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Students shall not attempt to negotiate their final grades in any manner or whatever reason, whether by manipulation of any

of its components or by seeking special treatment or consideration on grounds not available to everyone else in class. Personal pleas for mercy or sympathy are especially prohibited. Any such attempts shall be treated with extreme prejudice, and may warrant a failing grade outright. Evening schedule are not from this rule. Where the outline points to an unfamiliar technical word, phrase, classification, or language, students are expected to exercise due diligence and determine their meaning. I. BASIC THEORY & ORIGINS OF PROPERTY Concept and Origins
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Blackstone, Sir William. Of Property, In General. In Commentaries on the Law of England, Book II. Chap. 1. The Online Library of Liberty http://oll.libertyfund.org/?option=com_staticxt&staticfile=show.php %3Ftitle=2140&chapter=198690&layout=html&Itemid=27> Date accessed: 17 May 2012.

Hohfeld, W. S. (1917) Fundamental Legal Conceptions as Applied to Judicial Reasoning. 23 Yale L.J. 16 (1913). Also available online http://hiit.fi/files/ns/Herkko/SCME%20FUNDAMENTAL%20LEGAL %20CONCEPTIONS%20AS%20APPLIED%20JUDICIAL %20REASONING.pdf> Date accessed: 25 May 2012

Theories of Property
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Chapter V: Of Property (para. 25-51). John Locks, Second Treatise of Government. Online http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/7370> (last visited May 26, 2011).

E. Ostrom, Private and common property rights, 2 Encyclopedia of Law and Economics 332-379 (2000). Also available online: <http://valuefronteira.com/vf/images/textbooks2/private%20and%20common %20property%20rights.pdf> (last visited June 02, 2011)

J.E. Krier, The Evolution of Property Rights: A Synthetic Overview, University of Michigan Legal Working Paper Series 91 (2008). Also available online: http://law.bepress.com/umichlwps/olin/art91/> (last visited June 02, 2011)

Supplemental Readings

H. Demsetz, Toward a theory and property rights, 57 The American Economic Review 347-359 (1967). Also available online: <http://mason.gmu.edu/-kfandl/Demsetz_Property_Rights.pdf> (last visited June 04,2011)

C. B Macpherson, A Political Theory of property. In Macpherson, C. B. Democratic Theory: Essay in Retrieval. (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1973) at 120-140. (in reserve)

II.

FOUNDATIONS OF PHILIPPINES PRIVATE PROPERTY LAW

R. Balane, Spanish Antecedents of the Philippine Civil Code. In Sison, C. Civil Code Reader, supra, 251-304. Book II, Title 1: Of the Different Kinds of things. The Institutes of Justinian, (John Baron Moyle trans.). In Siason, C. (ed.) Civil Code Reader. Quezon City: U.P. Law Complex, 2005, at 38-50. Also available online <http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/5983> (last visited May 26, 2011). III. THE GENERAL LAW ON PROPERTY RIGHTS

A. CONSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK

1987 Const., Art. II, s. 5, 10 Ibid., Art. III, s. 1, 9, 10. Ibid., Art V, s. 1 Ibid., Art XII, s.6 Ibid., Art XIII, s. 1, et seq. Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR), Art. 2, 17

Philippine Blooming Mills Employees Organization v. Philippine Blooming Mills Co., Inc. SCRA 189 (1973) B. PROPERTY RIGHTS IN PHILIPPINE CIVIL LAW NCC 414 Ownership, NCC 427-428

Possession, NCC 532 Usufruct, NCC 562

C. RIGHT-HOLDERS: WHO MAY HAVE/EXERCISE PROPERTY RIGHTS? a) Natural Persons Individuals NCC 37-38; Art. II, s. 5; UDHR 2, 17 Marital partners FC 88, 90-93, 105-106, 108, 116 Indigenous peoples communities RA 8371 (Indigenous Peoples Rights Act) 3, 5, 7-8 Cruz v. Secretary of Environment and Natural Resources, et. Al., 347 SCRA 128 (NOTE: compare separate opinions of Puno, Kapunan, Panganiban)

b) Juridical Persons In general NCC 44-47


a) b)

Partnership NCC 1767 176 Private Corporations BP 68 (The Corporation Code), s. 2, 3, 36, 109.

