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MODULE: ELECTRO PNEUMATICS
TVS TRAINING & SERVICES LTD Vanagaram, Chennai – 600 095
Pneuma means ‘Compressed air’. Pneumatic systems use compressed air to transmit and control power. Pneumatic cylinders convert pneumatic energy into mechanical energy. Advantages o o o o Air is available everywhere in unlimited quantities. Air can be easily transported in pipelines over large distances. Compressed air can be stored in a reservoir and removed as required. Compressed air is insensitive to temperature fluctuations. Compressed air offers minimal risk of explosion or fire. The operating components are of simple construction and therefore relatively inexpensive. Higher working speeds can be achieved.
Disadvantages Compressed air requires good preparation. It is not always possible to achieve uniform and constant piston speed with compressed air. Noisy operation. This system is economical up to a certain force requirement.
Applications 1. Material handling o o o o o o o o o o o o o o Clamping Shifting Positioning Orienting
2. Machining and working operations Drilling Turning Milling Sawing Finishing Forming Quality control
3. General applications Packaging Feeding Metering
TVS TRAINING & SERVICES LTD Vanagaram, Chennai – 600 095
CIRCUIT STRUCTURE & ISO SYMBOLS AND STANDARDS
Pneumatic circuit structure The structure of the circuit diagram should correspond to the control chain, whereby the signal flow is represented from the bottom to the top. Simplified or detailed symbols may be used for the representation of the circuit diagram. Signal flow The various levels form a control path for signal flow from the signal (input) side to the work (output) side.
System structure The primary levels in a pneumatic system are:
☻ ☻ ☻ ☻
Energy supply Input elements Processing elements Actuating devices
ISO symbols The development of pneumatic systems is assisted by a uniform approach to the representation of the elements and the circuits. The symbols used for the individual elements must display the following characteristics:
Regulator. Simplified air service unit Pressure source 4 . Symbols used in energy conversion and preparation Supply Compressor with fixed capacity Air receiver and ‘T’ junction Service equipment Filter separation and filtration of particles Water separator partial water removal Lubricator metered quantities of oil passed to the air stream relieving type – vent hole for excess upstream pressure – adjustable Pressure regulator Combined symbols Air service unit Filter. Lubricator.TVS TRAINING & SERVICES LTD Vanagaram. Chennai – 600 095 o o o o o o Function Actuation and return actuation methods Number of connections Number of switching positions General operating principle Simplified representation of the flow path The symbols used in pneumatics are standardized by the code DIN ISO 1219. Gauge.
Chennai – 600 095 Directional control valves: ports and positions (ways) 2/2 – way directional valve 3/2 – way directional valve Normally closed 3/2 .way directional valve Normally open 4/2 – way directional valve 5/2 – way directional valve 5/3 – way directional valve Mid position closed Method of actuation Mechanical General manual operation Push button Lever operated Detent lever operated Foot pedal Roller operated 5 .TVS TRAINING & SERVICES LTD Vanagaram.
roller Pneumatic Direct pneumatic actuation Indirect pneumatic actuation (piloted) Electrical Single solenoid operation Double solenoid operation Combined Double solenoid and pilot operation With manual override Non-return valves and derivatives Check valve Spring loaded check valve Shuttle valve “OR” function Two pressure valve “AND” function Quick exhaust valve Flow control valves Flow control valve adjustable 6 . Chennai – 600 095 Plunger operated Spring return Spring centered Idle return.TVS TRAINING & SERVICES LTD Vanagaram.
Chennai – 600 095 One – way flow control valve Pressure valves Adjustable pressure regulating valve. Relieving type (overloads are vented) Sequence valve combination Linear actuators Single acting cylinder Double acting cylinder Double acting cylinder with double ended piston rod Double acting cylinder with non-adjustable cushioning in one direction Double acting cylinder with single adjustable cushioning Double acting cylinder with adjustable cushioning at both ends Linear drive with magnetic coupling 7 .TVS TRAINING & SERVICES LTD Vanagaram. Non – relieving type Adjustable pressure regulating valve.
rotation in one direction fixed capacity Air motor. Chennai – 600 095 Rotary actuators Air motor.TVS TRAINING & SERVICES LTD Vanagaram. rotation in one direction variable capacity Air motor. rotation in both directions variable capacity Rotary actuator limited travel in both directions Auxiliary symbols Exhaust port Exhaust port with threaded connection Silencer Line connection (fixed) Crossing lines (not connected) Pressure gauge Visual indicator Signal flow (electrical) 8 .
