constant throughout the flow field.
– Near a solid surface the turbulence is dependent on the distance
from the surface.
• Thus, additional assumptions are made regarding how the
mixing length varies throughout the flow.
• There is no general model that can predict the shear stress
throughout an incompressible, viscous turbulent flow.
• It is impossible to integrate the force balance equation to
obtain the turbulent velocity profile as was done for laminar
flow.
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Fluid Mechanics  II
Turbulent Velocity Profile
• An oftenused correlation is the
empirical powerlaw velocity profile.
‘n’ is a function of the Reynolds
number, typically from 6 to 10.
– The powerlaw profile cannot be valid
near the wall, since according to this
equation the velocity gradient is infinite
there.
– In addition, it cannot be precisely valid
near the centerline because it does not
give dū/dr = 0 at r = 0.
• However, it does provide a
reasonable approximation to the
measured velocity profiles across
most of the pipe.
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Fluid Mechanics  II
Turbulence modeling
• It is not yet possible to theoretically predict
the random, irregular details of turbulent
flows.
• One can time average the governing Navier–
Stokes equations to obtain equations for the
average velocity and pressure.
• The resulting timeaveraged differential
equations contain not only the desired
average pressure and velocity as variables,
but also averages of products of the
fluctuations—terms of the type that one tried
to eliminate by averaging the equations!
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Fluid Mechanics  II
Chaos and turbulence
• Chaos theory, which is quite complex and is
currently under development, involves the
behavior of nonlinear dynamical systems and
their response to initial and boundary
conditions.
• The flow of a viscous fluid, which is governed
by the nonlinear Navier–Stokes equations,
may be such a system.
• It may be that chaos theory can provide the
turbulence properties and structure directly
from the governing equations.
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Fluid Mechanics  II
Dimensional Analysis of pipe flow
• Turbulent flow can be a very complex, difficult
topic, most turbulent pipe flow analyses are
based on experimental data and semiempirical
formulas.
• These data are expressed conveniently in
dimensionless form.
• It is often necessary to determine the head loss,
h
L
, that occurs in a pipe flow so that the
following equation, can be used in the analysis
of pipe flow problems.
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Fluid Mechanics  II
Dimensional analysis of pipe flow
• The overall head loss for the pipe system
h
L
, consists of
– the head loss due to viscous effects in the
straight pipes, termed the major loss and
denoted h
L major
, and
– the head loss in the various pipe components,
termed the minor loss and denoted h
L minor
,
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Fluid Mechanics  II
Dimensional analysis of pipe flow
• Major losses
– the pressure drop and head loss in a pipe are
dependent on the wall shear stress,
w
,
between the fluid and pipe surface.
– Difference b/w laminar and turbulent flow is:
• the shear stress for turbulent flow is a function of
the density of the fluid,
• the shear stress for laminar flow, is independent of
the density, leaving the viscosity, as the only
important fluid property.
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Fluid Mechanics  II
Dimensional analysis of pipe flow
• Major losses
– the pressure drop, p for steady,
incompressible turbulent flow in a
horizontal round pipe of diameter D
is:
– the pressure drop for laminar pipe
flow is found to be independent of
the roughness of the pipe,
– but it is necessary to include this
parameter when considering
turbulent flow.
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Fluid Mechanics  II
Dimensional analysis of pipe flow
• Major losses
– A relatively thin viscous sublayer is
formed in the fluid near the pipe wall in
turbulent flow
• Thus for turbulent flow the pressure drop
is expected to be a function of the wall
roughness.
– relatively small roughness elements
have completely negligible effects on
laminar pipe flow.
– For pipes with very large wall
―roughness‖ such as that in corrugated
pipes, the flowrate may be a function
of the ―roughness.‖
– We will consider only typical constant
diameter pipes with relative
roughnesses in the range
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Fluid Mechanics  II
Dimensional analysis of pipe flow
• Major losses
– The pressure drop, p can be
expressed in terms of k – r = 4
dimensionless groups.
– This result differs from that used for
laminar flow in two ways.
• the pressure term is made dimensionless by
dividing by the dynamic pressure, rather
than a characteristic viscous shear stress,
• we have introduced two additional
dimensionless parameters, the Reynolds
number, and the relative roughness, which
are not present in the laminar formulation.
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Fluid Mechanics  II
Dimensional analysis of pipe flow
• Major losses
– Assume that the pressure drop should
be proportional to the pipe length. This
way the l/D term can factored out.
