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ED/APR 2007/TSL011

UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA FINAL EXAMINATION

COURSE COURSE CODE EXAMINATION TIME

: : : :

COLLEGE READING 1 TSL011 APRIL 2007 2 HOURS

INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES

1.

This question paper consists of two (2) parts :

PART A PARTB

Section I (10 Questions) Section II (5 Questions) Section I (11 Questions) Section II (10 Questions)

2. 3.

Answer ALL questions in the Question Paper. Fill in the details below before the examination starts: Student Registration Number Lecturer's Name Class : : :

4. 5.

Do not bring any material into the examination room unless permission is given by the invigilator. Please check to make sure that this examination pack consists of: i) the Question Paper

DO NOT TURN THIS PAGE UNTIL YOU ARE TOLD TO DO SO
This examination paper consists of 13 printed pages
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PART A (20 MARKS)

Section I

Instructions:

Read text 1 and text 2, then fill in the referents for the words/phrases in the box below.

TEXT1 In Malaysia, like in many other developed countries, a new sub-culture called 'latch-key children' is developing. By this is meant that children look after themselves at home. The more affluent families have maids to look after them. (1) Others have baby sitters. Children from infancy are left in other people's care while their parents go to work. It is a common sight to see mothers or fathers carrying sleeping infants in the morning and taking them to day-care centres before leaving for work. (2) This is such a common thing today that a whole industry of day care centres have sprung up. In a few cases, there are even day-care centres provided by enlightened employers as part of an employment package. Parents generally take their young ones home in the evenings. Some leave them at the homes of baby sitters, often the children's grandparents or aunts and uncles, and take them home only on weekends. (3) These and other arrangements go on till the child is old, and independent, enough to take care of itself at home. Children being left in the care of others is not (4) a new phenomenon. In most countries, throughout history, children have been left at boarding schools. This is usually the case of older children. (5) The children have generally fared well and in many cases have excelled in their studies.

Referent
1.

Others This These • a new phenomenon The children

2. 3. 4. 5.

(5 marks)

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TEXT 2 After all the indignities that have been done to animals by man since the beginning of time, it seems ridiculous to even ask if transplanting their organs into humans can ever be justified. Man has enslaved most animals except the wildest. Animals serve (1) his every need: as beasts of burden, as performers, as pets and especially as food. It seems so logical to assume that it is justifiable to do anything to animals. If that is the case, then by serving as organ donors to man, and dying in (2) the process, the animals are certainly serving a higher purpose-albeit unwillingly than dying to be man's food. Studies reveal that man was originally vegetarian. Then he started to eat meat. After that he started to kill for the pleasure of (3) it. His target: defenseless animals. If all he wants is food, all his needs would be satisfied through farming. (4) That never seems to be enough, so he has to eat exotic food and hunt down wild animals. Animals have been used in scientific testing for centuries now. This is true not only for medicines but also for other purposes like the effects of cosmetics and smoking tobacco. Armies also use animals to test the effectiveness of their weapons. As fellow inhabitants of the earth, is this what they deserve? If we can do (5) such acts mercilessly, then transplanting animal organs into ourselves seems to be a lesser evil. But then why do evil at all?

Referent 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. his

the process it That

such acts (5 marks)

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Section II Instructions: Below are some words with several definitions. In the blanks, write the definition that best fits the meaning of the word as used in the given sentences. QUESTION 1 pitch a. b. c. d. i) to throw something in a rough or forceful way talk or arguments used by a person trying to sell things or persuade people to do something an area of ground specially prepared and marked for playing a game to set something at a particular level

The new government has already been pitched into a crisis.

ii) The rugby tour was a disaster both on and off the pitch.

(2 marks) QUESTION 2 gloss a. b. c. d. an attractive appearance that is only on the surface a way of explaining something to make it seem more attractive a shine on a smooth surface a comment added to a piece of writing to explain a difficult word

i)

You can have the photos with either a gloss or a matt finish.

ii) Beneath the gloss of success was a tragic private life.

(2 marks)

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QUESTION 3 defeat a. b. c. d. to win against somebody to stop something from being successful a failure to win the act of winning a victory over something

i)

The motion was defeated by 19 votes.

ii) The party faces defeat in the election.