TVS TRAINING & SERVICES LTD Vanagaram. Chennai – 600 095 Electropneumatic symbols Switches and relay contacts Manual actuation 9 .
TVS TRAINING & SERVICES LTD Vanagaram. Chennai – 600 095 Relay and actuator coil symbols Relay coil and contact symbols 10 .
TVS TRAINING & SERVICES LTD Vanagaram. The effect is downtime on the machinery in addition to increased costs for repair or replacement of parts. then short to medium term degeneration of the system will be accelerated. The equipment to be considered in the generation and preparation of air include: Inlet filter Air compressor Air reservoir Air dryer Air filter with water separator Pressure regulator Air lubricator as required Drainage points 11 . Chennai – 600 095 Mechanical and electrical actuation COMPRESSED AIR GENERATION & DISTRIBUTION Compressed air generation and supply Air preparation For the continuing performance of control systems and working elements it is necessary to guarantee that the air supply is: clean dry and at the required pressure If these conditions are not fulfilled.
for example in the food. 12 . The compressor’s system should provide at least 650 to 700 kPa (6.2 times the inlet pressure per stage. Practical experience has shown that approximately 600 kPa (6 bar) should be used for economic operation. pharmaceutical and chemical industries. The air is accelerated by the blades of the compressor but there is only a small increase in pressure of about 1. Flow compressors produce large volumes of air at small increase in stage pressure. Air compressors The various types of compressor are: Selection of compressors The selection of compressor is based on: Quantity of air Pressure Quality and cleanliness of the air required. They are smooth in operation but the compression is not as high as with multistage reciprocating compressors.5 to 7 bar) for a desired operating pressure level of 600 kPa (6 bar). Chennai – 600 095 Pneumatic components are designed for a maximum operating pressure of 800 to 1000 kPa (8 – 10 bar).TVS TRAINING & SERVICES LTD Vanagaram. Here there is no need for lubrication in the compression area. Rotary piston compressors use rotating members to compress and increase the pressure of the air. The optimum ranges of pressures for reciprocating compressors are approximately : Up to 400 kPa Up to 1500 kPa Over 1500 kPa (4 bar) single stage (15 bar) double stage (> 15 bar) treble or multi stage Diaphragm compressor is used where oil is to be excluded from the air supply.
Chennai – 600 095 Reservoirs A reservoir compensates the pressure fluctuations when the compressed air is taken from the system. In paint-spraying plants. the compressor will compensate until the set higher value is reached again. bacteria and germs destroy the storage properties of products. The large surface area of the reservoir cools the air. If the pressure in the reservoir drops below a certain value. and the elements used. AIR DRYERS Air dryers reduce the moisture content to a level. which has to be regularly drained via a drain cock. Water produces a hardening of seals. Thus.TVS TRAINING & SERVICES LTD Vanagaram. water and dust cause contamination. oil. In the food. pharmaceutical and chemical industries. There are three methods of reducing the moisture content in air: Low temperature drying Adsorption drying Absorption drying 13 . Oil and water may cause seals and diaphragms to swell. a portion of the moisture in the air is separated directly from the reservoir as water. The size of a compressed air reservoir depends on the : Delivery volume of the compressor Air consumption for the applications Type of compressor cycle regulation Permissible pressure drop in the supply network. dirt. which suits the application. This has the advantage that the compressor does not need to operate continuously. corrosion and the washing-out of the original lubrication of cylinders. poor paint adhesion and the formation of blisters.
Guide line for maintenance: Filter cartridge should be changed or cleaned with kerosene or trichloroethylene or other cleaning mediums. 14 . The condensate level must be checked regularly. The air. which filters out the smaller dirt particles. Drain off the accumulated water and other foreign particles from the filter bowl. The compressed air passes through the filter from left to right and is fed through a baffle plate in the filter bowl. The filte The degree of separation depends on the pore size of the filter element used. Filter Filter removes the dust particles. Chennai – 600 095 Air service equipment It is a combination of : Compressed air filter Compressed air regulator and gauge Compressed air lubricator Air service equipment is also termed as FRL unit. But no chemicals like CTC. The effect of the baffle plate is that the air is caused to rotate. acetone are to be used for cleaning plastic parts.TVS TRAINING & SERVICES LTD Vanagaram. as the height specified on the sight glass must not be exceeded. which has pre-cleaned in this way. and the heavier dust particles and water droplets are spun by centrifugal force against the inner wall of the filter bowl. then passes through the filter element.