– We defined friction factor as:
– Thus for horizontal pipe flow.
– And
• For laminar fully developed flow, f = 64/Re
• For turbulent flow, the functional
dependence of the friction factor on the
Reynolds number and the relative
roughness, is a rather complex one that
cannot, be obtained from a theory
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Fluid Mechanics  II
Dimensional analysis of pipe flow
• Major losses
– Join energy equation with expression of
pressure drop. We get:
– This is the Darcy–Weisbach equation, it is valid
for any fully developed, steady, incompressible
pipe flow, horizontal or not.
– In general with V
in
= V
out
, the energy eq gives
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Fluid Mechanics  II
Dimensional analysis of pipe flow
• Major Losses
– It is not easy to determine the functional dependence of the
friction factor on the Reynolds number and relative roughness.
– Much of this information is a result of experiments conducted by
Nikuradse in 1933 and amplified by many others since then.
– One difficulty lies in the determination of the roughness of the
pipe.
• Nikuradse used artificially roughened pipes produced by gluing sand
grains of known size onto pipe walls to produce pipes with sandpaper
type surfaces.
• The pressure drop needed to produce a desired flowrate was measured
and the data were converted into the friction factor for the corresponding
Reynolds number and relative roughness.
• The tests were repeated numerous times for a wide range of Re and /D
to determine the f=(Re, /D ) dependence.
– In commercially available pipes it is possible to obtain a measure
of the effective relative roughness of typical pipes and thus to
obtain the friction factor.
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Fluid Mechanics  II
Dimensional analysis of pipe flow
• Major losses
– Typical roughness values for various pipe surfaces are shown along
with the functional dependence of f on Re and called the Moody
chart in honor of L. F. Moody, who, along with C. F. Colebrook,
correlated the original data of Nikuradse in terms of the relative
roughness of commercially available pipe materials.
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Fluid Mechanics  II
Dimensional analysis of pipe flow
• Major losses
– The turbulent portion of the Moody chart is represented
by the Colebrook formula
– In fact, the Moody chart is a graphical representation of
this equation, which is an empirical fit of the pipe flow
pressure drop data.
– A difficulty with its use is that for given conditions it is not
possible to solve for f without some sort of iterative
scheme.
– It is possible to obtain an equation that adequately
approximates the Colebrook / Moody chart relationship
but does not require an iterative scheme.
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Major Losses  Summary
• The head loss due to viscous effects in straight
pipes, termed the major loss and denoted h
L major
,
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• The Typical roughness values for various pipe surfaces are
shown along with the functional dependence of f on Re and called
the Moody chart.
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Fluid Mechanics  II
Example 8.5
• Air flows through a 4mm diameter plastic
tube with an average velocity of V=50m/s.
– Determine the pressure drop in a 0.1m section
of the tube if the flow is laminar.
– Repeat the calculations if the flow is turbulent.
• Solution
– = 1.23 kg/m
3
& = 1.79x10
5
Re=13,700
– For laminar flow, f = 64/Re = 0.00467
– Pressure drop from , is p = 0.179
kPa
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64
Fluid Mechanics  II
Example 8.5
– For plastic tube = 0.0015mm and
– /D = 0.0015/4 = 0.000375
– With Re = 13700, f = 0.028 from Moody Chart
– Pressure drop from , p = 1.076 kPa
• Alternately, from
– And the pressure drop, p = 1.076 kPa
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Fluid Mechanics  II
Solved Problem
• A horizontal cast iron pipe of 8cm diameter
transporting water at 20°C has a pressure
drop of 500 kPa over 200m.
– Estimate the flow rate using the Moody diagram
for Re = 1x10
4
, 1x10
5
& 1x10
6
.
• Solution:
– The relative roughness, /D = 0.26/80 = 0.00325
– The friction factor from Moody chart is f = 0.0256
– The head loss, h
L
= p/ = 500000/9800 = 51
– The average velocity, from is,
V =3.92m/s
– Flowrate, Q = AV, = x 0.04² x 3.92 = 0.0197m
3
/s.
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Fluid Mechanics  II
PROBLEMS
8.42, 8.45, 8.50, 8.58, 8.60, 8.62 & 8.70.
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• In addition to straight pipes most piping
systems consist of valves, bends, tees, etc
which add to the overall head loss of the
system.
• Such losses are generally termed minor
losses, denoted as h
L minor
.