(2 marks)

QUESTION 4 hand a. b. c. d. somebody's influence in a situation help in doing something close or near a person who does physical work in a factory or on a farm

i)

Help was at hand.

ii) Several of his colleagues had a hand in his downfall.

(2 marks)

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QUESTION 5 instruct a. b. c. d. to teach something to inform to tell in a formal way to employ somebody

i)

All our staff have been instructed in sign language.

ii) The letter instructed him to report to headquarters immediately.

(2 marks)

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PART B (30 MARKS) Section I

Instructions: Read the passage below and answer all the questions that follow. BABIES NEED BOOKS 1 From the moment a baby first opens its eyes, it is learning. Sight, sound and sensation spark off a learning process which will determine in large measures the sort of person it will become. Language stands head and shoulders over all other tools as an instrument of learning. It is language that gives man his lead in intelligence over all other creatures. Only man can stand off and contemplate his own situation. No other creature can assemble a list of ideas, consider them, draw conclusions and then explain his reasoning. Man can do all this because he possesses language. And if thought depends on language, clearly the quality of an individual's thought will depend on the quality of that person's language-rudimentary or sophisticated, precise or approximate, stereotyped or original. Thus, long before they can speak, children are involved in a two-way process of communication which is steadily building a foundation on which their later use of language will be based. Constantly surrounded by language, they are unconsciously building structures in their minds into which their speech and reading will later fitgrammatical constructions, tense sequences and so on. The forms of these structures will depend on the amount and complexity of speech they hear. The fortunate children are those who listen to articulate adults expressing ideas and defending opinions. They will know, long before they can contribute themselves, that relationships are forged through this process of speaking and listening; that warmth and humour have a place in the process, as have all other human emotions. Sadly there is irrefutable evidence that for millions of the world's children language impoverishment is an established fact by the time they start school. Tragedy has already entered the lives of the 5 or 6-year-olds whose early years have not adequately provided them with this tool of learning. Using books is the most important means of ensuring a child's adequate language development. None of us can endlessly initiate and maintain speech with very small children; we run out of ideas, or just get plain sick of it. Their lives are limited and the experience just is not there to provide the raw material for constant verbal interaction, without inevitable boredom on the child's part and desperation on the adult's. There is nothing to compare with a book in its capacity to establish and maintain a relationship with a child. Its effects extend far beyond the covers of the actual book, and invade every aspect of life. Parents and children who share books share the same frame of reference. Incidents in everyday life constantly remind one or the other of a situation, a character, an action, from a jointly enjoyed book, with all the generation of warmth and well-being that is attendant upon such sharing. All too often, there is a breakdown of communication between parents and children when

2

3

4

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the problems of adolescence arise. In most cases this is most acute when the giveand-take of shared opinion and ideas has not been constantly practiced throughout childhood. Books can play a major part in the establishment of this verbal give-andtake because they are rooted in language and because language is essential to human communication and communication is the life-blood of relationships. 5 It is scarcely possible to over-estimate the width and depth of the increase in a child's grasp of the world that comes with access to books. Young children's understanding greatly outruns their capacity for expression as their speech strains to encompass their awareness, to represent reality as they see it. Shades of meaning which may be quite unavailable to the child of limited verbal experience are startlingly present in the understanding and increasingly in the speech of the 'well-read-to' and 'constantly talked-to' toddler. All the wonderful modifying words- later, nearly, tomorrow, almost, wait, half, lend-begin to steer the child away from the simple extremes of 'yes' and 'no' towards the adult world of compromise; from the child's black and white world to the subtle shades and blends of the real world. The range of imaginative experience opened up by books expands the inevitably limited horizons of children's surroundings and allows them to make joyful, intrigued, awe-struck acquaintance with countless people, animals, objects and ideas in their first years of life, to their incalculable advantage. Books also help children to see things from other points of view beside their own as they unconsciously put themselves into other people's places-'if that could happen to him, it could happen to me.' This imaginative self-awareness brings apprehensions and fears as well as heightened hopes and joys. But human beings have always expressed their inner feelings in drama, music and mime and through books children can be encouraged to externalize and communicate their most private emotions. And stories will demonstrate too that people are not powerless - that purposeful action leads to predictable results - that hurdles can be jumped and problems overcome. Our society is increasingly dominated by visual images and crude noise. Television selects what we look at; advertisements are designed so that non-readers will get the point; sound is often loud, strident and undifferentiated. In books, children can experience language whish is subtle, resourceful, exhilarating and harmonious; language which provides the human ear (and understanding) with a pointed and precise pleasure, the searching illuminating impact of good and true words. All this is in danger of being lost against the blaring and glaring background of the modern child's world. (Adapted from Babies Need Books by Dorothy Butler)

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QUESTION 1 Name two things a baby does from the day he is born to enable him to learn about the world around him.