(See annotations of Campos and Campos, THE CORPORATION CODE OF THE PHILIPPINES, any ed.)
c)

Other private juridical entities

Rep. Act 6938 (The Cooperative Code), s. 3, 6, 9 d) Public Corporations

State NCC 420-22, Art XII, s. 1-2 Subdivisions of the State NCC 423-24; LGC 17.b.2.ii; 18-19, 21-22, 89, 447.a.5.i; 458.a.5.i Government-owned and controlled corporations The Corporation Code, s. 4, 36

D. FORMAL CLASSIFICATIONS OF PROPERTY

a) With reference to the holder of the rights; basic kinds of property a) Public

NCC 419- 424 Rep. Act 7150, The Local Government Code (LGC), a. 18, 21-22, 89 Province of Zamboanga v. City of Zamboanga, 22 SCRA 1334 Salas v. Jarencio, 46 SCRA 734 Chavez v. Public Estates Authority, 384 SCRA 152 Cebu Oxygen v. Bercilles, 66 SCRA 481 b) Private

NCC 419, 424-425 The Indigenous Peoples Rights Act., s. 3, 5, 7, 8 LGC 17.b.2.ii, 447.a.5.i, 458.a.5.i
c)

Res Nullius

Book II, Title 1: Of the Different Kinds of Things. The Institutes of Justinian, (John Baron Moyle trans.), supra. 1897 Const., Art XII b) With reference to the object: things that may be subject of property rights
a) i.

Corporeal Immoveables NCC 415, 426 Berkenkotter v. Cu Unjieng, 61 Phil 663 Philippine Refining Co. v. Jargue, 61 Phil 229 Mindanao Bus Co. v. City Assessor, 6 SCRA 197 Davao Sawmill v. Castillo, 61 SCRA 709 Prudential Bank v. Panis, 153 SCRA 390 Caltex v. Cental Board of Assessment Appeals, 114 SCRA 296 Benquet Corp. v. CBAA, 218 SCRA 271

Tumalad v. Vicencio, 41 SCRA 143 Sergs Products v. PCI Leasing, 338 SCRA 499

ii.

Moveables NCC 416-418, 426 U.S. v. Tambunting, 41 Phil 364

b)
i.

Non- corporeal Intellectual property NCC 721-724 Rep. Act 8293 (Intellectual Property Code), s. 4.1, 22, 112, 172-173, 177 ii. Rights & choses in action NCC 417

IV.

POSSESSION
A. In General NCC 523-561 B. Definition NCC 523, 525, 530

Who exercises NCC 524, 532, 535, 538; animus possidendi Status NCC 526-529 C. Character & Effects 1. right to be respected in possession NCC 539 2. right to accessories NCC 542, 544, 547, 551, 560 cf. 438-439 3. continuity of possession NCC 554, 561; corpus possessionis 4. right to reimbursement NCC 546, 548-550, 553 5. possession in common NCC 543
6. basis of title NCC 541, 559

7. effect on true owner NCC 558 D. Lease of Urban Lands** 1. Definition NCC 1642-1645

2. Who qualified/disqualified NCC 1646, 1490-1491 3. Obligations of parties a. Lessor NCC 1654-1656, 1661, 1664, 1678 b. Lessee NCC 1657-1658, 1662-1663, 1665-1668 4. Payment NCC 1679 5. Termination NCC 1659-1660, 1669 6. Renewal NCC 1670, 1672 7. Unlawful detainer NCC 1671, 1673-1675, 1677 8. Transfer of lease NCC 1649, 1676 9. Sub- lease NCC 1650-1652 10. Warranties NCC 1547-1548, 1561, 1653, 1666 ** Lease of rural lands are governed by agricultural or agrarian laws (elective); lease of work covered by labor laws (Labor I/II)