• How to determine the various minor losses
that commonly occur in pipe systems?
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68
Minor losses
Fluid Mechanics  II
• A valve provides a means to
regulate the flowrate by
changing the geometry of
the system.
– With the valve closed, the
resistance to the flow is
infinite—the fluid cannot flow.
– With the valve wide open the
extra resistance due to the
presence of the valve may or
may not be negligible.
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Minor losses example: Valve
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Fluid Mechanics  II
• An analytical method to predict the head loss
for components of piping system is not
possible.
• The head loss information is given in
dimensionless form and based on
experimental data.
• The most common method to determine
head losses or pressure drops is to specify
the loss coefficient, k
L
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Loss Coefficient
Fluid Mechanics  II
• Its value depends on geometry of component.
• It may also depend on fluid properties.
• In many cases Re is large enough that flow
through the component is dominated by inertia
effects, with low viscous effects.
• Here pressure drops and head losses correlate
directly with the dynamic pressure.
• Thus, in many cases the loss coefficients for
components are a function of geometry only
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Loss Coefficient
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Fluid Mechanics  II
• Head loss through a component is given in
terms of the length of pipe that would produce
the same head loss.
• The head loss of the pipe system is the same
as that produced in a straight pipe whose
length is equal to the pipes of the original
system plus the sum of the additional
equivalent lengths of all of the components of
the system.
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72
Equivalent length
Fluid Mechanics  II
Loss coefficient at flow entrance
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Fluid Mechanics  II
Loss coefficient at flow exit
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Fluid Mechanics  II
Loss coefficient in sudden expansion
• In this case the loss coefficient can be
calculated from analytical means.
• Apply continuity, momentum & energy
equations in control volume.
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Fluid Mechanics  II
Loss coefficient in sudden expansion
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76
1
3
−
3
3
=
3
3
3
−
1
1
−
3
3
=
3
3
3
−
1
1
−
3
=
3
3
−
1
1
+
1
2
2
=
3
+
3
2
2
+ ℎ
3
3
−
1
+
1
2
2
−
3
2
2
+= ℎ
1
−
3
2
2
= ℎ
1
1
=
3
3
3
=
1
3
1
1
−
1
3
1
2
2
= ℎ
1
2
1 −
1
3
2
2
= ℎ
1 −
1
3
2
=
ℎ
1
2
2
Fluid Mechanics  II
Loss coefficient in conical diffuser
• Diffuser is a device shaped
to decelerate a fluid.
• Losses can be reduced if
expansion is gradual.
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– For small angles, the diffuser is long and most of
the head loss is due to the wall shear stress.
– For moderate or large angles, the flow separates
from the walls and the losses are due mainly to
dissipation of the kinetic energy of the jet leaving
the smaller diameter pipe.
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Fluid Mechanics  II
Loss coefficient in conical diffuser
• Losses in
a diffuser
NOTE
• Typical
results
only.
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78
– Flow through a diffuser is very complicated and may
be strongly dependent on the area ratio specific
details of the geometry, and the Reynolds number.
Fluid Mechanics  II
Losses in bends
• The losses are due
to the separated
region of flow near
the inside of the
bend, and
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• The swirling secondary flow that occurs from
the imbalance of centripetal forces as a
result of the curvature of the pipe centerline.
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Fluid Mechanics  II
Losses in miter bends
• Miter bends are used
where space is too
limited for smooth bends.
• The losses in miter
bends can be reduced by
using guide vanes that
direct the flow with less
unwanted swirl and
disturbances.
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Fluid Mechanics  II
Loss coefficient for pipe components
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Fluid Mechanics  II
Loss coefficient for pipe components
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Fluid Mechanics  II
Loss coefficient for valves
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Fluid Mechanics  II
Loss coefficient for valves
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Fluid Mechanics  II
Example 8.6
• Air at STP is to flow
through test sections
(5) and (6) with a
velocity of 200 m/s.
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85
• Flow is driven by a fan that increases the
static pressure by the amount p
1
 p
9
. needed
to overcome head losses experienced by the
fluid as it flows around the circuit.
• Find p
1
 p
9
and the power supplied to the
fluid by the fan.
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Fluid Mechanics  II
Example 8.6
• Fan provides energy to
overcome the head loss.
• Energy eq b/w 1 and 9.
