MED1000; PBL 1- “Blood on the Road” Homeostasis of Blood Pressure via Baroreflex

-Homeostasis; “Maintenance of body’s internal environment within certain physiological limits” Eg- Blood pressure, body temperature, pH, pO2 and [Na+] of ECF These have a normal set point; fluctuation from normal will cause graded response to attempt to restore normal state Blood Pressure homeostasis; The maintenance of a steady state of blood pressure. The mechanisms involved include the baroreceptor mechanism, the chemoreceptor mechanism, CNS ischaemic response, the reninangiotensin-aldosterone system, the regulation of body fluid level by the kidney and others. - Negative feedback mechanisms.- “Buffers” that react to a change and counteract it. -Baroreceptors; • Stretch sensitive nerves located in blood vessels- Aortic arch, carotid artery, femoral artery, vena cave, constantly fire in response to stretch. Signal Medulla via glossopharangeal (Carotid) and vagus nerves (Aortic) • 2 types- Arterial (high pressure), and Cardiopulmonary (low pressure, in veins and heartregulate blood volume) • Sense drop in BP fire less  signal medulla (in brainstem) causes excitatory signaling to adrenal medulla  increase HR, contractility Decrease in BP Less Baroreceptor Activity Stop inhibiting vasoconstrictor area vasoconstriction Increase in TPR Less inhibition to cardio-inhibitory centre Increase HR and contractility Increase CO

Increase in BP

negative feedback

References: Tortora & Grabowski. Principles of Anatomy and Physiology (9th Ed) Guyton & Hall (2006). Textbook of Medical Physiology. 11th ed. David Van Ryk. (2009) MED 1000 Week ½ Blood in the Road Lecture notes

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