V. OWNERSHIP A. Sole Ownership


a) Definition NCC 427, 712 b) Rights of Owners NCC 428-430, 435, 437-440

1) Rights of action in rem/in personam/ quasi in rem Sandejas v. Robles, 81 Phil 421 Ching v. Court of appeals, 181 SCRA 9 Hernandez v. Development Bank of the Philippines, 71 SCRA 290 Domagas v. Jensen, 448 SCRA 663 2) Specific rights to protection & enforcement Self-help NCC 429-430 Legal action 428, 433-434, 536

quieting of title, NCC 476-481, 1147 Heirs of Olviga v. Court of Appeals, 227 SCRA 330 Pingol v. Court of Appeals, 226 SCRA 118 Titong v. Court of Appeals, 287 SCRA 102 Sps. Portic v. Cristobal, 496 Phil 456

recovery of possession, NCC 434 reconveyance replevin damages Bishop of Cebu v. Mangaron, 6 Phil 286 Chacon v. Court of Appeals, 124 SCRA 784 German Management v. Court of Appeals, 177 SCRA 495 De la Paz v. Panis, 245 SCRA 242 Vda. De Aviles v. Court of Appeals, 264 SCRA 473 Baricuatro v. Court of Appeals, 325 SCRA 137 BA FinancE v. Court of Appeals, 327 SCRA 716 PEZA v. Fernandez, 358 SCRA 489

3) Right to accession NCC 426

IMMOVEABLE PROPERTY a) discreta NCC 440-441 i. ii. iii. Natural NCC 442- 444 Industrial - NCC 442 Civil NCC 442

b) continua i. Naturally incorporated NCC 445-465 Zapata v. Director of Lands, 5 SCRA 335

Cortez v. Court of Appeals, 10 Phil 567 Hilario v. City of Manila, 19 SCRA 931 Grande v. Court of Appeals, 5 SCRA 524 Ignacio v. Director of Lands, 121 SCRA 13 Republic v. Meneses, 132 SCRA 514 Binalay v. Manalo, 195 SCRA 347 Baes v. Court of Appeals, 224 SCRA 562 Vda. De Nazareno v. Court of Appeals, 257 SCRA 589

ii.

Artificially incorporated NCC 457-465 Equatorial v. Mayfair, 370 SCRA 56 Liwanag v. Yu-songuian, 5 SCRA 147 JM Tuason v. Vda. De Lumanlan, 23 SCRA 231 Gaboya v. Cui, 38 SCRA 85 Floresca v. Evangelista, 96 SCRA 130 Manotok realty v. Tecson, 164 SCRA 587 MWSS v. Court of Appeals, 143 SCRA 623 Pleasantville v. Court of Appeals, 253 SCRA 10 Alviola v. Court of Appeals, 289 SCRA 537 Heirs of R. Dunan v. Uy, 344 SCRA 537

MOVEABLE PROPERTY a) Conjunction/ adjunction NCC 466-471, 475 b) Commixtion/ confusion NCC 472-473, 475 c) Specification NCC 474-475 EXCEPTIONS: FC 119-120

B. Co - Ownership 1. Definition NCC 484-486, 493, 1620

Pardell v. Bartolome, 23 Phil 450 Basa v. Aguilar, 117 SCRA 128 Bailon- Casilao v. Court of Appeals, 160 SCRA 738 Oliveras v. Lopez, 168 SCRA 431 Tagarao v. Garcia, 61 Phil 5 Rivera v. Peoples Bank, 73 SCRA 546 Gatchalian v. Collector of Customs, 67 Phil 666
2. Special Rights of Co-owners NCC 487-492, 494, 1088, 1620, 1623

Melencio v. Dy Tiao Lay, 55 Phil 100 Lavadia v. Cosme, 72 Phil 196 Tuason v. Tuason, 88 Phil 428 Mariano v. Court of Appeals, 222 SCRA 736 Arcelona v. Court of Appeals, 280 SCRA 20 Adlawan v. Adlawan, 479 SCRA 275
3. Special rule on marital properties NCC 90

VI.