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2
86
• z
1
= z
9
, V
1
= V
9
A
• Power is
• Loss coefficients
• Section 6 to 4 (clockwise) is a diffuser with K
L
= 0.6
• Section 4 has K
L
= 4.0,
• Section 45 is nozzle, K
L
=0.2.
• At corners, K
L
= 0.2.
• Total head loss is.
Fluid Mechanics  II
Example 8.6
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Fluid Mechanics  II
Non circular conduits
• With slight modification many round pipe
results can be carried over, to flow in conduits
of other shapes.
• Regardless of the crosssectional shape,
there are no inertia effects in fully developed
laminar pipe flow.
• The friction factor can be written as f = C/Re
h
– C depends on the shape of the duct, and
– Re
h
is the Reynolds number, based on the
hydraulic diameter D
h
.
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90
Fluid Mechanics  II
Non circular conduits
• The hydraulic diameter is four times the
ratio of the crosssectional flow area
divided by the wetted perimeter, P, of the
pipe.
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Fluid Mechanics  II
Example 8.7
• Air at T = 50 ºC and P
atm
flows from furnace
through an 20cm dia pipe with V = 3 m/s.
• It then passes into a square duct whose side
is of length a, with smooth surfaces (c = 0)
• The unit head loss is the same for the pipe
and the duct.
• Determine the duct size, a.
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92
• Plan
• Determine the head loss per unit length for the
pipe, and then size the square duct to give the
same value.
• Solution
• Find Viscosity and Re
• From Re and c/D = 0, find friction factor f = 0.022
Fluid Mechanics  II
Example 8.7
• Air properties from appendix
• Re = 34,100
• Friction factor, f = 0.022
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• Head loss per unit length is .0505
• Same for the square duct, i.e. .0505 =
• Where Dh is
• And in duct, V
s
= Q
pipe
/A
duct
= 0.09/a².
• Three equations and three variables.
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Fluid Mechanics  II
PIPE FLOW EXAMPLES
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Fluid Mechanics  II
Pipe systems
• The main idea involved is to apply the energy
equation between appropriate locations within
the flow system,
• The head loss written in terms of the friction
factor and the minor loss coefficients.
• Two classes of pipe systems:
– those containing a single pipe (whose length may
be interrupted by various components),
– those containing multiple pipes in parallel, series,
or network configurations.
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Fluid Mechanics  II
Single pipe
• The three most common types of problems are.
– Type I: Determine the necessary pressure difference
or head loss from the desired flowrate or average
velocity.
– Type II: Determine the flowrate from the applied
driving pressure or head loss.
– Type III: Determine the diameter of the pipe needed
from the the pressure drop and the flowrate.
• We assume
– the pipe system is defined in terms of the length of
pipe sections used
– the number of elbows, bends, and valves needed to
convey the fluid is known.
– the fluid properties are given.
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96
Fluid Mechanics  II
Threaded elbows 90°
K = 1.5
Globe valve
open, K = 10
Faucet
K = 2
Q
1.75 m
5.25 m
3.5 m
3.5 m
3.5 m 3.5 m
(1)
(2)
97
Example
• Water flows from the ground floor to the second level in a
threestorey building through a 20 mm diameter pipe
(drawntubing, c = 0.0015 mm) at a rate of 0.75 liter/s.
• The water exits through a faucet of diameter 12.5 mm.
• Calculate the pressure at point (1).
– all losses are neglected,
– the only losses included
are major losses, or
– all losses are included.