Basically there are two types: o o Relieving type Non – relieving type Relieving type: Non – relieving type: 15 .TVS TRAINING & SERVICES LTD Vanagaram. Chennai – 600 095 Regulator Regulators ensure a constant supply pressure and also regulate the pressure of the air.
shows an air lubricator: The compressed air passing through the lubricator causes a pressure drop between the oil reservoir and the upper part of the lubricator. it is necessary to relieve the pressure well below the limit required to relieve the air from the vent and then increase the pressure up to the lower limit required. But as a rule the compressed air should be free of oil. Guide line for maintenance: Check if the supply of the pressure air is steady or not. Here the oil is atomized and taken up by the air stream to a greater or lesser extent. Look for an external damage to the regulator. The adjustment to a higher pressure is achieved by increasing spring compression. For power components it may be necessary to lubricate the air. 16 . When reducing pressure settings. Fig. Chennai – 600 095 Setting and adjusting: The pressure regulator can be adjusted between the limits of zero and the supply pressure of the compressor network. Lubricator: Lubricators are used to lubricate the air. Pressure limits should be tested. The pressure difference is sufficient to force the oil upwards through a via duct where it then drips into a nozzle which can be seen through an inspection glass.TVS TRAINING & SERVICES LTD Vanagaram.
These valves: o Allows the passage of air directing it to particular airlines Canceling the air signals as required by blocking the passage Relieve the air through the exhaust port Based on their design the valves are classified as: Poppet valves o Ball seat valves Disc seat valves Slide valves Longitudinal slide valve Longitudinal flat slide valve Plate slide valve Poppet valve uses balls. to the level indicated. Also based on the number of ports. Inspect the colour of the oil in the bowl and if the colour turns grayish.TVS TRAINING & SERVICES LTD Vanagaram. switching positions and method of actuation the valves are classified. Chennai – 600 095 Problems that occur with excessive lubrication: o o o o Malfunctioning of the components Oil mist pollution of the environment Gumming-up of parts occurs Difficulties in adjusting the lubricator correctly Guide line for maintenance: Check the oil level in the oil sight glass and top up. if necessary. Only mineral oils can be used for the lubricator. discs. DIRECTIONAL CONTROL VALVES These valves influence the path taken by an air stream. replace the oil. 3/2-way valve: ball seat Fig. shows a stem or plunger actuated 3/2 way valve. Slide valve uses spool slides. Lubricator bowl must not be cleaned with trichloroethylene. spool flat slides or sliding disc valves for linking the connections together or closed. Unactuated position 17 . plates or cones for opening or closing the connections.
TVS TRAINING & SERVICES LTD Vanagaram. shows a 3/2 way valve hand slide valve. Chennai – 600 095 Actuated position The 3/2-way valve has three ports and two positions. Servo controlled 3/2-way roller lever valve: Fig. 3/2-way valve hand slide valve: Fig. The valve connects the output signal 2(A) to exhaust 3(R) and atmosphere in the initial position. 18 . The construction of the valve is simple and it is used as a shut-off valve. The 3/2-way valve hand slide valve is used to supply air to a leg of the supply network upstream of the consuming devices. The addition of the exhaust port 3(R) enables the signal generated via the passage through the 3/2-way valve to be cancelled. shows a Servo controlled 3/2-way roller lever valve.
e. The longitudinal slide valve uses a pilot spool as a control component. All forms of actuation can be used with longitudinal slide valves. shows a 5/2-way valve. manual. mechanically controlled directional valves can be equipped with an internal pilot valve and servo piston to assist opening. The 5/2-way valve is used primarily as a final control element for the control of cylinders. This connects or separates the corresponding lines by means of longitudinal movements. an electromotive force (EMF) is generated. Chennai – 600 095 To avoid a high actuating force. Solenoid controlled valves: In electro – pneumatics. 5/2-way valve: longitudinal slide principle Fig. The 5/2-way valve has five ports and two positions. mechanical.TVS TRAINING & SERVICES LTD Vanagaram. The valve actuating force is often the determining factor in applications and the servo assistance allows for larger bore valves to be operated with small actuating forces. electrical or pneumatic. This increases the sensitivity of the system. i. 19 . Solenoid operating principle: If a conductor (a length of copper wire) is formed into the shape of one turn of a coil and a current is passed through the conductor. valves are actuated by solenoids.