USUFRUCT A. In General
1. Definition NCC 562

Alunan v. Veloso, 52 Phil 545 Belonio v. Novella, 105 Phil 756 2. Rights of Owner a) alienate NCC 581

b) c) B. The Usufructuary

improvement NCC 595 taxes NCC 597

1. Obligations of Usufructuary
a)

In general NCC 583-585 Administration

b)

Exercise diligence NCC 573, 589 Vicarious liability NCC 590 Replace/ repair NCC 591-593 Notify owner of certain acts NCC 601 c) d) Give security NCC 583-588, 599 Expenses

Pay charges and taxes NCC 596-597 Pay debts NCC 598, 600 Collect credits NCC 599 Shoulder legal expenses NCC 602
e)

Return NCC 612

Mercado v. Rizal, 67 Phil 608 Vda. de Albar v. Carandang, 106 Phil 855 Board of Assessment Appeals v. Samar Mining, 37 SCRA 734 2. Rights of Usufructuary a) b) In general NCC 565 Administration NCC 582

Alienate, lease NCC 568, 572, 581 Enjoy and use NCC 563, 572-578 Make improvements NCC 579-580

Suit NCC 578, 602

Pichay v. querol, 11 Phil 386 Reyes v. Grey, 21 Phil 73 Tufexis v. Municipal Council of Guinobatan, 32 Phil 629 Fabie v. David, 75 Phil 536 Orozco v. Araneta, 90 Phil 399 Bachrach v. Seifer, 97 Phil 483 Bautista v. Marcos, 113 Phil 421 Gaboya v. Cui, 38 SCRA 85 Hemedes v. Court of Appeals, 316 SCRA 347 VII. LIMITATIONS ON PROPERTY RIGHTS 1) Eminent Domain 1987 Const., Art. III, s. 1, 9 NCC 435 LGC 19 Republic v. Castellvi, 58 SCRA 336 City Government of Quezon City v. Ericta, 122 SCRA 759 Republic v. PLDT, 26 SCRA 620 2) Police Power NCC 436 LGC 20, 447.a.4, 458.a.4, 468.a.2.vi Churchill & Tait v. Rafferty, 32 Phil 580 Taxicab Operators v. Board of Transportation, 119 SCRA 597
3) Necessity NCC 432 4) Sic utere tuo at alienum non laedas NCC 431

5) Nuisance 1) Definition NCC 694, 682-683 2) Classification NCC 695 3) Remedies NCC 696-707

Iloilo Cold Storage v. Municipal Council, 24 Phil 471 Monteverde v. Generoso, 52 Phil 123 Hidalgo v. Balandan, 91 Phil 489 Sitchon v. Aquino, 98 Phil 458 Velasco v. Manila Electric Co., 40 SCRA 342 Farrales v. City Mayor of Baguio, 44 SCRA 239 Timoner v. People, 125 SCRA 830 Estate of Gregorio Francisco v. Court of Appeals, 199 SCRA 595 Tamin v. Court of Appeals, 208 SCRA 863 6) Easements 1) Definition NCC 613 2) Characteristics NCC 617-618 3) Classification NCC 613-616, 619, 634, 688 4) Rights and Obligations NCC 624-633 5) Creation By title NCC 622, 624 By will of the owners NCC 619, 688- 693 By law NCC 619, 634-636 By prescription NCC 620-622 6) Extinguishment NCC 631 (2) Cid v. Javier, 108 Phil 239

Francisco v. Paez, 54 Phil 239 Benedicto v. Court of Appeals, 134 Phil 122 7) Legal Easements a) In favor of adjacent properties RIGHT OF WAY NCC 649-657 Archbishop of Manila v. Roxas, 22 Phil 450 Cuaycong v. Benedicto, 37 Phil 781 Valderrama v. North Negros, 48 Phil 492 North Negros v. Hidalgo, 63 Phil 664 Bernardo v. Court of Appeals, 97 Phil 131 Francisco v. Intermediate Appellate Court, 177 SCRA 527 Costabella v. Court of Appeals, 193 SCRA 333 Encarnacion v. Court of Appeals, 195 SCRA 74 Solid Manila Corp. v. Bio Hong, 195 SCRA 748 Quimen v. Court of Appeals, 257 SCRA 163