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Fluid Mechanics  II
Example
( ) ( )
m
h h g gz V V p + + + ÷ =
1 2
2
1
2
2 1
2
1
µ µ
98
From the modified Bernoulli equation, we can write
In this problem, p
2
= 0, z
1
= 0. Thus,
The velocities in the pipe and out from the faucet are respectively
The Reynolds number of the flow is
L
gh gz V p gz V p µ µ µ µ µ + + + = + +
2
2
2 2 1
2
1 1
2
1
2
1
( )
( )
( )
( )
s m
D
Q
A
Q
V
s m
D
Q
A
Q
V
631 . 6
012 . 0
10 75 . 0 4 4
387 . 2
020 . 0
10 75 . 0 4 4
2
3
2
2 2
2
2
3
2
1 1
1
=
×
= = =
=
×
= = =
÷
÷
t t
t t
546 , 42
10 12 . 1
) 020 . 0 )( 387 . 2 )( 998 (
Re
3
=
×
= =
÷
µ
µVd
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Fluid Mechanics  II
The roughness c/d = 0.0015/20 = 0.000075. From the Moody chart, ] ~ 0.022 (or,0.02191 via
the Colebrook formula). The total length of the pipe is
Hence, the friction head loss is
The total minor loss is
The pressure at (1) is
Example
m 71 . 6
) 81 . 9 ( 2
387 . 2
02 . 0
21
) 022 . 0 (
2
2 2
1
= = =
g
V
d
f h
f
99
m 21 75 . 1 ) 5 . 3 ( 4 25 . 5 = + + =
 
m
m
94 . 11 23 . 5 71 . 6
23 . 5
) 81 . 9 ( 2
387 . 2
2 10 ) 5 . 1 ( 4
2
2 2
1
= + = + =
= + + = =
A
¿
m f
m
h h h
g
V
K h
et
( ) ( )
( )( ) ( )( )( ) ( )( )
Pa 205
23 . 5 71 . 6 81 . 9 998 5 . 3 5 . 3 81 . 9 998 387 . 2 631 . 6 998
2
1
2
1
2 2
1 2
2
1
2
2 1
k
h h g gz V V p
m
=
+ + + + ÷ =
+ + + ÷ = µ µ µ
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Fluid Mechanics  II
PIPE NETWORKS (MULTIPLE PIPE
SYSTEMS)
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0
Fluid Mechanics  II
Multiple pipe systems
• The governing mechanisms for the flow in
multiple pipe systems are the same as for the
single pipe systems.
• But because of the numerous unknowns
involved, additional complexities may arise in
solving for the flow in multiple pipe systems.
• The simplest multiple pipe systems can be
classified into series or parallel flows.
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Fluid Mechanics  II
Pipes in series
• Every fluid particle that passes through the
system passes through each of the pipes. Thus,
– The flowrate is the same in each pipe, and
– The head loss is the sum of the head losses in each
of the pipes.
– The friction factors will be different for each pipe
because the Re and c will be different.
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2
Fluid Mechanics  II
Pipes in series (Problem types)
• Type I:
– If flowrate is known, the pressure drop or head loss can
be determined from given equations.
• Type II:
– If the pressure drop is given and flowrate is required, an
iteration scheme is needed.
– None of the friction factors, are known, so solution may
involve more trialanderror attempts.
• Type III:
– If the pressure drop is given and pipe diameter is to be
determined, iterations are needed as in Type II.
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3
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Fluid Mechanics  II
Pipes in parallel
• A fluid particle traveling from A to B may take
any of the paths available, with
– The total flowrate equal to the sum of the flowrates in
each pipe.
– The head loss experienced by any fluid particle
traveling between A and B is the same, independent
of the path taken.
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4
Fluid Mechanics  II
• Each point in the
system can only
have one pressure
• The pressure
change from 1 to 2
by path a must
equal the pressure
change from 1 to 2
by path b
A
p
1
¸
+
V
1
2
2g
+ z
1
=
p
2
¸
+
V
2
2
2g
+ z
2
+ h
L
A
a a
L
h z
g
V
z
g
V
p p
÷ ÷ ÷ + = ÷
2
2
2
1
2
1
1 2
2 2 ¸ ¸
B
1
2
B
b b
L
h z
g
V
z
g
V
p p
÷ ÷ ÷ + = ÷
2
2
2
1
2
1
1 2
2 2 ¸ ¸
Pipe networks
10
9
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Fluid Mechanics  II
h
L
a
= h
L
b
a
b
1
2
Pressure change by path A
Pipe networks
• Assumptions
– Pipe diameters are constant or K.E. is small
– Model withdrawals are occurring at nodes so V
is constant between nodes
Or sum of head loss around loop is zero.
B
b b
A
a a
L L
h z
g
V
z
g
V
h z
g
V
z
g
V
÷ ÷ ÷ + = ÷ ÷ ÷ +
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
2
2
1
2
1
2 2 2 2
11
0
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Fluid Mechanics  II
Pipe Loops
• Pipe loops are common in water
distribution systems.
• Pipe network divided into loops with nodes
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Fluid Mechanics  II
Pipe Loops – Basic Principles
• At each node, continuity may be applied:
• Around any loop, the sum of head losses
must be zero:
¿
=
=
n
i
i
q
1
0
¿
=
=
m
i
i
h
1
0
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2
Fluid Mechanics  II
Pipe Loops – Basic Principles
• Also, in each pipe, head loss is a function
of discharge as is evident from all pipe flow
formulae
Sign Convention (very important!)