(2 marks) QUESTION 2 Give two examples of how language makes man superior to all other creatures.

(2 marks) QUESTION 3 State three qualities of an individual's thought if he possesses language.

(3 marks) QUESTION 4 Describe two advantages that children who gain from listening "to articulate adults expressing ideas and defending opinion".

(2 marks)
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QUESTION 5

Define "crude" as used in the passage.

(1 mark) QUESTION 6 Give two reasons why initiating and maintaining one's own speech is an inadequate basis for language development.

(2 marks) QUESTION 7 The author describes how language steers a child away from his world into that of the adult. Explain the differences between these two worlds as the author sees them.

(2 marks) QUESTION 8 In your own words, state the main idea of paragraph 7.

(1 mark)
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QUESTION 9 How do books help children to create imagination and see things from other points of view?

(1 mark)

QUESTION 10 How can book reading by parents with their children establish relationships?

(2 marks)

QUESTION 11 How can children experience language in books?

(2 marks)

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Section II

Instructions: Read the passage below and answer all the questions that follow.

UP AGAINST ALLERGIES Ben is going to his classmate's sixth birthday party. He eagerly takes along a present and an inhaler, plus loads of reminders from mum on what he can and cannot eat. Ben is just one of the millions of kids around the world who suffer from allergies such as asthma, allergic rhinitis and eczema. Given the choice, you wouldn't want your child to be like Ben. Hence, the logical thing to do in order to halt the allergy march is to prevent food allergy in infancy. During the nursing period, breast milk supports the growth of friendly bacteria in the child's intestines. Living in your child's intestines is a whole lot of friendly bacteria, particularly Bifidobacteria, which help to guard against infections and prevent allergies. Breast milk, which has a good quality protein, is low in minerals and high in lactose, and promotes the growth of Bifidobacteria. Studies have shown that Bifidobacteria increase the production of the antibody IgA in the intestines. IgA acts against harmful microorganisms and other foreign substances. Immunonutrients are nutrients that help to boost the immune system. Nucleotide is one example and breast milk is a good source of this nutrient, which helps to improve intestinal health as well as immune response. In addition to these factors that help to prevent allergies, breast milk is also hypoallergenic. Babies are not allergic to breast milk. Furthermore, colostrums or the "early breast milk" contains large amounts of the antibody IgA. With such good benefits, breast milk is definitely the best food for infants. Several studies have shown that delayed weaning or the introduction of the solid foods can help protect against allergies. It is recommended that solid foods be given to infants only after six months of age and even then, to offer one food at a time so that any allergy can be traced easily. Infants are more susceptible to food allergy because of their immature digestive and immune systems. Added to the fact that all foods are capable of causing food allergies, mothers must be careful in choosing foods for their babies. Foods which most frequently cause allergies in children up to a year old include eggs, cow's milk, soya, nuts, fish, and wheat. Another effective way of curbing allergies is by giving foods that contain friendly bacteria, also known as probiotics, to your child. Probiotic bacteria such as Bifidobacteria have been successfully added to foods like milk and yoghurt. A recent study has shown that adding DHA-rich fish oil to the diet of infants during the first year of life decreases the risk of allergic rhinitis and asthma in childhood. Although Ben shares his battle against asthma with an estimated 300 million people in the world, allergy issues still command relatively low priority. Indeed, we should all be making a concerted effort towards stopping the allergy march and giving our children a happy and healthy childhood. (Adapted from Sunday Star, August 2006)
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Instructions: Complete the table below with information taken from the text above.
A \

1)

Bifidobacteria 2)

3) Boosting the immune system

Nucleotide 4)

5) 6)

I—•

7)

Causes of food allergy food e.g. 8)

9) e.g. milk and yoghurt Solutions 10)

(10 marks)

END OF QUESTION PAPER

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