PARTY WALL NCC 658-666 Lao v. Heirs of Alburo, 33 Phil 48

LIGHT & VIEW NCC 667-673 Cortes v. Yu-Tibo, 2 Phil 24 Fable v. Lichauco, 11 Phil 14 Saenz v. Figueras Hermanos, 13 Phil 666 Amor v. Florentino, 74 Phil 403 Gargantos v. Yanon, 108 Phil 888

INTERMEDIATE DISTANCES NCC 677-681 LATERAL & SUBJACENT SUPPORT NCC 684-687 b) Pertaining to waters

Natural drainage NCC 637, Pres. Decree 1067 ( Water Code) 50 Riparian banks NCC 638, Water Code 51 Drainage of Buildings NCC 674-676 Dam NCC 639, 647, Water Code 38-39 Drawing Water NCC 640-641, Rep. Act. 7942 (Mining Code), s. 73 Aqueduct NCC 642-646, Water Code 13,25, 46-49, 67 Sluice gate NCC 647 Tanedo v. Bernad, 165 SCRA 86 Ayala de Roxas v. City of Manila, 9 Phil 215 Lunod v. Meneses, 11 Phil 128 Salazar v. Gutierrez, 33 SCRA 242 Relova v. Lavarez, 9 Phil 149 c)
d)

Easement against nuisance NCC 682-683 Special easements b.) Characteristics NCC 617-618 c.) Kinds NCC613-616, 619, 634, 636, 688

7) Waters 1) Ownership NCC 502-503, Water Code 5-6

2) Use of public waters NCC 504-506, Water Code 31-52 3) Waters in private property NCC 507-511, Water Code 5-6, 13-14, 25, 32, 41 4) Subterranean waters- NCC 512-514, Water Code 8-9, 13, 17, 32, 39, 64 5) General provisions NCC 515-518, Water Code (all remaining provisions)

8) Contractual limitations NCC 1347-49 VIII. CREATION, TRANSMISSION AND TERMINATION OF PROPERTY RIGHTS A. MODES IN GENERAL NCC 712 1. VOLUNTARY MODES a) Occupation NCC 713-720 Carino v. Insular Government, 41 Phil 935 Gold Creek Mining v. Rodriguez, 66 Phil 259 Atok Big Wedge Mining v. IAC, 261 SCRA 529 Cruz v. Sec. of Environment and Natural Resources, 347 SCRA 165 NPC v. Ibrahim, 526 SCRA 149 b) Tradition/ Delivery NCC 712, 1495-1501 San Lorenzo v. Court of Appeals, 449 SCRA 99 Equatorial Realty v. Mayfair, 370 SCRA 56 Union Motor v. Court of Appeals, 361 SCRA 506 c) Donation
1) Definition NCC 725-726

Object NCC 750-752, 755-756 Effects NCC 750-759 Osorio v. Osorio, 41 Phil 531 Central Philippines University v. Court of Appeals, 246 SCRA 511 De Luna v. Abrigo, 181 SCRA 150 Vda. de Tupas v. Regional Trial Court, 144 SCRA 622 De Roma v. Court of Appeals, 152 SCRA 205

2) Classification Onerous NCC 726, 733, 758 Simple NCC 725-726, 733 Modal NCC 726 Conditional NCC 727, 730-731 MORTIS CAUSA NCC 728 PROPER NUPTIALS Family Code 82-86 INTER VIVOS NCC 729, 732 Parks v. Province of Tarlac, 49 Phil 142 Zapanta v. Posadas, 52 Phil 557 Javier v. Cabangos, 53 Phil 678 Balaqui v. Dongso, 53 Phil 673 Concepcion v. Concepcion, 91 Phil 823 Carino v. Abaya, 70 Phil 182 Bonsato v. Court of Appeals, 95 Phil 481 De Luna v. Abrigo, 181 SCRA 150 Roman Catholic v. Court of Appeals, 198 SCRA 300 Central Philippines University v. Court of Appeals, 246 SCRA 511 Secretary v. Heirs of Dulay, 480 SCRA 452 Bautista v. Sabiniano, 92 Phil 244