• Flows into a node are positive
• Head loss clockwise round a loop are
positive
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3
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Fluid Mechanics  II
Pipe Loops – Solution techniques
• The "loop" or "head balance" method
– This is used when the total volume rate of
flow through the network is known but the
heads or pressures at junctions within the
network are unknown.
• The "nodal" or "quantity balance" method
– This is used when the heads at each flow
entry point are known and it is required to
determine the pressure heads and flows
through the network.
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11
4
Fluid Mechanics  II
The Loop Method
1. assume values of q
i
to satisfy
2. calculate h
fi
from q
i
3. if then solution is correct
4. if then apply a correction factor and
return to step 2
Correction factors can be computed from:
¿
= 0
i
q
¿
= 0
fi
h
¿
= 0
fi
h
¿
¿
÷ =
i
fi
fi
i
q
h
h
q
2
o
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5
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Fluid Mechanics  II
The Nodal Method
1. assume a value of head H
j
at each junction
2. calculate q
i
from H
j
3. if then solution is correct
4. if then apply a correction factor and
return to step 2
Correction factors can be computed from:
¿
= 0
fi
q
¿
= 0
fi
q
¿
¿
=
fi
i
i
h
q
q
H
2
o
1
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6
Fluid Mechanics  II
Network Analysis
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7
Find the flows in the loop given the inflows
and outflows.
The pipes are all 25 cm cast iron (c=0.26 mm).
A
B
C D
0.10 m
3
/s
0.32 m
3
/s
0.28 m
3
/s
0.14 m
3
/s
200 m
100 m
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Fluid Mechanics  II
Example
• Assign a flow to each pipe link
• Flow into each junction must equal flow out
of the junction
A
B
C D
0.10 m
3
/s
0.32 m
3
/s
0.28 m
3
/s
0.14 m
3
/s
0.32
0.00
0.10
0.04
arbitrary
11
8
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Fluid Mechanics  II
Solution
• Calculate the head loss in each pipe
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11
9
f=0.02 for Re>200000
h
f
=
8fL
gD
5
t
2

\

.

Q
2
339
) 25 . 0 )( 8 . 9 (
) 200 )( 02 . 0 ( 8
2 5
1
=


.

\

=
t
k
k
1
,k
3
=339
k
2
,k
4
=169
A
B
C D
0.10 m
3
/s
0.32 m
3
/s
0.28 m
3
/s
0.14 m
3
/s
1
4 2
3
h
f
1
= 34.7m
h
f
2
= 0.222m
h
f
3
= ÷3.39m
h
f
4
= ÷0.00m
h
f
i
i=1
4
¿
= 31.53m
   
g
D Q
d
f
g
A Q
d
f
g
V
D
f h
f
2
4
2 2
2
2
1
2
1
2
1
t
= = =
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Fluid Mechanics  II
Solution
• The head loss around the loop isn’t zero
• Need to change the flow around the loop
• The clockwise flow is too great (head loss is positive)
• reduce the clockwise flow to reduce the head loss
• oq
i
= 0.163
• Repeat until head loss around loop is zero
• Easier solution would be to use numerical tools.
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0
A
B
C D
0.10 m
3
/s
0.32 m
3
/s 0.28 m
3
/s
0.14 m
3
/s
0.157
0.163
0.263
0.123
1
4 2
3
Q
0
+ ΔQ
Q1 = 0.157
Q2 = 0.123
Q3 = 0.263
Q4 = 0.163
Fluid Mechanics  II
Numeric Analysis
• Solution techniques
– Use a numeric solver (Solver in Excel) to find a change in
flow that will give zero head loss around the loop, or
– Use a pipe Network Analysis software.
• Set up a spreadsheet as shown, initially AQ is 0
• Set the sum of the head loss to 0 by changing AQ the column Q
0
+
AQ contains the correct flows
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1
∆Q 0.000
pipe f L D k Q0 Q0+∆Q hf
P1 0.02 200 0.25 339 0.32 0.320 34.69
P2 0.02 100 0.25 169 0.04 0.040 0.27
P3 0.02 200 0.25 339 0.1 0.100 3.39
P4 0.02 100 0.25 169 0 0.000 0.00
31.575 Sum Head Loss
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Fluid Mechanics  II
END OF CHAPTER
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