TVS TRAINING & SERVICES LTD Vanagaram. shows a single solenoid operated 5/2-way valve. By adding turn to the conductor. This NC valve is directly actuated by a solenoid and is returned to the idle position by spring return. 20 . an electromagnet consisting of simple coils of wire do not generate sufficient EMF to drive the stems of most valves. For solenoid applications. shows a single solenoid operated 3/2-way valve. This circular form concentrates the EMF in one direction. 3/2-way single solenoid valve normally closed: Fig. the magnetic field is strengthened and the EMF is increased. Chennai – 600 095 The circular form concentrates the lines of force around the conductor. 5/2-way single solenoid valve: Fig. whereas the straight conductor’s EMF is spread along its length.
shows a double solenoid operated 5/2-way valve. whereas the 4/2 way valve has one exhaust port. In case of a double solenoid valve. Assuming that the last signal applied was at solenoid Y1. Chennai – 600 095 The 5/2 way valve performs a similar function as the 4/2 way valve.TVS TRAINING & SERVICES LTD Vanagaram. the spring return has been replaced by a second solenoid. blocking airflow from 1 to 3. in turn forcing the suspended dics against the opposite sealing seat. resulting in: Air exhausts from 2 to 3 Exhaust port 5 is blocked Air flows from 1 to 4 In the neutral state. the spring return forces the large diameter seal at the spring end against its seat. air flows from 1 to 2 and 4 is exhausted via 5. The spring force also loads the suspended disc against port 4 blocking the passage of air from 1 to 4. The suspended disc opens the air flow from 1 to 2. The pilot air applies pressure to the right side of the valve piston. 21 . Energizing the solenoid moves the armature and opens the pilot air passage. 5/2-way double solenoid valve: Fig. The main difference is that this valve has two exhaust ports. When the signal is removed from Y1 the suspended disc remains stationary and no change occurs in the switched state of the valve.
If signals are applied to both X and Y. the signal which is last applied passes to the outlet.TVS TRAINING & SERVICES LTD Vanagaram. balls. Two pressure valve: AND function The two pressure valve has two inlets and one outlet. One input signal blocks the flow. 22 . Chennai – 600 095 A signal applied at solenoid Y2 reverses the valve and air flows from 1 to 4 and 2 is exhausted via 3. safety controls. check functions and logic operations. This valve is used mainly for interlocking controls. In the opposite direction the flow is free with a minimal pressure drop due to the resistance of the valve. Non – return valves Check valves: Check valves can stop the flow completely in one direction. plates or diaphragms. Blocking of the one direction can be effected by cones. Compressed air flows through the valve only if signals are applied to both inlets.
TVS TRAINING & SERVICES LTD Vanagaram. A signal is generated at the outlet. 23 . If compressed air is applied to the first inlet. Chennai – 600 095 Shuttle valve: OR function This non-return valve element has two inlets and one outlet. In this valve. the valve seat seals the opposing inlet. This valve is also called an OR component. Flow control valves These valves influence the volumetric flow of the compressed air in both directions. the airflow is throttled in one direction only. One-way flow control valve These valves are used for speed regulation of actuators.e. a cylinder or valve is exhausted. When the airflow is reversed. the seat remains in its previously assumed position because of the pressure conditions. i. A check valve blocks the flow of air in the bypass leg and the air can flow only through the regulated cross-section.