3) Formalities
a)

Donors qualification NCC 735-737, 739 Donees qualification NCC 738, 739-744, 753, 1027, Family

b)

Code87 c) How made NCC 748-749

d)

How accepted NCC 734, 745-749

Lagazo v. Court of Appeals, 287 SCRA 18 Genato v. De Lorenzo, 23 SCRA 618 Araneta v. Perez, 17 SCRA 643
4) Revocation NCC 760-773

d) Intellectual creation NCC 712, 721-724; Rep. Act 8293 (Intellectual

Property Code) 4.1, 22, 112, 172-173


e) Testamentary Succession NCC 779 f) Sales - NCC 1458 g) Abandonment NCC 713. 1112

2. INVOLUNTARY MODES
a) Prescription & Laches NCC 1106-1107

1) Acquisitive NCC 554, 719, 1106-1138, 1505 Cutanda v. Cutanda, 335 SCRA 418 Serespi v. Court of Appeals, 331 SCRA 293 2) Extinctive NCC 1139-1155 Cimafranca v. Intermediate Appellate Court, 147 SCRA 611 Bureau of Forestry v. Court of Appeals, 153 SCRA 351 Bailon-Casilao v. Court of Appeals, 160 SCRA 738 Villagonzalo v. Intermediate Appellate Court, 167 SCRA 535 Bergado v. Court of Appeals, 172 SCRA 497 Casipit v. Court of Appeals, 204 SCRA 684 Kiamco v. Court of Appeals, 211 SCRA 156 Ledesma v. Court of Appeals, 224 SCRA 175

De Cabrera v. Court of Appeals, 267 SCRA 339 b) Intestate Succession NCC 774-777, 960-61 c) Forced sales Execution of Judgement 1997 Rules of Civil Procedure, Rule 39, s. 1, 8, 9 (b)&(c), 10, 13 Escheat Rules of Court: Special Proceedings, Rule 91 d) Accession* - NCC 426, 440 e) Marriage* - FC 74, 88-90

B. SPECIAL APPLICATIONS 1) Possession a) Acquisition 1) Occupation NCC 531 2) Succession NCC 533-534 3) Exceptions NCC 536-537
b)

Termination NCC 555-557

Ramos v. Director, 39 Phil 175 Vano v. Government, 41 Phil 161 Lasam v. Director, 65 Phil 367 People v. Estoista, 93 Phil 647 Caparros v. Court of Appeals, 170 SCRA 758 Tan Queto v. Court of Appeals, 148 SCRA 54 Director v. Intermediate Appellate Court, 209 SCRA 214 Pascual v. Angeles, 4 Phil 604

2) Co-Ownership

a)

Acquisition
1) Marriage - Family Code 88, 91-93, 96, 116-117, 120

2) Cohabitation Family Code 147-148 3) Joint purchase NCC 1452 4) Succession NCC 1078 5) Donation NCC 753 6) Chance NCC 472 7) Hidden treasure NCC 438 8) Easement of party wall NCC 658 9) Contract In general NCC 494 Universal partnership NCC 1778-1780 Associations NCC 1775 10) Occupation NCC 713-720 11) Condominium Rep. Act 4726 (Condominium Law) Punzalan v. Boon Liat, 44 Phil 658 Twin Towers Condominium Corp. v. Court of Appeals, 398 SCRA 203 b) Termination 1) Partition NCC 494-496 2) Effect of partition NCC 499-501, 543, 1091-1093 3) Right against individual co-owners NCC 497 4) Disagreement between co-owners NCC 498 3) Usufruct
a) b)

Acquisition NCC 563-565 Termination NCC 603-612

Lopez v. Constantino, 74 Phil 160 Baluran v. Navarro, 79 SCRA 309 Palad v. Navarro, 46 SCRA 354