24 .TVS TRAINING & SERVICES LTD Vanagaram. The delay time is generally 0 – 30 seconds. the air can flow freely through the opened check valve. These valves are mounted directly on the cylinder. The time delay valve is a combined 3/2-way valve. Fig. one way flow control valve and air reservoir. shows a NC type time delay valve. There are two types of throttling circuits: o o Supply air throttling Exhaust air throttling Pneumatic timer (Time delay valve NC) These valves delay the signals. Chennai – 600 095 In the opposite direction.
to provide memory and to invert or convert signals. They are relatively small and sensitive magnetic contacts capable of controlling large and remote loads.TVS TRAINING & SERVICES LTD Vanagaram. Fig. shows a PE converter. Relays are used in switching circuits to amplify or multiply signals. PE converter This device combines a pneumatically actuated stem and an electric switch. with high efficiency and matching accuracy. Chennai – 600 095 ELECTROPNEUMATIC COMPONENTS Relays Relays are electromagnetically operated devices very suitable for automatic control. 25 .
shows the reed switch. a normally open (NO) contact enables energy flow and a normally closed contact (NC) disables energy flow. Fig. Reed switches Reed switches are also known as magnetically actuated proximity switches. The changeover contacts (CO) can be used as either normally open or normally closed contacts. Contacts Switches are primarily distinguished by their contact configuration: Normally open (path 3 to 4) Normally closed (path 1 to 2) Change over contacts (path 1 to 2 or 1 to 4) On actuation. Chennai – 600 095 When a pneumatic signal of sufficient pressure to overcome the opposing spring force is applied to the diaphragm. reed switches are commonly used to sense the positions of pneumatic cylinder piston rods and the angle of rotation of shaft in rotary actuators. 26 . The force required to operate the stem is controlled by the adjusting screw. Movement of the stem actuates a micro switch via a switching lever.TVS TRAINING & SERVICES LTD Vanagaram. the resultant force operates. In Electropneumatic control circuits.
5 m/s There are two types of actuators: Linear actuator o o o o o Single – acting cylinders Double acting cylinders Rotary actuator Air motor Rotary cylinders Rotary actuator Single – acting cylinders In single-acting cylinders compressed air can be applied on only one side of the piston face. Fig. It has the following general characteristics: Diameters Stroke lengths Available forces Piston speed 2. shows a single-acting cylinder. 27 . Chennai – 600 095 Electronic sensors Certain applications require the use of electronic sensors employing: Electrical induction Capacitance Infra red light These are represented by the following illustrated symbols.5 to 320mm 1 to 2000mm 2 to 45000 N at 6 bar 0. PNEUMATIC CYLINDERS (ACTUATORS) Actuators Pneumatic cylinders convert pneumatic energy into mechanical energy.1 to 1.TVS TRAINING & SERVICES LTD Vanagaram. The return movement of the piston is effected by a built-in spring or by the application of an external force. The cylinder can produce work in only one direction.
There are varying designs of single-acting cylinders including: o o Diaphragm cylinder Rolling diaphragm cylinder Double .TVS TRAINING & SERVICES LTD Vanagaram. There are two ports namely supply and exhaust ports. the sealing edges slide over the cylinder bearing surface. 28 . During motion. shows a double acting cylinder. This cylinder has the capability to carry out work in both directions of motion.acting cylinders Fig. Chennai – 600 095 The single-acting cylinder has a single piston seal which is fitted on the air supply side. Sealing is by a flexible material that is embedded in a metal or plastic piston.
There are two bearing points to guide the piston rod. The various types of double acting cylinders are: Tandem double acting cylinder Cylinders with through piston rod Multi position cylinders Cylinders with through piston rod This cylinder has a piston rod on both sides. Rotary actuator With a rotary actuator. force is transmitted direct to the drive shaft via a vane. 270 to 360 . If large masses are moved by a cylinder. 90 .TVS TRAINING & SERVICES LTD Vanagaram. Rotary cylinders With this design of double acting cylinder. 0 0 0 0 0 Angular displacement is infinitely adjustable from 0 to approx. 180 . 180 . Torque should not exceed 10 Nm. which is a through piston rod. The torque is dependent on pressure. and a rotary movement results from a linear movement. Chennai – 600 095 Fig. 0 0 29 . The force is identical in both directions. piston surface and gear ratio. The piston rod drives a gear wheel. the piston rod has a gear tooth profile. shows a double acting cylinder with end position cushioning. cushioning is used in the end positions to prevent sudden damaging impacts. The range of rotation varies from 45 .
should be tightened with equal tension as possible to avoid strain on the rods. No reworking on cylinders should be taken on cylinders. While servicing cylinders all seals are to be replaced. Chennai – 600 095 Guidelines for Maintenance: The cylinder should be perfectly aligned for efficient and trouble free operation.TVS TRAINING & SERVICES LTD Vanagaram. Tie rods connecting the end covers. 30 . Cylinders should be properly lubricated. should be properly supported to retain it in line. Piston rods dismantled during servicing.
couplings. When dismantling and assembling valves and cylinders. Detection and arrest of leakage of air 2. reliable. simple and easily serviceable. light in weight. Airlines. tension-free and bend-free. Lines should be short. care must be taken so that the unit is free of dirt. tees. serviceable and be placed at a higher level than the rest of the equipment. 4. Automatic draining of condensate 7. Connections of plastic hoses to the elements must be screwed properly. Pressure rating at strategic points 5. the circuit diagram and functional diagram should be available. bends. Cut the plastic hoses straight. The impulsive valves should be guarded against dirt. specific care should be taken to make the system simpler and easy to handle. Inspection of unions. Silencers should be used as they decrease the noise of air. take care of the sealing materials. For each system. Valves should be assembled near to the drive units. cuts in lines and holes Periodicity Monthly Once in a year Once in 3 months Once in 3 months Daily Once in 3 months Weekly 31 . The service unit should be visible. Air mains. Do not open the ports of the elements before the line connection. Maintenance schedule of pneumatic system A. shocks. lines and fittings Name of work 1. Thorough inspection of the complete line system 3. Condensate traps 6. The control system should be as small as possible.TVS TRAINING & SERVICES LTD Vanagaram. etc. Chennai – 600 095 MAINTENANCE & TROUBLE-SHOOTING OF PNEUMATIC SYSTEMS Maintenance need of Pneumatic systems While designing a pneumatic system. Before assembly of the unit. Guidelines on pneumatic system It should be easy to operate. cooling water and mechanical shocks. All elements must be given proper identification numbering from the circuit diagram.
Mechanical damage to valves and their parts Monthly Half yearly Half yearly Half yearly Monthly Yearly or earlier D. Check valve adjustment 5. Check alignment of piston. Drain condensate from filter 3. Check solenoid and its electrical parameter 6. Check torque of motor 9. Possible air leakage and its arrest 2. Inspect actuating elements 4. Check rpm of motor 8. FRL unit 1. Cleaning filter bowl and oiler bowl 7. Change of oil after thorough cleaning of bowl Daily Daily Half yearly Monthly Half yearly Yearly Weekly Half yearly Once in 3 months As needed Yearly or Half yearly C. Check for possible seal failure 3. Clean up oil jet passage 9. Adjust oil jet 11. Check the tie-rod tensions 3. Top up oil level 8. Mechanical damage to piston rod 6. Replace cup seal 7. Check for leakage and its arrest 2. Arrest oil leakage 10. Detection and arrest of leakage of air 2.TVS TRAINING & SERVICES LTD Vanagaram. piston rod & cylinder body 5. Air cylinders and Air motors 1. Calibrate pressure gauge 6. Check vibration produced by motor Monthly Half yearly Weekly Yearly or as needed Weekly Half yearly or as needed Weekly Weekly Weekly 32 . Pneumatic control valves 1. Chennai – 600 095 B. Pressure rating of pressure regulator 5. Inspect the cylinder for force and speed accuracy 4. Cleaning of filter cartridge 4.
TVS TRAINING & SERVICES LTD Vanagaram. scratched or excessive end gaps Replace Cylinders or piston scratched. Do not use gasoline for danger of explosion. Chennai – 600 095 TROUBLE. Exchange valve insert plate. worn or scored Replace or repair 33 . A. Defective sealing of cylinder head Valve interference through dislocated valve seat and valve guide Worn out pistons and piston rings as well as worn out cylinder Inadeuquate performance Piston rings broken or not sealed Mount fresh packing of the cylinder head. Compressor Trouble Possible causes Remedies Dirt in suction filter Clean filtering plate and filter disc. End gap not staggered in grooves Stagger the end gaps. POSSIBLE CAUSES AND REMEDIES The following is a list of common pneumatic system operating problems and the corresponding possible causes and remedy for each trouble. make the rings free in the grooves. Exchange piston with rings and also the cylinder if necessary Repalce piston rings as per manufacturer’s instructions. Rough.
Chennai – 600 095 Trouble Possible causes Leaking cylinder valve Remedies Adjust and stop leakage Loose belt in compressor wheel. piston pin or crank pin bearings. Replace bearings Loose motor fan Tighten the motor fan Cylinders or pistons scratched. Defective ball bearings on crank shaft or on motor shaft Recondition the conneting rod. replace or condition gudgeon pin and crank pin bearings. 34 . Rebore cylinders and replace pistons. motor pulley Adjust the belt as recommended Motor with excessive end play in shaft Adjust the end paly Carbon on top of the piston De-carbonise Leaking.TVS TRAINING & SERVICES LTD Vanagaram. broken or wornout constant speed unloader parts Valve seats worn Adjust or replace Recondition valve seat Unusual noise Worn or scored connecting rod. worn or scored.
Valve sticking or binding a) Check for dirt or gummy deposits b) Check for worn parts Cyinder sticking or binding a) Check for overtightened packing on rod seal or piston. Check the pressure at the cylinder to make certain that it is in accordance with circuit requirements. Loose tie rods Tighten the tie rods according to manufacturer’s recommendations Excessive pressure Reduce the pressure to the rated limits. Cylinder fails to move the load when valve is actuated Cylinder undersized for loads Re-calculate force needs and install appropriate sized cylinders to carry the load Piston rod broken at piston end Disassemble and replace piston rod. Chennai – 600 095 Trouble Possible causes Binding in machine leakage Remedies Check linkage to ensure that excessive friction loads are not present. b) Check for mis- Erratic cylinder action alignment or worn parts.TVS TRAINING & SERVICES LTD Vanagaram. Pressure too low. Pinched or extruded seal Cylinder body seal leak Replace the cylinder body seal Seal deterioration Check the compatibility of seal material with the lubricant used 35 .
it must be replaced b) Dirt in poppet seals. torn or swelling seals Replace it Cylinder leaks Leakage in the packing of the air cylinder connected to the valve. a) poppet is damaged. Replace the packings Valve blows to exhaust Damage spools Replace it Cylinder leaks Leakage in the packing of the air cylinder connected to the valve. fittings and clogged 36 . Replace the entire valve body assembly Nicked. Replace the packings Damage spools Replace it. Replace the piston rod if the surface is rough Excessive or rapid piston seal wear Seal installed incorrectly Check installation instruction and make necessary corrections Valves Trouble Possible causes Remedies Inlet poppet not seating properly.TVS TRAINING & SERVICES LTD Vanagaram. sharp bends. Chennai – 600 095 Rod gland seal leak Torn or worn seal Examine the piston rod for dents and nicks. Air supply pressure too low and causes the valve to actuate partially Inspect the system for undersized supply lines. clean it c) Poppet seat damaged.
TVS TRAINING & SERVICES LTD Vanagaram. Poor or no lubrication Check the system lubricator to see that it is working as it should Faulty silencer/ muffler a) Remove the silencer to see if valve performance has improved b) Clean the silencer to see if Spool valve action is sluggish valve performance has improved c) Verify if the silencer is of adequate size Water or oil contamination Ensure the supply air is dry. Water or oil contamination Ensure that the air is dry and that the air filter is drained frequently Low pilot or signal pressure Check the valve specification for minimum pilot or signal pressure required Swollen seals Replace it Varnish deposits in spool Poppet chatters valve Remove varnish using a water soluble detergent or solvent such as kerosene Air supply pressure low Inspect the system Low pilot or signal pressure Check the valve specification for minimum pilot or signal pressure requirements. 37 . Chennai – 600 095 filter elements or a defective pressure regulator and adjust.
Accumulated water Re-route the pilot supply lines to eliminate low points Excessive lubrication Check the system lubrication Flow control valve does not respond to adjustment Incorrect installation Install properly Dirt in valve Clean the valve 38 .TVS TRAINING & SERVICES LTD Vanagaram. Excessive lubrication Check the system lubrication Sequence valve gives erratic timing Fluctuating air pressure Install a pressure regulator set at the systems lowest expected pressure. Chennai – 600 095 Air flow is normal only in actuated position Broken return spring Replace the return spring Low voltage at solenoid Solenoid buzzes Voltage should be checked at the solenoid coil and repaired High transient voltage Solenoid burns out Isolate solenoid circuits from main power circuits Faulty piston seal Replace it.
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